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Abstract:

This lab is composed of designing and evaluating the active low pass filters. This
experiment describes the basic knowledge about the types of filters, their characteristics
and limitations. Practical implementation of these filters also improves the ability to
understand and design simple active filters. There are different types of filters based on
characteristics and rollover, which are Butterworth, Chebyshev and Elliptic. Low pass filter
is designed, measurements and calculations are done for testing and its frequency
characteristics are observed and plotted with cutoff frequency of 1kHz. Low pass filter is
also implemented on integrated circuit (IC) level. Then the evaluation of commercial 5 th
order low pass filter is done

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Table of Contents
Abstract: ......................................................................................................................................................... i
Introduction: ................................................................................................................................................. 1
Theoretical Background: ............................................................................................................................... 1
Experiment: ................................................................................................................................................... 4
1. Design Parameters: ........................................................................................................................... 4
2. Practical Design: ................................................................................................................................ 5
2.1. Active Filter Component: .......................................................................................................... 5
2.2. Passive Filter Component: ........................................................................................................ 5
3. Apparatus: ......................................................................................................................................... 5
4. Procedure:......................................................................................................................................... 6
4.1. Filter Design: ............................................................................................................................. 6
4.2. Butterworth Filter: .................................................................................................................... 6
4.3. Integrated Circuit Filter: ............................................................................................................ 6
References .................................................................................................................................................... 7

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Introduction:

Filters are those devices that allow a certain range of frequency to pass and attenuates a
certain unrequired range of frequencies. They can suppress the signal completely or
partially depending upon the signal requirement. Filters are classified on many types such
as linearity, causality, passive/active and many others.

Filters can be a first order or higher orders depending upon the design specifications.
Every filter has a transfer function consisting of its magnitude, and phase value that can
be plotted to check the cutoff frequency. Filters can be made of passive elements (R, L
and C, which are easier to get) and active elements as well (amplifiers and ICs). However,
there are some flaws associated with passive elements, which will attenuate the output
and extra circuitry will be needed for amplification. That is why most of the time active
components are preferred over passive components.

Theoretical Background:

In communication system, special types of signals are needed having unique


characteristics in magnitude, frequency and phase. For this purpose filters are introduced
which modifies the signal according to the requirement of the system. There are four
famous types of filters and are discussed in short in following lines. In designing the filters
with simple passive elements use of inductor is avoided due to di/dt factor in its voltage
expression that can cause damage to overall circuitry.

a) Low Pass Filter:


This type of filter allows only those signals having frequency range between 0Hz
and cutoff frequency (fC). A simple low pass filter can be made by using series RC
network and its practical performance are observed by applying a signal at input
and taking output cross the resistor [1].

b) High Pass Filter:


This filter is opposite to the low pass filter and it has the ability to suppress the
signals having frequencies less than cutoff frequency (f C) and allows the signals

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above fC. Simple circuitry of high pass filter is also opposite to the low pass filter.
In case of high pass filter, output is observed across capacitor.

c) Band Pass Filter:


This filter allows a certain band of frequencies to pass through while blocking all of
the remaining frequencies. This filter can be implemented practically by cascading
one low pass and high pass filter together and varying the cutoff frequencies of
both filters band pass range are controlled.

d) Band Stop Filter:

The characteristics of this filter are opposite to the band pass filter meaning it will stop
certain band of frequencies while allowing all the other frequency signals will be
allowed to pass through. A combination of low pass and high pass filters are used in
special configuration for development of band stop filter.

A typical sketch to show the frequency spectrum of all the four filters is shown in Figure
1.

Figure 1: Frequency Characteristics of Filters

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Frequency transform is used to find the transfer function of filters. If X(ω) is input of the
filter and Y(ω) is output of the filter then its transfer function can be represented by
following formula

Y  
H    (1)
X  
Ideal filters have smooth shape meaning they have sharp edges at cutoff point but they
are impossible to realize. A practical filter will not have a smooth response and ideality of
a filter will depend upon the cost and
complexity (order) of the filter. Non-ideal
filters have a complex response. It can be
understood by considering an example
(Figure 2) of response of filter where
fluctuations (ripples) in the passband region
can be viewed [2].

Order of filter is equal twice the number of


peaks in the response of a filter. As the order
of system increases disorder in the response
increases. Low pass filter is classified into
Figure 2: Non-ideal Filter Characteristic
three types depending upon ripple and roll-
off.

Butterworth Filter Chebyshev Filter Elliptic Filter

Maximum flat response Ripples in passband and


Ripple in the passband
within the passband of filter stopband

Sharper transition of band Non-linear phase


Phase distortion is moderate
compared to Butterworth distortion

Steeper roll off than


Slower roll off Best roll off
Butterworth

There are some other aspects like time delay, but this can kept minimum using Bessel
filter, which will decrease the roll off making poor frequency response [3].

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Experiment:
1. Design Parameters:

For the design of filter, some parameters should be kept in check. These parameters are
cutoff frequency, time delay and phase characteristics. The order of filter will be realized
on the frequency response requirements. Passive and active elements can be used for the
implementation of design but active components are preferred due to less attenuation.

In this laboratory, a 4th order Chebyshev filter with 2dB ripple is designed. This is done by
cascading two 2nd order filters with DC coupling. Cutoff frequency will be taken at point
where response amplitude has dropped by size of ripple factor (at -2dB).

Second order filter used in this fourth order


filter is Sallen-Key filter, which is shown in
Figure 3. All the resistors and capacitors have
same values but feedback resistor is scaled
by (K-1). The component values can be found
by following expression where “fn” frequency
normalization factor. K & fn for some filters
are given in
1 Figure 3: Second Order Sallen Key Filter
RC  (2)
2 f n f c
Butterworth Bessel Chebyshev
Order
fn K fn K fn K
2 1 1.586 1.272 1.268 0.907 2.114

1 1.152 1.432 1.081 0.471 1.924


4
1 2.235 1.606 1.759 0.964 2.782

1 1.068 1.607 1.040 0.316 1.891


6 1 1.586 1.692 1.364 0.730 2.648
1 2.483 1.908 2.023 0.983 2.904
Table 1: Parameters for Sallen Key Filter

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From above table, readings are for design of Chebyshev and Butterworth filters [4].

2. Practical Design:
2.1. Active Filter Component:

Most of the time amplifier 741 is used as an active element for filters. Its limitations and
frequency spectrum can be observed from datasheet. Some of the important facts related
to Op-amp are

o Biasing by sing or dual supply


o Requirement of frequency compensation & offset null
o Input , Output impedance & open loop gain
o Gain bandwidth Product

2.2. Passive Filter Component:

Capacitors and resistors are selected to satisfy the equation ( 2). Initially capacitors are
selected. After the selection of capacitor resistance values are selected by keeping in mind
the input/output impedance limitations of 741 amplifier. Tolerance of the component
must be taken into account while calculating cutoff frequencies because they play a major
role in the sensitivity of filter.

3. Apparatus:

o Signal Generator
o Dual Beam Oscilloscope
o Dual Power Supply
o Breadboard
o 747- OP amplifier (dual 741)
o LTC1062 5th Order Low Pass Filter IC
o Various Resistors and Capacitors

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4. Procedure:
4.1. Filter Design:

1. Initially, filter is designed by taking data from Table 1 and limitations of Op


amplifier impedance are considered while choosing resistors and capacitors.
2. After the design, 2dB Chebyshev 4th order filter is patched on the breadboard.
3. A power supply of ±15V is used.
4. Circuit is powered up and then amplitude and phase response of filter is observed.
5. Output is measured at several frequencies, which is used for calculation of cutoff
frequency, ripples and slope of roll off.
6. Plot of the readings is done on 2-cycle logarithmic axis for frequency and 4-cycle
logarithmic axis for amplitude.
7. Effect of tolerance of components is also observed on the response of filter.
8. A step input in the shape of square wave is taken as input of filter and step
response is observed to observe time lag, overshoot and ripples.

4.2. Butterworth Filter:

1. A 2nd order Butterworth filter is designed and tested with same design cutoff
frequency.
2. Amplitude and phase response are plotted using the data from oscilloscope.
3. Comparison of readings of this filter is done with Chebyshev filter’s readings.

4.3. Integrated Circuit Filter:

1. In this case, LTC1062C IC is used to construct the filter according to the


data sheet for a cut-off frequency of 5kHz.
2. Plot of its magnitude and phase response is done.
3. A power supply of +5V is used.
4. Response of this filter is observed and compared with other two filters.

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References

[1] L. D. Paarmann, Design and Analysis of Analog Filters: A Signal Processing Perspective, Springer.

[2] "A High Performance & Efficiently Designed IIR Filter Using Graphical Virtual Tool," [Online].
Available: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Response-of-Chebyshev-filter_fig4_259893364.

[3] P. R. Babu, Digital Signal Processing, Scitech Publications (India) Pvt Ltd.

[4] R. Genesio, Butterworth and Chebyshev Digital Filters: Tables for Their Design, Elsevier Science Ltd.