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 The heat transfer occurs because of a

temperature difference driving force and heat

flows from the high-to the low-temperature

Heat transfer may occur by the three basic

mechanisms of heat transfer :
 Conduction
 Convection
 Radiation
 In conduction, heat can be conduced through
solids, liquids, and gases, in which a
temperature gradient exists
 Th h
The heatt iis conducted
d t db by th
the ttransfer
f off th
energy of motion between adjacent molecules
 In a gas the hotter molecules,
molecules which have
greater energy and motion, impart energy to
the adjacent
j molecules at lower energygy level
 Example of heat transfer mainly by
conduction is heat transfer through walls of
h or refrigerator
 The transfer of heat by convection implies the transfer of heat by
bulk transport and mixing of macroscopic elements of warmer
portions with cooler portions of a gas or a liquid
 It also often involves the energy exchange between a solid
surface and a fluid

Convection is divided into:

 Natural (free) convection
Where warmer or cooler fluid next to the solid surface causes
circulation because of a density difference resulting from the
temperature differences
diff in
i the
h fluid
fl id
 Forced convection
Where a fluid is forced to flow past a solid surface by a pump,
fan,, or other mechanical ways

 Example of heat transfer by convection are loss of heat from a

car radiator where the air is being circulated bay a fan, cooling of
a hot cup of coffee by blowing over the surface, etc
 Radiation differs from heat transfer by
conduction and convection in that no physical
medium is needed for its propagation

 Radiation is the transfer of energy through space

by electromagnetic waves in much the same way
as electromagnetic light waves transfer light

 The most important

p example
p of radiation is the
transport of heat to the earth from the sun and
another example is heating fluids in coils of
g inside a combustion furnace
 The energy balance for heat transfer at
unsteady state:

 If its assumed no heat generation and also

assuming heat transfer at steady state
condition where the rate of accumulation is
zero, then the energy becomes,
qin = qout
 Fourier s law for heat
conduction in fluids or
solids: qx
qx dT dx  kdT
 k A
A dx
x T
qx 2 2

 Fourier s law can be


A x1
dx  k  dT
integrated for the case of
steady-state heat transfer
x2  x1   k T2 T 1 
through a flat wall of A
constant cross-sectional l
area A, where the inside

T1  T2 
A x2  x1
temperature at point 1 is T1
and T2 at point 2 a distance
of x2 - x1 m away
 For a flat slab or wall at steady state :

T1  T2 
A x2  x1
T1  T2
x / kA

 If th
thermall conductivity
d ti it iis nott constant
t tb butt
varies linearly with temperature :
k  a  bT
T1  T2
km  a  b
l l the
h heat
h loss
l Solution:
per m2 of surface area From appendix A.3, the
for an insulating wall thermal conductivity of
fiber insulating board,
board kk, is
composed d off 25.4 mm- 0.048 W/m.K
thick fiber insulating
board, where the inside
temperature is 352.7 K
and the outside

T1  T2 
A x2  x1
temperature is 297.1 K q

352.7  297.1
A 0.0254
 105.1W / m 2
q dT
 k
A dr
A  2rL
q dr

2L r
 k  dT

qk T1  T2 
 r2 
ln 
 r1 
A thick wall cylindrical
thick-wall Solution:
tubing of hard rubber having From appendix A.3, the thermal
an inside radius of 5 mm conductivity at 0 oC (273 K) is
and an outside radius of 20 0.151 W/m.K. Since data at
mm is i b
i usedd as a other temperature are not
temporary cooling coil in a available, this value will be used
bath. Ice water is flowing for the range of 274.9 to 297.1
p y inside and the inside
rapidly K.
temperature is 274.9 K. The 2
outside surface temperature
k T1  T2 
is 297.1 K. A total of 14.65 L  r2 
ln 
W must be removed from  r1 
the bath by the cooling coil. 2
How many m of tubing are
 0.151
274.9  297.1  15.2W / m
needed L ln
length   0.964m
15.2W / m
q dT
 k
A d
A  4r 2
q drd

4 r 2
  k  dT

qk T1  T2 
1 1
  
 r1 r2 
A cooling coil of 1 ft of 304 stainless steel tubing
h i an inside
i id diameter
di off 0.25
0 25 in
i and
d an
outside diameter of 0.4 in is being used to
remove heat from a bath. The temperature at the
inside surface of the tube is 40 oF and 80 oF on
the outside. The thermal conductivity of 304
stainless steel is a function of temperature
k = 7.75 + (7.78 x 10-3T)

Where k is in btu/h.ft. oF and T is in oF. Calculate

the heat removal in btu/s.