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socialur mecnierebaTa seria genderi - kulturuli da socialuri konstruqti saleqcio kursi socialuri mecn i ereb

socialur mecnierebaTa seria

genderi - kulturuli da socialuri konstruqti

saleqcio kursi socialuri mecnierebebis magistraturisaTvis

mzia wereTeli

Tbilisi

2006

socialur mecnierebaTa seria

mTavari redaqtori:

enobrivi redaqtori:

marine CitaSvili

lia kaWarava

dakabadoneba, ydis dizaini:

giorgi bagrationi

© socialur mecnierebaTa centri, 2006 © Center for Social Sciences, 2006

q. Tbilisi, 0108, T. WoveliZis q. # 10

el. fosta: contact@ucss.ge

internet gverdi: www.ucss.ge

10 el. fosta: contact@ucss.ge internet gverdi: www.ucss.ge wigni momzadebulia da gamocemulia ` socialur mecnierebaTa

wigni momzadebulia da gamocemulia `socialur mecnierebaTa centris~ (Center for Social Sciences) mier, fondis OSI Zug, budapeStis Ria sazogadoebis institutis umaRlesi ganaTlebis mxardaWeris programis (HESP) finansuri xelSewyobiT

mxardaWeris programis ( HESP ) finansuri xelSewyobiT The book has been published by the Center for

The book has been published by the Center for Social Sciences, sponsored by the OSI-Zug Foundation and the Higher Education Support Program (HESP) of the Open Society Institute-Budapest.

ISBN: 99940 - 871 - 1 – 8

sarCevi

kursis zogadi daxasiaTeba: mizani, amocanebi, studentTa swavlebisa da Sefasebis meTodebi

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Tema #1 — genderi - socialur-kulturuli konstruqti. genderul-roluri ideologia. genderuli stereotipebi. maskulinoba-feminuroba. kroskulturuli kvlevebi. genderuli kvlevebis warmoSoba da misi adgili socialur mecnierebaTa Soris sqesi da genderi genderis ZiriTadi kategoriebi da kroskulturuli kvlevebi ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura

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Tema #2 - genderuli identifikaciisa da genderuli rolebis aTvisebis Teoriebi (fsiqodinamikuri, socialur-kognituri, kognituri ganviTarebis Teoriebi, androginiis koncefcia, genderul-roluri transcendenciis stadiebis da genderuli sqemis Teoria) genderis gageba froidis fsiqoanalizur TeoriaSi genderis gageba pirovnebis socialur-kognitur TeoriaSi genderis gageba kognituri ganviTarebis TeoriaSi androginiis koncefcia transcendentuli genderuli tipirebis Teoriebi:

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genderuli rolis transcendenciis stadiebis Teoria genderuli sqemis Teoria ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura

Tema #3 - sqesis socializacia da misi institutebi. kulturis roli genderul socializaciaSi socializaciis cneba, diferencialuri socializacia da misi meqanizmebi gansxvavebuli samuSaos davaleba bavSvebis movla da maTze zrunva Tanatolebi ganaTleba masmedia saTamaSoebi ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura

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Tema #4 - genderuli rolebi da stereotipebi. kroskulturuli monacemebi kroskulturuli monacemebi genderuli rolebisa da stereotipebis Sesaxeb umcrosebze zrunva agresia ufrosebTan siaxlove da moRvaweobis xasiaTi sakuTari Rirsebis grZnoba mamakacurobis ideologia

40

3

ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura

Tema #5 - ojaxi da sazogadoeba. qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris urTierTobebi. kroskulturuli gansxvavebebi ojaxis cneba. ojaxi da sazogadoeba ojaxis tipebi ojaxis funqciebi, misi struqtura da dinamika colqmruli urTierToba da misi stilebi qorwinebis Tanamedrove paternebi ojaxuri Sromis sqesis niSniT ganawileba ojaxis kroskulturuli sxvaobebi ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura

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Tema #6 - genderuli stratifikaciis paternebi. Sromis bazris genderuli aspeqtebi sxvadasxva kulturaSi genderuli stratifikaciis paternebi Sromis bazris genderuli aspeqtebi sxvadasxva kulturaSi genderis socialuri konstruqtivizmis Teoria ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura

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Tema #7 - genderuli asimetria: diskriminacia Tu norma. genderuli Tanasworobis cneba. kultura da genderuli Tanasworobis modelebi genderuli asimetriis warmoSobis mokle istoria genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxis Tanamedrove mdgomareoba genderuli Tanasworobis miRwevis amocanebi da RonisZiebebi Gender Mainstreaming—i. misi modelebi ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura

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Tema #8 - qali samxreT kavkasiis kulturaSi. qarTuli kulturis genderuli analizi samxreT kavkasieli qalis statusis zogadi daxasiaTeba qali azerbaijanul kulturaSi) qali somxur kulturaSi qali qarTul kulturaSi sqesobrivi urTierTobebis foromebi saqarTvelos mTaSi genderuli cvlilebebi samxreT kavkasiaSi ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura

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GENDER: CULTURAL RESEARCHES (GENDER, CULTURE AND SOCIETY)

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kursis xangrZlivoba da ganrigi: 96 sT (8 kvira); maT Soris:

saauditorio muSaoba: 32 sT; studentTa damoukidebeli samecniero muSaoba: 64sT;

saauditorio muSaoba moicavs:

leqciebs praqtikuli ilustraciebiT (roluri TamaSebebi, SemTxvevis ganxilva da a.S.) — 16 sT; seminar-diskusiebs - 16 sT; studentTa damoukidebeli samecniero muSaoba moicavs:

studentTa mier ZiriTadi da damxmare literaturis wakiTxva-damuSavebas, TiTo- euli studentis mier esses — 18-20 gv.-is moculobis sabiblioTeko-kvleviTi statiis momzadebas da seminarze prezentacias; studentebis mcire jgufebis mier jgufuri proeqtis momzadebas SemTxvevis Seswavlasa da prezentaciaSi. TiToeu- li jgufis mier Seswavlili SemTxvevebi warmodgenili, ganxiluli da Sefasebuli iqneba jgufSi.

kursis aRwera: genderi, rogorc socialur-kulturuli konstruqti. genderul- roluri ideologia, genderuli stereotipebi da maskulinoba-feminuroba kroskul- turuli TvalsazrisiT. genderuli identifikaciisada genderuli rolebis aTvisebis Teoriebi (fsiqodinamikuri, socialur-kognituri, kognituri ganviTarebis Teoriebi, androginiis koncefcia, genderul-roluri transcendenciis da sqemis Teoria). sqesis socializacia da misi institutebi. kulturis roli genderul socializaciaSi. genderuli rolebi da kros-kulturuli monacemebi am mimarTulebiT. sazogadoeba da ojaxi. qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris urTierTobebi. genderuli gansxvavebebi qcevaSi kroskulturuli TvalsazrisiT. genderuli stratifikaciis paternebi. Sromis bazris genderuli aspeqtebi kulturaTa TvalsazrisiT. genderuli asimetria: diskriminacia Tu norma. genderuli Tanasworobis cneba. kultura da genderuli Tanasworobis modelebi. qali samxreT kavkasiis kulturaSi. qarTuli kulturis genderuli analizi.

kursis mizani: studentma unda SeiZinos safuuZvliani codna genderis, rogorc socialur-kulturuli konstruqtis, misi Camoyalibebisa da moqmedebis meqanizmebis Sesaxeb da agreTve, kulturaTaSorisi genderuli sxvaobebis Sesaxeb. studentma unda icodes Tanamedrove Teoriuli da empiriuli kvlevebi am mimarTulebiT. studentma unda ganiviTaros genderul kvlevebSi samecniero informacis mopovebisa da damu- Savebis unarebi. man unda SeZlos genderuli Teoriebisa da empiriuli monacemebis safuZvelze codnis sistematizireba da damoukidebeli genderuli kvlevis warmoeba.

studentTa Sefasebis meTodebi:

gamocda

testi (werilobiT) — 2 sT;

jgufuri proeqti SemTxvevis Seswavlasa da prezentaciaSi. Seswavlili SemTxvevebi warmodgenili da ganxiluli iqneba jgufSi. TiToeuli jgufi Seafasebs danarCen jgufebs Semdegi kriteriumebis gaTvaliswinebiT: dizaini, SemoqmedebiToba, prob- lemis gaazrebis siRrme, prezentaciis unar-Cvevebi;

esses Sefaseba;

seminarebze gamarTul diskusiebSi aqtiuroba.

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Sefasebis sistema:

Sefaseba xdeba jamuri maCveneblis (seminarebi, esse, testi, jgufuri proeqti) safuZ- velze, TiToeuli komponentis Semdegi procentuli woniT: seminarebze gamarTul diskusiebSi aqtiuroba - 20%, esse - 30%, testi — 25%, jgufuri proeqti — 25%. Sefasebis principi Semdegia:

85% -100% - 5 (friadi); 75%-84,9% - 4 (kargi); 65%-74,9% - 3 (damak.); 0 — 64,9% - 2(aradamak.).

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kvira #1

leqcia - 2 sT

Tema #1 — genderi - socialur-kulturuli konstruqti. genderul-roluri ideologia. genderuli stereotipebi. maskulinoba-feminuroba. kroskulturuli kvlevebi.

saleqcio kursis SesavalSi mocemuli iqneba genderis, rogorc mecnieruli kvlevis

obieqtad

Camoyalibebisa

da

genderuli

kvlevebis

warmoSobis

mokle

istoria.

gansazRvruli iqneba genderuli kvlevebis adgili socialur mecnierebaTa Soris.

Tanamedrove msoflioSi demokratiuli da humanisturi Rirebulebebis da faseulobebis damkvidrebis procesebma msoflio socialur-politikuri cvlilebebi gamoiwvia, ramac uamravi axali, problemuri sakiTxi dasva mecnierebis winaSe. gansakuTrebiT gafarTovda socialur da humanitarul mecnierebaTa sfero. mravalma movlenam axali socialur-ekonomikuri moTxovnebis zegavleniT cvlileba ganicada da axli socialuri Tu sazogadoebrivi datvirTva SeiZina. am cvlilebebma bunebrivad gamoiwvia socialuri mecnierebebis winaSe axali problemuri sakiTxebis dasma da zogierT SemTxvevaSi mecnierebis axali dargebis Camoyalibebac. genderuli kvlevebi, rogorc damoukidebeli disciplina, swored am gziT Camoyalibda. genderma, rogorc socialurma movlenam Tavisi aqtualoba feministuri moZraobis zegavleniT SeiZina. Tavdapirvelad igi kacobriobis yuradRebis centrSi moeqca, rogorc qalTa diskriminaciis socialuri instituti. miuxedavad imisa, rom dReisaTvis genderuli kvlevebi Sors gascda mxolod qalTa problemebis Seswavlas, politikosebisa da saerTaSoriso samarTlis institutebisaTvis genderi dRemde inarCunebs politikur datvirTvas. igi qveynebis (sazogadoebebis) demokratiulobisa da ganviTarebis donis ganmsazRvrel erT-erTi ZiriTadi kriteriumia. genderuli kvlevebi da genderuli midgoma gaTvaliswinebulia mravali progresuli qveynis (aSS- s, kanadis, skandinaviis qveynebis da sxv.) socialuri politikis agebisas, rac iTvaliswinebs genderuli realizaciisaTvis Tanabari pirobebis Seqmnas. amdenad, genderuli kvlevebis erT-erTi mizania genderis ara mxolod mecnieruli Seswavla, aramed safuZvlis momzadeba genderuli Tanasworobis modelebis Sesaqmnelad. magram, amave dros, genderi, rogorc adamianTa sazogadoebaSi mimdinare da momqmedi movlena, cxadia mecnierebis kvlevis sagnad iqca da dReisaTvis ise gafarTovda, rom socialuri mecnierebis damoukidebel disciplinad _ genderul kvlevebad (Gender Study), Camo- yalibda. igi moicavs adamianis socialuri moRvaweobis yvela aspeqts, iseve, rogorc im faseulobebsa da monapovrebs, romlebic mTeli am moRvaweobis ganmavlobaSia dagro- vili. amitom genderuli kvlevebi, rogorc disciplina mWidrod gadaikveTa socialu- ri da humaniratuli mecnierebis yvela dargTan. Sesabamisad gamoikveTa da genderuli kvlevebis calkeul mimarTulebebad Camoyalibda ojaxis, socialuri rolebis, Sromis bazris, ekonomikis, politikis, ganaTlebis da sxva sistemebis genderuli aspeqtebi. genderuli kvlevebis centrSi moeqca, agreTve, kulturis sociologiis, fsiqologiis, filosofiis da enis genderuli aspeqtebi. amdenad, genderulma kvlevebma sruliad samarTlianad interdisciplinaruli dargis kvalifikacia SeiZina.

genderis, rogorc socialur-kulturuli konstruqtis gansazRvrebisTvis mniS- vnelovania treminebs `sqesi~ da `genderi~ Soris gansxvavebis gageba.

sxvadasxva qveynebSi sxvadasxva sazogadoebebi, sxvadasxva siZlieriT usvamen xazs

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sqesTa Soris gansxvavebebs: zogierTi maTgani Zlier aqcents akeTebs am gansxvavebebze, zogierTi ki - naklebad aqcevs yuradrebas. sqesTa Soris gansxvavebulobis xazgasma miuTiTebs imaze, rom sqesi adamianis qcevis mniSvnelovani determinantia. amasTan mniSvnelovania, rom anatomiurad da fiziologiurad qalsa da mamakacs Soris gacilebiT ufro meti msgavsebaa, vidre gansxvaveba. kroskulturulma genderulma gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom sqesi, rogorc socialuri faqtori metad mcire zemoq- medebas axdens fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblebis farTe sferoze sxvadasxva kulturul sferoSi. maSasadame, ZiriTadad qalebsa da mamakacebs sruliad Tavisuflad SeuZliaT SeaTavson erTmaneTi garkveul socialur rolze. marTlac, gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom umravles SemTxvevebSi qalebsa da mamakacebs Tanabrad SeswevT unari ganxor- cielon erTnairi qceva, maT aqvT Tanabari potenciali Sesrulon esa Tu is socialuri roli Tu samuSao. cxadia, arsebobs, erTi mniSvnelovani gamonaklisi, romelSic sqesebi erTmaneTs ver Seenacvlebian. es aris qalis reproduqciuli (Svilebis gaCenis) unari. mecnieruli kvlevis aseTi monacemebis miuxedavad, nebismier sazogadoebaSi da kulturaSi arsebobs met-naklebi simkacriT gansazRvruli da miRebuli qalisa da mamakacisTvis aucilebeli qcevis normebi, xasiaTis Taviseburebebi, agreTve, qalisa da mamakacisaTvis miuRebeli qcevis normebi, manerebi, Taviseburebebi da sxv. ufro metic, sazogadoeba adgens saqmianobis qalur an mamakacur sferoebs, qalur da mamakacur profesiebs da a.S. tradiciulad sqesis gageba dakavSirebulia fiziologiuri da morfologiuri gansxvavebebis gamovlenasTan. sqesi ganisazRvreba biologiuri faqtorebiT. garda amisa, arsebobs gansxvavebebi adamianTa saqmianobebSi, qcevebSi, socialur rolebSi, mentalur da emocionalur maxasiaTeblebSi, romlebic biologiurad da fiziologiu- rad ar aris determinirebuli. isini ganpirobebulni arian socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebiT. termini genderi qalisa da mamakacis swored socialurad naswavli qcevebis, Tvisebebis da damokidebulebebis aRsaniSnavadaa mecnierebaSi Semotanili. genderi gulisxmobs socialur maxasiaTeblebs, romlis meSveobiTac adamianebi gansazRvraven cnebebs `qali~ da `mamakaci~. genderis cneba pirvelad anTropologma geil rubinma (1975w.) Semoitana mecnie- rebaSi da gansazRvra, rogorc `SeTanxmebaTa kompleqsi, romelic rogorc sazogado- ebrivi moRvaweobis sagani, aregulirebs biologiur sqess~. Tanamedrove kvlevebSi yvela avtori eyrdnoba genderis, rogorc socialuri sqesis gagebas. sqesi dakavSi- rebulia qalsa da mamakacs Soris fizikur, sxeulebriv gansxvavebebTan, cneba `gen- deri~ ki miuTiTebs maT fsiqologiur, socialur da kulturul Taviseburebebze. Tuki sqesi biologiurad aris determinirebuli, maSin genderi aris socialurad da kulturulad mocemuli. genderi — es aris sqesTaSorisi gansxvavebebis socialuri organizacia: qcevis kulturologiuri maxasiaTebeli, romelic Seesabameba sqess mocemul droSi da mocemul sazogadoebaSi; genderi warmoadgens socio-sqesobrivi rolebis mimarTebaTa sistemis socialur konstruqcias. genderi mniSvnelovanwilad apirobebs qalebisa da mamakacebis fsiqikur Tvisebebs, unarebs, moRvaweobis sferoebs, profesiebs da saqmianobebs, samarTlebriv da eTikur normebs~. dabadebidanve bavSvi ganekuTvneba biologiur kategorias _ sqess, Sesabamisad mdedrobiTs an mamrobiTs. SemdgomSi ganviTarebis procesSi orive sqesi msgavsia fiziologiuri maxasiaTeblebiT, iseve, rogorc fsiqologiuri TaviseburebebiT (TviTSefaseba, inteleqtis done, leqsikis maragi, siarulis dawyeba, kbilebis amosvla da sxv.). magram sxvadasxva sqesis bavSvebi iReben sxvadasxvanair gamocdilebas da aRzrdas, rac gansazRvravs maTi cxovrebis stils da miznebs, maT funqciebs da rolebs.

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genderi gulisxmobs fsiqologiur atributebs, maxasiaTeblebs da qcevebs, romel- Ta SeZena xdeba socialur konteqstSi, rac dakavSirebulia sqesobrivi kategoriebis socialur gagebasTan. yovel sazogadoebaSi genderuli gansxvavebebi vlindeba adamianTa qcevis formebSi. magaliTad, ra samuSaos asruleben, rogor icmeven da a. S. amdenad, genderi gvevlineba socialuri urTierTobebis sazomad ama Tu im kulturaSi. genderi aris socialurad da kulturulad mocemuli, igi aRniSnavs socialuri da kulturuli normebis erTianobas, romelTa Sesrulebasac sazogadoeba miawers adami- anebs maTi biologiuri sqesidan gamomdinare. genderis cneba socialur mecnierebaSi gamoiyeneba adamianis sqesobrivi mikuTvnebulobis socialur-kulturuli aspeqtis gamosaxatavad.

moyvanili gansazRvrebebis Sedegad moxdeba Sejameba da genderis erTiani koncef- ciis Camoyalibeba. gamoiyofa genderuli kvlevebis ori mniSvnelovani mimarTuleba:

genderuli cnobierebis kvleva da genderuli midgoma.

genderi — es aris garkveul kulturul (socialur, ekonomikur, politikur da kulturul) klimatSi qalisa da mamakacis socialuri rolebisa da funqciis Sefasebis fsiqikaSi asaxvisa da sazogadoebis socialur, politikur, ekonomikur da kulturul institutebSi am Sefasebis Sesatyvisi asaxvis erToblioba. amgvarad, erTis mxriv genderi, rogorc socialur SefasebiTi movlena (fenomeni) adamianis cnobierebis da aracnobieris nayofia da adamianTa da saerTod sazogadoebis fsiqikaSi arsebobs fsiqikuri warmonaqmnis, fsiqikuri struqturis saxiT, xolo meo- res mxriv, ki genderi, rogorc socialur-SefasebiTi fenomenis sazogadoebis sxvada- sxva institutebSi asaxvis Sedegi, arsebobs gare samyaroSi obieqturi saxiT, rogorc sazogadoebrivi sistemebis moqmedebis erT-erTi meqanizmi da maTi socialuri pro- duqti. genderis zemoT moyvanil gansazRvrebaze dayrdnobiT SeiZleba gamoiyos gender- Tan dakavSirebuli kvlevebis ori ZiriTadi klasi: 1) es aris genderuli cnobierebis (genderuli socialuri rolebi, maskulinoba-feminuroba, genderuli stereotipebi, Rirebulebebi da sxv.) kvleva. da 2) sazogadoebis socialur, politikur, ekonomikur da kulturul institutebSi genderis movlenis asaxvis Seswavla. swored am tipis kvlevebma warmoSva termini — genderuli midgoma, romelic sxvadasxva mecnierebebSi (an maTi Seswavlis sferoebSi) genderis, rogorc fsiqikuri konstruqtis zegavlenis Sedegebis Seswavlas gulisxmobs. ase magaliTad, genderis politikuri aspeqtebi, genderuli midgoma pedagogikaSi, ojaxis genderuli aspeqtebi da a.S.

savarjiSo: genderis cnebis ukeT gagebisa da gaSinagnebis mizniT (e.w. genderuli mgrZnobelobis ganviTarebisaTvis) studentebs vTxovT CamoTvalon qalisa da mamakacis funqciebis, socialuri rolebis, Tvisebebisa da saqmianobis magaliTebi. studentebma leqtoris daxmarebiT unda gansazRvron romeli maTgania sqesiT ganszRvruli da romeli genderiT. savarjiSos Sesrulebis Semdeg ganisazRvreba genderuli kvlevebis Semdegi terminebi _ sqesobriv-roluri ideologia, genderuli stereotipebi, maskulino- ba/feminuroba kroskulturuli kvlevebis magaliTze.

praqtikulad yvela sazogadoebaSi qalebs ekisrebaT meti movaleoba moRvaweobis im saxeebSi, romlebic dakavSirebulia saxlTan. xolo mamakacebs — saxls gareT. pankulturuli msgavsebis es Tvisebebi Tavis sawyiss iRebs sqesebs Soris biologiur

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gansxvavebebSi da pirvel rigSi qalebis unarSi gaaCinon Svilebi da mouaron maT. Tumca ki unda aRiniSnos isic, rom bolo dros sul ufro met sazogadoebaSi qalebisa da mamakacebis es movaleobebi erTad sruldeba. kacebi sul ufro metad ebmebian ojaxur saqmianobaSi, xolo qalebi - saxls gareT saqmeebSi. mkvlevrebis umravlesoba sqesobriv-roluri (genderul-roluri) ideologiis klasifikacias akeTeben tradiciulidan Tanamedrovemde kontiniumis saxiT. tradiciuli ideologiebi gulisxmoben, rom mamakaci ufro `mniSvnelovania~, vidre — qali, rom mamakacs unda qondes Zalaufleba qalze da marTavdes mas. Tanamedrove ideologiebi warmoadgenen egalitarul midgomas, romelsac zogjer feminstur midgomasac uwodeben, radganac isini qalisa da mamakacis mniSvnelobas sazogadoebaSi erTnairad afaseben da uaryofen erTi sqesis meoreze dominirebas. sqesobrivi rolebi farTod iyo Seswavlili indoeTSi, sadac erTdroulad Tana- aarseboben tradiciuli da Tanamedrove genderul-roluri ideologiebi. rodesac in- doel da amerikel studentebs ekiTxebodnen, Tu ra Tvisebebi unda hqondes maTi kulturis qals, indoeli studenti qalebi iZleodnen ufro tradiciul pasuxebs, vid- re - amerikelebi. sainteresoa, rom qalebi orive jgufSi ufro Tanamedrove da liberalurebi aRmoCndnen, vidre - mamakacebi. aratradiciuli sqesobriv-roluri ide- ologiis matarebeli studenti qalebi nuklearuli ojaxebidan aRmoCndnen, maT hyav- daT ganaTlebuli dedebi da apirebdnen dauflebodnen profesias da gaekeTebinaT kariera. ganaTlebis done da profesiul-administraciuli samsaxuri warmoadgens sakmaris safuZvels sqesovriv-roluri ganwyobebis prognozirebisaTvis, rogorc iaponel, aseve amerikel qalebTan. amerikeli qalebi, romlebsac aqvT samsaxuri (ara aqvs mniSvneloba, rogori) ufro egalitaruli urTierTobis momxreni arian, vidre isini, visac samsaxuri saerTod ara aqvs. rac Seexeba iaponel qalebs, aq egelitaruli ideologia damaxasiaTebelia mxolod im qalebisTvis, romlebsac ufro prestiJuli samsaxuri aqvs. mkvlevarTa jgufma gamoikvlia mozardebis genderuli ganwyobebi da rolebis ganawileba ojaxSi. gamokvlevaSi monawileobdnen 46 sxvadasxva qveynis warmomadgeneli mozardebi, romlebic holandiis skolebSi swavlobdnen. warmoSobis qveynebi or jgufad iyo dayofili hofstedes kulturuli Rirebulebebis mixedviT. pirvel jgufSi Sediodnen ufro mdidari da ufro individualisturi qveynebi, xolo meore jgufi moicavda ufro Rarib da ufro koleqtivistur qveynebs. gamokvlevis Sedegad meore jgufis Sesatyvisi qveynebis warmomadgenel moswavleebs ufro tradiciuli Sexedulebebi aRmoaCndaT, vidre - pirveli jgufisas. rac Seexeba sqesTa Soris gansxvavebebs, aRmoCnda, rom gogonaTa pasuxebi naklebi tradiciulobiT gamoirCeoda biWebTan SedarebiT. bevr kvlevaSi amerikelebi warmoadgendnen referentul jgufs da amitom isini Cveulebriv ufro liberalurebi Candnen, rac iwvevda azrs imis Sesaxeb, rom amerikelebi am TvalsazrisiT yvelaze liberalurebi arian. magram uialiamsis da bestis (Williams & Best) mier Caatarebulma 14 qveyanis sqesobriv-roluri ideologiis gamokvlevam aCvena, rom es ase ar aris. yvelaze Tanamedrove sqesobriv-roluri ideologia aRmoCenili iyo evropul qveynebSi - holandiaSi, germaniSi, fineTSi, inglisSi da italiaSi. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi siis SuaSi aRmoCnda, xolo yvelaze tradiciuli ideologiebi gamovlinda aziisa da afrikis qveynebSi - nigeriaSi, pakistanSi, indoeTSi, iaponiaSi da malaiziaSi. yvela qveyanaSi zogadad qalebis Sexedulebebi ufro Tanamedrove iyo, vidre — kacebisa. Tumca gamovlinda zogierTi gamonaklisic, sadac sawinaaRmdego Sedegebi miiRes, magaliTad, malaiziasa da

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pakistanSi. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom am gamokvlevis mixedviT, gamovlinda TiToeul qveyanaSi qalebisa da mamakacebis Sexedulebebis Sesabamisobis maRali xarisxi. amgvarad, gamokvlevam aCvena, rom genderul-rolur ideologiaze kultura ufro did zegavlenas axdens, vidre — sqesi. amas garda, gamokvlevis Sedegad dadginda aSkarad gamoxatuli kavSiri qalebisa da mamakacebis sqesobriv-rolur ideologiasa da socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis dones Soris, kerZod, sqesobriv-roluri ideologia, Cveulebriv, ufro Tanamedrovea ufro metad ganviTarebul qveynebSi. igi ufro metad Tanamedrovea, agreTve, ufro qristianizirebul qveynebSi da urbanizaciis maRali donis mqone qveynebSi. amgvarad, ekonomikaSi da ganaTlebaSi progress Tan axlavs mamakacebis, rogorc dominantebis ganxilvis tendenciis TandaTanobiTi Semcireba. sxvagavarad rom vTqvaT, rac ufro ganviTarebulia ekonomika da maRalia ganaTlebis done qveyanaSi, miT ufro mcirdeba tendencia kacebi ganixilebodnen rogorc ufro Zlierebi da aqtiurebi, vidre - qalebi. Tumca unda aRiniSnos isic, rom kvlevebi adasturebs am tendenciis mxolod Semcirebas da ara mis srul gaqrobas. adamiani socialuri arsebaa. igi izrdeba sazogadoebaSi da TandaTanobiT iTvisebs masSi arsebul stereotipebs — ama Tu im sazogadoebisTvis mocemul istoriul periodSi mdgrad Sexedulebebs qalsa da kacs Soris gansxvavebebze, maT socialur rolebze, funqciebze, qcevis normebze. iglis (Eagly) mixedviT, genderuli strereo- tipebi arsebiTad socialuri normebia, xolo bernis (Bern) mixedviT, stereotipebi — es aris ZiriTadi wesebi, romlebic gansazRvraven adamianis qcevas sazogadoebaSi da amave dros, isini fsiqikuri energiis ekonomikis funqcias asruleben. es imas niSnavs, rom stereotipebi warmoadgenen qalebisaTvis da mamakacebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel Tvise- baTa da qcevis modelTa krebuls, romelic gvexmareba informaciis gadamuSavebasa da adekvatur urTierTobebSi. amgvarad, genderuli stereotipebi — es aris fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblebi da qceva, romelic ama Tu im sazogadoebaSi (an kulturaSi) mocemul istoriul periodSi iTvleba erTi romelime sqesisTvis metad damaxasiaTeblad. ase magaliTad: `kacebi metad agresiulebi arian~ an `kacebi ufro Wkvianebi arian~, `qalebi zedmetad emociurebi arian~, `qalebs ar SeuZliaT manqanis marTva kargad~ an `kacebma namdvili megobroba ician, qalebs ki ar SeuZliaT namdvili megobroba~ da a.S. stereotipebi xels uwyoben sqesobrivi rolebis SeTvisebas da warmoadgenen socializaciis modelebs bavSvebisTvis. gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom arsebobs genderuli stereoripebis maRali xarisxiT kroskulturuli msgavseba. aqedan gamomdinare, keTdeba daskvna, rom fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblebi, romlebic qalisa Tu mamakacis sqesTan asocirdebian, pankulturul modelSi lagdebian. xolo specifikuri kulturuli faqtorebi apirobeben umniSvnelo gadaxrebs am zogadi modelidan. genderuli stereotipebis formirebis uiliamsis da bestis (Williams & Best) modeli efuZneba im mosazrebas, rom biologiur gansxvavebebs (mag.: qali aCens Svilebs, kacebs ki meti fizikuri Zala aqvT) mivyavarT Sromis iseT ganawilebamde, romlis drosac qalebs aqvT pasuxismgebloba bavSvebis aRzrdaze da movlaze, kacebs ki — pasuxis- mgebloba ojaxis uzrunvelyofaze da dacvaze. uiliamsi da besti Tvlian, rom genderuli stereotipebi yalibdeboda, raTa uzrunveleyoT aseTnairad Camoyali- bebuli Sromis ganawilebis ganmtkiceba. stereotipi gulisxmobs, rom Sesabamisi sqesis warmomadgenels aqvs an SeuZlia rom ganaviTaros misTvis mikuTvnebuli rolis Sesabamisi Tviseba. erTxel Camoyalibebuli stereoripebi socializaciis modelebis funqcias arsuleben. isini aiZuleben biWebs iyvnen ufro damoukideblebi da

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gabedulebi, xolo gogonebs — mzrunvelebi da kontaqturebi. amgvarad, gasagebi xdeba, rom adamianebi sxvadasxva kulturaTa farTo diapazonis farglebSi midian iqamde, rom maxasiaTeblebis erTi nakrebi asocirdeba mamakacis sqesTan, xolo meore nakrebi — asocirdeba qalTa sqesTan. qalisaTvis an kacisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli — aseTia maskulinoba/feminurobis cnebaTa wyvilTa ZiriTadi mniSvneloba. pirovneba SeiZleba iyos qaluri an mamakacuri sruliad sxvadasxva aspeqtebSi, romelic moicavs rogorc Cacmis manaeras, aseve moqcevis stils an xmis tons. maskulinoba/feminurobis gansazRvreba Semoifargleba `me”-koncefciebiT da im xarisxiT, romliTac aseTi koncefciebi moicaven qalis an mamakacis sqesTan asocirebul maxasiaTeblebs (Tvisebebs). sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, ama Tu im pirovnebis maskulinoba/feminurobis xarisxi gaizomeba am pirovnebis TviTa- RqmaSi, `me”-s xatSi Semavali maskulinuri Tu feminuri Tvisebebis raodenobiT. imisaT- vis, rom konkretuli pirovnebis maskulinoba-feminuroba ganisazRvros, cxadia, auci- lebelia, rom Tavdapirvelad dadgindes mocemul kulturaSi maskulinoba-femi- nurobis zogadi modeli anu is maxasiaTeblebi, romelebic am kulturaSi miRebulia rogorc qaluri an rogorc - mamakacuri. sxvadasxva avtorebis mier maskulinoba- feminurobis Sesafaseblad gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva meTodebi, rogoricaa, mag. TviT- Sefasebis kiTxvari, socialurad sasurveli maxasiaTeblebis an sqesTan asocirebuli maxasiaTeblebis kiTxvari da sxv. maskulinoba-feminurobis gazomvisas metad mniSvne- lovania emikuri da kulturul-specifikuri mosazrebebis gaTvaliswineba. uiliamsama da bestma gamoiyenes kulturul-specifikuri parametrebi maskulinoba-feminurobis kvlevaSi 14 qveynis universitetis studentebTan. yoveli studenti winaswar mocemuli 300 zedsarTavis safuZvelze aRwerda Tavis Tavs da Tavis ideals. es aRwerebi dardeboda adgilobriv (qveynis Sesabamisad) genderul stereotipebs, romlebic adre iyo gamokvleuli. aRmoCnda, rom yvela qveyanaSi mamakacebi iZlevian maskulinobis ufro maRal maCvenebels, vidre qalebi, rac sulac ar aris gasakviri. magram aRsaniS- navia is, rom idealuri `me”-s aRwerisas orive sqesi cdilobda Tavis TavisTvis miewera gacilebiT ufro maRali xarisxis maskulinoba, vidre es realur `me”-Si hqonda. es, rogorc Cans, mamakacebis dominirebiT da Sesabamisad maskulinuri Tvisebebis meti RirebulebiT unda aixsnas. aRmoCnda, rom sxvadasxva kulturul jgufebSi feminuroba/maskulinobis specifi- kuri gagebis gaTvaliswinebiT qalebi da kacebi erTnairad (erTi da igive xarisxiT) qalurebi arian yvela kulturaSi, xolo mamakacebi — erTnairad mamakacurebi. magram, amave dros, ra Tqma unda, me-koncefciaSi feminuroba-maskulinobis TvalsazrisiT arsebobs garkveuli kulturuli variaciebi. genderuli kvlevebis ganviTarebisTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs midis (M. Mead) kvlevebs kulturis mier qalisa da mamakacis pirovnebebis Camoyalibebis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT. Tumca, kulturis gavlena pirovnebis Camoyalibebaze ar niSnavs konstitucionalurad determinirebuli individualuri gansxvavebebis uaryo- fas, magram sqesebs Soris standartul pirovnul gansxvavebebs mainc kulturuli modelebi ayalibeben, romelsac iZulebulia daemorCilos yvela Taobis orive sqesi. ase magaliTad, rodesac omSi wasvla didad fasobs sazogadoebaSi, maSin mamrobiTi sqesis yvela bavSvi cdilobs CaaxSos SiSis nebismieri gamovlineba Tavis TavSi da SeiZinos is Tvisebebi (gambedaoba, vaJkacoba, Tavganwirva), rac damaxasiaTebelia mamakacuri saqmianobisTvis, rac identificirdeba mamakacur pirovnebasTan. xolo is Tvisebebi, romlebic moCneulia Zlier komponentebad zogierTi pirovnebisaTvis, SemdgomSi viTardeba rogorc norma yvelasaTvis (rogorc maskulinuri pirovnebis ZiriTadi elementebi). asevea qalebSic. magaliTad, Tu kulturaSi didi mniSvneloba

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aqvs qalis zrunvas bavSvze, kultura gamoyofs am Tvisebas da feminuri pirovnebis ZiriTad komponentad miiCnevs. midma, ikvlia ra sxvadasxva tomebi, aRmoaCina sxvadasxva kulturis zegavleniT ganpirobebuli mkveTri gansxvaveba qalisa da mamakacis roleb- sa da stereotipebSi. ase, magaliTad, miCneulia, rom saSiSroebis atana ufro masku- linuri maxasiaTebeli iyo. patara bavSvebic ki Tavs ikavebdnen gamoemJRavnebinaT iseTi Tviseba, rogoricaa SiSi, radgan isini darwmunebuli iyvnen, rom sawinaaRmdegod moqcevisas maT miawerdnen qalur Tvisebebs. mkvlevrebi, romlebic qcevaSi gamovlenil genderul sxvaobebs swavloben, xSirad imowmeben sxvadasxva kulturaTa msgavsebas, rogorc genebisa da hormonebis rolis dasabuTebas da amiT varaudoben srul genetikur da biologiur determinizms. biologiuri determinizmi amodis iqidan, rom sqesTa Soris Seucvleli gansxvavebebis formirebas iwveven yovelTvis raime biologiuri faqtorebi an gadaxrebi, rac biolo- gias warmoadgens rogorc aucilebels da sakmaris pirobas sqesTa gansxvavebisTvis. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom didi xnis diskusiam bunebisa Tu aRzrdis prioritetu- lobaze, romelic asakobriv fsiqologiaSi mimdinareobs, aCvena, rom biologia ar gan- sazRvravs qcevas da aseTi warmodgena sakmaod naivuria. gamokvlevebma (Hoyenga & Hoyenga, 1983; Stewart, 1988) daadastura, rom sqesobrivi qromosomebi an sqesobrivi hormonebi ar warmoadgens arc aucilebel da arc sakmaris pirobas qcevis gansazR- vrisaTvis. isini ubralod amcireben an zrdian garkveuli qcevis ganxorcielebis albaTobas. gotiebis (Gottlieb, 1983) gamokvlevam gamoavlina, rom genebi toveben SesaZleblobas sawinaaRmdego tipis qcevisTvis. adamianebi garkveuli xarisxiT memkvidreobiT iReben genebs, magram amasTanave, cxovroben ra mWidro kavSirSi mSoblebTan da naTesavebTan, adaminebs SeuZliaT `memkvidreobiT~ miiRon garemocvac. akvirdebodnen ra biologiisa da garemos urTierTqmedebas, sociobiologebma, evoluciuri fsiqologiis da ekonomikuri anTropologiis specialistebma ivaraudes, rom gansazRvruli qceviTi meqanizmebi yalibdeba rogorc reaqcia gadarCevis faqtorebis zewolaze. roluri sxvaobebi, romlebic sqesTan aris dakavSirebuli asaxavs im faqts, rom gansxvavebul garemoebebs mivyevarT gansxvavebul qceviT reaqciebamde, romelTagan TiToeulic winaswar gansazRvrulia biologiurad. gilmori (Gilmore, 1990) varaudobs, rom mamakacis qceva `maCos~ stilSi warmoadgens adaptacias maRali donis riskTan, romelic saWmlis mopovebasTan da sicocxlisTvis aucilebeli pirobebis mopovebasTanaa dakavSirebuli. gilmors Tavisi hipoTezis dasadastureblad magaliTad moyavs is mkveTri gansxvaveba sqesTan dakavSirebul rolur ganwyobebs Soris, romelic arsebobs wynari okeanis or kunZuls — truksa da taitis Soris. orive kunZulze Tavs Tevzis WeriT irCenen da am saqmianobiT mamakacebi arian dakavebulni. magram kunZul trukis mamakaci — es aris TavzexelaRebuli, mudam saomrad ganwyobili, seqsSi uxeSi da ganurCeveli. am kunZulze iTvleba, rom qalebi momTmenni da pasiurni unda iyvnen. isini ar unda ewinaaRmdegebodnen mamakacebs, maT ki, Tavis mxriv, unda daicvan qalebi. taitis kunZulis kacebi ki ar iRwvian materialuri miRwevisa da konkurenciisaTvis, isini pasiurebi da damyolebi arian, maSin roca maTi qalebi, rogorc wesi, aqtiurebi arian. gilmori am gansxvavebebs saWmlis mopovebis gansxvavebuli pirobebiT xsnis. taitis mkvidrni Tevzs iWeren did lagunebSi, sadac maT aranairi safrTxe ar emuqrebaT da sadac bevri Tevzia. trukis macxovreblebi ki Tevzs Ria zRvaSi iWeren, sadac daRupvis riski didia. gilmoris azriT, `maCos~ stili SeiZleba warmoadgendes riskTan adaftaciis im formas, romelic exmareba mamakacebs winaaRmdegoba gauwios saSiSroebebs. biologia ar gansazRvravs beds, magram biologiur faqtorebs, ueWvelad, mniSvne- lovani wvlili Seaqvs genderuli sxvaobebis formirebaSi. termini `biologiuri~

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xSirad ixmareba, roca mxedvelobaSi aqvT genebi, am mocemul SemTxvevaSi sqesobrivi qromosomebi, magram cneba `biologiuri~ unda moicavdes agreTve, im pirobebis zegavlenas, romelSic organizmi aris (mdebareobs) muclis periodSi mucladyofinisa da postnataluri ganviTarebisas. xSirad am periodSi moqmedeba (an cxovreba) ganisaz- Rvreba kulturiT. magaliTad, Zilis periodis xangrZlivoba SeiZleba varirebdes kulturiT determinirebuli dedis dRis reJimis mixedviT, xolo siarulisa da jdomis Cvevebis SeZena damokidebulia am kulturebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli bavSvebis movlis praqtikaze. gamokvlevebi (Eaton & Enns, 1986; Rosenberg & Sutton-Smith, 1972; Tanner, 1961, 1970) aCvenebs, rom axaldabadebuli biWebi gogonebTan SedarebiT ufro didebi da aqtiurebi arian, ufro maRali nivTierebaTa cvlis done aqvT, tkivilis SegrZnebis ufro maRali zRurbli aqvT da ufro kargad aqvT ganviTarebuli muskulatura. mozardobis asakamde (3-10 ww.) sqesobrivi gansxvavebebi morfologiaSi da hormonalur statusSi didi ar aris, magram dakvirvebadi gansxvavebebi Seesabameba sqesobriv dimorfizms, romelic mogvianebiT vlindeba. zrdasruli mamakacebi ufro maRlebi arian, ufro masiuri ConCxi aqvT, sisxlis JangbadiT kvebis ufro maRali done aqvT, meti Tma aqvT sxeulze, amasTanave, sxvadasxva sqesis warmomadgenlebs gansxvavebuli pirveladi da meoradi sqesobrivi niSnebi aqvT. gansxvavebis I jgufi dakavSirebulia mamakacis met ZalasTan da gamZleobasTan. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom es gansxvavebebi, cxadia, ZalaSia umravles SemTxvevebSi, radgan zogierTi konkretuli qali ufro Ronieria, vidre zogierTi konkretuli kaci. miuxedavad imisa, rom biologia mniSvnelovan zegavlenas axdens qcevaze, qcevis da misi ganviTarebis mniSvnelovan determinants warmoadgens socialur-kulturuli faqtorebi. am mosazrebebs adasturebs rigi mkvlevrebis naSromebi (Best &Williams, 1993; Monroe &Munroe, 1975/1994; Rogjff, Gauvain &Ellis, 1984). kultura Rrma zegavlenas axdens qcevaze, gansazRvravs ra gvaris gagrZelebas, imas, Tu rogor xdeba bavSvebis socializacia, rogor acmeven bavSvebs, romeli qveva iTvleba sworad da gonivrulad, ras aswavlian bavSvebs, ra funqciebs iReben Tavis Tavze zrdasruli qalebi da mamakacebi. bavSvis SesaZleblobebi da qcevis Camoyalibeba ganisazRvreba kulturiT, maSinac ki, roca es qceva ganixileba, rogorc biologiuri faqtorebiT determi- nirebuli. sqesTa Soris sxvaobebis kulturul universaliebs xSirad xsnian xolme socializaciis praqtikebis msgavsebiT, maSin roca kulturul gansxvavebulobebs miakuTvneben xolme socializaciis procesis gansxvavebulobebs. sqesTan mikuTvnebulobasTan dakavSirebuli qcevis kulturuli TaviseburebebiT gansazRvrulobis yvelaze cnobili magaliTia margaret midis (Mead, 1935) mier Catarebuli klasikuri gamokvleva axali gvineis sam tomze. midis gamokvlevebSi gamovlinda, rom dasavluri Sexedulebebis Tanaxmad, am sazogadoebebSi qalebsac da kacebsac aqvT rogorc maskulinoba, aseve feminurobac da maTi qceva ar Seesabameba miRebul seqsualur-rolur orientacias. sqesobrivi sxvaobebis Rrma bunebis kargi magaliTia 1920-ian wlebSi daarsebuli israeleli kibucebis istoria. es iyo mizanmimarTuli mcdeloba Seqmniliyo egalitaruli sazogadoeba (Rosner, 1967; Snarey & Son, 1986; Spiro, 1956). Tavdapirvelad iq ar iyo Sromis ganawileba sqesobrivi niSniT. qalebic da kacebic muSaobdnen mindvrebSi, marTavdnen traqtorebs, muSaobdnen samzareuloSi da samrecxaoSi. dro gadioda. amaRlda Sobadoba da gamoirkva, rom qalebma veRar SeZles Tavis Tavze aeRoT fizikuri samuSaos bevri saxe, romlebsac akeTebdnen kacebi. male, qalebma Tavis Tavze aiRes swored is funqciebi, romelTaganac undodaT Tavdapirvelad gaTavisufleba — saWmlis momzadeba, recxva, bavSvebis swavla da maTi movla. aSkaraa, rom kibucebis

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mcdelobas, moexdinaT Sromis Tanabari ganawileba, didi gavlena ar mouxdenia bavSvebze. karlsoni da barnesi (Carlsson & barnes, 1986) ikvlevdnen qalebisa da mamakacebis Sexedulebebs tipur seqsualur-rolur qcevaze da sakuTari sqesobrivi mikuTvnebulobis aRqmas. maT ver aRmoaCines kulturuli an sqesobrivi gansxvavebebi Sved bavSvebsa da kibucebSi gazrdil bavSvebs Soris.

saleqcio kursis bolos studentebs miecemaT ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi:

sqesi - gansazRvravs qalsa da mamakacs Soris anatomiur da fiziologiur sxvaobebs da am sxvaobaTa kavSirs reproduqciis unarTan. sqesi biologiurad aris determini- rebuli.

genderi - gamoiyeneba qalisa da mamakacis gansxvavebuli TaviseburebebisTvis, romelic aqcents akeTebs socialur da kulturul faqtorebze da ara biologiurze.

sqesobriv-roluri ideologia — gansazRvravs sqesebs Soris adekvatur ganwyobebs da varirebs tradiciuli antifeministuri midgomidan, romelic mamakacis sqesis domi- nirebas gulisxmobs, Tanamedrove anu egelitarul midgomamde, romlis mixedviTac qalisa da mamakacis mniSvneloba Tanabaria da uaryofilia erTi sqesis dominireba meoreze.

genderuli stereotipebi — es aris fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblebi da qceva, romelic iTvleba erTi romelime sqesisTvis metad damaxasiaTeblad (mag. `kacebi metad agre- siulebi arian, qalebi ki metad emociurebi~). stereotipebi xels uwyobs sqesobrivi rolebis SeTvisebas da warmoadgens socializaciis modelebs bavSvebisTvis.

maskulinoba-feminuriba (m/f) — warmoadgens im xarisxs, romliTac qalebisa da mamakacebis TviTaRqma Seicavs Tvisebebs, romlebic maT kulturaSi ganixileba rogorc qalebiTvis an kacebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli.

genderuli cnobiereba — warmoadgens socialuri cnobierebis nawils, romelic qalebisa da mamakacebs Soris Tanacxovrebisa da urTierTobebis wesis matarebelia.

pirveli leqciis Semdeg studntebi airCeven esses Temebs (saleqcio kursis Temebis mixedviT), romlebic maT unda moamzadon ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literaturis gamoyenebiT da warmoadginon seminarze. studentebs daevalebaT individualuri muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnil droSi moamzadon saswavlo kursis savaldebulo samec- niero literaturaSi (riderSi) warmodgenili leqciis Tematikis Sesatyvis masalebi. genderis, rogorc socialur-kulturuli konstruqtis ukeT Seswavlis mizniT, maT

miecemaT, agreTve davaleba Sesarulon praqtikuli samuSao. kerZod, 1 . TiToeulma

studentma seminarisaTvis unda moamzados (Caiweros da warmoadginos) sul mcire 10 genderuli qcevis norma. 2). SemTxveviTad gaxsenebuli 10-15 ojaxis magaliTze aRricxos qalebisa da mamakacebis profesiebi, dasaqmebis sferoebi, Tanamdeboba,

)

socialuri statusi.

seminari # 1 (Tema # 1 ) — 2 sT

seminarze moxdeba studentebis mier Sesrulebuli kvlevis Sedegebis jgufuri Sejameba da analizi. gaimarTeba diskusia genderis konstruirebaSi socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis zegavlenis Sesaxeb (1 sT); seminarze moxdeba studentis mier

15

momzadebuli esses prezentacia; gaimarTeba diskusia seminaris Temaze (1 sT). kerZod , dasmuli iqneba Semdegi tipis kiTxvebi:

1. ra gansxvavebaa sqessa da genders Soris? moiyvaneT sqessa da genders Soris gansxvavebis magaliTebi.

2. rogor gansazRvraven sxvadasxva avtorebi genders?

3. ras niSnavs genderuli stereotipebi da maskulinoba/feminuroba sxvadasxva kulturebSi?

4. riTi SeiZleba davasabuToT, rom genderi warmoadgens socialur-kulturul konstruqts?

5. ra saxiT vlindeba genderuli cnobiereba yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi?

6. ra xarisxiT arian invariantuli sxvadasxva kulturaSi genderuli Taviseburebebi , rolebi, stereotipuli qcevebi da Sexedulebebi?

7. rogor gansxvavdebian isini kulturuli faqtorebis zegavlenis Sedegad?

8. ratom aris genderis Seswavla mniSvnelovani socialuri mecnierebebisaTvis? saxelmwifosaTvis?

ZiriTadi literatura:

1.

Judith Lorber, Paradoxes of Gender, Yale University Press, 1994, p.: 13-55;

2.

George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, p.: 199-204;

3.

Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, p.: 17-23;

4.

Juanita H. Williams, Psychology of Women, W.W.Norton & Company, N.Y.,1987, p.:, 135-137.

damatebiTi literatura:

1.

Burn S.M. The Socal Psychology of Gender, McGraw-Hill, Inc.1996, gv.: 21-28, 238-266;

2.

Best D. L., Williams I. E. Gender and culture. – in Culture and Psychology, edited by David Matsumoto. Oxford University press, 2001, gv.: 316-322;

3.

Judith Batler, Gender Trouble, Feminism and the subversion of identity, Routledge, Chapman & Hall, Inc., 1990, gv.:1-34;

4.

zurikaSvili f. maRraZe g. WaniSvili n. xuciSvili g. jorbenaZe r. konfliqti, genderi da mSvidobis mSenebloba, gaeros ganviTarebis fondi qalTaTvis, Tb., 2003, nawili II;

5.

m. wereTeli, genderi, rogorc fsiqikuri konstruqti — d. uznaZis sax. fsiqologiis institutis SromaTa krebuli, 2004, Tb., gv.:185-188;

6.

avaliani e. Zveli samyaros `feministuri~ kulturebi, - kr.-Si `qali politikur da socialur cxovrebaSi~, bakur sulakauris gamomc., 1998, gv.: 95-103.

16

kvira #2

leqcia— 2 sT

Tema #2 - genderuli identifikaciisa da genderuli rolebis aTvisebis Teoriebi (fsiqodinamikuri, socialur-kognituri, kognituri ganviTarebis Teoriebi, androginiis koncefcia, genderul-roluri transcendenciis stadiebis da genderuli sqemis Teoria).

genderis

gageba am TeoriaTa farglebSi, agreTve, maTi kritikuli Sefaseba da mniSvneloba

genderuli kvelvebis ganviTarebisaTvis.

leqciaze

ganxiluli

iqneba TiToeuli Teoriis ZiriTadi

principebi

,

genderis gageba froidis fsiqoanalizur TeoriaSi. genderul kvlevebze, kerZod ki, genderuli identifikaciisa da genderuli sxvaobebis gagebaze udidesi gavlena moaxdina z. froidis (Freud) fsiqoanalizurma Teoriam. froidi iyo pirveli fsiqo- logi, romelmac pirovnebis Teoriis centrSi moaqcia biologiuri sqesi da xazi gausva mis mniSvnelovan rols ganviTarebis procesSi. marTalia, froidi genderis mkvlevarTa ricxvs ar miekuTvneba da TviT genderis mecnieruli terminic ar arsebobda am droisaTvis, magram man pirvelma axsna pirov- nebis sqesobrivi identifikaciisa da sqesobrivi sxvaobebis Camoyalibebis procesi. amdenad, froidma mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvra genderis fenomenis mecnierTa yuradRebis centrSi moqceva. misma Sexedulebebma safuZveli Cauyara genderis mecnieruli kvlevis obieqtad Camoyalibebas. swored amitom, mniSvnelovnia sqesobrivi identifikaciis meqanizmis froidiseuli gagebis ganxilva. z. froidis midgoma sqesobrivi identifikaciisadmi efuZneba bavSvis fsiqoseqsu- aluri ganviTarebis mis mier gamoyofil stadiebs. kerZod, froidis Teoriis mixedviT sqesobrivi identifikaciisa da sqesobrivi sxvaobebis formirebis meqanizmi bavSvis fsiqoseqsualuri ganviTarebis procesSia Cadebuli. sqesobrivi identurobis ganviTa- reba mimdinareobs stadiebis seriebis mixedviT. yoveli etapi xasiaTdeba libiduri (seqsualuri) energiis koncentraciiT sxeulis garkveul nawilSi. fsiqoseqsualuri ganviTarebis I etapze — oralur stadiaze bavSvi aRwevs primitiul seqsualur dakmayofilebas wovis saSualebiT. II etapze — analur stadiaze siamovneba miiRweva defekaciiT da bavSvi koncentrirebulia ganavlis Sekavebasa da gamoyofaze. froidis mixedviT, biWebisa da gogonebis fsiqoseqsualuri ganviTareba erTnairad mimdinareobs am ori sawyisi stadiis ganmavlobaSi. falosur stadiaze, romelic daaxloebiT samidan eqvs wlamde mimdinareobs, bavSvis libiduri energia fokusirdeba genitaliebze. swored am etapze xdeba sqesi da genderi gadamwyveti bavSvis ganviTarebisTvis. igi acnobierebs, rom qalebsa da mamakacebs gansxvavebuli sasqeso organoebi aqvT. am stadiamde siyvarulisa da erotikuli mimzidvelobis pirveli obieqti rogorc gogonebisaTvis, aseve biWebisaTvis, dedaa. Tumca, rodesac bavSvebi miaRweven falosur stadias, maTi urTierTobebi dedasTan rTuldeba. biWebSi dedis mimarT siyvaruli incestad iqceva da viTardeba oidipos kompleqsi. patara biWebis survili `flobdnen~ dedas da masTan urTierTobaSi `Caanacvlon~ mama, iwvevs kastraciis SiSs. swored am SiSiT gamowveuli stresi da SfoTva biWis Semdgomi ganviTarebis mamoZravebeli Zlieri Zalaa. biWebi Tavs arTmeven kastraciis SiSs dedis mimarT seqsualuri ltolvisa da mamasTan mtruli damokidebulebis gandevniT (aracno-

17

bierSi). es xorcieldeba mamasTan identifikaciis gziT. biWebi cdiloben moawonon mamas Tavi da gaiziaron misi Rirebulebebi. mamasTan identifikacia biWebs saSualebas aZlevs `flobdes~ dedas, Tumca ara realurad, aramed — gaSualebulad (Canac- vlebulad). mamasTan identifikaciis gziT daiZleva oidipos kompleqsi da viTardeba superego — moraluri normebis sistema. gogonebis ganviTareba sxvagvarad mimdinareobs. falosur stadiaze gogonebis mier gakeTebuli aRmoCena, rom maT akliaT penisi, froidis mixedviT, gogonaTa ganviTarebisTvis gadamwyveti momentia. gogonas uviTardeba e.w. `penisis Suri~. es ukanaskneli gogonebis TviTSefasebas did dartymas ayenebs da maT arasrulfasovnebis kompleqss uyalibebs. Tumca deda aris gogonebis siyvarulis Tavdapirveli obieqti, magram isini swored dedas adanaSauleben penisis arqonaSi da uars amboben dedis siyvarulze. TavianT siyvaruls isini mamebisken mimarTaven, romelTac aqvT is organo, romelic maT da maT `defeqtur~ dedebs arasodes eqnebaT. gogonebis `penisis flobis~ survili mamisken siyvarulis warmarTviT ar aris srulad dakmayofilebuli. igi gardaiqmneba mamisgan bavSvis yolis survilad da mogvianebiT, bavSvis yolis survilad sakuTari meuRlisgan. froidis mixedviT, qali sruliad realizirdeba vaJiSvilis gaCenis SemTxvevaSi, radgan igi aseTnairad, bolos da bolos, aRwevs didi xnis sasurveli `penisis flobas~. amgvarad, patara gogo, romelic `patara kaci~ iyo fsiqoseqsualuri ganviTarebis preoidipalur stadiaze, falosuri stadiis gavlis

Sedegad xdeba pasiuri, mgrZnobiare da ganayofierebis momlodine qali. froidis azriT, gansxvavebiT biWebisgan, gogonebi Cveulebriv, warumateblobas ganicdian srulad gadawyviton oidipos kompleqsi (am situacias, gogonebis Sem- TxvevaSi SeiZleba eleqtras kompleqsi ewodos). gogonebs aqvT krizisi maT mier penisis ar flobis gamo da maTi incesturi moTxovnileba mamis mimarT aris penisis mopovebis mcdeloba. biWebisgan gansxvavebiT, romlebic kastraciis SfoTviT arian motivi- rebulni gadaWran iodipos kompleqsi, gogonebi TavianT Tavs ukve kastrirebulad ganixilaven da amdenad, nakleb SfoTvas ganicdian. amitom qalebs Cveulebriv aqvT naklebad ganviTarebuli moralurobis grZnobaTa sistema anu superego.

z. froidis mixedviT, gogonebSi iodipos kompleqsis nawilobrivi an arasruli

daZleva xdeba. es ki iwvevs tipur qalur Tvisebebis Camoyalibebas, iseTebs, rogoricaa,

pasiuroba da dedobis survili. froidi aRniSnavda, rom ganayofierebis survili aseve miuTiTebs mazoxizmze da siamovnebaze tkivilisa da tanjvisagan, radganac seqsua- luri urTierTobebi da Svilebis gaCena SeiZleba tkivilTan iyos dakavSirebuli. amgvarad, froidis mixedviT, `penisis Suri~ da misi `flobis~ survili normaluri qalurobis Camoyalibebis mamoZravebeli Zalaa. biWisaTvis normaluri mamakacurobis

Camoyalibebis mamoZravebeli Zala ki kastraciis SiSia. rac Seexeba sqesis identifi- kaciis meqanizms, igi, froidis mixedviT, oidipos kompleqsis daZlevasa da igive sqesis mSobelTan identifikaciaSi mdgomareobs.

z. froidis Teoriam udidesi zegavlena moaxdina ara mxolod genderis, aramed,

saerTod adamianis Sesaxeb mecnieruli azris ganviTarebaze. Tumca, isic unda aRiniSnos, rom misi Teoria mkacri kritikis sagani gaxda. yvelaze seriozuli kritika anTropologebis mxridan modioda, romlebic amtkicebdnen, rom es Teoria dasavluri kulturis CarCoebiT aris SezRuduli. kerZod, malinovski miuTiTebda, rom oidipos kompleqsi ar aris universaluri fenomeni, rogorc amas froidi varaudobda. malinovski aRniSnavda, rom ojaxis sabazo struqtura (mama, deda da Svili), romelzec agebulia oidipos kompleqsi, ar aris damaxasiaTebeli bevri kulturisTvis. magali- Tad, trobrianis kunZulebze (papua — axali gvinea) ojaxis ufrosi ara mama, aramed — biZaa dedis mxridan. amasTan mkacri tabu incestze dadebulia ara bavSvebisa da

18

mSoblebis urTierTobebze, aramed Zmebsa da debs Soris urTierTobebze. malinovski aRniSnavda, rom aseT pirobebSi oidipos kompleqss sruliad sxvagavari saxe unda mis- cemoda. marTlac, trobrianis kunZulebis miTebis Seswavlisas malinovskim aRmoaCina, rom maT safuZvels warmoadgens debsa da Zmebs Soris urTierTobebis mkacri tabu. Tumca malinovski akritikebda froids oidipos kompleqsTan dakavSirebiT, magram igi sruliad iziarebda misi Teoriis ZiriTad principebs. malinovski iziarebda froidis Sexedulebas imis Sesaxebac, rom gandevnili survilebi proeqciebSi (miTebSi, folklorSi da a. S.) vlindeba, im gansxvavebiT, rom es proeqciebi universaluri ki ar aris, aramed gansxvavdeba kulturaTa mixedviT. froidis ideebma normaluri feminuri da maskulinuri pirovnebis Sesaxeb metad farTe gavrceleba pova rogorc mis studentebSi, aseve fsiqologebsa da socialuri mecnierebebis warmomadgenlebSi. misi midgoma genderuli identifikaciisa da genderuli tipirebis Sesaxeb mravali interpretaciis dasayrdeni gaxda. z. froidis Teoriis mimdevaris helen daCis azriT, gogonas ganviTarebis mamoZravebel Zalas `penisis Suris~ universaluri kategoria ki ar warmoadgens, aramed yvela adamianisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Suri imisa, rac sxvas aqvs. erik eriqsonma ganavrco froidis ganviTarebis Teoria. eriqsonis damsaxurebaa bavSvis ganviTarebaSi da identifikaciaSi biologiur impulsebTan erTad socialuri faqtorebis zegavlenis mniSvnelobis xazgasma. amasTan, eriqsonis mixedviT, qalis genderuli identifikaciis safuZvels penisis uqonloba ki ar warmoadgens, aramed — saSvilosnos qona. eriqsonma xazi gausva Sinagani sivrcis cnebas. igi akvirdeboda 10-12 wlis bavSvebis TamaSs da daadgina, rom Sinagani sivrce gavlenas axdens sqesis identifikaciaze. bavSvebs eZleodaT adamianebisa da cxovelebis miniaturuli figu- rebi. maT sTxovdnen, rom aegoT kinos (filmis) scena. gogos tipuri scena Sedgeboda interieris scenisagan adamianebiT da avejiT. biWis tipuri scena iyo saxls gareT, morTuli kedlebiT, fasadebiT da boZebiT. gogonebis scenebi mSvidi da statikuri iyo, xolo biWebisa — aqtiurobisken orientirebuli. eriqsonma paraleli gaavlo genderul konstruqtiul TamaSebs Soris gansxvavebebsa da sqesTabiologiur gansxva- vebebs Soris (qalis Sinagani faqizi organoebi da kacis garegani, aqtiuri organoebi). swored es gansxvavebuli organoebi gansazRvraven, eriqsonis mixedviT, bavSvebis gansxvavebul Sinagan sivrces, romlic maTi sqesobrivi identifikaciis safuZvelia. alfred adleri Tvlida, rom adamiani upirvelasad socialuri da ara seqsualuri arsebaa. da amdenad, misi qceva motivirebulia ara biologiuri instiqtebiT, aramed - socialuri interesebiT. misi azriT, maskulinuri dominantoba ar aris bunebrivi movlena. igi gamowveulia kacebisa da biWebis ufro meti socialuri RirebulebiT ojaxsa da sazogadoebaSi. karen horni Tvlida, rom froidis monacemebi qalis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb asaxavs patara biWis azrebs qalis anatomiis Sesaxeb. Tumca patara biWi SeiZleba uyurebdes patara gogos da fiqrobdes, rom man dakarga penisi, magram aranairi safuZveli ara gvaqvs vifiqroT, rom gogoc ase fiqrobs. horni ar eTanxmeboda froids, rom `penisis Suri~ da kastraciis kompleqsi qalis ganviTarebis mniSvnelovani meqanizmia. igi aRniSnavda, rom icnobda zustad imdenive kacs, romlebsac qalis saSvilosnosi SurdaT, ramdensac qals, romlebsac kacis penisis SurdaT. igi Tvlida, rom zogierTi kacis akviatebuli swrafva miRwevisaken gamoxatavs qalebis unikaluri SesaZleblobebis (reproduqciuli unaris) zekompensacias. sxvagavarad rom vTqvaT, hornis azriT, saSvilosnos Surs mivyevarT feminur kompleqsamde. hornis azriT, ar arsebobs qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris biologiurad deter- minitebuli fsiqologiuri sxvaobebi. isini ganpirobebulia genderul

19

identifikaciaze kulturuli faqtorebis da qalis susti bunebis Sesaxeb ideo- logiebis didi zegavlenis gamo. biologiuri da kulturuli faqtorebis genderul identifikaciaze gavlenis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovania m. midis kvlevebi. axli gvineis 3 ganxsvavebuli tomis Seswavlis Sedegad, man daadgina, rom qalisa da mamakacis stereotipuli Tvisebebi yovelTvis ar aris biologiuri sqesiT ganpirobebuli. seriozuli kritikis sagani gaxda, agreTve qalisa da qalurobis fenomenis froidiseuli gageba. feministuri moZraobis mimdevrebi amtkicebdnen, rom froidis damokidebuleba qalebisadmi viqtorianuli epoqis Sexedulebebis asaxvaa. klara tompsonis azriT, froidis Sexedulebebis SezRuduloba yvelaze kargad Cans `penisis Suris~ mis koncefciaSi. klara tompsoni aRiarebs, rom gogonebs SurT biWebis, magram misi azriT, es Suri qalebis biologiuri arasrulfasovnebiT ki ar aris gamowveuli (rogorc es froids aqvs gagebuli), aramed im privilegiebiT, romlebiTac gansxvavebiT gogonebisa da qalebisagan, sargebloben sazogadoebaSi biWebi da mamakacebi. froidis Teorias akritikeben empiriuli monacemebis simwiris gamoc. kerZod, sxva mkvlevarTa mravalricxovani empiriuli monacemebi gviCvenebs, rom zneobrivi grZnobebi bavSvebs ar uyalibdebaT sxeulebrivi dazianebebis miRebis SiSis gamo (iqneba es kastraciis SiSi Tu sxva tipis fizikuri dasja). moraluri grZnobebi bavSvs uviTardeba maSin, roca igi siyvaruliT aris garSemortymuli da cdilobs SeinarCunos es siyvaruli. es monacemebi exeba rogorc biWebs, aseve gogonebs. fsiqoanalizis feministuri mimarTulebis zogierTi warmomadgeneli Tvlis, rom froidis Teoria zedmetad individualisturia da mowyvetilia socialur garemos. nensi Codorou da jesika benJamini aRniSnavdnen, rom SeuZlebelia SeviswavloT adamiani izolirebulad da mxolod misi ltolvebi da egofunqciebi gaviTvaliswinoT. maTi azriT, mniSvnelovania, rom genderuli identifikaciisa da genderuli Tvisebebis Camoyalibebis modelis agebisas gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos sxva adamianebTan urTierTobebic. froidis Teoria gakritikebuli iyo imis gamoc, rom misi debulebebi exeba bavSvis ganviTarebas, misi damamtkicebeli empiriuli sabuTebi ki zrdasruli adamianebis kvlevis Sedegadaa mopovebuli. zogierTi fsiqologis azriT, froidis Teorias aranairi Rirebuleba ara aqvs, rad- gan igi Zalian bundovani da araerTmniSvnelovania. kerZod, kritika exeba am Teoriis safuZvelze bavSvis ganviTarebis prognozirebis SesaZleblobebs. am avtorebis azriT, xSir SemTxvevebSi mas mivyevarT erTi da igive movlenis urTierTsawinaaRmdego interpretaciebamde. magaliTad, frustraciam analur stadiaze SeiZleba gamoiwvios xasiaTis iseTi Tvisebebis ganviTareba, rogoricaa, akuratuloba, sisufTave da damjeroba an piriqiT — amboxisa da areulobisaken midrekileba. amgvarad, daskvnisaTvis SeiZleba iTqvas, rom z. froidis Teoriis farglebSi genderuli identifikaciis gagebis kritika efuZneba Semdeg argumentebs: empiriuli masalis simwire; pirovnebis biologiuri fsqtorebiT determinirebuloba; qalis moralurobisa da Tvisebebis Camoyalibebis modelis sisuste; pirovnebis socialur garemosgan mowyvetili gageba; kulturuli Rirebulebebisa da maT Soris ojaxisa da urTierTobebis kulturuli praqtikebis gauTvaliswinebloba. miuxedavad mravalricxovani da seriozuli kritikisa, froidis Teoriam udidesi gavlena moaxdina genderis gagebaze da misi, rogorc mecnieruli koncefciis ganviTarebaze. rogorc zemoT davrwmundiT, froidis bevri kritikosis Sexeduleba swored misi Teoriidan iRebs saTaves: maTi umetesoba iziarebs sqesis identifikaciis froidiseuli gagebis ZiriTad principebs. Tumca ki, froidis kritikosebi avseben da

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anviTareben mis models, sqesis identifikaciis meqanizmSi damatebiTi, kulturuli faqtorebis Semotanis gziT. amdenad, froidis Teoria unda ganvixiloT, rogorc genderis fsiqologiis ganviTarebis erT-erTi stimuli, mamoZravebeli Zala da genderis Tanamedrove gagebis mecnieruli winapiroba.

genderis gageba pirovnebis socialur-kognitur TeoriaSi. pirovnebis socialur-kognituri Teoriis(Bandura, Mishell) mixedviT qcevis asaxsnelad sakmarisi ar aris mxolod adamianis Sinagani realobis gaTvaliswineba. mniSvnelovania, agreTve, kulturuli da socialuri faqtorebic, romelic zegavlenas axdens pirovnebis ganviTarebaze. banduras mixedviT, adamianis fsiqikuri funqci- onirebis meqanizmi qcevis, SemecnebiTi sferos da garemos uwyveti urTierT- zemoqmedebis terminebSi unda iyos agebuli. socialur-kognituri Teoria genderul-roluri orientaciis formirebas ganixilavs, rogorc gamocdilebis SeZenis rezultats. mSoblebi, maswavleblebi, Tanatolebi da socializaciis sxva agentebi ayalibeben bavSvebis genderul-rolurad orientirebul qcevas, adekvaturi da araadekvaturi qcevis ganmtkicebiTa da dasjiT, modelirebiT, molodinebiT, saTamaSoebis SerCeviT da sxva momentebiT, romelic dakavSirebulia gansxvavebuli moqceviT gogonebTan da biWebTan. socialur-kognituri Teoria biheviorizmidan da swavlis eqsperimentuli gamok- vlevebidan iRebs saTaves. am Teoriis mixedviT, adamini swavlobs qcevis paternebs daaxloebiT iseve, rogorc cxoveli, magram im gansxvavebiT, rom am SemTxvevaSi gamomwvevi mizezi ar aris yovelTvis iseTi konkretuli, rogorc cxovelisaTvis sakvebi. bavSvis qceva yalibdeba mozrdilebis yuradRebiTa da waxalisebiT. rogorc angeri aRniSnavs, mSoblebi ar dayvebian TavianT patara gogonas da yovelTvis, roca is Tojinas aiRebs xelSi saTamaSod, ar aZleven kanfetebs waxalisebis mizniT. aseve ar ubrazdebian yovelTvis, roca manqaniT TamaSobs. magram Tu mama periodulad Sexedavs mas Tbili RimiliT, roca is fanqrebiT rveulSi xatavs, gogona xSirad gaimeorebs am qcevas. axlad naswavli qceva SeiZleba gavrceldes sxva situaciebzec — gogona daiwyebs xatvas ara mxolod saxlSi, aramed — sabavSvo baRSic. ufro zogadad, gogonam SeiZleba daiswavlos, rom `wynari~ TamaSi ukeTesia, vidre — `aqtiuri~. am Teoriis farglebSi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania mosazreba imis Taobaze, rom bavSvi cxovelebisgan gansxvavebiT swavlobs sxvebze dakvirvebiT, modelirebiT da maTi qcevis imitirebiT. socialur-kognituri Teoriis amosavals warmoadgens debuleba imis Sesaxeb, rom qcevis axali formebis Camoyalibeba SesaZlebelia uSualo garegani ganmtkicebis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSic. qcevis aTviseba SesaZlebelia magaliTis saSualebiTac. Cven vakvirdebiT, Tu rogor iqcevian sxvebi da Semdeg vimeorebT maT qcevas. amgvarad, bandura aqcents akeTebs ara pirdapir ganmtkicebaze, aramed — swavlaze dakvirvebisa da magaliTis gziT. aseTnairad adamianebs uyalibdebaT garkveuli qcevis kognituri modeli, romelic verbaluri da kognituri reprezentaciebis saxiT inaxeba mexsierebaSi da momaval qcevaSi orientiris funqcias asrulebs. kerZod, qcevis am kognitur modelebze dayrdnobiT xorcieldeba momavali qcevis Rirebulebis kognituri Sefaseba da sazogadoebaSi misi dadebiTi Tu uaryofiTi ganmtkicebis ganWvreta. aRsaniSnavia, rom qcevis kognituri modeli am Teoriis farglebSi samodelo qcevis xatia, romelic SemdgomSi Sesabamisi an Seusabamo qcevis prototipad gamoiyeneba. qcevis da maT Soris genderuli qcevis prototipis Camoyalibeba swavlis procesSi mimdinare Sesabamisi qceviTi magaliTebis, informaciis verbaluri gadacemis, imitaciisa da modelirebis Sedegia.

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imitacia an modelireba spontanurad vlindeba bavSvSi. isini manerebis, laparakis da sxva mravali qcevis imitacias axdenen. magaliTad, patara biWuna saTamaSo saparsiT iparsavs, roca mamamisi namdvil saparss iyenebs, deda axalSobils aWmevs, patara gogona ki - Tavis Tojinas. imitacia xSirad vlindeba TamaSebSi, iseTebSi, rogoricaa, `saxlobana~, omobana~, deda-Svilobana~, `skolobana~ da a.S. swavla xSirad dakvirvebis Sedegia, Tumca igi SeiZleba maSinve ar gamovlindes imitaciis saxiT. magaliTad, gogona SeiZleba akvirdebodes dedas, romelic did dros uTmobs Tavis garegnobas, kosmetikas, tansacmels da swavlobdes, rom mimzidveloba qalis aucilebeli kategoriaa. amave dros, man es codna SeiZleba ara maSinve, aramed garkveuli drois gavlis Semdeg, mxolod mozrdilobisas gamoiyenos. banduras mixedviT, aTvisebuli genderulad tipiuri qceva mexsierebaSi inaxeba da gamoiyeneba maSin, rodesac mosalodnelia am qcevis sazogadoebis mxridan dadebiTi ganmtkiceba (waxaliseba). bavSvis unari winaswar ganWvritos momavali qcevis Sedegebi (kognituri struq- turebisa da funqciebis gamoyenebiT) saSualebas aZlevs mas Tavidan aicilos arasa- surveli qceva da amgvarad iswavlos, Tu romeli qcevaa misaRebi misi sqesisTvis da romeli qcevaa miuRebeli. amgvarad, rogorc vxedavT, am Teoriis mixedviT, didi mniSvneloba eniWeba kogni- turi procesebis monawileobas qcevis modelirebaSi. miuxedavad amisa, socialur- kognituri Teoria xazs usvams socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis mniSvnelovan rols sqesis identifikaciis procesSi. igi ganixilavs am faqtorTa zegavlenis 2 dones:

uSualo qcevis dones (qcevis ganmtkicebas pirdapiri gamocdilebis safuZvelze) da Teoriuli qcevis dones (qcevis ganmtkicebas dakvirvebis, modelirebisa da qcevis Sedegebis kognituri Sefasebis, ganWvretis gziT). amgvarad, socialur-kognitur TeoriaSi kognituri kategoriebi da codna warmoadgens erT-erT damatebiT mniSvnelovan (adamianisaTvis specifikur) faqtors genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis procesSi. amdenad, genderuli qcevis kognituri kategoria — prototipi, am TeoriaSi ufro genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis procesis meqanizmis amxsneli cnebaa, vidre — uSualo dasja-waxalisabisa Tu momavali qcevis rezultatebis Sefasebis Sedegad Camoyalibebuli fsiqikuri konstruqtisa. qcevis genderuli tipireba (bavSvis mier gernderul-roluri orientaciebis aTvi- seba) ufro advilad mimdinareobs, roca mSoblebi ise awyoben garemocvas, rom zogi qcevis ganxorcieleba ufro iyos mosalodneli (an mosaxerxebeli) vidre — sxvisa. magaliTad, Tu biWis oTaxi savsea sportuli danadgarebiT, ufro metia imis albaToba, rom is ufro uxeSi TamaSebiT iqneba gatacebuli, vidre misi da, romlis oTaxic naz ferebSi da nazi atributebiTaa mowyobili. arsebobs damajerebeli kroskulturuli sabuTebi, rom socialuri faqtorebi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs genderul-roluri orientaciebis aTvisebaSi. davale- bebi, romlebsac bavSvebs aZleven, agreTve, roluri modelebi, romlebsac gvTavazobs kultura, ufro farTe planSi, aZlevs bavSvebs saSualebas aiTvisos sxvadasxva rolebi da qcevis tipebi. genderul identifikaciaze da tipirebaze socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis mniSvnelovan zegavlenas adastureben sxvadasxva avtorTa mier Catarebul kroskul- turul kvlevebi. marTalia, yvela es kvleva socialuri daswavlis Teoriis farglebSi ar Catarebula, magram TiToeuli maTgani warmoadgens bavSvebis genderul identi- fikaciaze da tipirebaze socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis zegavlenis ilus- tracias. amdenad, es kvlevebi socialur-kognituri Teoriis damadasturebel sabu-

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Tebad SeiZleba miviCnioT. amgvarad, socialur-kognituri Teoria xazs usvams kulturuli Zalebis mniSvne- lobas bavSvebis mier genderuli identifikaciisa da genderul-roluri orienta- ciebis aTvisebaSi. socialur-kognituri Teoria socialuri gavlenebis Teoriaa. igi genderul identifikaciasa da genderul tipirebas ganixilavs ara rogorc biologiurad determinirebuls, aramed rogorc bavSvisa da misi garemos (mSoblebi, momvlelebi, media, skola, Tanatolebi da sxv.) yoveldRiuri interaqciis Sedegs. amasTan, am Teoriis mixedviT, genderuli identifikacia da tipireba imdenad soci- aluri garemos mxridan ganxorcielebuli uSualo (pirdapiri) ganmtkicebis Sedegi ki ar aris, ramdenadac SesaZlo qcevis Rirebulebis, misi ganmtkicebis SesaZleblobis kognituri Sefasebis Sedegia. rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, am Teoriis farglebSi Semotanilia specifikuri struqtura — kognituri modeli, romelic gamocdilebis procesSi modelirebuli qcevebis verbaluri da xatovani reprezentaciebis saxiT inaxeba mexsierebaSi. es kognituri modeli, romelsac prototipis saxe aqvs, genderuli identifikaciis meqanizmis erT-erTi rgolia: igi momavali qcevis Sefasebis nimuSad gamoiyeneba. socialur-kogniturma Teoriam didi zegavlena moaxdina genderuli kvlevebis ganviTarebaze. gansakuTrebiT didia misi wvlili am TvalsazrisiT empiriuli masalis mopovebaSi. kerZod ki, genderuli identifikaciis procesSi socialuri da kultu- ruli faqtorebis zegavlenis damadasturebeli empiriuli monacemebis dagrovebaSi.

genderis gageba kognituri ganviTarebis TeoriaSi. erT-erTi mniSvnelovani Teoria, romelic exeba genderul-roluri orientacis aTvisebas, aris kognituri ganviTarebis Teoria. igi efuZneba Jan piaJes gamokvlevebs. man daadastura, rom bavSvebi gadian kognituri ganviTarebis etapebs. gamokvlevebze dayrdnobiT, man aCvena, rom zogierTi koncefciis gaazreba bavSvisaTvis SeuZlebelia, sanam igi ar miaRwevs ganviTarebis garkveul kognitur etaps. bavSvis mier sakuTari sqesis gagebac icleba sxvadasxva etapze. l. kolbergis (Kohlberg) kognituri ganviTarebis koncefciis mixedviT, gende- ruli identifikacia da genderul-roluri orientaciebis aTviseba aris bavSvis soci- aluri da fizikuri samyaros aqriuri Seqmnis, Camoyalibebis (struqturirebis) Sedegi. bavSvebi mudmivad ikvleven garemos, cdiloben mis gaazrebas da am procesSi isini aqtiurad ageben axal da ufro rTul struqturebs, romlebic garemosTan kontaqtis saSualebas iZlevian. amgvarad, es Teoria xazs usvams garegani faqtorebis rols sqe- sobriv-roluri orientaciis formirebaSi. Tumca am faqtorebis zegavlena ganisaz- Rvreba bavSvis kognituri struqturebis formirebiT. bavSvebi gadian Tavis gan- viTarebaSi sqesTan dakavSirebuli informaciis aTvisebis gansazRvrul etapebs da maT mier SeZenili gamocdileba struqturirdeba gagebis misawvdomi donis Sesabamisad. arsebuli empiriuli monacemebi adasturebs, rom kognituri ganviTarebis faqtorebi dominantur rols TamaSoben genderuli warmodgenebis formirebis procesSi. ase magaliTad, 2-3 wlis bavSvi swor pasuxebs iZleva sakuTar sqesTan dakavSirebiT dasmul kiTxvaze. Tumca bavSvs sjera, rom adamianebs SeuZliaT sakuTari sqesis Tmis varcxnilobasTan an tansacmelTan erTad Secvla. slebi da frei (Slaby & Frey) gamoyofen amerikeli bavSvebis mier sqesTan dakavSirebuli problemebis gagebis oTx dones. Tavdapirvelad bavSvebi ar ansxvaveben sqesebs, meore etapze bavSvebi iwyeben sqesTan dakavSirebuli kategoriebis gamoye- nebas, magram isini efuZnebian zedapirul fizikur maxasiaTeblebs. bolo or etapze, romelic daaxloebiT 4,5-5 wlis asakSi iwyebs mimdinareobas, bavSvebi TandaTanobiT midian imis gagebamde, rom sqesi warmoadgens myar da Seucvlel Taviseburebas.

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r. monro, Simini da monro (R.H. Munroe, Shimmin & Munroe) ikvlevdnen kulturul sxvaobebs qalisa da mamakacis sqess Soris am oTxi etapis mimdinareobaSi. rogorc navaraudevi iyo, maRali doneebis (me-3 da me-4 done) miRweva Zlierad varirebda sxvadasxva kulturebis mixedviT. mkvlevrebi varaudoben, rom genderuli cnebebis aTviseba ufro nela mimdinareobs im kulturebSi, sadac bavSvebs naklebi urTierTobebi aqvT mamrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenlebTan, rac xSirad xdeba tradiciul kulturebSi, sadac bavSvebze zrunviT ZiriTadad dedaa dakavebuli. besim (Bussey) aRmoaCina, rom sqesis Seucvlelobis Sesaxeb warmodgena ar aris mniSvnelovani wanamZRvari sqesobrivi mikuTvnebulobiT gansazRvruli qcevis formirebisTvis. biWebis qcevis modeli moicavs 2 process, romelic erTis mxriv, maskulinuri qcevis aTvisebaSi mdgomareobs, meores mxriv ki feminuri qcevis miuReblobaSi. gogonebisTvis analogiuri modeli moicavs mxolod erT process:

qalTa sqesTan dakavSirebuli qcevis aTvisebas, sawinaaRmdego sqesis qcevis ar miRebis gareSe. amis Sedegad, patara gogonebisTvis qala-biWa qceva sruliad misaRebia, maSin roca `dedikos Svilis~ qceva miuRebelia biWisTvis. genderuli rolebi yalibdeba qalisa da mamakacis sqesebs Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb stereotipuli kulturuli Sexedulebebis konteqstSi. gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom bavSvebs cxovrebis pirvel or weliwadSi uyalibdebaT qalur da mamakacur sawyisTan dakavSirebuli stereotipebi, xolo ukve 3-4 wlis asakSi bavSvebi am stereotipebs iyeneben saTamaSoebis kategoriis, saqmianobis sxvadasxva saxisa da profesiebis gansasazRvrad. gamokvlevebis Sedegad dadginda, agreTve, rom bavSvebis mier im stereotipebis aTviseba, romlebic dakavSirebulia saTamaSoebisa da moRvaweobis sferoebis genderul dayofasTan, win uswrebs qalisa da mamakacis xasiaTis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb stereotipuli Sexedulebebis SeTvisebas. kolbergis kognituri ganviTarebis Teoriis mixedviT, zedmet dajildoebebsa da dasjas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba ara aqvs genderul tipirebis procesSi. socialuri dasja da waxaliseba am Teoriis farglebSi gzamkvlevebis rols asruleben bavSvis kignituri ganviTarebis procesSi. amdenad, kognituri ganviTarebis Teoriis principebi ar uaryofs daswavlis Teorias, aramed avsebs mas. kolbergis mixedviT, genderuli identifikacia genderul-roluri orientaciebis aTvisebis Sedegia. sanam bavSvi miaRwevs stabilur genderul identifikacias, man unda moaxdinos sakuTari Tavis socializacia Sesatyvis genderul rolTan, radgan is motivirebulia iyos kargi gogo an kargi biWi. gogonebisaTvis es imas niSnavs, rom feminurobis misaRwevad maT jer unda moaxdinon feminurobis rolis identifikacia. Tumca feminuri roli sazogadoebaSi naklebad prestiJulia, vidre — maskulinuri. rodesac gogonebi ecnobian feminurobisa da maskulinobis kategoriebs, maT aseve unda gaacnobieron maTi upiretesobebi. rogor xdeba, rom gogonebi irCeven da iTviseben sakuTar sazogadoebaSi aradafasebul rols? kolbergi varaudobs, rom gogonebi feminurobaSi pouloben iseT aspeqtebs (mag. sinaze), romlebic urCevniaT maskulinur aspeqtebs (mag. agresia). garda amisa, asakiT ufros qalebs ufro meti Zalaufleba aqvT, vidre patara gogonebs da esec SeiZleba gaxdes maTTan identifikaciis mizezi.

androginiis koncefcia. sqesis identiikaciisa da tipirebis Sesaxeb arsebuli Sexedulebebis umravlesoba feminurobasa da maskulinobas ganixilavs, rogorc kontiniumis or urTierTsawinaaRmdego poluss. am Teoriebis farglebSi adamiani SeiZleba iyos maskulinuri an feminuri, magram ara orive erTdroulad, radgan ufro metad maskulinoba niSnavs ufro nakleb feminurobas. es debuleba efuZneba

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feminuroba-maskulinobis mraval tests. amgvarad, pirovnebis tradiciuli Teoriebi iziareben tradiciuli genderuli tipirebis universalurobis ideas. amis gamo, nebismieri bavSvi, romelic ar avlenda genderulad tipirebul qcevas, ganixileboda rogorc normidan gadaxra. tradiciuli fsiqologiuri Terapia exmareba maT gende- ruli rolebis morgebaSi. pirovnebis Teoriebis mixedviT, genderuli ganviTareba mTavrdeba maSin, roca aSkarad vlindeba agresiuli domonanturi mamakacoba da nazi, pasiuri qaloba. Tumca arseboben iseTi adamianebic, romlebsa TiTqmis erTnairad axasiaTebT maskulinobisa da feminurobis niSnebi. magaliTad, qali, romlic aTleturi aRnagobisaa da uyvars bavSvebi an mamakaci, romelic gulCvilia da gulkeTilia da amavdroulad kargad aqvs ganviTarebuli logikuri azrovneba. bolo periodSi genderuli kvlevebis ganviTarebasTan erTad dagrovda didi empiriuli masala da gaCnda mravali alternatiuli Sexeduleba genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis Sesaxeb. erT-erTi aseT axali midgomaa androginiis koncefcia. androginia — sityva, romel- Sic erTmaneTs erwymis berZnuli andro (kaci) da gyn (qali), aRniSnavs maskulinobisa da feminurobis balanss adamianSi. am koncefciis fesvebi klasikuri miTologiidan, literaturidan da religiidan modis. fsiqologiaSi es idea gamoyenebuli iqna iungis (Jung) animas koncefciaSi (kacSi feminuri nawili) da animusis koncefciaSi (maskulinuri nawili qalSi). iungs miaCnda, rom pirovnebis srulyofilebisaTvis aucilebelia am ori nawilis erTianoba. gasuli saukunis 70-iani wlebis dasawyisis feministuri moZraobis erT-erTi idea gaxldaT azri imis Sesaxeb, rom tradiciuli genderuli rolebi aferxeben pirovnul ganviTarebas da masSi Cadebul potencials. am ideam safuZveli Cauyara sandra bemis (S. Bem) koncefcias androginiis Sesaxeb. androginiis cnebis mixedviT, yovel adamians, damoukideblad biologiuri sqesisa, SeiZleba hqondes rogorc maskulinobis, aseve feminurobis Tvisebebi da aerTianebdes sakuTar TavSi rogorc tradiciul mamakacur Tvisebebs, aseve — tradiciul qalur niSnebs. es adamianebs saSualebas aZlevs naklebad mkacrad daicvan genderul-roluri normebi da Tavisuflad gadainacvlon tradiciuli qaluri saqmianobidan tradiciul mamakacur saqmianobaze. amgvarad, androginiis idea kvlav gacocxlda feministi fsiqologebis gamokvle- vebis Sedegad. fsiqologiuri androginia aris iseTi fsiqologiuri niSnebis balansi, romlebic maskulinurad an feminurad arian stereotipizebuli. androginiis gansaz- RvrebasTan erTad, es koncefcia gansazRvravs imasac, Tu ra ar aris androginia: 1) androginia ar aris qalTa liberaluri pozicia sazogadoebaSi. adamiani SeiZleba miiCnevdes sakuTar Tavs, rogorc sazogadoebaSi naklebad genderulad tipizebuls sxvebTan SedarebiT da amavdroulad, gaaCndes genderTan dakavSirebuli tradiciuli Sexedulebebi; 2) androginia ar aris seqsualur orientaciasTan dakavSirebuli. homo- seqsualuri an biseqsualuri orientacia aris adamianis seqsualuri midrekilebebis forma, rac aranair kavSirSi ar aris fsiqologiuri androginiasTan da bolos 3) an- droginia ar aris dakavSirebuli fizikur, seqsualur an masTan dakavSirebul maxasiaTeblebTan. s. bemma SeimuSava specialuri kiTxvari maskulinobisa da feminurobis gansazRvri- saTvis. amasTan am kiTxvarSi feminuroba da maskulinoba moiazreboda rogorc erTmaneTisgan damoukidebeli pirovnebis ganzomilebebi. misi kiTxvaris mixedviT, qalebisa da kacebis gazomva SesaZlebelia dabali da maRali gamoxatulebis oTxi Semdegi parametris mixedviT: maskulinoba, feminuroba, androginia, aradiferen- cirebuloba. pirovneba fasdeba Zlier maskulinurad, Tu igi aRwers sakuTar Tavs,

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rogorc damoukidebels, agresiuls da uemocio adamians. pirovneba fasdeba Zlier feminurad, Tu igi aRwers Tavs, rogorc — daucav da naz arsebad. mxolod adamianTa mcire jgufi Sefasebul iqna rogorc aradiferencirebuli, maT orive stereotipSi mcire qulebi daagroves. studentTa Soris Catarebuli farTemasStabiani gamokvlevis Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom studentTa 1/3 androginulebi arian. androginis kvlevebma gviCvenes, rom genderul tipirebaSi arsebobs individua- luri variabilurobis didi raodenoba. amdenad, gasarkvevia sakiTxi, arsebobs Tu ara androginiasa da adamianis (qalebisa da mamakacebis) qcevas, pirovnul niSnebs, Tavise- burebebs, Sexedulebebsa Tu cxovrebis stils Soris kavSiri. miuxedavad mraval- ricxovani kvlevebisa, es sakiTxi dRemde erTmniSvnelovnad ar aris gadawyvetili. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom gederulad tipirebul da androginul adamianebs Soris gansxvaveba arsebobs fleqsibilobaSi. maskulinurad tipirebuli adamiani moxerxebulad grZnobs Tavs situaciaSi, sadac saWiroa aqtivoba, daJineba da damoukidebloba da ara sinaze, TanagrZnoba da emociuroba. meores mxriv, feminurad tipirebuli adamianebi komfortulad grZnoben Tavs situaciebSi, sadac saWiroa interpersonaluri urTierTobebis, sinazis, sikeTis gamovlena. sandra bemma ivarauda, rom androginuli pirovnebebi komfortulad igrZnoben Tavs orive situaciaSi. androginuli adamianebis Zlieri adaftaciis unari Semowmebuli iqna mravali kvlevis Sedegad. dadgenili iyo, agreTve, androginiis kavSiri maRal TviTpativiscemis da miRwevis motivis maRal xarisxTan.

transcendentuli genderuli tipirebis Teoriebi: genderuli rolis transcendenciis stadiebis Teoria. genderuli rolis transcendenciis stadiebis Teoris (Rebecca, Hefner, Oleshancky, Forisha, Sedney) mixedviT, genderulad tipirebuli qceva da azrovneba ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT mxolod Sua stadiaa. igi Camoyali- bebulia magram ar aris ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT saboloo wertili. am Sexedulebis mixedviT, genderuli ganviTarebis sawyisi etapebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia mowifu- lobasTan da logikuri azrovnebis ganviTarebasTan kolbergis kognituri ganviTa- rebis etapebis msgavsad mimdinareoben. bavSvebma Tavdapirvelad genderis arseboba ar ician (I etapi), Semdeg aqtiurad iTviseben Sesabamis stereotipul rols da ukuagdeben Seusabamos (II etapi). magram genderuli ganviTareba SeiZleba III etapamdec gagrZeldes, sadac II etapze miRebuli codnis reorganizacia xdeba unikaluri da individualuri gziT. individi aRar aris daRdasmuli maskulinobisa da feminurobis sazogadoebaSi miRebuli kanonebiT da mas SeuZlia gamoamJRavnos sakuTari unikaluri da gansxva- vebuli maxasiaTeblebi. es Teoria androginias ganixilavs, ara rogorc individSi maskulinuri da feminuri niSnebis balanss, aramed rogorc pirovnebis gardaqmnisa da Camoyalibebis process, romelic orientirebulia TviTaqtualizaciaze. genderul-rolurad transcenden- tulma pirovnebam SeiZleba daagrovos maskulinuri, feminuri an androginuli qulebi, magram es ganzomilebebi irelevanturni iyvnen misi identurobis mimarT. transcedentuli adamiani arc feminuria da arc maskulinuri maskulinoba an feminuroba, erTad an cal-calke ar arian transcedentuli pirovnebis samyaros nawili. transcedencia miCneulia genderuli rolis swavlis (aTvisebis) umaRles etapad. igi gulisxmobs sazogadoebisa da me-s (selfis) resinTezirebas da reintegracias. amgvarad, kognitur da emociur mowifulobas adamiani, rogorc wesi, ver aRwevs zrdasrulobamde. iseTi bavSvebic ki, romelTa mSoblebi tradiciuli genderuli rolebis transcendencias axdenen, ar amJRavneben TavianT androginul zrdas, sanam ar

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gaivlian gederuli tipirebis 2 etaps. I- dan II-ze gadasvla dakavSirebulia socialur zewolasTan. II-dan III etapze gadasvlis dros ki socialuri mxardaWera Zalian sustia da swored amitomaa, rom arc ise bevri adamiani axerxebs genderiT gansazRvruli qcevisa da azrovnebis transcedencias. magram isini vinc amas axerxeben, srulfasovan pirovnebebad yalibdebian. am TeoriaSi nacadia genderuli tipirebis problemis ganxilva pirovnebis Teoriis WrilSi, romelic iTvaliswinebs, rogorc socialuri garemos zegavlenas, aseve — adamianis kognituri ganviTarebis stadiebsac. mniSvnelovania, rom es Teoria moicavs, ara mxolod genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis zogad kanonzomierebebs (rogorc es aqamde ganxilul TeoriebSi iyo), aramed xazs usvams pirovnuli arCevanis da Tavisuflebis rols genderuli tipirebis procesSi. amdenad, TviTon tipirebasac igi rogorc e.w. yalibs ki ar ganixilavs, romelic uSvebs feminuri, maskulinuri an Tundac androginuli da aradiferencirebuli tipis arsebobas, aramed am socialuri yalibis modificirebas pirovnuli interesebis, motivebis da SesaZleblobebis WrilSi. sxvagavrad rom vTqvaT, es Teoria iTvaliswinebs pirovnebaTSoris indivi- dualur gansxvavebebs. swored amitom igi metad mniSvnelovania genderuli kvlevebis ganviTarebisaTvis. magram, gender-roluri transcendenciis stadiebis Teoria Zalian zogadia da adamianis ganviTarebis ufro fundamentur principebs gamoxatavs. misi naklia empiriuli masalaze dayrdnobiT gamovlenili ZiriTadi principebis damadas- turebel konkretuli kanonzomierebebis ararseboba. am Teoriis farglebSi ar aris gadawyvetili, agreTve, genderuli cnobierebis (genderulad normatiulad tipire- bulis Tu transcendentulis), rogorc konstruqtis raobisa da misi moqmedebis meqanizmebis problema. miuxedavad amisa, swored genderuli tipirebisa da genderuli rolis transcendenturma midgomam dasva mecnierTa winaSe genderTan dakavSirebuli informaciis gadamuSavebis da misi gamoyenebis sakiTxi. am sakiTxze pasuxis gacema nacadia genderuli sqemis TeoriaSi. genderuli sqemis Teoria. genderuli sqemis TeoriaSi genderi ganxiluli iqna rogorc kognituri kategoria. movlenebis ubralo gagebac damokidebulia mexsierebaSi codnis didi raodenobiT arsebobaze. sqemis kognituri Teoriis mixedviT, martivi winadadebis gasaazrebladac ki aucilebelia, rom am winadadebis Sinaarsi gavataroT sqemaSi. sqemebi SeiZleba iyos globaluri da ufro specifikuri. informaciis gageba xdeba Sinaarsis swor sqemasTan dakavSirebisa da Sedarebis gziT. sxva sqemebis msgavsad, genderis sqema aris zogadi codnis asociaciebis qseli, romelsac individi iyenebs gagebisa da azrovnebis procesSi. am Teoriis mixedviT, genderis sqemis Seswavla iwyeba adreul bavSvobaSi. sqema exmareba adamians gaxdes genderulad tipirebuli. genderuli tipireba Sedegia adamianis mzadyofnis gada- amuSaos informacia genderuli sqemis safuZvelze. me-koncefcia asimilirdeba genderul sqemasTan. genderuli sqemis Teoriis avtori s. bemi aRniSnavs, rom `rodesac bavSvebi swavloben sazogadoebis genderul sqemas, isini swavloben agreTve, Tu romeli atributi unda iyos dakavSirebuli maT sqesTan da masaSadame, maTTan~. genderuli sqemis Teoriis mixedviT, genderuli tipireba aris samyaros Sesaxeb informaciis genderuli terminebiT gadamuSavebis mzadyofna. ase, rom genderulad Zlierad da sustad tipirebul adamianebs Soris is gansxvavebaa, rom maT aqvT Sesabamisad metad an naklebad ganviTarebuli genderuli sqema. genderulad Zlierad tipirebul adamianebs aqvT mzadyofna samyaros Sesaxeb codna genderuli sqemis mixedviT gadaamuSaon. bemis sityvebiT, maT genderuli linzebi ukeTiaT. genderulad sustad tipirebuli adamianebi ki informaciis gadamuSavebisas ufro metad sxva

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sqemebs eyrdnobian. am Teoriis mixedviT, adamianebis umravlesobas aqvs mdidari da mravalferovani genderuli sqemebi. genderul sqemasTan dakavSirebulia iseTi koncefciebic, rom- lebic SeiZleba metaforulad ukavSirdebodes genders (iseTebi, rogoricaa, ferebis genderuli aRqma, mTvaris am mzis genderuli gaazreba da sxv.). genderuli sqemis Teoriis mixedviT, arsebuli sxvaobebi informaciis gadamuSavebaSi dakavSirebulia adamianTa genderulad tipirebis xarisxTan. genderuli rolis transcendenciis stadiebis Teoriisgan gansxvavebiT genderuli sqemis Teoria ar aRiarebs genderuli tipirebis maRal xarisxs momwifebis ganuyofel nawilad. am Teoriis mixedviT, bavSvebi ufro genderulad tipirebulni xdebian, radgan ufrosebi aswavlian maT samyaros sqesis mixedviT dayofas. saxlSi, gogonebs eZaxian `lamazs~ da aqedan gamomdinare, bavSvebSi silamazis cneba qalebTanaa dakavSirebuli. skolaSi, xSirad biWebi erT rigSi arian gamwkrivebulni, gogonebi ki — meoreSi. am Teoriis mixedviT, ufrosebis mxridan aseTi qceva iwvevs genderuli sqemis ganviTarebas bavSvebSi. socializaciis mniSvneloba xazgasmulia genderuli sqemis TeoriaSi im debulebiTac, romlis mixedviTac, bavSvebis aRzrda SesaZlebelia ise, rom minimumamde daviyvanoT genderuli sqema da Tavidan aviciloT genderuli stereotipuli azrovneba. amgvarad, sqema Sexedulebebis kompleqsia, romelic gamoiyeneba informaciis organizebisTvis, axali informaciis filtraciisTvis da kognituri moRvaweobis mimarTulebis micemisTvis. genderuli sqemis Teoria varaudobs, rom genderuli prioriteti konkretuli kulturis sazRvrebSi informaciis organizaciis safuZvelia. rogorc vxedavT, genderuli sqemis Teoria kognituri ganviTarebisa da socialur- kognituri Teoriis modifikaciaa. amgvarad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom genderuli sqemis Teoria erTaderTi fsiqologi- uri Teoriaa, romlic ara mxolod bavSvebis mier genderuli identifikaciisa da genderuli tipirebis procesis meqanizmebs swavlobs, aramed im kognituri struq- turebis Camoyalibebisa da moqmedebis meqanizmebsac, romlebic genderuli identi- fikaciisa da tipirebis Sedegad yalibdeba cnobierebaSi. sxvagavarad rom vTqvaT, genderuli sqemis Teoria mimarTulia axsnas genderuli cnobierebis meqanizmebic. genderuli sqemis Teoria gamoyofs genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis or ZiriTad socialur-fsiqologiur meqanizms. es aris normatiuli da informaciuli zewola. termini `normatiuli~ zewola aRwers meqanizms, Tu rogor xdeba adamianis `iZuleba~ Seewyos sazogadoebriv an jgufur molodinebs, raTa sazogadoebam ar uaryos igi. `normatiuli~ zewolis meqanizmi am sazogadoebaSi miRebuli qcevis normebis waxalisebaSi da am sazogadoebaSi miuRebeli qcevis normebis e.w. `dasjaSi~ gamoixateba. gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom genderuli rolis Seusabamo qceva gansakuTrebul zians ayenebs popularobas biWebs Soris da rom mSoblebi uaryofiTad reagireben TavianTi bavSvebis im TamaSebze, romlebic damaxasiTebelia sawinaaRmdego sqesisaTvis. ase magaliTad, Tu biWi TojinebiT TamaSobs, mas deda eubneba - `ara grcxvenia, gogo xom ara xar?!~, xolo danarCeni bavSvebi dascinian da qalaCunas eZaxian. Tu gogona saxls ar alagebs an Tavis nivTebs yris, mSoblebi mas xSirad ase mimarTaven - `sircxvilia, Sen xom gogo xar da mowesrigrbuli unda iyo~ da a.S. informaciul zewolaSi moiazreba is, rom adamiani afarToebs ra Tavis codnas sakuTari Tavis da samyaros Sesaxeb, amave dros, igebs imasac, Tu ra pozicia unda daiWiros ama Tu im socialur sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi, Tu ra poziciaa miRebuli da mowonebuli mis sazogadoebaSi. am SemTxvevaSi adamianebi ZiriTadad eyrdnobian ara

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sakuTar gamocdilebas, Sexedulebas, pirad azrs an intesess, aramed informacias, romelsac iReben sxvebisgan. ase magaliTad, bavSvebi da mozardebi mSoblebisgan, naTe- savebisgan an sxva avtoritetuli pirovnebebisgan (an jgufebisagan) arkveven, Tu rogor unda moiqcnen ama Tu im cxovrebiseul situaciaSi, magaliTad, qorwilSi, panaSvidze da sxva mraval yofiT situaciaSi, romelic adamianTa urTierTobebs moicavs. marTalia, adamianebi TviTon qmnian socialur normebs, Rirebulebebs, wes-Cveu- lebebs da a.S., magram, amave dros, TiToeuli adamiani akvirdeba sxvas da Tavis qcevas afasebs marTebulad manam, sanam igi Tavisi relevanturi jgufis msgavsad iqceva. amas socialuri Semowmeba hqvia. amgvarad, genderi Zlieri zegavlenis qveS imyofeba rogorc kulturuli normebis mxridan, romelic adgens, Tu ra unda gaakeTon mamakacebma da qalebma, aseve socialuri informaciis mxridanac, romelic STaagonebs adamianebs, Tu raoden didi gansxvavebaa qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris. genderul-roluri socializacia procesia, romlis drosac adamianebi swavloben, Tu ra aris socialurad miRebuli qalebisTvis da ra — mamakacebisTvis. S. berns genderis, rogorc kognituri kategoriis sailustraciod moyavs Semdegi magaliTi: erTxel mxatvarma daxata patara komiqsi: ori personaJi sicivisgan gawiTlebuli yurebiT dgas quCaSi zamTris civ amindSi. erTi ambobs: `raSi mWirdeba qudi, me sicivis ar meSinia~. meore ki pasuxobs: `me quds ar vatareb, radgan varcxnilobas mifuWebs~. dasmul kiTxvaze, Tu romeli maTgania gogo da romeli — biWi, bernis azriT, pasuxis gacema aravis ar gauWirdeba, radgan orive fraza asaxavs saerTod miRebul stereotips. SigadaSig Cven vxvdebiT adamianebs, romelTa sqesis gansazRvrac gviWirs. Cveu- lebriv aseTi situaciebi garkveuli dafiqrebisa da msjelobis sagani xdeba xolme. berns moyavs Tavisi TanamSromlis klifis magaliTi, romelic studentobis dros restoranSi muSaobda oficiantad. igi specialurad icvamda iubkas, frCxilebze isvamda laqs da ikeTebda makiaJs. garSemomyofi adamianebis umravlesobas ar SeeZlo am ambis mSvidad yureba. bernis azriT, amis mizezi klifis mier sazogadoebaSi miRebuli normebis darRveva ki ar iyo, aramed is, rom maT ar icodnen, rogor moqceuliyvnen adamianTan, romlis sqesic gaurkvevelia. fsiqologebis krosis da markusis (Cross, Markus) azriT, aseTi SemTxvevebi gansakuTrebuli interesis Rirsia, radgan isini xazs usvamen genderis, rogorc socialuri kategoriis mniSvnelobas. maT magaliTad moyavT gaurkveveli sqesis mqone petis istoria satelevizio Soudan. isini aRniSnaven, rom adamianebi, romlebic naxulobdnen scenebs am personaJis monawileobiT, ganicdidnen Sinagan diskomforts, radgan ar icodnen, Tu rogor unda aReqvaT am adamianis qceva misi genderuli mikuTvnobulobis Sesaxeb informaciis ararsebobis gamo. imisaTvis, rom gasagebi gaxdes, Tu ra didi miSvneloba aqvs genders adamianis Sesaxeb informaciis gadamuSavebisas, genderuli sqemis Teoriis warmomadgenlebi aRniSnaven, rom adamianebi ar aqceven yuradRebas adamianis Tvalebis an Tmis fers, aviwydebaT Tu rogor iyo igi Cacmuli, an ra erqva mas, magram praqtikulad yovelTvis axsovT qali iyo es adamiani Tu kaci. magaliTad, greidim (Grady) daadgina, rom metros mgzavrebi, romlebsac sTxovdnen aReweraT molare, romelmac maT bileTi miyida, pirvel rigSi an meoreSi mainc, asaxelebdnen mis sqess. amgvarad, am tipis dakvirvebebze da eqsperimentebze dayrdnobiT, genderuli sqemis Teoris warmomadgenlebi asabuTeben, rom sqesi warmoadgens umniSvnelovanes socialur kategorias, romlis saSualebiTac Cven vaxdenT garSemomyofi adamianebis Sesaxeb informaciis gadamuSavebas.

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am TeoriaSi, iseve, rogorc zogadad kognitur fsiqologiaSi, ismeba sakiTxi informaciis gadamuSavebis sistemebis gamtarunarianobisa da informaciis kodirebis Sesaxeb. sqemis Teoriis warmomadgenlebi aRiareben fsiqikuri energiis ekonomizmis princips da aRniSnaven, rom Cven ar vaxdenT mTeli Semosuli informaciis gadamuSavebas. Cveni samyaro savsea adamianTa, saganTa da sxvadasxvagvar situaciaTa uTvalavi raodenobiT. Cven SeiZleba gavgiJebuliyaviT, rom SegvemCnia da gadagvemuSavebina Semosuli sruli informacia gamonaklisis gareSe. sinamdvileSi Cven gadavamuSavebT mxolod imas, rasac vamCnevT. magram ra gvaiZulebs yuradReba mivaqcioT swored am movlenebs? kognituri sqemis Teoria am sakiTxze pasuxis gasacemad gamoyofs iseT parametrebs, rogoricaa zoma, feri, intensivoba da siaxle (uCveuloba). amave dros, aranakleb rols TamaSobs adamianis wina gamocdilebac da agreTve, adamianis gaTviTcnobierebuloba imaSi, Tu ra aris mniSvnelovani mocemul situaciaSi da ra — ara (sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, codna imisa, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovania, ramdenad Rirebulia ama Tu im informaciis (an parametris) SemCneva da am situaciis gadamuSavebis saerTo kognitur procesSi CarTva). imisaTvis, rom Cveni mravalsaxovani gare samyaro daviyvanoT kogniturad aRqmad formamde, Cven vanawilebT Semosul informacias calkeul kategoriebad. amgvarad formirdeba gansakuTrebuli kognituri kategoriebi, romlebsac sqemebs uwodeben. sqemebi gavlenas axdenen imaze, Tu rogor xdeba Semosuli informaciis aRqma, Senaxva da aRdgena. mokled, sqemebi warmarTaven informaciis gadamuSavebis process. fiskesa da teiloris (Fiske & Taylor) mixedviT, Cveulebriv, Cven gvaqvs winaswar momzadebuli kognituri kategoriebi socialuri situaciebis (movlenebis sqemebi) umravleso- bisTvis, adamianebisaTvis, romlebsac vicnobT (pirovnuli sqemebi) da socialuri jgufebisaTvis, romelTa identifikaciac genderis, eTnikuri mikuTvnebulobis da moRvaweobis saxeebis (roluri sqemebi) safuZvelze xdeba. msgavsi kategoriebi marTaven adamianebisa da situaciebis Sesaxeb Semomavali informaciis gadamuSavebas. amgvarad, genderuli sqemis Teoria genderis struqturirebaSi iTvaliswinebs rogorc socialuri da kulturul faqtorebs, aseve kognituri ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebsa da kognituri funqciebis Taviseburebebs. amitom, erTi SexedviT, es Teoria universaluradac SeiZleba mogveCvenos. magram Tu yuradRebiT gavaanalizebT mas, aRmovaCenT, rom igi adekvaturad ver asaxavs genderis, rogorc socialur- kulturuli konstruqtis raobas. saqme isaa, rom sqemis Teoriis mixedviT, genderi kognituri kategoriaa da amdenad, igi mxolod codnis matarebeli konstruqtia. sinamdvileSi ki genderi moicavs emociur, SefasebiT damokidebulebasac, romelic mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli Sinaarsobriv mxaresTan da Rrma mTlian pirovnebiseul xasiaTs atarebs. es Teoria ver iTvaliswinebs, agreTve, genderuli cnobierebis Camoyalibebis aracnobier meqanizmebsac. saqme isaa, genderis konstruqti (iqneba es genderuli Rirebulebebi, stereotipebi Tu sxv. ) umeteswilad adamianebis mier cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis SeZenis procesSi yalibdeba da igi xSirad aracnobieri swavlis Sedegia.

saleqcio kursis bolos studentebs miecemaT ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi:

genderuli identifikacia — sakuTari Tavis ama Tu im sqesisadmi mikuTvnebuloba.

genderuli tipireba - procesi, romelic mdedrsa da mamrs gardaqmnis feminur an maskulinur arsebad (e.i. qalad da mamakacad) cnobilia, rogorc sqesad tipirebis (an genderuli tipirebis) procesi.

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modelireba — swavlis forma sxvis swor qcevaze dakvirvebis saSualebiT.

prototipi - prototipis cneba farTed gamoiyeneba kognitur fsiqologiaSi, kerZod, ki informaciis amocnobis, gadamuSavebisa da Senaxvis modelebSi. prototipi warmoadgens ama Tu im obieqtis (an movlenis) arsebiTi niSnebis krebuls, romelic saukeTesod da srulad asaxavs am obieqtebs (an movlenebs) an maT klasebs. informaciis identifikacia anu `kognituri Zieba~ Semosuli informaciis prototipTan Sedarebis gziT mimdinareobs.

androginia - androginiis cnebis mixedviT, yovel adamians, damoukideblad biologiuri sqesisa, SeiZleba hqondes rogorc maskulinobis, aseve feminurobis Tvisebebi da aerTianebdes sakuTar TavSi rogorc tradiciul mamakacur Tvisebebs, aseve — tradiciul qalur niSnebs.

kognituri modeli — metafora, romelic dfuZnebulia dakvirvebebze da daskvnebze da aRwers informaciis Semosvlis, Senaxvis da gamoyenebis procesebs.

kognituri Teoria — Teoria, romelic gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs adamianis informaciis gadamamuSavebel sistemebs. igi adamians ganixilavs rogorc informaciis gadamamuSavebel sistemas.

verbaluri da kognituri reprezentaciebi — informaciis Senaxvis forma, romelic miiReba obieqturi informaciis pirovnuli gamocdilebisa da interesebis WrilSi gadamuSavebis Sedegad.

genderuli sqema - hipoTeturi kognituri struqtura, romlis saSualebiTac xdeba genderTan dakavSirebuli informaciis aRqma, gadamuSaveba da gamoyeneba.

leqciis Semdeg studentebs daevalebaT individualuri muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnil droSi moamzadon saswavlo kursis riderSi warmodgenili leqciis Tematikis Sesatyvis masalebi.

seminari # 2 (Tema # 2 ) — 2 sT

seminarze moxdeba studentis mier momzadebuli esses prezentacia; gaimarTeba jgufuri diskusia seminaris Temaze. kerZod, dasmuli iqneba Semdegi tipis kiTxvebi:

1. rogoria froidis mixedviT, genderuli identifikaciis meqanizmi?

2. ra mniSvneloba hqonda froidis Teorias genderuli kvlevebis ganviTarebisTvis?

3. ratom akritikebdnen feministebi froids? rogoria maTi argumentebi?

4. rogoria socialur-kognituri Teoriis mixedviT, genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis meqanizmi?

5. rogoria socialur-kognituri Teoriis roli genderis, rogorc socialur- kognituri konstruqtis Tanamedrove gagebaSi?

6. ratom aris mniSvnelovani kroskulturuli kvlevebisTvis kognituri ganviTarebis Teoria?

7. rogoria androginiis koncefciis mecnieruli da praqtikuli mniSvneloba?

8. rogor aris gagebuli genderul-roluri transcendenciis stadiebis TeoriaSi androginia?

9. ratom aris es Teoria mniSvnelovani genderuli kvlevebis ganviTarebisTvis?

10. ra faqtorebi gansazRvravs genderul identifikaciisa da tipirebis meqanizms

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genderuli sqemis Teoriis mixedviT?

11. rogor aris gagebuli am TeoriebSi genderuli cnobiereba?

12. seminaris bolos studentebi gaecnobian maskulinoba-feminuribs s. bemis kiTxvaris principiT i. gendevaniSvilis mier qarTvel studentebze Catarebul gamokvlevis monacemebs. studentebs saSualeba eqnebaT agreTve, gamoikvlion sakuTari Tavi am mimarTulebiT.

ZiriTadi literatura:

1.

Juanita H. Williams, Psychology of Women, W.W.Norton & Company, N.Y.,1987, gv.: 28-96;

2.

genderuli Teoriebis anTologia, Semdgeneli n. berekaSvili, bakur sulakauris gamomc., 2003, gv: 15-38, 49-60, 63-79;

3.

Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, gv.: 27-60.

damatebiTi literatura:

1.

Judith Batler, Gender Trouble, Feminism and the subversion of identity, Routledge, Chapman & Hall, Inc., 1990, gv.: 35-78;

2.

Jacklin, C.N. (1989). Female and male: Issues of Gender. American Psychologist, 44, gv. :127-133;

3.

Bussey K. & Bandura, A. (1984). Influence of Gender Constancy and social power on sex-linked modeling. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 47, gv.:1292-1302;

4.

Bern, S. L. (1981). Gender Schema theory: A cognitive account of sex-typing. Psychological Review, 88,

gv.:354-364;

5.

Best D. L., Williams I. E. Gender and culture. – in Culture and Psychology, edited by David Matsumoto. Oxford University press, 2001, gv.: 337–339;

6.

Burn S.M. The Socal Psychology of Gender, McGraw-Hill, Inc.1996, T. I, V;

7.

George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, gv.: 199-204, 218-131;

8.

Liben, L.S. & Signorella, M. L. (1980). Gender Related Schemata and constructive memory in Children, Child Development, 51, gv.:11-17.

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kvira #3

leqcia—2 sT

Tema #3 - sqesis socializacia da misi institutebi. kulturis roli genderul socializaciaSi.

leqciaze ganxiluli iqneba socializaciis cneba, diferencialuri socializacia da misi meqanizmebi. ganxiluli iqneba, agreTve, socializaciis ZiriTadi institutebi — ojaxi, mSoblebis qceva, gansxvavebuli samuSaos davaleba, bavSvebis movla da maTze zrunva, Tanatolebi, ganaTlebis sistema (saxelmZRvaneloebi, seqsizmi, feisizmi) masmedia, saTamaSoebi da sxv. kroskulturuli kvlevebis monacemebi am TvalsazrisiT.

genderuli stereotipebis aTviseba xdeba bavSvobis asakidan socializaciis pro- cesSi. socializacia gulisxmobs yvela im procesebis erTianobas, romelTa meSve- obiTac adamiani iTvisebs cxovrebiseul gamocdilebas, swavlobs yoveldRiuri cxovrebis normebs, stils, wesebs da Rirebulebebs, romlebic mocemul sazogado- ebaSia miRebuli. socializaciis meqanizmis Sesaswavlad sociologma e. gidensma Caatara Semdegi saxis eqsperimenti: qalebis jgufs aCvenes vardisfer mosaxvevSi gaxveuli patara bavSvi vardisferi qudiT. am bavSvze qalebi yvelaze xSirad ase reagirebdnen: `rogori pataraa~, `namdvili mzeTunaxavia~, `ra nazi xma aqvs~ da a.S. Semdeg qalebis amave jgufs aCvenes igive bavSvi, oRond amjerad bavSvi cisferebSi iyo gamowyobili. qalebma ar icodnen, rom pirveli da meore bavSvi erTi da igive iyo. e.w. meore bavSvze Semdegi reaqciebi dafiqsirda: `Tavidanve etyoba, rom Zlieri mamakaci iqneba~ an `xedav, rogori boxi xmiT tiris, etyoba, rom Tavisas yovelTvis gaitans~. qalebs Zalian gaukvirdaT, roca gaiges, rom maT orive SemTxvevaSi erTi da igive bavSvi warudgines. genderze zegavlenas axdens rogorc kulturuli normebi, romlebic adgens, Tu ra unda gaakeTon qalebma da ra mamakacebma, aseve socialuri informaciac, romelic STaagonebs adamianebs, Tu ramdenad didia qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris sxvaobebi. genderul-roluri socializacia procesia, romlis drosac adamianebi swavloben, Tu ra aris socialurad miRebuli qalebisTvis da ra — mamakacebisTvis. gogonebsa da biWebs Soris bevri gansxvaveba aixsneba socializaciaSi gansxvavebiT. bari, bekoni da Caildi (Barry, Bacon & Child, 1957) ikvlevdnen 100-ze meti qveynis socializaciis praqtikebs. maT aRmoaCines, rom biWebs Cveulebriv aswavlian miaRwios mizans, hqondes sakuTari Zalebis imedi, iyos damoukidebeli, maSin roca gogonebs Cveulebriv aswavlian izrunon sustebze, hqondeT pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba da iyvnen damjerebi. litonma da romnim (Lytton & Romney, !991) ikvlies Crdilo amerikaSi Catarebuli 158 socializaciis kvleva metaanalizis saSualebiT. maT aRmoaCines, rom xelSesaxebi rezultatebi miRweuli iyo mxolod sqesiT gasazRvruli qcevis waxalisebis dros. dasavleTis qveynebSi Catarebuli 17 gamokvlevis Sedegebi ki gviCveneben, rom arsebobs gamoxatuli sxvaobebi bavSvis sqessa da mSoblebis mier maT aRzrdaSi fizikuri dasjis gamoyenebis sixSires Soris. amasTan, biWebTan fizikuri dasja ufro mkacri iyo, vidre - gogonebTan. gansxvavebebi biWebsa da gogonebTan moqcevaSi mcirdeboda asakis matebasTan erTad.

diferencialuri socializacia - es aris procesi, romlis drosac adamiani iTvisebs Tavisi sqesis Seabamis qcevis modelebs, Rirebulebebs da a.S. diferencialuri socializaciis Canasaxebi vlindeba jer kidev bavSvis dabadebamde. mSoblebs undaT

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winaswar icodnen gogo eyolebaT maT Tu biWi, radgan amazea damokidebuli Tu ras daarqmeven mas, rogor saTamaSoebs da tansacmels uyidian da rogor gazrdian mas. magaliTad, meqsikaSi gogonebs dabadebisTanave uxvritaven yurebs da ukeTeben sayureebs, rom garSemomyofebs ar SeeSaloT maTi sqesi. amerikaSi axalSobil gogonebs ukeTeben lentebs da babTebs. saqarTveloSi miRebulia gogosaTvis vardsferi da biWisaTvis cisferi tansacmlisa da atributebis SeZena. am monacemebidan Cans, rom genderi Zalian mniSvnelovani socialuri kategoriaa da mSoblebi cdiloben Tavdapirveladve moaxdinion, bavSvTa sqesis mixedviT, diferenciacia. diferencialuri socializaciis ori ZiriTadi meqanizmia cnobili: diferencia- luri gaZliereba da diferencialuri mibaZva (modelireba). diferencialuri gaZliereba muSaobs maSin, roca misaRebi genderuli qcevis waxaliseba xdeba, xolo miuReblis — dasja (im pirobiT, rom garkveuli qcevis modelis dasja-waxaliseba Seesabameba mis biologiur sqess). ase magaliTad, peris (Perry) da misi kolegebis kvlevam aCvena, rom aSS-Si me-4-dan me-7 klasis biWebi gogonebTan SedarebiT naklebad elodebian mSoblebisgan gakicxvas agresiuli qcevisaTvis. empiriuli kvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom 7 wlis asakisTvis, zogjer ki 4-5 wlis asakisTvis bavSvebi aRweven genderul konstantobas. amasTanave, dawyebiT skolaSi wasvlamde bavSvebs ukve aqvT myari Sexedulebebi saTamaSoebSi, tansacmelSi, moqmedebebSi da saqmianobis sferoebSi genderuli sxvaobebis Sesaxeb. rogorc ki sruldeba genderuli identifikacia, bavSvi avlens gansakuTrebul interess im roluri modelebisadmi, romlebic Seesabameba maT sqess. es interesi ganpirobebulia surviliT iyos saukeTeso gogo an biWi. am movlenas diferencialuri mibaZva an diferencialuri modelireba ewodeba. banduras mixedviT, biWebis umrav- lesoba (iseve, rogorc gogonebi) 2 wlis asakSi akvirdeba dedis qcevas da cdilobs gaimeoros igi: icvams quslian fexsacmelebs, isvams frCxilebze laqs da a.S. magram, rodesac genderuli identifikaciis procesi sruldeba, muSaobas iwyebs diferenci- aluri modelirebis meqanizmi da biWi ukve cdilobs mibaZos mamas. diferencialuri mibaZvis safuZvelze SeiZleba aixsnas is, Tu ratom xdeba, rom qalebs Cveulebriv moswonT maRaziebSi siaruli, dResaswaulebisTvis mzadeba, xolo mamakacebi cdiloben am saqmianobisTvis Tavis aridebas. igive SeiZleba iTqvas Sina meurneobazec anu diasaxlisobaze. diferencialuri socializaciiT SeiZleba aixsnas, agreTve, mamakacebis da Sesabamisad biWebis midrekileba uyuron sportul telegedacemebs. socializaciis umTavres wyaroebad miCneulia ojaxi (mSoblebi), Tanatolebi, masmedia (gansakuTrebiT televizia), ganaTlebis sistema. Cven ganvixilavT socializaciis institutebis kvlevebs sxvadasxva kulturebis magaliTze. es kvlevebi naTlad gviCvenebs socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis rols genderuli tipirebis procesSi.

gansxvavebuli samuSaos davaleba. im pirobaTa Seswavla, romelSic xdeba bavSvebis swavleba da aRzrda, saSualebas iZleva ukeT gavigoT Tu rogor axdenen zegavlenas kulturuli gansxvavebebi socializaciis procesSi bavSvebis ganviTarebaze. mecnierebi (Edvards & Whiting, 1974; Minturn &Lambert, 1964; E. Whitting & Edvards, 1973) akvirdebodnen bavSvTa aRzrdis pirobebs 6 kulturis kvlevis procesSi. kvleva exeboda bavSvebis qcevas, romelic dakavSirebuli iyo agresiasTan, umcrosebze zrunvasTan, pasuxismgeblobasTan, daxmarebis Ziebasa da yuradRebasTan. gamokvlevaSi monawileobdnen 3-11 wlis bavSvebi kunZul okinavadan, meqsikidan, filipinebidan, indoeTidan, keniidan da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebidan. umniSvnelo genderuli sxvaobebi aRmoCenili iyo sam SerCevaSi (amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi, filipinebi,

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kenia), romlebSic rogorc gogonebs, aseve biWebs daaxloebiT erTnairi samuSao evalebodaT. danarCen sam SerCevaSi (indoeTi, meqsika da okinava) gogonebs da biWebs eqceodnen gansxvavebulad da gogonebs gacilebiT ufro xSirad sTxovdnen moearaT umcrosi da-ZmisTvis da gaekeTebinaT saxlis samuSao. rac Seexeba ojaxuri davalebebis Sesrulebebis sixSires, es maCvenebeli yvelaze mcire iyo amerikul SerCevaSi, sadac arc gogonebi da arc biWebi ar iRebdnen gansakuTrebul monawileobas ojaxur saqmianobebSi da umcrosebis movlaSi. bredlim (Bredley, 1993) gamoikvlia bavSvTa Sroma 91 kulturaSi standartuli kroskulturuli SerCevis magaliTze. man miiRo Semdegi rezultatebi: 6 wlamde bavSvebi asruleben mcire samuSaos yvela kulturaSi. 6 welze ufrosi asakis bavSvebi asruleben iseT samuSaos, romelic faqtiurad Seesabameba (uaxlovdeba) misi Sesatyvisi sqesis ufrosis samuSaos. Tumca rogorc gogonebi, aseve biWebi, ufro xSirad asruleben qalur samuSaos (mag. wylis motana), vidre mamakacurs (mag. nadiroba). amasTan, bavSvebi xSirad asruleben iseT samuSaos, romelsac ufrosebi damamcireblad an arakvalificiurad miiCneven. bavSvTa Sromas Tvals adevneben qalebi, rac xels uwyobs bavSvebis mier kulturuli normebis aTvisebas da amsubuqebs dedis Sromas. amgvarad, bredli Tvlis, rom is vinc zrdis bavSvs, ara mxolod zrdis Tavis momaval dasayrdens sibereSi, aramed, amave dros, aqvs saSualeba isargeblos bavSvTa Sromis nayofiTac.

bavSvebis movla da maTze zrunva. vaisnernma da galimorma (Weisner & Gallimore, 1977) gaaanalizes 186 sazogadoebis monacemebi da mividnen im daskvnamde, rom Cvili bavSvebis movliT pirvel rigSi dakavebulni arian dedebi, ufrosi naTesavi qalebi da gogonebi. Tumca ki, rogorc ki patarebi izrdebian, maTi aRzrdis pasuxismgeblobas iReben ara mxolod maTi debi, aramed — Zmebic. 2-4 wlis bavSvebi aseT `ZiZebTan~ yoveldRiurad drois 70% atareben im sazogadoebebSi, sadac dedebi Tavis drois umetesi nawili sxvadasxva tipis warmoebiTi saqmianobiT arian dakavebulni da mTel dros dedobrivi movaleobis Sesrulebas ar axmaren. Tumca ki yvela kulturaSi bavSvebi xedaven dedaSi imas, vinc maTze pasuxs agebs. 80 gamokvleuli kulturidan (Katz & Konner, 1981; West & Konner, 1976) faqtiurad 20%- Si mamebi iSviaTad, an arasodes ar arian dakavebulni Cvil bavSvebze zrunviT. mamis axlo urTierToba CvilebTan gamovlenili iyo mxolod kulturaTa 4 %- Si, magram aseTi siaxlovis drosac ki mamebi CvilebTan Tavisi drois mxolod 14 %-s xarjavdnen da uzrunvelyofdnen maTi moTxovnilebebis mxolod 6%-s. monros (R.L. Munroe & Monroe, 1994) gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom umetes sazogadoebebSi mamis bavSvTan urTierToba — es aris mxolod TamaSi. rig gamokvlevebSi dadasturda (Katz & Konner, 1981; Segall, 1988, B.B. Whiting, 1965), rom mamis aryofna (ararseboba) ukavSirdeba zedmet agresias an hipermaskulinur qcevas. xolo sxva gamokvlevebSi (Gronseth, 1957; Lynn & Sawrey, 1959) dadginda, rom mamis xangrZlivi aryofnis dros, magaliTad, omis gamo an zRvaS gasvlis gamo hipermaskulinur qcevasTan erTad vaJiSvilebi iqcevian aSkarad aravaJkacurad da avlenen daqvemdebarebis maRal dones, zedmetad giJur fantazias. dadgenilia, rom TiTqmis yvela kulturaSi mamebi nakleb dros uTmoben qaliSvilebs, vidre - vaJiSvilebs. amasTanave, isini, ufro metad, vidre — dedebi, axaliseben gogonebis iseT qcevas, romelic sqesobriv-roluri orientaciiT aris gansazRvruli (Lytton & Romney, 1991). dedis aRmzrdelobiTi roli erTnairad mniSvnelovania rogorc gogonebisTvis, aseve — biWebisTvis. magram mama Cveulebriv

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ufro mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs vaJisSvilis aRzrdaSi (Rohner & Rohner, 1982). maki da dei (Mackey, 1985; Mackey & Day, 1997) akvirdebodnen bavSvTa da mSobelTa qcevas sazogadoebriv adgilebSi 10 sxvadasxva kulturaSi da aRmoaCines, rom gogonebi ufro xSirad iyvnen iseT jgufebSi (sazogadoebaSi), sadac ar arian zrdasruli mamakacebi, maSin roca biWebi ufri xSirad arian iseT jgufebSi, romlebic mTlianad mamakacebisgan Sedgebian. aRsaniSnavia, rom es gansxvavebebi asakTan erTad matulobs.

Tanatolebi. bavSvobaSi da ymawvilobisas socializaciaSi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben Tanatolebi. Tanatolebis zegavlena izrdeba bavSvTa zrdasTan erTad, axdens ra bavSvobidan zrdasrulobisken gadasvlis struqturirebas. 2-10 wlis bavSvTa TanatolebTan urTierTobis analizma, romelic xorcieldeboda 6 kulturis da 6 damatebiTi SerCevis farglebSi mkvlevarTa jgufis mier (Edwards, 1992; Edwards &Whting, 1993), aCvena sakuTari sqesis warmomadgenlebisadmi upiratesobis miniWebis kros-kulturuli TvalsazrisiT universalurad mdgradi tendencia, romelic vlindeba dawyebuli 2 wlis asakidan. ufro ufros bavSvebSi sqesis mixedviT segregacia gxvdeba Zalian xSirad. edvardsi gamoTqvams varauds, rom Tavis msgavsisken swrafva SeiZleba sakuTari Tavis SecnobiT iyos ganpirobebuli, Tanatolebi ki — yvelaze kargi sarkea. bavSvisTvis Tanatolebi — es arian isini, visac aqvT misi msgavsi Sexedulebebi da gansazRvruli moRvaweobis da qcevis upiratesobis miniWebis msgavseba. magram Tanatolebi, aseve, uzrunvelyofen SesaZleblobebs Sejibrisa (konkurenciisa) da konfliqtebisaTvis, rac normalur farglebSi ganviTarebis safuZvelia. mozardTa iniciaciis ritualebi vlindeba bevr kulturaSi da miznad isaxavs CamoaSoron inicirebuli axloblebs (mSoblebs); moamzados igi seqsualobisTvis, domonirebisa da agresiisaTvis (im doziT, rogorc is micemul kulturaSia misaRebi); ganamtkicos politiluri kavSirebi. edvardsis gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom koleqtiuri ritualebi ufro gavrcelebulia biWebTan mimarTebaSi, vidre — gogonebTan da xSired gvxvdeba meomarTa sazogadoebebSi, romlebic aqcents akeTeben qalebisa da mamakacebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel saqmianobebze. gansakuTrebiT xazi unda gaesvas im garemoebas, rom dasavluri ganaTlebis miRebas da gavrcelebas sazogadoebaSi iniciaciis ritualebis cvlileba mohyveba, magram isini ukvalod ar qrebian da mainc axdenen gavlenas gogonebisa da biWebis socializaciaze.

ganaTleba. bavSvTa mier genderuli rolebis aTvisebaze aseve did zegavlenas axdens ganaTlebis sistemac. miuxedavad imisa, rom ganaTlebis sistema erTiania gogonebisa da biWebisaTvis, iseve, rogorc am sistemaSi codnasTan da qcevasTan dakavSirebuli oficialuri moTxovnebi, gamokvlevebi adasturebs, rom arsebobs mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba skolis literaturaSi warmodgenil qceviT nimuSebSi biWebisTvis da gogonebisTvis da pedagogebis urTierTobaSi orive sqesis warmomadgenlebTan. ganaTlebis pirobebi mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens bavSvebis socializaciaze. iaponiisa da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis me-5 klaselebze Catarebuli dakvirebebi (Hamilton, Blumenfeld, Akhon & Miura, 1991) aCvenebs, rom maswavleblebi orive qveyanaSi met yuradRebas aqceven biWebs, amasTan afaseben maT uaryofiTad. amave dros, meti yuradReba veranairad ver aixsneba cudi moqceviT an davalebis SeusruleblobiT. genderuli rolebis aTvisebaSi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs, agreTve, skolis saxelmZRvaneloebi da maTSi moTavsebuli ilustraciebi. aq warmodgenili qalis da gogonas personaJebi tradiciuli stereotipuli Tvisebebis matarebelia: maT mamakacebi da biWebi icaven, Sevlian, aswavlian an mfarveloben. aqedan gamomdinare,

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skolis saxelmZRvaneloebi, rogorc socializaciis modelebi xels uwyobs tra- diciuli genderul-roluri ideologiis ganmtkicebas da Sesabamisi stereotipuli Sexedulebebis Camoyalibebas. sabavSvo literaturaSi seqsizmis gamosavlenad genderuli mkvlevrebi akeTebdnen teqstebis Sinaarsis analizss. kroskulturuli kvlevebis umravlesobaSi dadginda, rom im wignebis kiTxva, romlebSic SeimCneva sqesobriv-roluri stereotipizacia, xels uwyoben bavSvebis TamaSebis sqesobriv-rolur tipizacias. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi bolo dros Catarebuli wignebis analizi uCvenebs, rom 1980 wlis Semdeg gamocemuli sabavSvo literatura sagrZnoblad Seicvala, magram biblioTekebSi jer kidev arsebobs seqsizmiT gaJRenTili wignebi. am literaturaSi qalebi warmodgenilni arian rogorc ojaxuri keris mfarvelebi, maSin roca mamakacebs aqvT sruli SesaZlebloba sakuTari Tavis realizacia saxls gareT moaxdinon. es istoriebi (moTxrobebi) gogonebs aswavlian, rom maTi funqciaa bavSvebis movla da ojaxuri meurneobis gaZRola, sxva rolebi ki mamakacTa privilegiaa. sabavSvo literaturis umetesobaSi gogonebisa da qalebis ilustraciebi saojaxo nivTebTan aris dakavSirebuli. magaliTad, gogonas uWiravs cocxi, dedas exmareba WurWlis recxvaSi da sxv. biWebisa da mamakacebis ilustraciebi ki amave literaturaSi iseT Sromis iaraRebTan (instrumentebTan da atributebTan) aris dakavSirebuli, romlebic saWiroa saxls gareT samuSaod. mSobelTa ganwyobebs moswrebis mimarT aseve SeuZliaT mniSvnelovani gavlenis moxdena bavSvTa miRwevebze. serpelma (Serpell, 1993) aRmoaCina, rom zambiaSi iTvleba, rom ganaTleba ufro mniSvnelovania biWebisTvis, vidre — gogonebisaTvis. amitom skolaSi swavlebaze pasuxismgeblobas ZiriTadad iRebs mama, deda ki bavSvebis movliT aris dakavebuli. CineTSi, iaponiaSi da amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi dedebi Tvlian, rom biWebi ufro kargad unda iTvisebdnen maTematikas, gogonebi ki — kiTxvas (Lummis & Stevenson, 1990), Tumca ki, realobaSi gogonebic da biWebic erTnairi warmatebiT iTviseben orive sagans.

masmedia. gavrcelebuli azris mixedviT, bolo dros televizia konkurencias uwevs mSoblebisa da maswavleblebis mier warmodgenil qceviT modelebs. televizia myari sqesobriv-roluri ideologiis matarebelia da Sesabamisad qmnis qalebisa da mamakacebis stereotipul saxeebs. mkvlevrebis mier satelevizio programebis analizma aCvena, rom umravles kulturebSi teleekranebze mamakacebi ufro xSirad Canan, vidre - qalebi. amasTan, mamakacebi warmodgenilni arian, rogorc ufro Zlierni da aqtiurni, xolo qalebi ki - rogorc gulisxmierni da emociurni. reklamebSic mamakacebi dominantur rolSi gamodian. qalebi ZiriTadad iseT reklamebSi monawileoben, romlebic saojaxo saqmianobas an saojaxo nivTebs exeba. es, ra Tqma unda, Zlier zegavlenas axdens tradiciuli genderul-roluri ideologiis Camoyalibebaze. rigi gamokvlevebisa (Archer) gviCveneben, rom qalebisa da mamakacebis gamosaxulebebSi saxe warmodgenilia sxvadasxva xarisxiT. am movlenas feisizmi ewodeba. kerZod, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi Catarebuli kvlevebis Sedegad, gamovlinda, rom fotoebi presaSi mamakacebis SemTxvevaSi xazs usvamen saxes, xolo qalebis SemTxvevaSi — maT sxeuls. mamakacebi, Cveulebriv, warmodgenilni arian kisridan zemoT, xolo qalebi — mTlianad. es faqti, arCeris azriT, miuTiTebs imaze, rom masmedia mamakacebis saxis upiretesi CvenebiT xazs usvams mamakacebis pirovnebas da maT mniSvnelobas sazogadoebaSi. arCerisa da misi kolegebis mier gamokvleuli iyo

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12 qveynis beWvdiTi gamocemebi. yvela qveyanaSi gamovlinda feisizmis movlena.

saTamaSoebi. saTamaSoebi asruleben mniSvnelovan rols diferencialuri sociali- zaciis procesSi. arsebobs saTamaSoebis mkveTri diferenciacia, genderuli niSniT. kerZod, gogonebis saTamaSoebad yvela kulturaSi miiCneva Tojinebi, saojaxo saqmianobaSi gamosadegari nivTebis modelebi (e.w. saeqimo inventari, WurWeli, bavSvis movlasTan dakavSirebuli sagnebi, logini, etli, sabani da sxv.). biWebis saTamaSoebad miCneulia manqanebis modelebi TviTmfrinavis da manqanebis konstruqtorebi da sxv. msgavsi genderuli stereotipebi, romlebic dakavSirebuli iyo saTamaSoebTan, gamovlenili iyo rogorc dasavlur kulturebSi, aseve afrikaSic, sadac gogonebi TamaSobdnen TojinebiT, biWebi ki — manqanebis konstruqtorebiT da iaraRebis mode- lebiT. gogonebisa da biWebis saTamaSoebis gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom gogonebi gadian e.w. `praqtikas~ da emzadebian momavali rolebisaTvis —diasaxlisobisa da dedobisaTvis. genderulad tipirebuli saTamaSoebi uviTareben maT urTierTobebis unarebsac. biWebis saTamaSoebi ki mimarTulia SemoqmedebiTobis, garSemomyofi samya- ros gardasaxvis unaris, maTematikuri unarebis, logikuri azrovnebis ganviTarebaze. biWebis saTamaSoebi iwveven, agreTve, Sejibrze da liderobaze mimarTuli qcevebis waxalisebas. amgvarad, nebismieri saTamaSoebis maRaziis analizi gviCvenebs, rom arsebobs gogo- nebisa da biWebis saTamaSoebi. isini diferencialuri socializaciis instrumentebia. amasTan, saTamaSoebis genderul mikuTvnebulobaze miuTiTebs ara matro maTi funqcia, aramed saxeli da SefuTvis kolofic. amgvarad, arsebobs pankulturuli tendencia bavSvebs aswavlon, maT ki aiTvison genderis Sesatyvisi qceva, Tumca kulturaTa Soris mciredi sxvaoba vlindeba TviT swavlebis SinaarsSi.

saleqcio kursis bolos studentebs miecemaT ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi:

diferencialuri gaZliereba — socializacis procesi, romlis drosac mocemuli sazogadoebisaTvis misaRebi qcevis waxaliseba xdeba, xolo miuReblis — socialuri dasja.

diferencialuri imitacia (modelireba) — socializaciis procesi, romlis drosac adamiani irCevs rolur modelebs misTvis Sesatyvis jgufSi miRebuli normebis mixedviT da cdilobs mibaZos maT.

genderuli konstantoba — bavSvis mier imis gageba, rom sqesi mudmivia da misi Secvla SeuZlebelia.

metaanalizi — es aris statistikuri teqnika, romlis mizania jgufTa Soris sxvaobis saerTo Sefaseba dadgena ramdenime gamokvlevidan miRebuli informaciis kombinaciis gziT.

seqsizmi

warmomadgenlis mimarT.

winaswari

ganwyobebi

da

madiskriminirebeli

qceva

ama

Tu

im

sqesis

feisizmi — qalisa da mamakacis gamosaxulebaSi saxisa da sxeulis gansxvavebuli xarisxiT warmoCenis tendencia.

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leqciis msvlelobisas moyvanili iqneba konkteruli magaliTebi yoveldRiuri cxovrebidanac, rac xels Seuwyobs studentebis mier genderuli socializaciis institutebis zegavlenis ukeT gacnobierebas da kulturis rolis gaazrebas am procesSi. socializaciis yoveli wyaros ganxilvisas gaTvaliswinebulia, agreTve, studen- tebis aqtiuri monawileoba leqciis procesSi. maT moeTxovebaT gaixsenon SemTxvevebi, roca maTi an maTi nacnobebis mier am institutebis mxridan mowodebuli genderuli qcevis nimuSebis modelireba (imitacia) xdeboda an iseTi SemTxvevebi, roca gende- rulad Seusabamo qcevas mSoblebis, ufrosebis an Tanatolebis mxridan uaryofiTi Sefaseba mohyva. leqciis Semdeg studentebs daevalebaT individualuri muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnil droSi moamzadon saswavlo kursis riderSi warmodgenili leqciis Tematikis Sesatyvis masalebi. studentebs, agreTve, daevalebaT seminarisaTvis gaakeTon e.w. qalebisa da mamakacebis Jurnalebis analizi. kerZod, gansazRvron, maTi Tematika, ikvlion seqsizmisa da feisizmis movlena; gaanalizon, Tu rogor vlindeba genderuli stereotipebi mocemul publikaciebSi.

seminari # 3 (Tema # 3 ) — 2 sT

seminarze moxdeba studentis mier momzadebuli esses prezentacia; gaimarTeba jgufuri dis-

kusia seminaris Temaze. kerZod, Semowmdeba masalis aTvisebis (socializaciis institutebis codna, ZiriTadi cnebebis floba) xarisxi; dasmuli iqneba Semdegi tipis kiTxvebi:

1. daasaxeleT is faqtorebi, romlebic gansazRvraven qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris genderul sxvaobebs.

2. socializaciis romeli institutebi iciT? mokled daaxasiaTeT TiToeuli maTgani .

3. axdens Tu ar gansxvavebul zegavlenas socializacia niWier gogonebze da niWier biWebze?

4. ra zegavlenas axdenen kulturuli tradiciebi socializaciis Sedegbze?

5. ra da ra sferoebSi vlindeba genderuli diferencialuri socializaciis Sedegebi?

6. rogoria diferencialuri socializaciis meqanizmebi?

7. seminarze moxdeba Sesrulebuli davalebis warmodgena, Sedegebis jgufuri Sejameba da analizi.

ZiriTadi literatura:

1.

Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, p.: 144-188;

2.

Handbook of Marriage and the family, edited by Marrin B. Sussman & Suzann K. Steinmetz, Plenum Press, 1988, p.: 327-370;

3.

Judith Lorber, Paradoxes of Gender, Yale University Press, 1994, p.: 123-144;

4.

George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, p.: 204-207.

damatebiTi literatura:

1.

Burn S.M. The Socal Psychology of Gender, McGraw-Hill, Inc.1996, gv.: 29-82;

2.

Best D. L., Williams I. E. Gender and culture. – in Culture and Psychology, edited by David Matsumoto. Oxford University press, 2001, gv.: 329-332;

3.

Families in Multicultural Perspective, edited by Bron B. Ingoldsby, Suzanna Smith, The Guilford Press, 1992, T.: 8;

4.

Juanita H. Williams, Psychology of Women, W.W.Norton & Company, N.Y.,1987, gv.:, 198-226.

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kvira #4

leqcia —2 sT

Tema #4 - genderuli rolebi da stereotipebi. kroskulturuli monacemebi.

leqciaze ganxiluli iqneba stereotipebis raoba da maTi warmoSobis kanonzo- mierebebi, agreTve, maTi funqcionirebis konkretuli magaliTebi sxvadasxva kulturebSi. moyvanili iqneba iluzoruli korelaciebis cneba da misi SesaZlo axsnebi. ganxiluli iqneba genderuli rolebi da maTi kroskulturuli sxvaobebi umcrosebze zrunvis, ufrosebTan siaxlovis, agresiis gamovlenis da sakuTaris Rirsebis grZnobis TvalsazrisiT. ganxiluli iqneba tradiciuli qaluri da tradiciuli mamakacuri rolebi da agreTve, is SezRudevebi, romlebsac es rolebi uweseben qalebsa da mamakacebs.

genderuli rolebi yalibdeba qalisa da mamakacis sqesebs Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb stereotipuli kulturuli Sexedulebebis konteqstSi. gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom bavSvebs cxovrebis pirvel or weliwadSi uyalibdebaT qalur da mamakacur sawyisTan dakavSirebuli stereotipebi, xolo ukve 3-4 wlis asakSi bavSvebi am stereotipebs iyeneben saTamaSoebiis kategoriis, saqmianobis sxvadasxva saxisa da profesiebis gansasazRvrad. gamokvlevebis Sedegad dadginda, agreTve, rom im stereotipebis aTviseba bavSvebis mier, romlebic dakavSirebulia saTamaSoebisa da moRvaweobis sferoebis genderul dayofasTan, win uswrebs qalisa da mamakacis xasiaTis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb stereotipuli Sexedulebebis SeTvisebas. uiliamsma da bestma ikvlies 25 qveynis 5 da 8 wlis asakis bavSvebi. yvela qveyanaSi stereotipebis procenti izrdeboda asakis matebasTan erTad. kerZod, 5 wlis bavSvebTan stereotipizaciis done 60% iyo, xolo 8 wlis bavSvebSi — 70%. iseTi zedsarTavi saxelebi, rogoricaa Zlieri, agresiuli, ulmobeli, gabeduli - dakavSirebuli iyo mamakacTa sqesTan. xolo iseTi zedsarTavi saxelebi, rogoricaa susti, nazi, damTmobi, keTili - dakavSirebuli iyo qalTa sqesTan. stereotipizaciis TvalsazrisiT, gogonebisa da biWebis maRali monacemebi miRebuli iyo axal zelandiaSi da inglisSi, gansakuTrebiT ki — pakistanSi. Zalian dabali monacemebi iqna miRebuli braziliaSi, taivanSi, genmaniaSi da safrangeTSi. Tumca qveynebs Soris arsebobs sxvaobebi swavlebis tempebSi, magram, saerTod, stereotipebis aTviseba iwyeba 5 wlis asakidamde, misi tempi izrdeba dawyebiT klasebSi da sabolod sruldeba Wabukobis periodSi. gogonebi da biWebi stereotipebs erTnairi tempiT iTviseben. Tumca arsebobs kroskulturuli sxvaobebi maT mier qalisa Tu mamakacis stereotipebis aTvisebis rigiTobaSi. rogorc Cans, qalis stereotipi iqneba aTvisebuli pirvelad, Tu mama- kacis, es damokidebulia mocemul kulturaSi qalisa da mamakacis stereotipizaciis simkveTris xarisxze, maTi xatis met-nakleb diferencirebulobaze. ase magaliTad, genmaniaSi, braziliaSi, portugaliaSi da venesuelaSi bavSvebis mier qalis genderuli stereotipi ufro adre iyo aTvisebuli, vidre — mamakacisa. bavSvebis mier stereotipiebis aTviseba damokidebulia, agreTve, mocemul kulturaSi qalebisa da mamakacebis stereotipizaciis da maTi Tvisebebis gamijvnis xarisxze. islamur kulturebSi 5 wlis bavSvebis gamokvlevam aCvena, rom isini ufro mkacr sazRvrebs avleben qalisa da mamakacis stereotipul Tvisebebs Soris. amasTan, islamur qveynebSi sxva qveynebisgan gansxvavebiT stereotipebis aTviseba ufro adreul asakSi mimdinareobs.

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alberti da porteri (Albert & Porter, 1986) ikvlevdnen genderul stereotipebs farTe mniSvnelobiT (damaxasiaTebel Tvisebebs da rolur ganwyobebs). maT kvlevaSi monawileobdnen 4-dan 6 wlamde asakis bavSvebi amerikis SeerTebul Statebidan da samxreT afrikidan. mkvlevrebma daadgines, rom stereotipebis Sesaxeb Sexedulebebi farTovdeba asakTan erTad. amasTan, samxreT afrikel bavSvebs ufro mkafio warmodgena hqondaT mamakacis stereotipul rolze, vidre _ amerikel bavSvebs. qalis stereotipuli rolis mimarT sxvaobebi kulturaTa Soris ar gamovlinda. intons-petersonis (Intons-Peterson, 1988) kvlevam aCvena, rom Svedi bavSvebi (11-18 ww.) qalebs miaweren ufro met mniSvnelovan Tvisebebs, vidre — amerikeli bavSvebi. bavSvebSi gamovlenili aseTi Sedegebi gansazRvra iman, rom stereotipuli Sexedulebebi qalebisa da mamakacebis Sesaxeb ufro axlosaa erTmaneTTan SvedeTSi, vidre — amerikaSi. amasTanave, aRsaniSnavia, rom qalebisa da mamakacebis prioritetebi profesiis arCevaSi SvedeTSi erTmaneTs ar emTxveva. qalebi upiratesobas aniWeben momsaxureobis sferos, xolo mamakacebi — bizness. amerikaSi ki piriqiT, profesiuli prioritetebi qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris erTmaneTs emTxveva. amasTan orive jgufi upiratesobas aniWebs eqimis da advokatis profesias da xelmZRvanel Tanamdebobas. uiliamisis da bestis, da, agreTve, sxva mkvlevarTa mier ganxorcielebuli kroskulturuli kvlevebi miuTiTebs, rom genderuli stereotipebi universalur xasiaTs atareben. amasTan kultura zegavlenas axdens maTi aTvisebis tempsa da araarsebiT Sinaarsobriv aspeqtebze. amgvarad, genderuli stereotipebi SeiZleba ganvixiloT im universaliebis rangSi, romlebic sxvadasxva kulturaSi sxvadasxva formiT vlindebian. mravali kvlevis Sedegi miuTiTebs, rom informacia, romelic Cvens genderul stereotipebs Seesabameba ufro metad (xSirad) iqneba SemCneuli da daxsomebuli, vidre informacia, romelic maT ar Seesabameba. informaciis gadamuSavebaze genderuli stereotipebis zegavlena farTed aris nakvlevi genderuli sqemis TeoriaSi. igi stereotipebs ganixilavs rogorc socialuri jgufebis socialur kategorias (sqemas). stereotipebi — es aris identificirebuli jgufis wevrebis msgavsebis Sesaxeb farTed gavrcelebuli azri. stereotipebi muSaoben rogorc sqemebi am jgufebis aRqmis dros. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, iseve, rogorc nebismieri sxva sqema, isini zegavlenas axdenen aRqmasa da daxsomebaze. teilori (Taylor) aRniSnavs, rom iseTi parametrebi, rogoricaa rasa an sqesi, gamoiyeneba diskriminaciuli paternebis saxiT Cvens garSemo myofi adamianebis Sesaxeb informaciis dajgufebisa da gadamuSavebisaTvis. adamianebis gansakuTrebulad ganmasxvavebeli Taviseburebani, iseTebi, rogoricaa sqesi, eTnikuri mikuTvnebuloba, kilo — `aaqtiureben~ saWiro sqemebs da SemdgomSi informaciis gadamuSaveba am jgufis calkeuli wevrebis Sesaxeb am sqemebiT imarTeba. kognituri sqemebis mier informaciis gadamuSavebis marTvis sailustraciod S. berns (Bern) moyavs Semdegi magaliTi: `Tu Tqven ar xarT amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis samxreTis macxovrebeli, me ki Tqven mogmarTeT samxreTuli gamoTqmiT (kiloTi) da gatyobinebT, rom vizrdebodi konfederaciis dedaqalaqSi (riCmondi, virjiniis Stati), es gamoiwvevs Tqvens cnobierebaSi garkveul stereotipebs, romlebic zegavlenas moaxdenen imaze, Tu ras miaqcevT CemSi yuradRebas da ras daixsomebT Cems Sesaxeb samudamod. aseTi informaciis miRebis gareSe Cemi qcevis da garegnobis zogierTi damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba SeumCneveli da daumaxsovrebeli dagrCebodaT~. kohenis (Cohen, 1981) mier Catarebul gamokvlevaSi cdispirebs aCvenebdnen videoCanawers, romelic erTi qalis dabadebis dRes asaxavda. im adamianebma, romlebsac eubneodnen, rom es qali oficiantia, daimaxsovres, rom igi svamda luds da

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uyurebda televizors, xolo im adamianebma, romlebsac igi rogorc bibilioTekari warmoudgines, daimaxsovres, rom igi saTvales atarebda da usmenda klasikur musikas. mkvlevari askvnis, rom oficiantis `xatma~ gamoiwvia erTi sqemis muSaoba, xolo `biblioTekaris~ xatma — meore sqemisa. wveulebis Sesaxeb informaciis Semdgomi gadamuSavebac imarTeboda am mimarTulebebiT. markusis da zaioncis (Markus & Zajonc) gansazRvrebiT, mzamzareuli sqemebiT informaciis gadamuSaveba araCveulebrivia im TvalsazrisiT, rom is `ekonomiuria~, radgan warmodgenili rTuli socialuri garemocva dayavs azrobrivi kategoriebis kontrolirebad ricxvebamde. isini arasakmarisi informaciis konpensirebis saSualebas iZlevian da gvexmarebian gavideT mocemuli informaciis sazRvrebs gareT. ra Tqma unda, informaciis gadamuSavebis aseT process Tavisi naklic aqvs. rogorc fiske da teilori miuTiTeben, adamianTa kategoriebis Sesaxeb dagrovili zogadi codna saSualebas ar gvaZlevs sworad (samarTlianad) Sevafasod pirovnebaTa unikaluri Tvisebebi. ase magaliTad, bernis azriT, Setyobinebam misi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis samxreTidan warmoSobis Sesaxeb moaxdina misi aRzrdis, pirobiTad rom vTqvaT, `provinciuli~ sqemis gaSveba (amuSaveba). es sqema Seicavs iseT elementebs, rogoricaa `gauzrdeli~, `ukulturo~, `rasisti~. SemdgomSi es sqema gaaZlierebs aRmqmelis mgrZnobelobas misi nebismieri moqmedebebis an gamoTqmebis mimarT, romlebic gakvriT mainc SeiZleba dakavSirebulni iyvnen provincialobis sqemasTan. isini zedmetad miiqceven yuradRebas da iqcevian misi pirovnebis aRqmis ZiriTad safuZvlad, im SemTxvevebSic ki, roca isini ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos misi pirovnebisaTvs damaxasiaTeblad. amgvarad, stereotipebi Tavdapirvelad gavlenas axdenen imaze, Tu ras aRviqvamT, Semdgom ki imaze, Tu ras vimaxsovrebT. fiske da teilori (Fiske & Taylor) aRniSnavdnen, rom aseTi wyoba gansxvavdeba aRqmis Sesaxeb Cveni Cveulebrivi warmodgenisagan. isini werdnen, rom adamianebis umravlesoba Tvlis, rom aRqma — es aris obieqturi monacemebis pirdapiri kopireba, maTi pirdapiri asli. sinamdvileSi ki, ase ar aris. sqemebis koncefcia dafuZnebulia im debulebaze, rom sqematizirebuli winaswari codna (sqemebi) zegavlenas axdens socialuri realobis aqtiur konstruirebaze. maSin, roca obieqturi minacemebi ayalibebs imas, rasac Cven aRviqvamT, Tqveni Sexedeulebebi da molodinebi gansazRvraven imas, Tu rogor xedavT Tqven am monacemebs. Tanamedrove kvlevebSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba genderuli sxvaobebis meqanizmis axsnas. genderuli sqemis Teoriis mixedviT, genderis safuZvelze kategorizaciis Cveni swrafva marTavs informaciis gadamuSavebis procesebs da iwvevs imas, rom Cven vxedevT qalebsa da mamakacebSi gacilebiT ufro met gansxvavebebs, vidre isini arseboben sinamdvileSi. saqme isaa, rom gamokvlevebis rezultatebi adasturebs, rom ar arsebobs mkveTrad gamoxatuli, arsebiTi gansxvavebebi qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris. miuxedevad amisa, Cven jiutad vagrZelebT maTi, rogorc sxvadasxvanairebis xedvas da Sesabamisad, veqceviT maT sxvadasxvagvarad. gavrcelebuli stereotipebi warmoadgenen mamakacebs aqtiurebad, agresiulebad da efeqtianad momqmedebad, qalebs ki — pasiurebad, damokidebulebad da emociurebad. hofmans da hersts (Hoffman, Hurst) moyavT gamokvlevis rezultatebi, romlebic gviCveneben, rom sqesTaSoris gansxvavebebis umravlesoba Zalian umniSvneloa imisaTvis, rom movelodeT maT regularul gamovlenas. es avtorebi miuTiTeben, rom rogorc Cans, arsebobs mxolod umniSvnelo korelacia sqesTa Soris sxvaobis xarisxsa da im masStabs Soris, romliTac igi vlindeba stereotipebSi. martinis (Martin) eqsperimentebma kidev erTxel daadastura Cveni tendencia davinaxoT qalebi da mamakacebi ufro gansxvavebulad, vidre es aris sinamdvileSi. am

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gamokvlevaSi qalebsa da mamakacebs sTxovdnen aReniSnaT, warmodgenili Tvisebebidan romeli aqvT maT. am TvisebaTa CamonaTvalSi Sedioda `tipuri mamakacuri~, `tipiuri qaluri~ da `neitraluri~ Tvisebebi. meore jgufs sTxoves ganesazRvraT, maTi azriT, mamakacebisa da qalebis ramdeni procenti flobda TiToeul CamoTvlil Tvisebas. kvlevis Sedegad gamoirkva, rom mamakacebis da qalebis pasuxebi, romlebic sakuTar Tavs afasebdnen, gansxvavdeboda mxolod xuTi punqtis mixedviT, maSin roca meore jgufis monacemebma qalebi da mamakacebi sruliad sxvadasxvagvarad warmogvidgines 40 punqtidan TiToeulSi. gamokvlevis Sedegebi adastureben, rom adamianebi qalebsa da mamakacebs aRiqvamen rogorc `sxvadasxva sqesis warmomadgenlebs~. am garemoebis asaxsnelad genderuli sqemis warmomadgenlebs mohyavT Semdegi argumentebi: qalebisa da mamakacebis gansxvavebuli socialuri rolebi gvaiZuleben vivaraudoT maTSi gansxvavebuli fsiqologiuri niSnebisa da SesaZleblobebis arseboba. amasTan, Cvens sazogadoebaSi Zalian xSirad saubroben qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris fundamentur gansxvavebebze. da rac mTavaria, CvenTvis dabadebidan damaxasiaTebeli informaciis gadamuSavebis strategiebi aseve SeiZleba xels uwyobdes qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris arsebuli sxvaobebis masStabebis gadametebas. yvelafer amas aqvs uSualo kavSiri genderis socialur SemecnebasTan. genderuli stereotipebi warmoadgenen genderul sqemebs (genderuli stereotipebi aq genderuli sqemebis rols TamaSoben). genderuli sqemebi — es aris genderuli kognituri kategoriebi. isini ise marTaven Semosuli informaciis gadamuSavebis process, rom Cven viwyebT mis aRqmas, damaxsovrebas da interpretacias genderze Cveni Sexedulebebis Sesabamisad. radganac sqemebi yuradRebas mimarTavs iseTi SemTxvevebisken, romelic adasturebs (amarTlebs) Cvens molodinebs, Cven or rames Soris kavSiri ufro mdgradad (myarad) SeiZleba aRviqvaT, vidre es aris sinamdvileSi. am movlenas iluzorul korelaciebs uwodeben. isini warmoiqmneba nawilobriv imis gamoc, rom sqemebi Cvens yuradRebas mimarTavs iseTi SemTxvevebisken, romelic adasturebs Camoyalibebul stereotipebs. meores mxriv, iluzoruli korlaciebis formirebaze SeiZleba zegavlena moaxdinos informaciiis gadamuSavebis procesis sxva tendenciebmac. Cven genderul gansxvavebebs aRviqvamT ufro didad, vidre es aris sinamdvileSi, radganac sqemebi zegavlenas axdens imaze, Tu ras vamCnevT pirvel rigSi. garda amisa, informacia romelic Cvens sqemebs Seesabameba ufro advilad kodirdeba Cvens mexsierebaSi (anu kodireba martivdeba, roca Cven ubralod koreqturas ukeTebT arsebul sqemas da ar vqmniT axals). magaliTad, biWebic da gogonebic gacilebiT ukeT ixseneben adamianebs, romlebic ganasaxiereben garkveuli sqesis stereotips da maT qcevebs, vidre iseT mamakacebs da qalebs, romelTa xatebi da qcevebi ar Seesabamebian stereotipebs. amasTan mexsierebis aseTi arCeviToba gacilebiT ufro Zlieria iseT bavSvebTan, romlebsac aqvT mdgradi genderuli stereotipi. amgvarad, mamakaci, romelsac miaCnia, rom xelmZRvaneli Tanamdeboba qalisTvis Seusabamoa, xelmZRvaneli qalis yovel konfliqtSi Tavis xelqveiTTan xedavs imis dasabuTebas, rom qalebs ara aqvT emociuri simyare, romelic aucilebelia xelmZRvanelobisTvis. meores mxriv, mamakaci xelmZRvanelis analogiuri qceva misTvis sruliad misaRebia. Tavis mxriv, qali, romelic darwmunebulia, rom mamakacebs ara aqvT emociebis Zlierad gamoxatvis unari, Zalian advilad ixsenebs Tavis nacnob mamakacebs, romlebic Seesabamebian mocemul stereotips da warumateblobas ganicdis emociuri mamakacis gaxsenebis mcdelobisas. movlenas, romelic sqesTa Soris realurad arsebuli sxvaobebis gacilebiT didi masStabis genderul sxvaobebad gardasaxvaSi mdgomareobs, rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, iluzorul korelacias uwodeben da miuxedavad am Temaze gamarTuli

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aqtiuri diskusiisa, misi warmoSobis mizezebis mecnieruli dasabuTeba genderuli sqemis Teoriis farglebSi ver xerxdeba. saWirod migvaCnia genderuli iluzoruli korelaciebis Cveneuli axsnis aq moyvana. saqme isaa, rom gamokvlevebi, romlebic genderTa Soris gansxvavebebs exeba, umravles SemTxvevebSi, kiTxvarebis, Tavisufali reproduqciis (Tavisufali gaxsenebis) an iseTi eqsperimentebis saxiT momdinareobs, sadac cdis pirebma unda gamoTqvan TavianTi azri qalisa da mamakacis ama Tu im fsiqikuri Tu fizikuri maxasiaTeblis Sesaxeb. swored aseT gamokvlevebSi vlindeba mniSvnelovani genderTaSorisi gansxvavebebi. meores mxriv, ki gamokvlevebSi, romlebSic xorcieldeba garkveuli fsiqikuri Tvisebebis Tu funqciebis ufro zusti da obieqturi gazomva specialuri testebis saSualebiT, sruliad sawinaaRmdego Sedegebs iZleva. kerZod, am gamokvlevaTa mixedviT, sqesTaSorisi gansxvavebebi umniSvneloa. am ori tipis kvlevebs Tu SevadarebT erTmaneTs, aRmovaCenT, rom meore tipis kvlevebi emsaxureba e.w. realurad arsebuli sqesTa Soris sxvaobebis gamovlenas. pirveli tipis kvlevebi ki mimarTulia genderisa da genderuli sxvaobebis gamosavlenad. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, isini ikvleven sqesTa reprezentaciebsa da maT sxvaobebs Cvens cnobierebaSi anu Cvens mexsierebaSi Senaxul cnebebs `qali~ da `mamakaci~. qarTuli fsiqologiuri skolis _ ganwyobis fsiqologiis farglebSi Cvens mier Catarebuli kvlevebis Sedegad dadgenil iqna mexsierebaSi semantikuri informaciis Senaxvis formebisa da meqanizmebis kanonzomierebebi. es kanonzomierebiebi naTels hfens e.w. `iluzoruli korelaciis~ meqanizms. saqme isaa, rom cnebebi `qali~ da `mamakaci~ warmoadgenen tipur bunebriv cnebebs da enis sistemaSi funqcionireben. amdenad, iseve, rogorc yvela bunebrivi cneba, isini Camoyalibdnen adamianis individualuri da istoriuli gamocdilebis procesSi. amasTan es bunebrivi cnebebi mexsierebaSi struqturirebulia ara logikis principebiT, ara arsebiTi niSnebis mixedviT, rogorc es logikuri mecnieruli cnebebis SemTxvevaSia, aramed im praqtikuli funqciis niSnis mixedviT, romelsac asruleben maTSi nagulisxmevi obieqtebi (am SemTxvevaSi qalebi da mamakacebi) socialur garemoSi. mexsierebaSi maTi struqturirebis meqanizms mTlian pirivnuli konstruqti -fiqsirebuli ganwyoba warmoadgens, romelSic asaxulia da dafiqsirebulia qalebisa da mamakacebis xSiri da mniSvnelovani (individualuri da istoriuli TvalsazrisiT) funqciebi, romlebsac isini asrulebdnen Tanacxovrebis dros ama Tu im kulturaSi. amgvarad, bunebrivi cnebebi `qali~ da `mamakaci~ anu sqesTa genderuli reprezentaciebi funqcionalurad struqturirebulni arian. swored amitom isini gansxvavdebian logikuri cnebebisagan `qali~ da `mamakaci~, romelTac ikvlevs sqesTaSorisi sxvaobebis gasazomi instrumentebi (realuri inteleqti, realuri fizikuri Zala, emociuroba, agresiuloba Tu ConCxisa da kunTebis sistemis siZliere). erT-erT cnobil gamokvlevaSi, romelic kondrim da kondrim Caatares (Condry, Condry), cdispirebs aCvenebdnen, films cxra Tvis bavSvze. amasTan mayureblebis naxevars eubnebodnen, rom es bavSvi biWia, xolo meore naxevar ki — rom bavSvi gogoa. es umartivesi manipulacia iwvevda erTi da igive qcevis sruliad gansxvavebul Sefasebas. magaliTad, erT-erT naCveneb epizodSi bavSvi iwyebda yvirils, mas Semdeg rac kolofidan zambara amoagdebs saTamaSos. is adamianebi, romlebic Tvlidnen, rom bavSvi biWia, aRiqvamdnen mas `gabrazebulad~, xolo is adamianebi, romlebic Tvlidnen, rom bavSvi gogoa, aRiqvamdnen mas `SeSinebulad~. kondrim da rosma (Condry, Ross) aseve daadgines, rom bavSvis genderi zegavlenas axdens imaze, rom Tu rogor aRiqvamen mas ufrosebi. maT mier Catarebul kvlevaSi cdispirebs aCvenebdnen videokameraze Caweril bavSvTa TamaSis epizods. ori bavSvi

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TamaSobda TovliT dafarul moedanze. erTnairi kostiumebi maTi sqesis gansazRvris saSualebas ar iZleoda. naCveneb epizodSi erTi bavSvi mudmivad xels kravda meores, axteboda mas da esroda gundebs. mayurebelTa erT nawils eubnebodnen, rom orive bavSvi gogoa, meores - rom orive bavSvi biWia, mesames - rom agresori biWia, xolo meoTxes - rom agresori gogoa. mas Semdeg, rac mayureblebs auxsnes, rom agresia warmoadgens winaswar ganzraxul qmedebas, romelmac SeiZleba ziani moutanos meore bavSvs, maT sTxovdnen SeefasebinaT bavSvis agresiis xarisxi. mayureblebma, romlebic darwmunebulni iyvnen, rom orive bavSvi biWia, miiCnies naCvenebi sqema naklebad agresiulad danarCeni jgufebis SefasebasTan SedarebiT. mkvlevrebi mividnen im daskvnamde, rom genderis kognituri kategoria — genderuli sqema mimarTavs molodinebsa da Sefasebebs garkveuli mimarTulebiT. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, radgan biWebis TamaSis ramdenadme agresiuli gamovlineba normalur movlenad iTvleba, amitom es agresiulad ar fasdeboda. teilorisa da misi kolegebis mier Catarebuli kvlevis rezultatebi aseve adasturebs, rom genderuli stereotipebi mniSvnelovan zegavlenas axdens informaciis gadamuSavebis procesze. imisaTvis, rom ukeT gaerkviaT, Tu rogor axdens gavlenas genderi aRqmasa da informaciis gadamuSavebaze, teilori da falkone eqsperimentis monawileebs asmeninebdnen eqvsi politikuri diskusiis Canawers, romlebic miyavdaT sam qalsa da sam mamakacs. gamosvlebi amomrCevelTa Sexvedrebze iwereboda magnitofonze, sadac TiToeuli kandidati gamoTqvamda eqvs konkretul SemoTavazebas. mkvlevrebma ise dagegmes gamokvleva, rom yvela SemoTavazeba (winadadeba) iyo Tanabrad sasargeblo. maTi arCevani (mkvlevarebis) efuZneboda msgavsi winadadebebis SefasebaTa farTo analizs. yvela gamoTqmuli winadadebidan SeirCa 36 debuleba, romlebmac daaxloebiT erTnairi reitingi miiRo. 13 wuTiani diskusiis mosmenis Semdeg cdis pirebs unda SeefasebinaT, politikurad ramdenad gonieri da damarwmunebeli iyo TiToeuli kandidati, ramdenad sasiamovno da saintereso iqneboda maTTan muSaoba da ramdenad efeqtianad SeZlebda igi mxaris (raionis) xelmZRvanelobas. Sedegad, 5 Sefasebis kriteriumidan 4-Si mamakacebma miiRes ufro maRali Sefaseba (ar iyo gansxvaveba mxolod sasiamovnoebis kriteriumiT Sefasebisas). Tumca ufri gviandel eqsperimentSi, romelic bovem da spensma (Bauvais, Spence) Caatares, eqsperimentis monawileTa umravlesobas aseTi keTilganwyoba mamakacebis mimarT ar gamouvlenia. gaurkvevelia rasTan aris es cvlileba dakavSirebuli: 1982 wlidan (roca teilorma da falkonem Caatares eqsperimenti) da 1987 wlamde (roca bovem da spensma Caatares eqsperimenti) ganwyobebis cvlilebebTan, Tu ufro gviani eqsperimentis monawileebi cdilobdnen gaemarTlebinaT eqsperomentatorebis molodinebi. ar aris gamoricxuli, agreTve, rom rezultatebze gavlena iqonia eqsperimentis Catarebis mciredma meTodologiurma sxvaobebmac. Tumca teilor-falkones da bove-spensis kvlevebis rezultatebi gansxvavdeboda mamakacebis mimarT zedmetad keTilganwyobis xarisxiT, magram orive kvlevam daadastura, rom biologiuri sqesi gamoiyeneba sqemis saxiT informaciis gadamuSavebis procesSi. orive eqsperimentSi monawileebi met Secdomebs uSvebdnen erTi sqesis farglebSi, vidre — sqesTaSoris Secdomebs anu maT ufro xSirad eSlebodaT, Tu romel qals ekuTvnoda esa Tu is gamonaTqvami da iSviaTad uSvebdnen iseT Secdomebs, roca gamonaTqvami qals ekuTvnoda, maT ki mamakacisa egonaT an piriqiT. arsebobs sxva eqsperimentebic, romlebic miuTiTeben, rom adamianebi sxva adamianebis kategorizacias pirvel rigSi sqesis mixedviT axdenen. ase magaliTad, fiskem daadgina, rom eqsperimentis monawileebi xSirad ureven erTmaneTSi erTi da igive sqesis, rasis an iseT adamianebs, romlebic erTi da igive socialur rols

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asruleben an iseT adamianebs, romlebsac erTi da igive saxeli hqviaT. stangorma (Stangor, 1986) daadgina, rom adamianebi kategorizacias ufro xSirad sqesis mixedviT axdenen, vidre - rasisa. fiske da teilori miuTiTebdnen, rom genderul sqemaTa aqtivacia nawilobriv damokidebulia imaze, Tu ramdenad didi xnis win aqtivirdnen isini bolos da ramdenad xSirad iyvnen isini gamoyenebuli adre. rac ufro xSirad xdeboda sqemaTa aqtivacia warsulSi, miT ufro misawvdomia isini mexsierebisaTvis da miT ufro xSirad iqnebian gamoyenebulni. es movlena praimingis efeqtis saxelis matarebelia. amgvarad, unda movelodeT, rom axalgazrdebi da mozardebi, romlebic did yuradRebas aqceven sqesis problemas, gansakuTrebiT xSirad aRiqvamen sxva adamianebs maTi genderis TvalsazrisiT. teilorisa da fiskes azriT, xSirad gamoiyenebuli sqema momarTul (mzadyofnis) mdgomareobaSia. Cvens sazogadoebaSi masmediis saSualebebi zedmetad xSirad amaxvileben yuradRebas genderis problemebze. sruliad SesaZlebelia, rom aseT mimarTebas mivyvarT iqamde, rom Cveni genderuli sqemebi momarTul mdgomareobaSi arian da mzad arian meyseuli aqtivaciisaTvis. rogorc bemi aRniSnavda:

`genderuli sqemis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb sazogadoebis mxridan daJinebiTi gaxseneba genderuli sqemas kidev ufro kogniturad misawvdomad aqcevs~. mravalricxovani gamokvlevebis rezultatebi miuTiTebs imaze, rom genderi is mniSvnelovani kognituri kategoriaa, romelic adamianis aRqmisas gamoiyeneba. Tumca ki zogjer SeiZleba SevxvdeT iseT adamianebsac, romlebic darwmunebulni arian, rom maT mier adamianebis aRqma genderze dafuZnebuli ar aris. marTlac, arsebobs, individualuri gansxvavebebi genderis, rogorc informaciis mniSvnelovani `parametris~ gamoyenebaSi sxva adamianebis aRqmisas. rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, bemis mixedviT, adamiani SeiZleba CaiTvalos genderis sqemis gamomyeneblad, Tuki mas aqvs mzadyofna adamianTa ganmasxvavebeli Tvisebebis da maT Sesaxeb informaciis sortireba moaxdinos genderis safuZvelze. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, igi ekuTvnis im individebs, romlebic ar iyeneben genderul sqemebs. bemis azriT, is adamianebi, romlebic gamoxatul qalur an mamakacur sawyisebs floben, metad SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT genderuli sqemis gamomyeneblebs. genderuli sqemis Teoria genderuli sqemis warmoSobis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas eyrdnoba im mosazrebas, rom Cven dabadebidan gvaxasiaTebs kategorizaciisaken midrekileba, romelic mimdinareobs garegani stimulirebis ganmasxvavebeli Taviseburebebis safuZvelze (rogorc adamianis, aseve sagnebis SemTxvevaSi). garSemomyofi samyaros aseTi dayofa Semadgenel elementebad ukve bavSvobidan iwyeba da warmoadgens kognituri ganviTarebis procesis arss. bavSvoba — es aris swrafi sqematuri ganviTarebisa da daxvewis periodi. bavSvis cxovrebis ZiriTadi nawili swored gare samyaros Sesaxeb informaciis SeTvisebas xmardeba. imisaTvis, rom Seimsubuqon uamravi informaciis SeTviseba, bavSvebi mimarTven kategorizacias. `qaluri~ da `mamakacuri~ warmodgenen diqotomiur amomwurav ganmasxvavebel bunebriv kategoriebs, romlebsac gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba, rogorc zrdasrulebis mxridan, aseve bavSvebis, Tanatolebis mxrdanac. genderi kategorizaciis mniSvnelovani kriteriumia nawilobriv imitomac, rom Cvens sazogadoebaSi mudmivad laparakoben genderuli sxvaobebis mniSvnelovan rolzec. rogorc ukve adre iyo naTqvami, televizia, literatura da folklori Zalian xSirad warmosaxaven qalebsa da mamakacebs iseT arsebebad, romelTa Sorisac didi gansxvavebaa da romlebic sruliad ar gvanan erTmaneTs. mSoblebi, maswavleblebi da Tanatolebi aseve xSirad ubiZgeben bavSvebs gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcion genders da rogorc Sedegi, maT uyalibdebaT azri, rom qali da mamakaci mxolod

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genitaliebiT ar gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan. bavSvebi amCneven, rom qalebi da mamakacebi sxvadasxvagvarad icvamen d cdiloben sxvadasxva rameebi gaakeTon. msgavsi Sexeduleba uyalibdebaT maT sazogadoebis iseTi warmomadgenlebis dakvirvebisas, rogoric arian magaliTad, maTi mSoblebi. iglis (Egly) socialuri rolebis Teoriis mixedviT, socialurma rolebma SeiZleba biZgi misces socialuri stereotipebis Camoyalibebas. is faqti, rom socialuri rolebis umravlesoba qalebis an kacebis mier sruldeba, SeiZleba xels uwyobdes genderis kognitur diqotomizacias. martini da halversoni (Martin, Halverson) werdnen, rom radgan qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris daikvirveba amdeni gansxvaveba, bavSvebi xvdebian, rom genderul kategoriebSi gaTviTcnobierebuloba Zalian sasargebloa garSemomyofTa qcevis winaswarmetyvelebisaTvis. ganvixiloT sqesTa Soris gansxvavebis oTxi kroskulturuli sfero: umcrosebze zrunva, agresia, ufrosebTan siaxlove da sakuTari Rirsebis grZnoba. umcrosebze zrunva: edvardsma da uaitingma (Edwards &Whiting, 1980) eqvsi sxvadasxva kulturi kvlevis Sedagad aRmoaCines, rom 5-dan 12 wlamde asakobriv SualedSi genderuli gansxvavebebi vlindeba ufro Tanmimdevrulad im CvilTa da bavSvTa mimarT qcevaSi, romlebic siaruls swavloben, vidre didebisa da ufroso asakis bavSvebis mimarT. radganac Cvilebi met zrunvas iTxoven, vidre ufrosi bavSvebi, gogonebi, romlebic CvilebTan did dros atareben, ufro met swrafvas avlenen umcrosebze zrunvis, videre - biWebi, romlebic ase didad ar arian dakavebulni patara bavSvebiT.

barim, bekonma da Caildma (Barry, Bacon & Child) aRmoaCines, rom biWebTan SedarebiT, gogonebs metad amzadeben umcrosebze zrunvisTvis (kulturaTa 82%-Si), imisTvis, rom iyvnen ufro damjerni (kulturaTa 35%-Si) da ufro pasuxismgebliani (kulturaTa 61%-Si). biWebs ki Tavis mxriv, aswavlian miznis miRwevas (kulturaTa 87%-Si) da damoukideblobas (kulturaTa 85%-Si). uelCma, peijma da martinma (Welch, Page & Martin, 1981) 108 kulturis kvlevis Sedegad aRmoaCines, rom biWebis roluri orientaciebi metad limitirebulia, gogonebis socialuri orientaciebisgan gansxvavebiT. am ukanasknelTa socialuri orientaciebi gamoirCeva didi mravalferovnebiT. amasTanave, biWebs ufro mkacrad moeTxovebaT miRebuli rolisadmi Sesatyvisoba, videre — gogonebs. agresia: im bavSvTa kroskulturuli gamokvlevebi, romlebmac jer ar miaRwies sqesobriv momwifebas, aCveneben, rom biWebs gogonebTan SedarebiT ufro metad axasiaTebT agresia, meqiSpeobis (Sejibris) suli, dominirebisken swrafva da CxubTan da brZolasTan dakavSirebuli TamaSebi. uaitingisa da edvardsis (B.B. Whiting & Edvards, 1981) mier eqvsi kulturisa da afrikis damatebiTi SerCevis Seswavlis Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom sqesebs Soris arsebobs gansxvaveba agresiulobisa da dominirebisaken swrafvis TvalsazrisiT. dadginda, agreTve, rom agresia ar mcirdeba asakis momatebasTan erTad, aramed piriqiT, igi ufro gamoxatuli xdeba ufrosi asakis biWebSi. dakvirvevbebi, romlebic omarkma, omarkma da edelmanma (Omark, Omark & Edelman, 1975) Caatares eTiopiis, Sveicariis da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saTamaSo moednebze, aCveneben, rom biWebi ufro agresiulad iqcevian, videre - gogonebi. warmoebis TvalsazrisiT, CamorCenili oTxi kulturis Seswavlisas monrom da misma

2000) aRmoaCines, rom agresiis gamovlineba biWebTan ufro xSiria,

kolegebma (Munroe,

vidre — gogonebTan. rodesac gogonebi da biWebi ikribebian erTgvarovan sqesobriv jgfufebad, agresiis epizodebi ufro xSirad gvxvdeba biWebTan, vidre — gogonebTan.

eqvsi kulturis kvlevam aCvena, rom dedebi, Cveulebriv, erTnairad reagireben agresiis gamovlenaze biWebisa Tu gogonebis mxridan. xolo mama mniSvnelovan rols

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asrulebs agresiulobis aRzrdaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki - biWebSi. dadgenilia, rom agresiis xarisxze Zlier zegavlenas axdens aRzrdis kulturuli sistema da am sistemaSi mamakacisa Tu qalis agresiulobisTvis miwerili valentoba. ase magaliTad, Seswavlis Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom okinavaze da amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi sxvadasxvagvarad udgebian gogonebTan da biWebTan agresiulobis aRzrdas. qalebisa da mamakacebis mxridan agresiis mimReblobis xarisxi dasavleT evropis qveynebSi erTnairia, Tumca gansxvavdeba qalebisa da mamakacebis mier agresiis gamovlenis formebi. mamakacebi Tavdapirvelad Zalian TavSekavebulad iqcevian, Tumca Semdeg ufro meti siSmage euflebaT, maSin roca qalebi ufro emociurebi arian da aqvT midrekileba Tavidanve mimarTon yvirils an sityvier kinklaobas. ufrosebTan siaxlove da moRvaweobis xasiaTi: fridmani (Ftedman, 1976) akvirdeboda 5-7 wlis bavSvebis TamaSs rva kulturaSi (avstralieli aborigenebi, balis, taivanis, ceilonis, kikuitus, iaponiis macxovreblebs, navahos tomis warmomadgenlebs da penjabebi). man aRmoaCina, rom biWebi TamaSis dros grovdebian did jgufebSi, did manZilebs gadian da ufro metad arian TamaSis fizikuri saxeobebiT dakavebulni, maSin roca gogonebi ufro metad iseTi TamaSebiT erTobian, romlebic garkveuli moqmedebebis gameorebasTan da laparakTan aris dakavSirebuli. garda amisa, gogonebi, Cveulebriv, naklebad Sordebian saxls. gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom genderul gansxvavebaTa gaRrmavebaSi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs is prioritetebi, romlebic garkveul qcevebs eniWebaT biWebisa Tu gogonebis mxridan. biWebi metad eswragvian sxva biWebTan urTierTobebs, xolo gogonebi upiratesobas aniWeben ufrosebTan urTierTobas. sqesis mixedviT segregacias asaxaven, agreTve, bavSvebis naxatebic. maTi analizi gviCvenebs, rom biWebi ufro xSirad xataven biWebs, xolo gogonebi — gogonebs. bavSvebis naxatebSi genderuli gansaxvavebebis gamovlenad miiCneva, agreTve, isic, rom biWebi ufro xSirad xataven manqanebs, urCxulebs da agresiasTan dakavSirebul scenebs, movlenebs Tu sagnebs, xolo gogonebi upiratesobas aniWeben yvavilebis daxatvas. sqesis mixedviT bavSvTa naxatTa aseT gansxvavebebi gamovlinda gamokvleuli cxra sxvadasxva kulturidan yvelaSi.

sakuTari Rirsebis grZnoba: gamokvlevebis Sedegad dadgenilia, rom TiTqmis yvela kulturaSi gogonebi naklebad kmayofilni arian imiT, rom isini gogonebi arian, vidre biWebi imiT, rom isini biWebi arian. miuxedavad amisa, gogonebis Tavisi sqesiT aseTi ukmayofileba yovelTvis ar gamoixateba dabal TviTSefasebaSi. ase magaliTad, gogonebi filipinebSi, nepalSi, avstraliaSi da nigeriaSi Tvlian, rom isini biWebTan SedarebiT naklebad niWierebi arian fizikasa da maTematikaSi. amave dros, gogonebs avstraliaSi da nigeriaSi miaCniaT, rom maTi miRwevebi kiTxvaSi gacilebiT ufro didia, vidre — biWebis warmatebebi am saganSi. nigerieli biWebi ki Tvlian, rom isini gogonebze ufro Wkvianebi arian. amgvarad, gogonebsa da biWebs Soris arsebobs myarad gamoxatuli gansxvavebebi umcrosebze zrunvaSi, agresiaSi da mobilurobaSi da es gansxvavebebi vlindeba yvela kulturaSi. kultura ayalibebs bavSvTa socialur qcevas, gansazRvravs im adamianTa wres, romelTa garemocvaSic bavSvi imyofeba. kultura gansazRvravs, agreTve, im saqmianobebis saxeebsac, romlebiTac sxvadasxva sqesis bavSvebi arian dakavebulni. mamakacebis socialuri roli dakavSirebulia maTi bunebis, rogorc `Semomtanis~ gagebasTan da umravles kulturaSi mijnavs qalebisa da mamakacebis funqciebs. feministebis did nawils miaCnia, rom ar aris saWiro mamakacis socialuri rolebis Seswavla, radgan es gvaSorebs mTavar problemas _ qalis diskriminaciul mdgomareobaze yuradRebis gamaxvilebas. magram faqtia, rom kultura uwesebs

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mamakacebs garkveul socialur SezRudvebs iseve, rogorc qalebs da amitom mniSvnelovania am SezRudvebis Seswavla. unda iTqvas, rom dReisaTvis arsebobs sakmaod mwiri empiriuli masala, romelic eZRvneba tradiciuli mamakacuri rolebis Seswavlas. es genderuli kvlevebis SedarebiT axali da naklebad ganviTarebuli sferoa. mamakacuri genderuli rolebis aTvisebis meqanizmi iseTivea, rogorc qaluri genderuli rolisa (diferencialuri socializacia, modelebze dakvirveba, kulturuli arxebis saSualebiT zegavlena) mamakacebi, iseve rogorc qalebi mudmivi informaciuli da normatiuli zewolis zegavlenis qveS imyofebian. yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi biWebi da mamakacebi socialuri informaciis didi nakadis zemoqmedebis qveS imyofebian. maTi qceva isjeba, rogorc ki igi gadauxvevs tradiciulad `mamakacuri~ qcevis normebidan. `mamakacurobis~ Sesaxeb warmodgenebs biWebi iTviseben kulturis da socializaciis sxva institutebis meSveobiT. am SexedulebaTa sistemas plekma (Pleck) da misma kolegebma mamakacurobis ideologia uwodes. faqtiurad es aris socialuri normebis krebuli mamakacebisTvis. tompsonma da plekma mamakacuri genderuli roli gansazRvres, rogorc socialuri normebi, romelic Seicavs nebarTvebsa da akrZalvebs imis Taobaze, Tu ra unda igrZnos da akeTos mamakacma da ra -ara. tompsonmma da plekma gamokvlevis Sedagad daadgines, rom mamakacTa roluri normebis struqtura Sedgeba sami mniSvnelovani faqtorisgan:

pirveli — es aris molodinebi imis Taobaze, rom mamakacebi miaRweven maRal statuss da daimsaxureben garSemomyofTa pativiscemas (statusis norma); meore — mdgradobis norma, romelic gansazRvravs mamakacebisgan gonrbrivi, emociuri da fizikuri mdgradobis molodins; mesame _ es aris molodini imisa, rom mamakacma Tavi unda aaridos stereotipulad qalur saqmianobebs (antiqalurobis norma). zogierT sazogadoebaSi am normas iseTi Zlieri zegavlenis Zala aqvs, rom igi zogjer mamakacSi femifobiis saxiTac vlindeba. mamakacis stereotipuli normebi did zegavlenas axdens maT yoveldRiur cxovrebaze. ubralo magaliTebic ki cxadyofs, rom umravles sazogadoebebSi mamakaci — mamakaci ar aris, Tu is fuls ar Soulobs, Tu igi emociuria, fizikurad sustia, ar SeuZlia kompetenturi rCevebis mocema an qaluri saqmianobebiT aris dakavebuli. bernma da leverma (Burn & Laver, 1994) aRmoaCines, rom amerikeli qalebi da mamakacebi srulad eTanxmebodnen erTmaneTs imaSi, rom mamakacma kariera unda gaikeTos. amasTanave, umravlesoba maTgani iziarebda im azrsac, rom mamakacma bevri fuli unda iSovos. statusis stereotipis mamakacis mimarT moqmedebas adasturebs igive avtorebis sxva kvlevac, romelSic gaanalizda amerikuli Jurnalebis e.w. `paemnebis~ nawili. aRmoCnda, rom qalebi, gansxvavebiT mamakacebisagan, sasurveli partnioris amorCevisas prioritets mis statussa da finansur mdgomareobas aniWebdnen. statusisa da warmatebulobis norma garkveul problemebs uqmnis mamakacebs. saqme isaa, rom maT umravlesobas ar Seswevs unari 100%-iT daakmayofilos igi. es ki maTi dabali TviTSefasebis safuZveli xdeba. Zalian cota mamakacs aqvs sakmarisi fuli, Zalaufleba da pativiscema sazogadebaSi, radgan yovelTvis moiZebneba adamiani, romelic socialur kibeze ufro maRla dgas. sazogadoebis mxridan mamakacebis Sefasebas maTi Semosavlebis mixedviT xSir SemTxvevaSi mivyevarT TviTaqtualizaciis xarisxis dacemamde. kerZod, mamakaci iZulebulia akeTos saqme, romelic ar ainteresebs, ar uyvars da igi muSaobs mxolod imitom, rom es samuSao kargad anazRaurebadia. finansuri zewola gansakuTrebiT mZimea iseTi mamakacebis SemTxvevaSi, romlebsac diasaxlisi colebi hyavT. rodesac mamakaci Semosavlis erTaderTi wyaroa, mas xSirad aRiqvamen rogorc fulis tomaras da yvela cdilobs am tomridan fulis amoRebas. kvlevebi aCvenebs, rom rac ufro izrdeba mamakacis Semosavali, miT ufro

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klebulobs misi wvlili bavSvebis aRzrdaSi. iaponiaSi, sadac mamakacurobis norma gulisxmobs sruli datvirTviT muSaobas, mamebi saSualod bavSvebTan 3 wT-s urTierToben samuSao dReebSi, xolo uqme dRes ki maTi bavSvebTan urTierTobis xangrZlovoba 19 wT-s Seadgens. unda aRiniSnos, rom mamakacurobis gagebaSi arsebobs garkveuli variaciebi, romlebic Seaqvs garkveul rasas, nacionalobas, socialuri klasisadmi an kul- turisadmi mikuTvnebulobas, seqsualur orientacias da sxv. miuxedavad amisa, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mamakacurobis zemoT CamoTvlili normebi universaluria. mamakacebisaTvis dawesebuli kulturuli normebi Zalian xSirad maTTvis konfliqtisa da steresis safuZveli xdeba. xSir SemTxvevebSi isini aryeven mamakacTa fizikur da fsiqikur janmrTelobas, zogjer ki maTi mxridan qalebisa da bavSvebis mimarT uxeSobisa da Zaladobis safuZvelic SeiZleba gaxdnen.

leqciis msvlelobisas moyvanili iqneba konkteruli magaliTebi yoveldRiuri cxovrebidanac. rac xels Seuwyobs studentebis mier mamakacebisa da qalebis genderuli normebis moqmedebis meqanizmebis ukeT gacnobas. gansakuTrebiT xazi gaesmeba tradiciul mamakacur rolebs da normebs. gaanalizebuli iqneba genderuli stereotipebis funqciebi da, agreTve, stresi da konfliqti, romelsac iwvevs tradiciuli qaluri da mamakacuri rolebi Tanamedrove pirobebSi. saleqcio kursis bolos studentebs miewodebaT ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi:

genderuli rolebi — es aris socialuri rolebi, romlebiTac qalebi da mamakacebi arian araerTgvarovnad dakavebulni ojaxisa da profesiuli moRvaweobis sxvadasxva sferoSi, da agreTve, Tavisufali drois ganmavlobaSi.

iluzoruli korelacia - cnebaTa Soris kavSiris simyaris xarisxis zedmetad maRali Sefaseba an mcdeloba daadgino igi iq, sadac kavSiri saerTod ar arsebobs. genderis SemTxvevaSi moCvenebiTi an gadametebuli kavSiri xSirad moiazreba gendersa da garkveul Tvisebebs, Cvevebs da qcevebs Soris.

genderuli sxvaobebi — sxvaobebi qalebisa da mamakacebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel TvisebaTa da qcevaTa Soris, romelic socialur-kulturul xasiaTs atarebs.

praimingis efeqti - procesi, romlis Sedegadac cotaxniswinandeli gancdebi da procesebi aZliereben ama Tu im informaciis misawvdomobas.

statusis/warmatebulobis norma _ genderuli stereotipi, romlis mixedviTac mamakacis socialuri Rirseba ganisazRvreba misi Semosavlis sididiT da warmatebis xarisxiT samsaxurSi.

fizikuri siZlieris norma _ mamakacurobis stereotipi, romlis mixedviTac mamakacs unda hqondes didi fizikuri Zala da maRali biologiuri aqtivoba.

gonebrivi siZlieris norma — mamakacurobis stereotipi, romlis mixedviTac mamakaci unda iyos mcodne da kompetenturi.

emociuri mdgradobis norma — mamakacurobis stereotipi, romlis mixedviTac mamakacs unda hqondes naklebi grZnobebi da SeeZlos gadawyvitos Tavisi emociuri problemebi damoukideblad.

antiqalurobis norma — stereotipi, romlis mixedviTac mamakacma Tavi unda aaridos specifikurad qalur saqmianobebs da qcevis modelebs.

femifobia - es aris mamakacis SiSi, rom igi ar iqnes garSemomyofebisgan Sefasebuli, rogorc qaluri.

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leqciis Semdeg studentebs daevalebaT individualuri muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnil droSi moamzadon saswavlo kursis riderSi warmodgenili leqciis Tematikis Sesatyvis masalebi.

seminari # 4 (Tema # 4 ) — 2 sT

seminarze

moxdeba studentis mier momzadebuli esses prezentacia; gaimarTeba

jgufuri diskusia seminaris Temaze. kerZod, dasmuli iqneba Semdegi tipis kiTxvebi:

1. ra faqtorebi gansazRvravs genderuli stereotipebis Camoyalibebas?

2. ra zegavlenas axdens genderuli stereotipebi adamianis da sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi?

3. ras niSnavs genderulad tipirebuli adamiani da riTi gansxvavdeba igi genderulad aratipirebuli adamianisagan?

4. rogor vlindeba qalebisa da mamakacebis gansxvavebuli socialuri rolebi?

5. ra SezRudvebs uweserbs tradiciuli ideologia mamakacebs?

6. ra faqtorebi gansazRvravs mcire sqesTaSoris sxvaobebis did genderul sxvaobebad gardaqmnas?

7. rogor xsnis genderuli sqemis Teoria genderul iluzorul korelaciebs?

8. rogor ixsneba genderuli iluzoruli korelaciebi qarTuli fsiqologiuri skolis poziciebidan?

9. ra faqtorebi gansazRvravs gansxvavebul genderul rolebs sxvadasxva kulturebSi?

seminarze gamoyenebuli iqneba, agreTve, SemTxvevis ganxilvis meTodi. kerZod, studentebs daurigdebaT kanadis adamianis uflebebis fondis 22-e saerTaSoriso sesiis masalebSi warmodgenili SemTxvevis aRwera: `sabediswero mdinaris istoria~, romelic ama Tu im kulturaSi genderuli stereotipebis da genderuli rolebis Sefasebas eZRvneba. studentebi individualurad gaecnobian istorias da Semdeg Seafaseben iq warmodgenil personaJebs specialuri Sefasebis kiTxvaris safuZvelze. moxdeba Sedegebis jgufuri ganxilva da Sejameba. jgufuri Sefasebis Semdeg studentebs eZlevaT instruqcia Secvalon sapirispiroTi yoveli personaJis sqesi da amis Semdeg, kidev erTxel Seavson Sefasebis kiTxvari. miRebuli Sedegebi kvlev ganixileba da Sejamdeba erToblivi muSaobis gziT. gakeTdeba genderuli stereotipebis analizi pirveli da meore Sefasebis urTierTSedarebis safuZvelze.

ZiriTadi literatura:

1.

Male/Femaile Roles, Jonatan S. petrikin (ed.), Greenhaven press, Inc., 1995, gv.:17-82;

2.

Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, gv.: 102-144.

damatebiTi literatura:

1.

Best D. L., Williams I. E. Gender and culture. – in Culture and Psychology, edited by David Matsumoto.

Oxford University press, 2001, gv.: 334-337;

2.

Burn S.M. The Socal Psychology of Gender, McGraw-Hill, Inc.1996, gv.: 196-218;

3.

Male/Femaile Roles, Jonatan S. petrikin (ed.), Greenhaven press, Inc., 1995, gv.: 252-294;

4.

Handbook of Marriage and the family, edited by Marrin B. Sussman & Suzann K. Steinmetz, Plenum Press, 1988, gv.: 535-560;

5.

George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, T. VII;

6.

zurikaSvili f. maRraZe g. WaniSvili n. xuciSvili g. jorbenaZe r. konfliqti, genderi da mSvidobis mSenebloba, gaeros ganviTarebis fondi qalTaTvis, Tb., 2003, nawili II.

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kvira #5

leqcia (2 sT)

Tema #5 - ojaxi da sazogadoeba. qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris urTierTobebi. kroskulturuli gansxvavebebi.

leqciaze mocemuli iqneba ojaxis mokle istoria, misi gansazRvreba, ojaxisa da sazogadoebis sxva institutebis mimarTeba, ojaxis struqtura dinamika da funqciebi, colqmruli urTierToba da misi stilebi. ganxiluli iqneba ojaxis tipebis sxvadasxva klasifikaciebi. mokled ganxiluli iqneba qorwinebis Tanamedrove paterebi da agreTve, qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris urTierTobebi germanul, koreul, amerikul da Svedur ojaxebSi.

,

ojaxi da qorwineba warmoiSva jer kidev pirvelyofil sazogadoebaSi — Sua paleoliTSi. sazogadoebis ganviTarebasTan erTad ojaxmac ganvlo ganviTarebis araerTi etapi, romlebSic ZiriTadia e.w. wyviladi ojaxi, patriarqalur-monogamuri ojaxi da monogamur-elitaruli ojaxi. mecniereba Tvlis, rom ojaxi sazogadoebis kvaldakval icvleba, magram mas, agreTve, aqvs konservatuli xasiaTic; radgan meyseulad sazogadoebaSi warmoqmnili axali movlenebi maSinve ki ar aisaxeba masSi, aramed _ TandaTanobiT. konservatuloba gamoixateba imaSic, rom yoveli axali periodis azrovneba mistiris wina periodis ojaxis funqcionirebas da ufro srulyofilad miiCnevs mas. azrovneba Znelad iRebs axals. cvlilebis yvela tendencia aRiqmeba, rogorc krizisis, gadagvarebis maCvenebeli. maS rodis iyo ojaxi yvela ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblis mixedviT (Sobadoba, bavSvebis aRzrda, qorwinebis sakiTxebi mogvareba, ojaxis wevriTa ufleba—movaleobebis ganawileba da sxv.) yvelaze srulyofili? aseTi wiaRsvliT Cven mivadgebiT patriarqalur ojaxs da Tanac despoturs! ra gamodis? erTis mxriv yvelaze srulyofili da organizebuli patriarqalur—despoturi ojaxi, meores mxriv, ki dRevandeli Cveni epoqisTvis misi sruli miuRebloba. amitomac ar aris gasakviri, rom dRes ojaxis Sesaxeb SromaTa umetesoba iwyeba ojaxis masStaburi kriziis aRiarebiT.

ojaxis gansazRvreba. ra aris ojaxi, rogor ganisazRvreba igi aravisTvis sadavo ar aris, rom ojaxi socialuri institutia; zusti ganmartebisTvis mivmarToT filistimikas — ojaxis Sesaxeb mecnierebas. mravali ganmartebidan saxelmZRvanelod miRebulia, Semdegi: `ojaxi aris qorwinebisa da sisxlis naTesaobis niadagze Seqmnili socialuri sistema — mcire jgufi, romlis wevrebi erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli arian yofa-cxovrebis erTianobiT, moraluri urTierTpasuxismgeblobiT da urTierTdaxmarebiT. magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT Tanamedrove tendenciebs da gansakuTrebiT dasavleTis sazogadoebis realobas, maSin SeiZleba ufro sagulisxmod gveCvenos Semdegi ganmarteba: `ojaxi aris daqorwinebuli meuRleebi SvilebiT an maT gareSe, an martoxela mSobeli SviliT~. amgvarad, ojaxi aris sazogadoebis ujredi (mcire socialuri jgufi) dafuZnebuli col-qmrul kavSirsa da naTesaur urTierTobebze, anu igi moicavs colqmars Soris, mSoblebsa da Svilebs Soris, debsa da Zmebs Soris da sxva naTesavebs Soris urTierTobebs, urTierTobebs im adamianebs Soris, romlebic erTad cxovroben da uZRvebian saerTo meurneobas. ojaxi asrulebs udides rols, rogorc calkeuli pirovnebis, aseve mTeli sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi.

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ojaxi da sazogadoeba. ojaxi socialur—biologiuri warmonaqmnia. mas ganapirobeben, rogorc socialuri, aseve biologiuri moTxovnilebebi (sqesobrivi instiqtebi). swored biofsiqosocialuri moTxovnilebebis damTxvevam warmoqmna socialuri instituti — qorwineba. qorwineba da ojaxi sazogadoebis keTildReobis da simSvidis garantia. igi sazogadoebis seqsualuri cxovrebis momwesrigebelia, mozardi Taobis socializaciis saSualebaa. Tavis mxriv ki, sazogadoeba uzrunvelyofs ojaxis normaluri funqcionireba- ganviTarebis pirobebs da mis daculobas. sxvadasxva sazogadoebebi aregulirebs qorwinebas da ojaxs, kerZo urTierTobebs wyvilebs Soris. kanoni da kanonmdebloba gansazRvravs imas, Tu vis visTan SeuZlia qorwineba. magaliTad, sxvadasxva sqesis adamianebis garda, zogierT qveyanaSi erTi sqesis adamianebsac aqvT amis ufleba. kanoni gansazRvravs qorwinebis minimalur asaksac. sxvadasxva qveynebis da kulturebis kanonmdebloba da, agreTve, religia gansazRvravs imasac, Tu ramdeni coli SeiZleba yavdes mamakacs, an ramdeni qmari SeiZleba hyavdes qals, agreTve, gayrisa da xelaxali qorwinebis SesaZleblobas. zogi sazogadoeba qorwinebis farglebs gareT sqesobrivi kavSirisaTvisac mkacrad gansjis pirovnebas. amis magaliTebia aRmosavleTis poligamia, afrikis zogierT qveynebSi (magaliTad, burkino fsasoSi) gavrcelebuli poliandria, dasavleTis erTsqesiani ojaxebi. agreTve sagulisxmoa, rom aRmosavleTis qveynebSi qorwineba gacilebiT axalagazrdaa, vidre — dasavleTSi. aRmosavleTSi qorwinebis saSualo asaki (qalebis) 18 welia. amerikaSi ki — 25 weli. evropis zog qveyanaSi da skandinaviis qveynebSi ki _ kidev ufro xandazmuli. aRsaniSnavia, rom radgan qorwinebis instituts istoriulad mkacrad patriarquli xasiaTi aqvs, amitom gvari da tituli gadaicema mamakacuri xaziT; es saerToa TiTqmis yvela kulturisaTvis.

ojaxis tipebi. cnobilia, rom ojaxis mravali tipologia arsebobs. umetesad

tipologiis ZiriTadi kriteriumebia saqorwino wyvilis (ojaxis birTvis) dayofa arseboba-ararsebobis mixedviT da maTi raodenobis mixedviT. gamoyofen patara anu nuklearul (erTi daqorwinebuli wyvili SvilebiT (SviliT) an uSvilod) da rTul ojaxs. rTuli ojaxi arTianebs Semdeg qvetipebs:

1. erTi daqorwinebuli wyvili SviliT (SvilebiT) an uSvilod da erT—erTi meuRlis mSobeli;

2. erTi daqorwinebuli wyvili SviliT (SvilebiT) an uSvilod, erTi meuRlis mSobeli (an mis gareSe) da sxva naTesavebi;d da sxva naTesavebi (an mis gareSe);

3. deda SviliT (SvilebiT) da erT-erTi mSobeli;

4. mama SviliT (SvilebiT) da erT-erTi mSobeli;

5. danarCeni ojaxebi, sadac arian da-Zmebi, bebia-babuebi, sxva naTesavebi da a.S.

ojaxis klasifikaciis erT-erTi parametria _ ojaxuri marTvis (xelmZRvanelobis) stili. es ukanaskneli specialur literaturaSi ganisazRvreba, rogorc mSoblebis im

qmedebis ragvaroba, romelic miznad isaxavs bavSvebis swor gzaze dayenebas. am klasifikaciis mixedviT, ojaxi oTx ZiriTad tipad (avtoritetuli, avtoritaruli, liberaluri da indiferentuli) iyofa. es klasifikacia xorcieldeba mSoblebis Svilebisadmi gamovlenili kontrolis da maTdami gamoxatuli siTbos mixedviT. mokled davaxasiaTod TiToeuli maTgani.

indiferentuli mSobeli gamoirCeva Svilebisadmi kontrolis dabali doniT, maTdami siTbos naklebobiT da ugulisyurobiT. aseTi mSoblebi TavianTi SvilebisTvis ar adgenen TiTqmis aranair SezRudvebs, rac SesaZloa maTi yoveldRiuri problemebiT da Svilebisadmi arasakmarisi interesiT aris ganpirobebuli.

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avtoritetuli mSoblebi axorcieleben Svilebze maRali donis kontrols da amave dros, maTTan aqvT Tbili urTierTobebi. avtoritetuli mSoblebi adgenen TavianTi SvilebisaTvis SezRudvebs da mkacrad icaven maT mier SemuSavebul wesebs, Tumca isini uxsnian TavianT Svilebs am SezRudvis mizezebs, ris gamoc mSoblis qceva Svils ar eCveneba Zalismierad da usamarTlod. avtoritetuli mSoblebis Svilebs aqvT maRali TviTdarwmunebis done, mTlianad akontroleben sakuTar Tavs, arian socialurad kompetenturebi. aseTi mSoblebis Svilebs aqvT maRali TviTSefaseba. maT aqvT maRali akademiuri moswrebis donec.

liberaluri mSoblebi axorcieleben Svilis mimarT nakleb kontrols (SezRudvebs) da aqvT Svilisadmi sakmaod Tbili urTierTobebi. isini TiTqmis saerTod ar zRudaven Svilis qcevas da avlenen maTdami e.w. `upirobo siyvaruls~, maSinac ki, roca liberaluri mSoblebi gabrazebulni arian TavianTi Svilis qceviT, cdiloben TavSekavebas. maT axasiaTebT SvilebTan Ria, SeuZRudavi urTierTobebi.

avtoritaruli mSoblebi Svilebze axorcieleben Zlier kontrols (adgenen mkacr moTxovnebs da mkacrad moiTxoven maT mier dadgenili wesebis Sesrulebas), rasac Tan erTvis SvilebTan maTi gulwrfelobis da sulieri siaxlovis araseboba da Sesabamisad, ufro civi urTierTo