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UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA

METROPOLITANA IZTAPALAPA

“Problems 3.1 y 3.2 de Thermodynamics and


Its Applications”
TAREA 1

Lievanos Carrasco Andrea Carolina

Profesor: Gustavo Ariel Fuentes Zurita


UEA: Termodinámica
Grupo: CO14

25 de septiembre de 2018

0
Problema 3.1

A small well-insulated cylinder and piston assembly (Figure P3.1)


contains an ideal gas at 10.13 bar and 294.3 K. A mechanical lock
prevents the piston from moving. The length of the cylinder containing
the gas is 0.305 m and the piston cross sectional area is 1.858 x10-12
m2.
The piston, which weighs 226 kg, is tightly fitted and when allowed to
move, there are indications that considerable friction is present. When
the mechanical lock is released, the piston moves in the cylinder until it
impacts and is engaged by another mechanical stop; at this point, the
gas volume has just doubled. The heat capacity of the ideal gas is 20.93
J/mol K, independent of temperature and pressure. Consider the heat
capacity of the piston and cylinder walls to be negligible.
a) As an engineer, can you estimate the temperature and pressure
of the gas after such an expansion? Clearly state any
assumptions.
b) Repeat the calculations if the cylinder were rotated 90° and 180°
before tripping the mechanical lock.
Solución:
Datos:

1
V2 =2 V1
V1 = 5.6669 x10-3 m3
V2= 0.0113 m3
T1= 294.3 K
P1 =10.13 bar= 10.13 x10 5 N/m2
Pa= 1.013 bar = 1.013x10 5 N/m2
Cv= 20.93 J/mol K
g= 9.81 m/s2
m= 226 kg
Largo del cilindro = 0.305m
Área del pistón = 1.858 x10-12 m2

Se escoge un sistema del gas en el cilindro, se toma en cuenta que es


despreciable la fricción en las paredes.
Por lo tanto, se considera adiabático Q= 0 y se obtiene la ecuación
-W = Pa (V2-V1) +m g ΔZ
ΔZ(vertical)= -0.3048m
W= -(1.013x10 5 N/m2) ( -5.6669 x10-3 m3) -( 9.81 m/s2) (226 kg) ( -
0.3048m) = 1.250 KJ
ΔU sistema = Q + W =1.250 KJ
Al expandirse…
-ΔU gas = Cv dT = -ng Cv (T2-T1)
ng= moles del gas = (10.13 x10 5 N/m2) (5.6669 x10-3 m3) / (8.314 J/mol
K) (294.3 K)
ng= 2.346 mol
Por lo tanto, al igualar las ecuaciones se obtiene :
-W=-ng Cv (T2-T1)
-1.250 KJ = (2.346 mol) (20.93 J/mol K) (T2 -294.3 K)
Al despejar la temperatura final (T2) se obtiene:
T2 = 268.8 K

2
Entonces atraves de la ecuación de gas ideal (PV=nRT) se puede
encontrar la presión final
P2= (2.346 mol) (8.314 J/mol K) (268.8 K) /(0.0113 m3)
P2= 4.627 x105 N/m2

Caso 2: Pistón horizontalmente


-W = Pa (V2-V1) +m g ΔZ
ΔZ(horizontal)= 0
W= -(1.013x10 5 N/m2) ( -5.667 x10-3 m3) -( 9.81 m/s2) (226 kg) (0)
W=+ 0.5741 kJ
ΔU sistema = Q + W =+ 0.5741 kJ
Al expandirse…
-ΔU gas = Cv dT = -ng Cv (T2-T1)
ng= moles del gas = (10.13x10 5 N/m2) (5.667 x10-3 m3) / (8.314 J/mol
K) (294.3 K)
ng= 2.346 mol
Por lo tanto, al igualar las ecuaciones se obtiene :
-W=-ng Cv (T2-T1)
0.5741 KJ = (2.346 mol) (20.93 J/mol K) (T2 -294.3 K)
T2= (0.5741 KJ) / (2.346 mol) (20.93 J/mol K) +294.3 K
T2=282.06 K
Entonces atraves de la ecuación de gas ideal (PV=nRT) se puede
encontrar la presión final
P2= (2.346 mol) (8.314 J/mol K) (282.06 K) / (0.0113 m3)
P2=4.868x10 5 N/m2

3
Caso 3: Pistón boca abajo
-W = Pa (V2-V1) +m g ΔZ
ΔZ (boca abajo) = +0.3048m
W= -(1.013x10 5 N/m2) ( -5.667 x10-3 m3) -( 9.81 m/s2) (226 kg)
(+0.3048m)
W=-101.69= -0.1016 kJ
ΔU sistema = Q + W = -0.1016 kJ
Al expandirse…
-ΔU gas = Cv dT = -ng Cv (T2-T1)
ng= moles del gas = (10.13x10 5 N/m2) (5.667 x10-3 m3) / (8.314 J/mol
K) (294.3 K)
ng= 2.346 mol
Por lo tanto, al igualar las ecuaciones se obtiene
-W=-ng Cv (T2-T1)
-0.1016 kJ = (2.346 mol) (20.93 J/mol K) (T2 -294.3 K)
T2= (-0.1016 kJ) / (2.346 mol) (20.93 J/mol K) +294.3 K
T2=292.13 K
Entonces atraves de la ecuación de gas ideal (PV=nRT) se puede
encontrar la presión final
P2= (2.346 mol) (8.314 J/mol K) (292.13 K) / (0.0113 m3)
P2=5.042x10 5 N/m2

4
Problema 3.2
Many very large liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks have been
built or are under construction. The LNG is predominantly liquid methane
with a boiling point near 111 K at 1 bar. To avoid excessive loss, the
tanks are very well insulated. In the construction of such tanks, to
encourage the contractor to do the best job, there is normally a clause
written into the contract which awards the builder a bonus if the heat leak
into the tank is below some agreed value- but there is also a penalty
clause if this specified heat leak is exceeded.
Since such penalty (or bonus) values are large, it is crucial to specify a
detailed testing procedure to “prove” the heat leak after the tank has
been built and filled with LNG. Normally in such a proof test, the filled
tank is allowed to attain an equilibrium state witch the internal pressure
held constant. Ambient conditions should not vary greatly during this
period. At the end of this pretest period, the tank and liquid are assumed
to be in thermal equilibrium at the existing tank pressure. The actual
proof test then consists of measuring the boil-off vapor over a period of
several days while keeping the tank pressure equal to the pretest value.
Consider a real test. The LNG tank contains 40,000 m3 of pure liquid
methane. The tank pressure is 1.044 bar. Over the test period, the
measured boil-off rate was 4.267 x104 mol/h. Calculate as accurately as
you can the heat leak into the tank (J/h). In this particular case, the
contract specified a $500,000 penalty clause if the heat leak exceeded
0.35 GJ/h (0.35 x109 J/h). A bonus of the same amount was to be
awarded to the contractor if the heat leak was less than 0.35 GJ/h.
Data (from the National Bureau of Standards Report NBSTR 73-342):
For methane at 112 K, 1.044 bar.
• Vv=8.6036x10-3 m3/mol
• VL=0.0380x10-3 m3/mol
• dVV /dT= 6.5015x10-4 m3/mol K
• dVL /dT = 1.309 x10-7 m3 /mol K
• HV = 1.27982 x104 J/mol
• HL= 4.6052 x103 J/mol
• dHV/dT =26.8 J/mol K

5
• dH L /dT= 55.96 J/mol K
• dP/dT =0.0854 bar/K

Assume that 40,000 m3 tank is filled with 99% liquid by volume.


a) Would the contractor gain or lose the $500,000?
b) The true facts for the example above were only slightly different:
over the 24-h period where the boil-off vapor average 4.267x104
mol/h, despite the best intentions of the operators, the tank
pressure fell from 1.044 to 1.043 bar. Would these facts change
the award?

Solución:

El sistema elegido es el metano líquido y metano de vapor en el tanque


que contiene N moles totales. Los superíndices V y L representan las
fases de vapor y líquido. Propiedades sin superíndices indican líquido y
vapor. Por lo tanto, se realiza un balance de energía y masa como a
continuación se presenta:
• Balance de energía:

dU=δQ-H2 δn2
H2=Hv

• Balance de materia:
δn2 =-dN
Entonces,
dU= δQ + Hv dN
U=UV+UL=HV-PVV+HL-PVL
dU= HV dNV+ HLdNL
ϕ= Vv/ ΔVV
De la entalpia de vaporización → ΔHV= HV - HL

Datos:

• P= 1.044 bar
• T=112 K
• Vv=8.6036x10-3 m3/mol

6
• VL=0.0380x10-3 m3/mol
• ϕ= Vv/ ΔVV = 8.6036 /(8.6036-0.0380)=1.00444
• ΔHV= HV - HL=1.27982 x104 J/mol-4.6052 x103 J/mol
• ΔHV=8193.0 J/mol
• M metano= 16.01 g/mol

Entonces a partir de la siguiente ecuación:

dN/dt = -4.267 x10 4 mol/h

δQ /dt =-1.00444 x 8193x104 -4.267 x104= 3.511 x108 J/h

δQ /dt =3.511 x108 J/h

a) Por lo tanto, el contratista paga la multa ($500,000) debido a que


se genera la fuga de calor de 3.511 x108 J/h limitado por las
condiciones en el que se especifica durante el período de prueba,
la tasa de ebullición medida fue de 4.267 x 104 mol / h. En este
caso particular, el contrato especificaba una cláusula de
penalización de $ 500,000 si la fuga de calor excedía 0,35 GJ / h
(0,35 x109 J / h). Se le otorgaría una bonificación de la misma
cantidad al contratista si la fuga de calor fuera inferior a 0,35 GJ /
h.
b)
dVV/ dT = -6.5015x10-4 m3 / mol K
dVL/ dT = 1.309 x10-4 m3 / mol K
NV =VV/VV= (0.01) (40,000)/8.603 x10-3
NV = 4.65 x104 mol
NL =VL/VL= (0.99) (40,000)/0.0380 x10-3
NL = 1.042x109 mol
dP/dN = [(-0.001)/(-4.277 x104 x24)] x105=9.742 x10-5 Pa/mol
Sustituyendo en la ecuación:
dNL =(1.00444+1.414 x10-4)dN = 1.00458 dN

7
Usando los valores dP/ dN y sustituyendo los valores anteriores
obtenemos :
δQ /δt = (-8230.7 + 665.2 -3.9) dN/dt=-7569.4 dN/dt
Con el valor dado en el inciso b dN/dt= -4.267 x104 mol/ h
δQ /δt = 3.230 x108 J/h
Por lo tanto, el contratista recauda la tarifa necesaria.

Nomenclatura

U Energía interna del sistema


W Trabajo
Q calor
H1 Entrada de entalpia
H2 Salida de entalpia
T1 Temperatura inicial
T2 Temperatura final
Ta Temperatura ambiente
Cv Capacidad calorífica del gas
ng Moles del gas
R Constante de gas ideal
g Aceleración gravitacional
m masa del pistón
A Área de la tapa del pistón

Referencia

• Tester , J.W.,Modell, M., (1996)Thermodynamics and its


applications , 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall PTR. Pps 53 y 54.