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University of Santo Tomas

Faculty of Engineering
1st sem AY 2018-2019

EXPERIMENT NO. 6
DC & AC Circuits
Group 3
Erwin Cabangal
Alec Cambi
Mico Castillo
Juan Miguel Esporlas
4ChE-B
along from positive to negative in line with the
INTRODUCTION current. [1] Their symbols must also be noted as
shown in Figure 1. A DC circuit is represented as
Electrical circuit is defines as a complete straight lines while an AC circuit has a symbol of
conductive path through which electrons flow a wave.
from the source to the load and back to the
source. It must be noted that the direction and Generally the basic source of direct
magnitude of the electrons flow is dependent on current is produced by batteries, electrochemical,
the kind of source. There are basically two types and photovoltaic cells. But AC is most preferred
of voltage or current source which defines the across the world. [2] Basically AC is used to
kind of circuit and they are the Alternating Current deliver power to industries, houses, office
(AC) and Direct Current (DC). [1] buildings, etc

A passive element is an electrical


component that does not generate power, but
instead dissipates, stores, and/or releases it.
Passive elements include resistances,
capacitors, and coils (also called inductors). [3] In
this experiments, capacitors and inductors are
used in DC and AC circuits.

The purpose of this experiment is to


compare DC and AC voltage and current and to
compare the behavior of passive elements in DC
& AC Circuits.
Figure 1: Difference between DC and AC Circuits SETUP
The major difference between the AC Legend:
and DC, which is also the cause of their different
characteristics, is the direction of flow of electric A- Lamp
energy. In DC, Electrons flow steadily in a single B- Circuit Wires
direction or forward, while in AC, electrons C- Analog Voltmeter
alternate their direction of flow in periodic D- Rectifier
intervals, as shown in Figure 1. This also leads to E- Variac
alternation in the voltage level as it switches F- Inductor
the RL circuit was differentiated with the
distribution of the voltages between only 2 lamps.

Finally, the 50W lamp was connected


with the capacitor in series which was then re-
energized by the 110V DC source with the
corresponding resulting response analysis of the
whole circuit. The current and voltage across the
50W lamp and the capacitor were then recorded.

 Capacitor and Inductor Response in


AC

The same procedure from the first circuit


system was done for the setup except that
the Variable autotransformer (Variac) was
METHODOLOGY used as a power supply instead of using the
110V DC source. Also, instead of using DC
 Capacitor and Inductor Response in ammeter and voltmeter, the one for the AC
DC circuit was used.

Before the experiment, the instruments to


be used were prepared to accommodate the
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
required data results. Firstly, both the 50W and
25W lamps were placed and arranged in a series D.C.= 110 V
arrangement. Afterwards, the power source for
the whole circuit was energized with a supplied In the first setup, two lamps( Lamp 1
EMF of 110V DC. The resulting scenario was rated at 75W and Lamp 2 rated at 100W) were
then observed and recorded. However, the 110V connected in a circuit. Using a series connection
DC source was not available so a bridge rectifier with the power supply , the two bulbs lit but with
was used to convert the supplied AC from the different brightness , this was due to that in a
variac into DC. series network, the first node that the electricity
will pass through will be the one supplied with the
After it was energized, the current and proper voltage and the rest receives the
the voltage across the 50W and 25W bulb were remaining power supplied. When an inductor was
measured. The connection for the DC ammeter inserted , a voltage drop was noticed because
was made to be in series with that of the whole inductors store energy in a magnetic field when
circuit. It was also made sure that the power electric current flows through it.Direct current
source was turned off while in the process of means that the flow of electrons would always
wiring reconnection to accommodate for the flow in one direction .For the last trial of this set-
safety of the whole experiment. For the voltage, up , a capacitor was included in the network. This
the DC voltmeter was connected in parallel. was to prove that capacitors do not play a role in
Careful recording of data was done afterwards. direct current because it is impossible for a
steady state current to flow across a capacitor
The 50W lamp was then connected in
(D.C. is shorted) .
series with the inductor. Eventually, the circuit
was then re-energized by the 110V DC source. A.C.=110V
Careful analysis of the resulting response made
by the lamp was done. The current and voltage In the second setup(using the two lamps
across the 50W lamp and the inductor was then in setup 1), alternating current was used in a
measured. The distribution of the voltages across series network. An inductor behaves differently in
ac versus dc. In this supply, the opposition to the
current flowing through the coil windings not only at high frequencies an inductor has infinite (open-
depends upon the inductance of the coil but also circuit) impedance, ( XL ). While at DC a capacitor
the frequency of the applied voltage waveform as has infinite (open-circuit) impedance, ( XC ) while
it varies from its positive to negative values.This at very high frequencies a capacitor has zero
might explain the slower lighting up of the bulb impedance (short-circuit).[1]
versus the previous test in dc . When a capacitor
was inserted into the network. The bulb did not lit After the experiment, we are able to
due to the capacitor in a series circuit acts as a compare the DC and AC voltage and current as
temporary storage device maintaining or holding well as to compare the behavior of passive
the charge therefore preventing the bulb to elements in DC and AC Circuits.
achieve its rated voltage.

REFERENCES
CONCLUSION
[1]Emmanuel, O (2018) AC Circuit Theorey:
The three main passive components What is AC and How its Generated. Retrieved
used in the experiment are Resistor, the October 16, 2018 from https://circuitdigest.c
Capacitor and the Inductor. All three of these om/tutorial/ac-circuit-theory
passive components have one thing in common,
they limit the flow of electrical current through a [2] Agarwal, T (n.d) What is the difference
circuit but in very different ways. Passive between AC and DC Current. Retrieved October
components consume electrical energy and 16, 2018 from https://www.elprocus.com/main-
therefore cannot increase or amplify the power of difference-between-ac-and-dc-currents/
any electrical signals applied to them, simply [3] Passive Elements. Retrieved October 16,
because they are passive and as such will always 2018 from https://www.renesas.com
have a gain of less than one.[7] /br/en/support/technical-resources/engineer-
We also learned that electrical current school/electronic-circuits-01-passive-
can flow through a circuit in either of two ways. elements.html
Direct Current, if it flows in one steady direction [4] Capacitors in DC Circuit.Retrieved October
only it is classed as direct current while 16, 2018, from
Alternating current If the electrical current http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/302l/lecture
alternates in both directions back and forth it is s/node60.html
classed as alternating current. Although they
present an impedance within a circuit, passive [5] How Capacitors Behave in AC Circuits.
components in AC circuits behave very differently (2011, November 30). Retrieved October 16,
to those in DC circuits. 2018, from https://www.eeweb.com/profile
/andrew-carter/articles/how-capacitors-behave-
Resistors whether used in DC or AC in-ac-circuits
circuits will always have the same value of
resistance no matter what the supply frequency. [6] Home. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2018,
This is because resistors are classed to be pure from https://engineering.mit.edu/engage/ask-an-
having parasitic properties such as infinite engineer/whats-the-difference-between-ac-and-
capacitance C = ∞ and zero inductance L = 0. [1] dc/

Capacitors and inductors on the other [7] ] Aspencore, Passive Components in AC


hand, have a different type of AC resistance Circuits (2017) Retrieved from:
known as reactance, (XL and XC). Reactance https://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/accircuits/pa
also impedes the flow of current, but the amount ssive-components.html
of reactance is not a fixed quantity for one
inductor or capacitor in the same way that a
resistor has a fixed value of resistance. At DC an
inductor has zero impedance (short-circuit), while