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A Review on Repair and Rehabilitation of Buildings

Abstract: Information regarding this paper discusses the Review of Repair and Rehabilitation of
Heritage Buildings. In current scenario of Building Research, Repair and Rehabilitation plays a
vital role as it serves important in building applications. It acts as an inevitable solution in
maintaining the Integrity of Structures, in case of Heritage structures. Repair and Rehabilitation
of heritage buildings has become a concern of greater importance over the world, notably in
the developed countries. The major defects reported are discussed and a suitable and
economical solution for a particular defect is identified by a tradeoff between cost, lifetime and
adaptability of the solution.

Key Words: Heritage, Repair, Rehabilitation, Heritage Buildings, Cost, Lifetime, Adaptability.

Repair and Rehabilitation is an Art of Civil Engineering work which enables to extend the service
life of a structure. Repair and Rehabilitation is defined as the process of achieving the original
state of structure when it undergoes any sort of defects or deterioration or destruction.
Restoration of structure is an ultimate aim of Repair and Rehabilitation where it plays a major
role by maximizing the functional utility of the structure. Repair and Rehabilitation technique is
also used to modify a structure to meet new functional and other requirements. Many
structures may need Repair and Rehabilitation for one of the following reasons
1. Deterioration due to Environment effect.
2. New functional or loading requirements entering modifications to a structure.
3. Damage due to accidents.
Repair and Rehabilitation includes several systematic approaches that are lined up with various
strategies to promote a desired level in attaining maximum life of the structure. Generally, life
of a structure depends on geography of location, Building material, Technology and
Workmanship. Geography of location includes various aspects such as type of strata, water
table, earthquake or wind or cyclone or flood or snow, pollutant, landslide and tree location
with respect to building. Building materials includes cement, lime, fine sand, coarse sand, quality
of water, bamboo or wood, brick. Technology includes various aspects such as architectural
design, construction methods, and quality practices. Finally one of the major factor
workmanship includes various aspects such as structural work, finishing work, waterproofing
work, maintenance of building. The basic process flow employed in Repair and Rehabilitation
includes identification of the building that should be rehabilitated, history of the building,
preliminary survey which includes preliminary tests that are performed, identification of
problems, and suitable solution for the problem which should be feasible to the building
topography conditions.

Repair and Rehabilitation of structures

It includes various criteria depending upon the type of structures. These include spalling of
structural members, settlement, spalling of non-structural members, leakages in the structure,
redesigning of existing structure for nature forces and changed functional requirements. Repair
and Rehabilitation plays a major role in construction industry, as it provides a maximum benefits
to the surrounding. It acts as a perfect support for the structure that needs immediate
maintenance and preservation. Various structures that are being served by repair and
rehabilitation are Bridges, Dams, and Buildings, where there is an impact of heavy public
gathering and Heritage Buildings.

Among construction sector, Repair and Rehabilitation grabs more attention towards heritage
buildings. This is because heritage building serves the integrity of culture in and around the
world. So it is an important topic to be concentrated for review. In this review a tradeoff
between the cost, lifetime and adaptability of the technique is archived, thus providing clear
and detailed information regarding the repair methods for the particular problem incurred in
the historical buildings.
India, being a land of rich cultural heritage, is a treasure house of historic buildings and
monuments in a comprehensive approach, one has to look at the potential of “preservation”,
“rehabilitation”, and “restoration” of historic structures. “Preservation” involves maintaining
and stabilizing the existing form and integrity of a historical structure so as to protect its heritage
value. “Rehabilitation”, on the other hand, entails making possible a continuing or compatible
contemporary use of a historic building through repair, alterations and additions, while
protecting its heritage value. So far as “restoration” is concerned, it refers to making a historic
structure reflect its original state as it appeared at a particular period in its history.
All these modes of conservation demand a very rational and scientific approach which starts
with a study of structural integrity, and takes the course of determining the causes of
deterioration, planning the corresponding remedial measures, selecting compatible repair and
restoration materials, site planning in consonance with end objectives and meticulous execution
with the help of qualified contractors. On the whole, conservation involves intervention at
various levels that are determined by the physical conditions, the causes of deterioration and
the on-going needs of the place and surroundings. By and large, a policy of minimal intervention
is generally desirable. Further, the settings of heritage buildings are often of great relevance
and, therefore, buildings alone are not considered in isolation. The environs of a heritage
building can be extensive and may include boundary walls, pathways, outhouses, vistas and
views. Hence, the demands and intensities of preservation and restoration of historical and
cultural sites are high and deeply aesthetic along with the approaches being technologically
It is not only enough to restore, rehabilitate or preserve a historical building. It requires to be
maintained thereafter. It is the continuous protective care of the fabric, contents and setting of
a place that is crucial to the conservation of heritage buildings. Hence, an appropriate and timely
maintenance is an important component of any cost-effective conservation program. From the
perspective of materials science and technology the restoration of historical buildings differs
significantly from the repair of modern concrete structures. The ancient construction used lime
as a binder, surkhi as a pozzolana, terracotta as a facading material, porous natural stone blocks
as the structural elements, and so on as opposed to Portland cement based concrete, mortar
and plaster in the modern buildings. The pattern of damage, therefore, is different in the older
structures. Repair demands breathable and compatible materials. There can certainly be good
opportunities of modernizing the repair materials, without sacrificing their breathability and
There are requirements of applying modern NDT (Non Destructive Test) and PDT (Partially
Destructive Test) facilities to assess structural stability and integrity of the old structures.
Looking at all these technicalities, we felt that this is the time to create some wider awareness
amongst the repair professionals about the scope and challenges that are encountered in the
sphere of heritage conservation. This is all the more important because vandalism and
defilement of heritage aspects are common in our country.

Factors Deteriorating Heritage Buildings

The existence of heritage in our environment has indeed provoked the belief that people came
from somewhere and this offers the people the self-confidence to face the future.
Heritage largely defines the identity of a society and it is passed down from one generation to
another. In order to pass on to future generations what is currently identified as being of cultural
significance today, we must imbibe good conservation practices especially for the heritage
buildings in order to prevent them from deterioration and extend the life and basic functions of
these buildings.
The heritage buildings constructed in the past that have high historical, architectural, spiritual,
social, political and economic values. Similarly heritage buildings are highly valuable and
informative in terms of socio-cultural, socio-political, socio-economical and even technological
activities of a specific society or group of individual
Heritage buildings differ from modern buildings in the sense that they are anticipated to last
permanently. Also heritage buildings are buildings that for various factors society has decided
that they shall be preserved for as long as possible.
Heritage buildings are seriously threatened by environmental agencies such as moisture,
intense solar radiation and prevailing winds which change their physical attributes. The major
effects of these environmental agencies include discoloration, abrasion, cracks, stains and
fungal growth.
Apart from exposure to weather, biochemical agencies also hasten the deterioration of heritage
buildings tremendously.

Some indications of masonry problems are -

Bulging - indicates the wall has moved.
Cracking - indicates movement within the wall.
Straining - indicates excessive dampness.
Crumbling - indicates moisture penetration due to poor brick or to sand-blasting.
Paint Blistering - indicates moisture trapped behind paint.
Mortar Cracking - indicates cement mortar is too hard and is popping out in freeze-thaw cycles.

The two major factors responsible for the deterioration of heritage buildings.
Natural Factors:
• Flood
• Biological Factors like such as mosses, fungus, algae, and insects
• Moisture
• Rainstorm
• Ground salts and water
• Windstorm
• Air Pollutant
• Solar Radiation
• Temperature
• Vibration due to Traffic, Blasting, excavations in neighborhood, seismic disturbances

Social Factors:
• Fire
• Urban Development
• Vandalism

Conservation & Preservation Techniques

Structural Conservation
Chemical Preservation


• Bricks and Stones
• Stucco
• Wood Siding
Proper Mortar mixes
The right mortar mix for a masonry wall is very important, so that it moves with the wall. If the
original mortar has fared well, the intent is to duplicate its mix. The following is a rough guide
of mortars for different types of brick and stone.
Cleaning masonry
Cleaning methods include the following:

Heritage buildings are defined as existing buildings with significant cultural value to society. It
can be said that the cultural value of an existing building is as high as it is old. Rehabilitation of
heritage buildings has become an issue of great importance around the world, particularly in
the most developed societies. It is the result of the need to improve existing buildings for new
conditions of use, and also of the recognition of the importance of conservation of the
architectural heritage.

Our case history is focused on the most significant building of the Sangrur city. Development
Milestones in Sangrur city were established near-about 400 years ago. Maharaja Raghbir Singh,
who has been greatly influenced by the Jaipur city planning, reshaped the pattern of Sangrur
exactly on the lines of Jaipur city, he laid out gardens, erected public and religious building,
constructed metalled roads around the town. He also made the castle pucca. All the main
important buildings were made by Maharaja Raghbir Singh, i.e. Shahi Diwan Khana, Baradari,
Bamba House, Idgah, Lal Bagh, Banasar garden. The
Banasar Garden was constructed during 18th century. The Royal Foundry and Bamba House
were constructed in 1876. Railway station was laid down in 1901. Three oil depots i.e. Indian
Oil, IBP and Bharat Petroleum, were established in 1999.Our case is mainly on the most vital
building of the city i.e. Diwan Khana, which lies adjacent to Banasar.
Historical Background

Adjacent to Banasar, there is another important building known as Diwankhana. Here, Raja of
Jind used to hold Darbar during the princely times. At present there is a beautiful museum
wherein weapons and other important articles belonging to princely times have been displayed.
The splendour of Diwankhana and Baradari convinces one of the high attainments in the field
of art and architecture during princely times. This structure was used by the kings of princely
times, to hold official and personal meetings. Presently, this building has been turned into a
museum that displays weapons and several other articles of princely times. The most attractive
feature of this museum is its carved marble slabs.
Diwan Khana is now known as The Heritage Museum Complex .The part of the complex except
the museum part is in a high degree of distress and is suffering from serious structural issues
such as of settlement in the foundations manifesting in the form of longitudinal and horizontal
cracks, bulging of masonry, a large section of the roofs have caved in or collapsed and the
surviving section is in precarious condition. Another significant threat is the growth of
vegetation and roots of large ficus trees which are causing severe distress in the masonry walls
in the form of bulging and partial collapse and needs to be addressed immediately for the
emergency stabilization of the structure.
Given the extent of structural decay in the form of arch failure, large separation cracks as well
as the vulnerability of the structure to collapse, it is critical that the structural consolidation of
the palace building is addressed on priority. This would require a combination of traditional and
modern technologies such as grouting of the masonry with lime mortar, introduction of helifix
bars and beams to tie the structure together, erection of mini piles to address the sinking
foundation as well as monitoring of the cracks to determine active cracks post intervention.
Given the condition of the inner haveli building, this detailed project report addresses two types
of interventions. First and foremost, preparatory and preventive conservation measures such
as sorting of debris and salvaging reusable material, erection of temporary propping systems to
support the vulnerable area and clearing of the area to undertake conservation planning and
structural consolidation work, removal of vegetation etc. This report also addresses in detail the
method and technologies to be adopted for the structural conservation and the overall
conservation strategy.
Construction Materials
The whole complex is in brick masonry with at least three sizes of brick visible — the narrow
nanakshahi brick, a larger/wider brick dating back to colonial times and the common type being
used now also. In addition to these are the moulded bricks used in the circular columns and flat
brick tiles used in the roofing or paving. While the historic brickwork was in lime mortar, new
additions have used cement mortar. It is recommended that further investigations are required
to certain if there is use of mud mortar in the nanakshahi brick masonry. Most of the finishes
throughout Complex consist of either brick paving or lime concrete flooring and lime plaster on
the walls with plaster cornices/ moulds etc. There is a variety of structural systems used in the
Fort Complex such as brick on timber joists and planking, brick on metal girders, reinforced brick
concrete, jack arched ceilings, brick barrel vaults, reinforced concrete slabs indicating the
phases of construction.

Overview of Condition Assessment

Overall, the Heritage Complex is suffering from a high degree of structural distress in the form
of active settlement of the foundations, large masonry cracks, vegetation growth, bulging and
collapse of masonry and roofs is observed in a large section. The surviving part of the structure
is at a high risk of collapse due to missing structural members, accumulation of debris and
extensive root penetration of large ficus trees. Other issues of concern are vandalism of
structural members, neglect and disuse of the structure. The main concerns are emergency
stabilization of the structure to prevent further damage to the historic complex and will stabilize
the structure for a comprehensive restoration plan to be formulated and executed.

Enumerated below are the critical issues that need to be addressed in carrying out the
emergency stabilization works.

Structural Issues

The large majority of the structure is in a very bad structural condition, with evidence of major
settlement cracks and vertical expansion/movement cracking. The size and expanse of the
rendered brickwork it is very common to find typical vertical cracking as found in various
locations. The stepped fractures are evidence of settlement to the structure, of which some
appear historical and mostly appear progressive and often relate to positions near the farm land
where the cause of the damage can be foundation movement resulting especially from the
drying shrinkage of clay subsoil.

1. Deterioration of Roofs

2. Collapsed Roofs

3. Roofs in a High Degree of Distress

4. Settlement in Foundations

5. Vegetation Growth

6. Termite Infestation
7. Deterioration of Balconies

8. Water Ingress from Roof


Many parts of the fort are simply coming off of falling due to the dilapidated state of the
structure as it has not been use since independence. Trees have grown into the walls leading to
large structural distress in the walls. Only a small part, i.e. a museum is in good condition
whereas at many places the walls are cracked and shown deterioration and deformations. The
structural system for the monument as idealized is that the floors are supported on the walls
and in-turn the walls derive lateral support from the floors. The wooden structural members of
the floor have lost structural strength and are sagging of buckling or at many places it has fallen.
At many places it was observed that the weak floor if it falls may damage the floor and therefore
it was removed. The removal of the floors have left the walls with height around 50 feet laterally
unsupported leading to buckling of walls.

The walls which are under severe cracks also indicate similar kind of structural failure. The minor
cracking which is observed may also lead to major cracking in the near future. At places there is
a massive growth of vegetation and trees on the wall, this along with growth along with the
slenderness of the all has led to the distress. The buckling of the wall and the increase in stresses
due to growth of tree has led to over stressing of the foundation leading to settlement of the
walls. Moreover the total load of the walls including the slenderness bucking is causing shear
failure in soil which was seen at many places where heaving of floor was observed.

1. Repair of the degradation of materials

a) Masonry

The repair of masonry elements is, in general, obtained through re-pointing the
cracks with mortar, or the injection of appropriate grout. Sometimes, the
appropriate solution will include the replacement of the deteriorated masonry units.
The composition of the mortar or the grout to be used (cement, resin, etc.) will
depend on the characteristics of the masonry, itself. Particular attention should be
given to the compatibility of the repair materials and the existing masonry. For
example, in the repair of masonry built with mortar that contains gypsum, mortar or
grout of cement should not be used, because of the reaction between the gypsum
and the cement. For the superficial repair of a masonry element, chemical emulsions
(silicates, etc.) can be used. The appropriate solution should be analysed in each
case, depending on the specific conditions. The elimination of infiltration of water
and the rise by capillarity of moisture in the masonry, coming from the foundations
is, in general, difficult to achieve. The injection of hydro-active grouts, based on
polyurethane resins is, sometimes, adequate. When possible, the best solution will
be, always, the elimination of the source of contamination, through the adequate
drainage and desalinization of the soil.
b) Timber
Concerning the action of xylophages insects, preservative materials with
insecticide properties exist nowadays, and are adequate for timber protection.
Concerning the effect of moisture on the outside of elements of coverings and of
the floors embedded in walls, an adequate solution will be their protection
against the infiltration from rain water. When those elements have deteriorated
significantly they should be substituted by new ones. For the problem of the
existence of longitudinal cracking in timber elements, some solutions also exist,
such as the use of lateral fastenings or ties, or the injection with special products
(synthetic resins, etc.). When steel elements are used in this strengthening, they
should be adequately protected against corrosion. When consolidating materials
are used in timber, their compatibility should also be verified.

c) Steel and iron

The main problem with steel or iron elements is corrosion. Their repair requires,
firstly, the elimination of the rust, for which several techniques exist (sand blast,
etc.), then covering of the surfaces with appropriate products, usually, paint.
When there is a significant reduction of their sections, structural elements should
be substituted by new ones. Depending on the specific conditions, reductions of
more than 20%are, in principle, considered significant.

2. Wall Repairs or Demolition- Restoration of the wall to the required state is very difficult due
to the massive deformations. Falling of such a massive wall may lead to damage to the adjacent
structural elements and therefore it is imperative that this wall is demolished in a controlled
manner with breaking from the top and ensuring that the crack propagation does not lead to
failure of large junk of wall.

3. Settlement control of the structure-The number of places wherever there is a distress

observed in the structure due to settlement of soil failure it is important that the soil strength
is improved as a priority to avoid any further distress at the time of restoration / demolition.
The settlement of soil failure is seen today and was not observed in the past when the structure
of occupied is because of the primary reason of neglect. The non-maintenance and non-
occupancy of the structure lead to sagging / failure of floors, lead to under supported high walls
becoming unstable and buckling leading to increase in stress on the foundation. Moreover the
vegetation and tress growth on the walls also added to the increase in stress on the super
structure in turn stressing the soil failure level leading to heaving and settlement of soil and
The repair methodology proposed to arrest the settlement is soil grouting; soil grouting will
strengthen the soil and reduce the settlement potential of soil. Mainly three different type of
grouting can be adopted after preparation of geotechnical report and after ascertaining the
strength of the soil in present condition. Therefore it is imperative to conduct soil investigation
and prepare a geotechnical report of the site. After studying the soil report appropriate and
adequate soil grouting methodology can be adopted. The proposed different soil grouting
methods are given below. Primarily the method of soil grouting is similar i.e. by drilling the soil
and injects the soil with the grout but the grout material can be different and they are

1. Cement Grout: Cementitious grouts are ideal (economical, effective, enduring, and non-
hazardous) for improving the soil character and function of many geotechnical
challenges. Once injected into the soil, the grout stabilizes weak soil structure, imparting
load-bearing compressive strength. The right soil-permeating cementitious grout can
geotechnical needs.
2. Chemical grouting is a grouting technique that transforms granular soils into hard stone
like masses, by permeation with a low viscosity grout. The soils best suited for this
technique are sands with low fines content. Typically, a sleeve port pipe is first grouted
into a predrilled hole. The grout is injected under pressure through the ports located
along the length of the pipe. The grout permeates the soil and solidifies it into a stone-
like mass.

3. Compaction grouting is a method of soil stabilization where a low flow cementitious

grout is injected into the soil to form a grout bulb. The grout does not permeate soil
pores, but displaces the soil, and compacts the soil in the process.

4. Consolidation Grouting: Consolidation grouting is a method of soil stabilization where a

high flow, fine to micro fine cementitious grout, is injected into the soil. Permeation of
the grout into the soil fills available air voids, increasing soil cohesion. Such a method of
soil stabilization is particularly applicable in trench cuts through granular subsoils.

4. Waterproofing-
The following waterproofing methods are commonly used in construction:
A. Cementitious Waterproofing

B. Liquid Waterproofing Membrane

C. Bituminous Membrane

D. Bituminous Coating

E.Polyurethane Liquid Membrane

A. Cementitious Waterproofing Method:

Cementitious waterproofing is the easiest method of waterproofing in construction. The
materials for cementitious waterproofing are easily available from suppliers of masonry
products, and they’re easy to mix and apply. This method is often used in the internal wet areas
such as toilets. This method is usually a rigid or semi-flexible type waterproofing, but since it is
used in internal areas such as toilets, it is not exposed to sunlight and weathering. Thus
cementitious waterproofing does not go through contract and expansion process.

B. Liquid Waterproofing Membrane Method:

Liquid membrane is a thin coating which consists of usually a primer coat and two coats of top
coats which are applied by spray, roller, or trowel. It offers more flexibility than the cementitious
types of waterproofing. The liquid cures into a rubbery coating on the wall. The elongation
properties of the coating can reach as high as 280%. The durability of the waterproofing coating
depends on what type of polymer the manufacturer use for the making of the liquid
waterproofing. Liquid waterproofing membrane can be of spray-applied liquid membrane
composed of polymer-modified asphalt. Polyurethane liquid membranes in separate grades for
trowel, roller, or spray are also available from various manufacturers.

C. Bituminous Coating Waterproofing Method:

Bituminous coating is a type of coating used for waterproofing and flexible protective coat in
accordance with its formulation and polymerization grade. Its flexibility and protection against
water can be influenced by the polymer grade as well as reinforcement of fiber. Bituminous
coating is also called as asphalt coating. The most common applications of bituminous coatings
include areas that are beneath screed wet. It is an excellent protective coating and
waterproofing agent, especially on surfaces such as concrete foundations. Bituminous coating
is made of bitumen based materials and it is not suitable for expose to sunlight. It becomes very
brittle and fragile when long exposure to the sunlight unless it is modified with more flexible
material such as polyurethane or acrylic based polymers. The flexibility of the finished products
always depends on the solid content of the polymer added to the bitumen.

D. Bituminous Membrane Waterproofing Method:

Bituminous membrane waterproofing is a popular method used for low-sloped roofs due to
their proven performance. Bituminous waterproofing membrane have torch on membrane and
self-adhesive membrane. Self-adhesive compounds comprise asphalt, polymers and filler;
additionally, certain resins and oils may be added to improve adhesion characteristics. The self-
adhesive type has low shelf life as bonding properties of the membrane reduces with time.
Torch on membrane have exposed and covered types. Exposed membrane often has mineral
granular aggregate to withstand the wear and tear of the weathering and the other types of
membrane, contractor need to apply one protective screed to prevent the puncture of the

E. Polyurethane Liquid Membrane Waterproofing Method:

Polyurethane liquid membrane method of waterproofing is used for the flat roof area and
exposed to weathering. This waterproofing method is expensive. Polyurethane Liquid
Membrane can offer higher flexibility. Polyurethane is very sensitive to moisture content
present, therefore before application, one has to be very careful evaluating the moisture
content of the concrete slab, otherwise peeling or de-bonding of membranes may happen after
some time.

Photos taken at Site

1. Vegetation growth 2. Arch Failure

3. Material Degradation 4.Wall Cracks

5. Large Cracks 6.Surviving Part

Repair and Rehabilitation of AamKhaasBagh, Sirhind
Rehabilitation of heritage buildings has become an issue of great importance around the world,
particularly in the most developed societies. It is the result of the need to improve existing
buildings for new conditions of use, and also of the recognition of the importance of
conservation of the architectural heritage.
The most sensitive aspect of the rehabilitation of existing buildings is their structural
rehabilitation, i.e., their structural safety. However, assessment of the structural safety of
existing buildings is, in general, a complex task, because the methodologies used differ from
those adopted in the design of new structures. Furthermore, the eventual strengthening of
existing buildings can conflict with their cultural value. Furthermore, in the most developed
societies, as they progress, grows the feeling that it is necessary to maintain the existing building
heritage. With the changes provoked by rapid technological evolution, as a kind of counterpoint,
grows the feeling of to keep the existing built environment and to pass it on to future
generations. Rehabilitation of heritage buildings is a way of sustainable development and also
an act of culture.
Historical Background

Our case history is focused on AamKhaasBagh Located near Fatehgarh Sahib and Sirhind in
Punjab, the AamKhasBagh bears the historic stamp of three famous Mughal emperors. Today it
can be seen as a monument which showcases traces of Mughal architecture, as it has not been
preserved well. It was initially built by the first Mughal emperor of India, Akbar, as a highway-
inn getaway which can be used by common people as well as the royalty during travelling to
Lahore from Delhi. After Akbar, it was rebuilt by Shah Jahan, another Mughal emperor along
with the Mughal military road stretching between Lahore and Delhi. The royal couple used this
place as their stay halt while plying between Lahore and Delhi.

Later on, Jahangir also made some additions in this monument. The garden area stretching over
one and a half mile was segregated into two parts - the Aam for public use and the Khasfor
private use by the Royalty .As per history, the city of Sirhind, witnessed repeated wars between
Mughals and Sikh forces 1708 AD, 1758 AD and 1768 Ad and thus, this garden went through
excessive damage and its tanks & waterways got filled with earth.

The following monuments are situated in the vicinity of AamKhasBagh:

This monument was built by Emperor Jahangir. This is an air conditioned chamber of that time.
The water was pulled out through large pulleys from the adjoining well and was passed through
water channels running through the walls of this building and was used for fountains and

Sheesh Mahal
This beautiful building was known as Daulat-Khana-E-Khas and was also called Sheesh Mahal.
This was built by the orders of Emperor Jahangir. There have been some subsequent alterations
to the original building. The domes of this monument were decorated with glazed tiles, some of
which are still visible today.
This monument was constructed by the orders of Emperor Jahangir. In this, water was taken
through underground terracotta channels and a unique method of heating the water was

This tank was got prepared by orders of Emperor Jahangir. There was a Mehtabi-Chabutra in
the center which has fallen down. On the east and west sides of this tank quarters for Mughal
Employees were built.


This double storyed monument was got built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan as his private
residence. This must have been the most beautiful building of those time. All the rooms and
main walls of this building were decorated with designs. The central hall measured 18 x 14 and
eastern walls were having two tall minarets. On the northern side there were many tanks and
fountains which added to the grandeur of this building.

Structural Failures
Defects in the building
The defects in the building can result from the degradation of the building materials or from the
damage of the building elements due to mechanical actions. The degradation of the building
materials is a process that develops naturally with time, and can be accelerated by chemical,
physical or biological actions. The main effects are the deterioration of the surfaces of the
elements, the loss of material and the reduction of their strength. The phenomena of
degradation are different according to the type of building material: masonry, timber or steel
(iron).The damage to the building elements due to mechanical actions occurs when the actions
in certain zones of the building element exceed the strength of their materials. They can be
produced, or be aggravated by actions, or by insufficient strength. Alterations on the
constitution of the building can also be the source of damage of this type. The manifestation of
damage to building elements due to mechanical actions will depend on the type of action, the
type of building material and the type of building element.

Degradation of building materials

The degradation of masonry is linked to the characteristics of the constituent materials: bricks,
blocks (of stone or concrete), and mortar filling the joints. It will be necessary to correctly
identify the materials: the stone (limestone, sandstone, etc.), the bricks (fired or sundried, etc.),
and the type of mortar (cement, lime, etc.).Masonry is affected by the presence of water (rain,
moisture, etc.), temperature variations (freeze/thaw cycles, etc.) and microclimatic conditions
(pollution, etc.), which can provoke its weakness through the development of micro-cracks, with
the consequent loss of material, particularly if the masonry is not protected by rendering
Steel (iron)
The greatest problem with steel and iron elements is corrosion, in particular, of the connections
by rivets or bolts. Another important problem to be taken into consideration is the eventual
corrosion of the steel elements embedded in masonry elements, which can lead to the rupture
of those elements, due to the increase of volume resulting from the rust. It is also to be noted
that the iron or steel of old buildings are, in general, less ductile and less resistant to fatigue
than the iron or steel produced nowadays.
Damage to building elements
Deterioration of Roofs
The roofs are in severe distress where almost half of the roof has already collapsed and the
surviving half is highly precarious about to collapse. The main reasons for the deterioration of
the roofs is the vandalism of timber structural members, decay of timber structural members
due to water seepage or termite infestation resulting in sagging and eventual collapse of the
Settlement in Foundations
The distress is observed in sardakhana due to water seeping from water channels through the
historic wall encouraging seepage of ground water into the masonry resulting in differential
settlement. The signs of distress are evident in the failure of multiple arches, bulging and partial
collapse of the masonry
Vegetation Growth
Vegetation growth is one of the main reasons for the structural unrest in the building. There are
three distinct types of vegetation growth in the form of grass or shrubs, large trees in the
courtyards and on masonry and shrubs on the walls. The accompanying plan indicates the large
number of huge ficus that have grown into the crevices of the masonry and dislodged the
masonry out of plumb.
Termite Infestation
Water Ingress
The relevant actions for the damage to walls and columns are, in general, the vertical loads: self-
weights, weights of the floors, etc. Lateral actions, namely the thrust of arches and earth
pressure, and, particularly, the effects of earthquakes are also, sometimes, very relevant. In the
case of masonry elements, due to their low tensile strength, vertical loads can cause vertical
cracks, which can lead to the development of lateral deformations and to the detachment of
Arches, vaults and domes
In arches, vaults or domes in masonry the main source of problems is the movement at the
supports, with the development of tension, and, as a consequence, the opening of cracks. Such
movements are related to the occurrence of the following conditions::Figure 5: Damage in walls
due to earth pressure. Deficient conception or execution of the element: inadequate geometry
for the distribution of loads; insufficient resistance or stiffness of tie-rods and buttresses; poor
quality of the constituent materials, etc;16/48- Alteration of the distribution of
loads(sometimes, loads are taken off or added in certain zones of the element, particularly,
fillings);- Actions not foreseen: differentialsettlements of the supports (Fig. 7), etc.;- Inadequate
maintenance: degradation of the constituent materials, weakness of tierodsand buttresses, etc.
Masonry vaults supported by steel beams in building floors are particularly sensitive to lateral
movements of the supports, due to their, usually, low rise.
Preventive measures
1. Wall Repairs or Demolition - Restoration of the wall to the required state is very difficult due
to the massive deformations. Falling of such a massive wall may lead to damage to the adjacent
structural elements and therefore it is imperative that this wall is demolished in a controlled
manner with breaking from the top and ensuring that the crack propagation does not lead to
failure of large junk of wall.
2. Settlement control of the structure - The repair methodology proposed to arrest the
settlement is soil grouting; soil grouting will strengthen the soil and reduce the settlement
potential of soil.
3. Waterproofing- The following waterproofing methods are commonly used in construction:
A. Cementitious Waterproofing
B. Liquid Waterproofing Membrane
C. Bituminous Membrane
D. Bituminous Coating
E. Polyurethane Liquid Membrane
1. Introduction
The following case study concerns with the Special Repair of 32 Type I, 34 Type III, 6 Type IV
houses and 4 DSP residences in Police Lines, Ambala. It is a G+2 storey building.
It is a repair to a damaged building, done in order to resume all its previous functions and to
bring back its architectural shape. Repair does not pretend to improve the structural strength
of the building and can be very deceptive for meeting the strength requirements. The actions
will include the following:
i. Patching up of defects such as cracks and fall of plaster.
ii. Repairing doors, windows, replacement of glass panes.
iii. Checking and repairing electric wiring
iv. Checking and repairing gas pipes, water pipes and plumbing services.
v. Re-building non-structural walls, smoke chimneys, boundary walls, etc.
vi. Re-plastering of walls as required.
vii. Rearranging disturbed roofing tiles.
viii. Relaying cracked flooring at ground level.
ix. Redecoration, whitewashing, painting, etc.
Repair addresses only the architectural damages but do not restore the original structural
strength of cracked walls or columns. So a repaired building may be very illusive as it will hide
all the weaknesses and the building.

2. Visual Observations
1. Extensive cracking and spalling of cover concrete in RCC elements.
2. The projection of the main roof slab at terrace level either pulled down or
collapsed at places due to wrong placement of steel, porous concrete and due to
excessive thickness of mud phuska at free edge.
3. At some places reinforcement exposed and corroded.
4. Many RCC balcony slabs and end beams were in seriously unsafe condition.
5. Deflection was observed to be excessive at places.
6. The cross sectional area of some reinforcement reduced to the extent of 50% and in
many columns ties on external face totally vanished due to corrosion.
7. In many flats, longitudinal cracks observed in door/ windows lintels.
8. Bathrooms, W.C. and kitchen slabs damp and distressed.
9. The floors of bathrooms, W.C. and kitchen in ground floor flats generally settled and
damaged due to leakage from floor traps and poor compaction of plinth.
10. The external plaster damaged at places.
11. Horizontal cracks observed running at bedding level of RCC slabs and RCC shelves in
all single storyed scooter/ cycle garages.

3. Cause and Defects

Figure 1 Figure 2

The principal causes of occurrence of cracks in a building are as follows:
1. Permeability of concrete
2. Thermal movement

Structural Dampness
Alkali-Silica Reaction

4. Remedial Measures

Structural Masonry Repair

 Stitching cracked walls

 Retrofitting masonry reinforcement

 Reconnecting parting walls with straps, ties and pins


 Filling & sealing cracks in walls

 Repointing defective mortar joints

 Applying waterproofing coatings

Aesthetic Restoration

Facade cleaning
Patching erroded brick and stonework

Brick tinting

5. Conclusion

Through visual inspection of the structure, the mostly damaged structural elements were
identified as the slabs, beams and walls.

The reinforcing bars in the slab and certain sections had considerably degraded in their
structural capacity and therefore could not be used any longer.

It is recommended that the damaged sections be replaced with the new ones and structural
repairing, weather proofing and aesthetic restoration be done accordingly.
of Repair and Rehabilitation in heritage buildings are prescribed below. The reason for the
problem is cited and the solutions existing to resolve the problem are also provided. 2.1
Problems and Causes for the problems identified by the Authors Sayali Sandbhor, et al proposed
their Repair and Rehabilitation work on a building, which was constructed during British period
in the year 1871. The author identified various problems such as structural cracks in masonry
walls, crack in lime concrete slab, collapse of column portion and roof leakages. These are
caused due to poor load distribution, poor waterproofing, seepage of water and water logging
[1]. Secondly, C.Natarajan, et al reports the Rehabilitation of St. Lourdes Church, Tiruchirapalli
which was built in the year 1890. The author faced various problems such as mold stains and
water damage, cracks in the outer brick surface and decay of bricks in the inner surface and
erosion on the roof surface. These are also caused due to poor waterproofing, seepage of water
and water logging [2]. Fig-1: Roof leakages [1]
Followed by Natarajan, Suresh Chandra Pattanaik, et al did their Repair and Rehabilitation for
an institutional building located at Mangalore which was a 75 year old building. They identified
several problems such as spalled plaster, fungus growth in walls, cracks in the ceiling and
masonry walls, corrosion and spalling of concrete in columns. These are mainly caused by severe
water leakages and environmental distress [3]. Fig-2: Arrows indicating Mold stains [2] Gaby
Ruiz Petrozzi, et al in 1917 The authors proposed their Rehabilitation work on a 100 year old
adobe church named Santisma Cruz Del Norte, located at the center of metropolitan Piura, built
in the year 1917.The authors encountered several issues such as cracks at the corners of the
walls and across the back wall, cracks between an RC choir loft and the adobe walls, eroded
blocks and cracks at roof level. These were mainly caused due to moisture seepage [4].
Moreover, Nur Liyana Othman et al, proposed their case study in a hospital building named
Sultanah Bahiyah located at Alor setar. They inspected several issues such as leakages at ceilings
and watermarks, black staining in walls and dampness, corrosion at roof gutter. These are
caused due to entry of rainwater through louvers due to shortness oh awning, water seepage
from toilet area and environmental factors [5]. Fig-3: Vertical cracks and gaps [1] International
Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056 Volume: 03 Issue:
04 | Apr-2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO
9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1332
Followed by Nur Liyana Othman, Sholihin asad, et al examined a case study on an old hospital
building named Sugiri in Indonesia. They encountered several issues such as crack damage on
masonry walls caused due to water seepage [6]. James S Cohen, intended his Rehabilitation
work on a historic building located in Circa, built in the year 1862. He identified several
drawbacks in the building such as two facades in the front side were collapsed, vegetative
growth at rear side of the building [7]. Fig-4: Cracks in ceilings and walls [3] Moreover, Abdul
Rehman intended his case study on three historic buildings namely the Sholamur garden, Shish
mahal and Jahangir tomb which were built in the year 1640, located at Lahore. He underwent
various defects in the building such as, severe damage of perimeter wall, deterioration of beams
caused due to termite attack and seepage of water from the roof. Stones in the tomb got
deteriorated due to fungus, moisture content and air pollution. Bricks on edge pavements were
damaged. Growth of vegetation was also found on the rear side of the building [8]. Fig-5: Cracks
at roof surface [4]
Followed by Abdul Rehman, P.G.Asteris, et al carried their renovation work on a holy temple
named Zoodohos Pigi located at Athens. This building suffered a severe earthquake in the year
1999 and has incurred several defects such as extensive cracks at the cross vaults, cracks at the
main facade of the temple. Due to lack of maintenance in the roof, wearing out of vaulted
structure took place.[9]. Furthermore, Ajay Chourasia, et al proposed their Repair work in a
building which was severely damaged during Bhuj earthquake named Circuit house (Lal
Bunglow) at Jamnagar. They inspected several defects in the building such as, deterioration of
jack arch floor, extensive cracks at the ceilings, walls and collapse of column portion due to the
effect of earthquake. [10]. Likewise, J Gustavo Tumialan, et al intended their case study on a
historic building and a church named Palazzo die Celestini and St.Giorgio church. They
encountered several issues in the building such as, collapse of column and wide cracks that
initiated crushing failure. In the church, the arches and vaults were damaged due to settlement
of column [11]. Followed by J.Gustavo Tumialan, Jack W Gerwick, et al carried their renovation
work on a historic timber structure where they identified several problems, timber bracings
were exposed to marine borers and were rotten, damages at the end of braces and at the
connections, finally there was a damage at the stringers and the caps. [12]. 2.2 Solutions for the
above said problems by the Authors Sayali Sandbhor, et al suggested several suitable solutions
for the above said problems. Epoxy grouting is used for strengthening of weakened and cracked
masonry walls. Jacketing of wall surfaces was made by applying mesh nonferrous steel
reinforcements and by filling the gaps with lime mortar. Cracks in lime concrete slab were fixed
by welding of steel members. Collapse of column portion was restored by removing the
collapsed portion and reconstructing the portion was carried out using same type of stone and
mortar. Roof leakages were restored by providing proper slopes and by replacing the corroded
members using Lead flashing. [1] Secondly, C.Natarajan et al advised several solutions for the
above said problems such as follows. Soap water under pressure was applied to clean out the
surface of mold stains. Cracks in the outer brick surface and decay of bricks on the inner side
were repaired by replacing cracked and decayed bricks. Lime mortar grouted along the surface
was used to recover erosion of roof surface. [2] International Research Journal of Engineering
and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056 Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 p-
ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal |
Page 1333
Furthermore, Suresh Chandra Pattanaik, et al advocates various solutions for the said problems.
Repair of cracks in walls were cured by chipping of plaster and cutting of V grooves along the
length of the crack by Chiseling, the cleaning was made by a high pressure water jet. Wire mesh
was fixed along the cracks after which the cracks were repaired with medium structural grade
repair mortar. Strengthening of masonry column was implemented by providing Steel Jacketing
which is braced with tie rod in a zigzag way. [3] Followed by Suresh Chandra Pattanaik, Gaby
Ruiz Petrozzi, et al propounded several solutions for the said problems. To control wall cracks,
strips of galvanized welded-wire fabric were used and they have been tied against the walls. To
improve the stability of adobe walls, knee braces were used in the adobe walls and are tied up
in the roof truss [4]. Furthermore, Sholihin Asad, et al recommended various suitable solutions
for their identified problems as follows. Strengthening of foundation was by enlarging the pile
cap and installing two new mini bored pile close to the old one. Cracks were repaired by injection
of epoxy grouting. Column jacket were placed for the weaker portion of column along their
thickness [6]. Moreover, Abdul Rehman advocates suitable solutions for the problems incurred
in his identification of defects. At Shalamar Garden, soil improvement technique was
implemented to improve the quality of grass cover and by adding of soil fertilizers. Supply of
water to fountains on different traces was originally provided through a network of Terracotta
pipes and later it was replaced by Galvanized Iron pipes. At Shish Mahal, new grids of wooden
beams were constructed to transfer the load of ceiling; lattice structure was repaired by placing
of bamboo strips and to support the structure polystyrene sheets was placed below the ceiling
[8]. Ajay Chourasia, et al suggest various suitable solutions for their above said problems such
as, cracks were stitched and grouted with Lime mortar. Walls were jacketed with welded mesh
wire and mild steel flats along both sides [10].
Followed by Ajay Chourasia et al, J.Gustavo Tumialan, et al recommended certain solutions for
their incurred problems. Fiber Reinforced Polymer tendons and laminates were chosen by the
authors to eliminate the cracks at the vaults. These laminates and rods were also used to
increase the effectiveness of confinement and to prevent the expulsion of masonry pieces under
high axial loads [11]. Finally, M.Danieli, et al reported some solutions for their problems incurred
in the building as follows. For cracks, plaster were removed and filled up with lime cement
mortar, steel wedges were used for wide cracks. Damaged portion of arch and shell surfaces
were reinforced and plastered, mesh wires were tied to steel anchors. 3. INFERENCE The
previous section provides the reported problems, reasons for occurrence and its solutions. With
this as a platform, an attempt is made to bring an effective solution for a prescribed problem
among several reported in literature. This is done on employing a tradeoff between cost,
lifetime and adaptability of the solution. Structural Cracks For structural cracks there occur
commonly known solutions such as Epoxy Injection, Polyurethane Injection and Stitching of
cracks. Epoxy injection is well known for its high strength and lifetime. It is most costly and
difficult to adapt. In case of Polyurethane injection, the cost for the technique is quite less while
compared to Epoxy injection and the strength achieved is also less, but the adaptability of the
technique is easy while compared to Epoxy injection. In case of Stitching of cracks, both cost and
lifetime are comparatively less but the adaptability of the technique is difficult. Epoxy Injection
For this technique, the machine and materials required is the Injection pump, Ports and resin or
grout. The cost of the injection pump would be around 450 USD or 30,000/- (as on 22/03/2016)
[]. The resin or grout would cost at a range of 35 USD per 25Kg or
2,350/- (as on 22/03/2016) []. For implementation of this technique the cost
would be around 600 USD i.e. ₨ 50,000 including labor charges. Therefore the total cost of this
solution would be around 30,000+2,400(per 25Kg) +50,000= 82,400/- approximately. Looking at
the lifetime or validity of the solution, epoxy injection would long stand for around 7 years to
10 years []. Polyurethane Injection For this technique, the machine and
materials required are Injection pump, Injection ports and Polyurethane organic resins. The cost
of injection pump would be around 450 USD or 30,000/- (as on 22/03/2016)
[]. The cost of polyurethane organic resin will be around $20 USD per
25Kg resin or ₨1,328/- (as on 22/03/2016) []. For implementing this
technique it would cost around 30,000/- including labor charges. Therefore the total cost of this
solution will be around 30,000+1,330(per 25Kg) +30,000 = 61,330/- approximately. Lifetime or
validity of this solution will be around 5 years to 6 years [www.waterworld Impact Factor value:
4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page]. International Research Journal of
Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056 Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2016, IRJET |
Stitching cracks In this technique the machines and materials required are stitching bars, nozzle,
grout or resin, mixer paddle and finger trowel. The total cost of the stitching kit will be around
118 British Pounds or ₨11,200 (as on 22/03/2016) []. The cost of
implementation will be around ₨50,000 including all charges. Therefore the total cost of this
solution will be around 50,000+11,200 = ₨61,200 approximately. The life of this solution will be
about 3 to 4 years []. From the above explanation it is concluded that
Epoxy Injection is the best suitable solution for structural crack repair. Though it is expensive
and difficult to adapt, lifetime yield of the solution is more while compared to other methods
said above. Yielded lifetime of the solution is the major criteria considered for an effective
solution especially for heritage buildings. Roof Leakages Roof leakages are a predominant
problem occurring in a heritage building. The most frequent solutions employed for the same
are provided as follows:
Replacement of damaged roof with new clay roof tile and rearrangement of sealant.
Replacement of damaged roof portion by asbestos roof and refill of sealant.
Lead flashing.

Replacement of damaged roof with new clay roof tile and rearrangement of sealant For this
method the needed materials are new clay roof tile, lime mortar and sealant. The cost of sealant
would be around 14 British Pounds or 1320/- per Kg (as on 05/04/2016) []. Lime
mortar will cost about 10 British Pounds or 940/- per 20Kg (as on 05/04/2016) [www.eden-lime-]. The cost of clay roof tile is about 40USD or 2660/- per square foot (as on
05/04/2016) [].The cost of implementation will be around 50,000/-. The
total cost of this technique will be around 1320(per Kg) +940(per 20Kg) +2660(per square foot)
+50000= 54920/- approximately. The lifetime of a clay roof tile will last long for about 75 years
[]. Replacement of damaged roof with asbestos roof and refill of sealant
In this technique the materials required are asbestos roof, lime mortar and asbestos sealant.
The cost of asbestos roof will be around 25USD or 1660/- per square foot (as on 05/04/2016)
[]. The cost of lime mortar is about 10 British Pounds or 940/- per 20Kg (as
on 05/04/2016) []. The asbestos sealant will cost at a range of 10
British Pounds or 940/- per Kg (as on 05/04/2016) []. The implementation cost
of this technique will be around 50,000/-. The total cost of this technique will be around
1660(per square foot) +940(per 20Kg) +940(per Kg) +50,000= 53,540/- approximately. The
lifetime of asbestos roof will last long up to 25 years []. Lead Flashing The
materials that are required for this technique are lead flashing sheet, primer flashing strip and
primer solution. The cost of lead flashing sheet will be about 30 British Pounds or 2820/- per
square foot (as on 06/04/2016) []. The cost of primer flashing strip will be
about 5 British Pounds or 470/- per square foot (as on 06/04/2016) []. The
cost of primer solution will range about 2 British Pounds or 190/- per Kg (as on 06/04/2016)
[]. The implementation cost of this technique will come around 50,000/-
. The total cost of this solution will be about 2820(per square foot) + 470(per square foot)
+190(per Kg) + 50,000= 53,480/- approximately. The lifetime of this technique will be last long
over 100 years []. From the above explanation it is concluded that Lead
flashing is the best suited and effective solution for leakages of roof. As said before yielded
lifetime of the solution is most considered in case of heritage buildings and so this method is
most suited. Peeling of walls and ceilings Peeling of walls and ceilings is also a major defect
incurred along heritage buildings. The most suited and effective solution for peeling of walls or
plaster is Mughal plastering which is nothing but plastering with Lime mortar. The cost of lime
mortar will be at a range of 10 British Pounds or 940/- per 20Kg (as on 06/04/2016) [www.eden-]. The cost for implementation will be around 30,000/-. Therefore the total
cost of the technique will be around 940(per 20Kg) +30000= 30940/- approximately. The lifetime
of Mughal plastering will last long about 10 years. []. Mughal
plastering is also considered as an effective solution because of its nice finishing and good
aesthetic condition. Mold Stains Mold stains are also incurred as a problem among heritage
buildings. The effective solution for this particular problem is Appling soap water under high
pressure. The materials required for this problem are pressure nozzle, pressure controller and
tube. The cost of the kit will be around 40USD or 2660/- (as on 06/04/2016)
[]. The cost for implementing this solution will be 20,000/-. The
total cost for the technique will be 2660+20000= 22,660/- approximately. The life value of this
solution will be around 5 years to 6 years