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- icin he Teen Contry The music of John Cage convsnat eotron Arold White oo ee “ise oe wie pepestine om mai a mal Menthe swe ct JAMES PRITCHETT. cts nde wil ange fom ira an biog dis onc eng partes on cote td creatine in whch COMPO Were The na and eta ude concrete ate of rascal [Repu and queion of comporiiooa proces: The inporooce give (0 Eames te ec soles dang wi fr excl, he ATO, ‘Eistng a prmauon ofc mae pd secount of he mee of Forse coon ober Og Sa Ae omer ate Bey Tor cert mn of Ante Woo Svs Milind Sten mse ‘Chomopber aly ns Se, 1878-1994 cea agophy ‘ios Peat Tie ma fis ge Jogh Sa The meh Oo See Tie Gren Te eg Cle Nim B CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS ‘The mas offohn oe ‘one sitwason wo another, He ound this node! of music and the approach o mpoition ir opled steve; fe served a a point of depatare for ht wed ‘hough ms ofthe 1950, Cage’ sete pnt of iew dos not change ng ‘ican uring ths period (compared tothe upheaval en inthe late 194, Intend, what chonges dng thi pio is i compostona technique, The be ‘movement ofthe Cons or Piped Plat al opened up the von oie ‘musical posbiles Cage them spent the next decade fading composisons ethos which, ke the met ball of dhe es legend, would make more a ‘ore of ht finite pace valle him. ‘Chart systems Macicof Changes “The Conca fr Pepe Pia aden the point of cary to Cage's new mused (worl of sounds in sence, I therfoe ondestandable that the fst ny Composition spems he evied flowing the enceto shoul be wns i ‘hart technique, The eof chance wah the chat technique ofthe ences “ssomething ofan aeshought; Cage elned ht the ehaigue of mate Drgmized ino chats and ordered by chance was capable of much get Fey and range thn the concert had demonstrate. After completing te once, he immediately began work on» more extensive and consistent cha ‘em, fi ose nde monumental Mia of Change fo ano (1951), and chee ‘sequen appli tos nunber of fren media a works ting fom 181 nd 1982 "That Cage's next work wat tobe fr piano slo was agely the resto it new asociton with the pianist David Tudor, whom be had met in 150, “ough Morton Feldman, Cage war emendeusy impresed with Tudors ‘itosty and milous approach to the cllenge his music OMe Kw “Tudor unique sles that de ic of Changs posible fr Cape; witht them, such work would hive Been mere corpostional exerche, Maso ‘Chang becme » sort of calboraton benveen Cage and Todor, who woul Team ec part of the sore a woom a St was completed. A ha time” Cage te war he cof Changes” This new hac ye, the ie modfcaion Cage mde wat the strict ofthe thes themes a the conc, he Had wed the I Chg an indie ‘eo largely bec he 1% 16 trace of sound chars id not alow them {be culy tc othe 64 henge. In Masof hag, he sili ie Syste a othe charts corain eee range it eight some fight class ‘he so da the cll co be etd one-one wih the 6 hexagram ofthe 1 Ching To slec an een from xchat, Cage would spy need vo oben hese by tsing coin finde number in the f Ching ad then lok up th Couesponding cell inthe chr, This new approach, thevefore, did way wih on “Thing ond eee” (981-1956) se moves onthe cits wd inthe concets 32 es, each element ewe se cha wa ely pombe a every moment ‘Be sex exes ofthe cn tecinigoe ad pers the mot signe — = ibe spain the cha Sea a spec of tune Every ever in Mase ‘Poke mr he combinion fone element om each fe has n= {hy econ to sono, duration, and junc. Thain thee new chat ic ndmsuy each eve wou ot be compromise by the coos | Boe ot dmamico of tym. The ase of mule chars ~ eventhough hei se mghe be sive ae dlibrtly~ woud mre combiatons that Cage Sid ncver have considered hel ths widening the ope of he pee. “Te chars of ound or Mi of Chargers with he eed chase works ~ ann inands only inthe odd-numbered ea, wit the even-numbered cls ‘ning ences Example 3-1 show the contents fone fhe sound cas (ining the sence." The equal divin of the sb four el between unde alences ceay dese (om the mar srangement used forthe tid ‘oven ofthe Con fr epee Pio. Te sale eres the ae a well: ‘2eguundence and inerchangesbiiy of sound and sence, has producing 4 [Pasovones and soliton of individual evens i time. The soondewsed are Teo of vaious complesty and not ju simple single pitcher. Cage ‘Sosed shove sound ange notes, incewal(o-note sound), agaregates (Gt, and “conseltion” (ote compler rangement of nae, Hout, (Gord, nd ti). althowgh the iano noe prepared, 2 number of unseal ‘Gel tfc are wed. Fone ae prodced by lacking the swings ofthe iano, ‘rmocng the tings with the ger, aod by sing vanous es or eaters on Tenngs In some sounds, Kee ate depresedalendly (noted as damond= ‘pe note) we thes ate truck hap, creating esonancs by sympahee ‘Hemion. The sound charts ao tacode nor produced on ori the piano, ‘eas by sraning the Keybosrd ea some sounds the ae of the sosining Fel indicted a3 integral pact of he sound “The dacation cha (4 prion of one sown in Example 3-2) difered from ‘he sound chars in tha they weee completely filed wih sxy-four dierent ‘hoon, ince dation apptied ro both sounds an slenes: The daratons thoes ace deserted by Cage beng “segmented.” Rather han being only ope mesial values och a quater or eg not) the durations wed in sf Change ond sinar chart works at he rere of adding sever ifeent ple dara. Ths indiridol component ofthese dations coms of ilies ‘ging fom one tht second noe toa whole nex, andiciode seventh and fof bx ar el the common binary and teary divisions. Although the Atetions ae meosuted sing atonal fythmie notions, they ae not wed ‘ihn say metal famework. No sempt was made fil our whole unit of ‘Senon (ps sieeh nce cn exit by Hel, to relat al he segment of + dation fo single comion denominator. larder to fcitate both the Cenpostion and performance ofthe odd factional dations, Cage applied « » “The ni on Cage owing snd it ence” (951-1958) now the sound and duration choten for an event in bat 95 othe fer ine with the event produced by the cordnaton of these evo ais ‘ei ound would contin oop The dois el we noe a only sod ange Som pp GF soo oie ng) Syma (Coe sho ned oniatin of vo, ch 8 f= pp which could ne ‘reno, ccconds or dmiasendos. The ded nes Fenesth rome of ‘pon te cas nae the nao ped we ob we Tach een nif Changs wth rodet of consign on, a thee ea, Ps a1 Ching Rogan nner a wed wo lt one Silour hyde posts of «ton chart A seond hag mere, ‘roth oped ote ca foc i ws never uber lene Tete, the darian chen wa filed wth fa a amber red Opt sound om eo he act wa coordinated wih he So | Rte? Fay ihe event a sound and mors sence, mami making Seo chosen fo chat tng hed engin number in mos hs TTonie indicted» mitnane of the previous dai, noted above. An ‘hale tte coodoaton of ound and Satin sown im Example empl we the sengh ofthe m-cit ppoc he proton tc tnt und es che co he pring ofthe se and ther epi conene with he il bss Noes BBE se orponen fs und shld be pena Aye empha — vege inode ttle he etre The pel onthe fist se th Cage peby hd ch "rar" reading in md when he xa Gand fr he che, Neverles, by seeing te Dye Pa ey the wneapeted apt the i ors the Hoe by he ui empha on the ie othe qrce-note gar, The sw flandor doaontendonned Cape mese es eo omcthing “enema oily ioe This te les that Cage Fee rnce operon fo ke hi ore Ti es adr they seat snd ponencos wor of od Pe pater ven foun rin, nd amis onthe uns oh ofthe gneted by dance persons cond to a ee of ee Chong thing pce insider mol sace than tat of he eee puter space woul cem camped ithe charts ha remained SFR concn andes cane x peed ad ees oe erring te forty Sve mine ofthe ice: Fr ths e0n, Cae SEL phecmcn choc whch opened consists throughout te Seaham ateonnedbecveen stares of mobility ond neni, his SEAAES Soe bythe 7 Ching As lng a2 hae wos mote, i Mette oe change Whi a st wo rae, however ary sound ie se dynamic it non replaced a ron ws wed. Ta le aed Brat ue pel cfvoundh,dason, and dynamics woud contin be __ SEcbal wine element be compaston prope “Fbcoote te lsb of he new ca techigne The remiing change ‘nope eompestna meade ere mor seul in nae, He oni ‘Contin aacurw ces othe pt Inthe ceo Mai Charge prepreg: (5, 6 5,38). The ove scr of 29% John didcd imo four loge pure of one, twosome, and 0 60 ‘eps he wle work hos well ove nan Ro node fo make ‘MPs ote Rouble, Cage dled to Have he terpo vary ning Cousot pce, wih hs ergo chnge deemed doy by mes of er nde 1 Che “Wh sere ine eine ley sachagrd he vec ce tao Chang gate eres Cag peo ws, sh athe Seng Cur econo, wes concede monophonic in xe. Teen, hal compan angle snes founds he owed one aes the ‘hee Bening ot ie Change eet pyphony by simpy ang omleSot Mae Ce ram sane denon orate 8