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4.1 What is Truss Structure?

A truss is a static structure consisting of straight slender members,

interconnected at joints, to form triangular units.

There are two types of trusses:

1. The pitched truss or common truss characterized by its triangular shape. It is most often used for roof construction.

2. The parallel chord or flat truss characterized by its parallel top and bottom chords. It is often used for floor construction.

Example of pitched trusses

used in bridge construction.

4.1 What is Truss Structure?

Examples of pitched truss

structures.

Examples of a parallel cord truss

structure used in bridge construction.

4.2 Plane Trusses

A typical two-dimensional plane truss is shown. It comprises of two-force members, connected by frictionless joints. All loads and reaction forces are

applied at the joints only.

Note: There are two displacement components at a given node i, denoted by Q 2i-1 and Q 2i .

4.3 Local & Global Coordinate Systems

In local coordinate (x’), every node

has one degree of freedom, while in
global coordinate (x, y), every node
has two degrees of freedom.
The nodal displacements, in the
local coordinate system is,
q '
q
'
q
'
 T
1
2
and in the global coordinate system,

q
q
q
q
q
 T
1
2
3
4

4.4 Relation Between Coordinate Systems

Consider a deformed truss member as shown. We can now establish a relationship between {q’} and {q} as follows:

4.5 Transformation Matrix

To eliminate the θ terms from previous equations, we define direction

cosines, such that,

l cos

and

m sin

The relation between {q’} and {q} can now be written as,

q '

q

'

1



l

q

3

l

2

m

4

m

1 q

2

q

q

which can be written in matrix form as,

q

q

'

'

1

2

l

0

m

0

0

l

0

m

q

1

q

2

q

q

3

4

4.5 Transformation Matrix

Or, in a condensed matrix form,

q'Lq

where [L] is a rectangular matrix called the transformation matrix, given by,

L

l

0

m

0

0

l

0

m

4.6 Formula for Evaluating l and m

Using a trigonometry relation, we observe,

Note :

Coordinates (x i , y i ) are based on local coordinate system.

4.7 Element Stiffness Matrix

A truss element is a one-dimensional (bar) element, when it is viewed in local coordinate system. Thus, element stiffness matrix for a truss element in local

coordinate,

1

1

1

A E

e

e

l

e



k '



k

truss

bar

1

The internal strain energy in the truss element for the 1-D element is,

U

e

1 2 qkq

T

e

Thus, the internal strain energy in the truss element, in local coordinate system is,

U'

1

e 2

q

''

T

k

truss

'

q

Substituting {q’} = [L]{q}, we get,

U '

e

1
2

L



q

T

k '

1 qLk
2

T

T

truss

'

truss

L



q

Lq

4.7 Element Stiffness Matrix

In the global coordinates system,

U

e

1 2 qkq

T

truss

Since internal strain energy is independent of coordinate system, U e = U’ e . Since,

Therefore,

k

truss

U '

e

1 2 qLk

T

T

'

truss

Lq

  

L

T

k

'

truss

L

 

  

l

m

0

0

0

0

l

m

AE

l

e

1

1

1

1

 

 

 

l

0

m

0

0

l

0

m

4.7 Element Stiffness Matrix

Simplifying,

 l
2
lm
2
 l
 lm
k
k
truss
2
l
 l
lm
l
2
lm
e
  lm
2
m
lm
m
2

AE

  lm

m

2 lm

m

2

Example 4.1

Write the element stiffness matrix for each element . Use: E = 180 GPa; d = 15 mm for all members.

Solution

1)

Number the node and

element of the truss.

Solution (cont.)

2) Area for each member, A,

A

r

2

d

2  

2

Example 4.1

0.015

2

2

1.767

10

4

m

2

3) Establish nodal coordinate data and element connectivity information.

Nodal Coordinate

Data

Element Connectivity Information

 Node x y 1 0 0 2 0.4 0.6 3 0.8 0
 Element Node 1 Node 2 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 2 3

Solution (cont.)

Example 4.1

4) Compute the direction cosines.

 Element l e l m 1 0.72 0.56 0.83 2 0.8 1 0 3 0.72 0.56 -0.83

5) Write the stiffness matrix for each element.

Element 1:

1

2

3

4

k

1

0.31

0.46

 0.46  0.31  0.46 0.69  0.46  0.69

0.46

0.69

1

2

3

4

4

180

10

9

1.767

10

0.72  

 0.31  0.46 0.31 0.46  0.69 0.46

Solution (cont.)

Element 2:

k

2

Example 4.1

1.767

10

4

180

10

9

0.8

1

  1

1

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

5

1

0

1

0

6

0

0

0

0

Element 3:

3

k

1.767

10

4

180

10

9

0.72

3

  0.31

0.46

0.31

0.46

4

0.46

0.69

0.46

0.69

5

0.31

0.46

0.31

0.46

1

2

5

6

6

0.46

0.46

0.69

0.69

3

4

5

6

4.8 System of Linear Equations

The system of linear equations for a single plane truss element in local coordinate system can be expressed as,

kqf

where {q} is nodal displacement vector and {f} is nodal force vector, in the global

coordinate direction. Substituting, we get,

2
2
 l
lm
l
lm
q
f
1 
1
2
2
AE
 lm
m
lm
m
q
f
2
2
 
q
f
e
3
3
   lm
2
2
 m
lm
m
q
f
 
4
4

l

  l

2

lm

l

2

lm

Note:

To assemble the global stiffness matrix, a local - global nodal connectivity will be required.

Reconsider Exercise 4-1.

Example 4.2

 a) Assemble global system of linear equations for the structure. b) Apply the boundary conditions. c) Write the reduced system of linear equations.

Use: E = 180 GPa; d = 15 mm for all members.

Solution

Example 4.2

The assembled global stiffness matrix [K],

K

1.767

10

4

180

10

9

1

1.681

0.639

0.431

0.639

1.25

0

2

0.639

0.958

0.639

0.958

0

0

3

0.431

0.639

0.861

0

0.431

0.639

4

0.639

0.958

0

1.917

0.639

0.958

5

1.25

0

0.431

0.639

1.681

0.638

6

0

0

0.639

0.958

0.638

0.958

Boundary Conditions:

Q 1 = Q 2 = Q 6 = 0 (homogeneous type)

1

2

3

4

5

6

Solution (cont.)

Example 4.2

a) The global system of linear equations for the structure,

1.767

10

4

180

10

9

1.681

0.639

0.639

0.958

0.431

0.639

 

1.25

0.639

0.958

0

0

0

0.431

0.639

0.861

0

0.431

0.639

0.639

0.958

0

1.917

0.639

0.958

1.25

0

0.431

0.639

1.681

0.638

0

0

0.639

0.958

0.638

0.958

Q

1

Q

2

3

Q

Q

4

Q

5

  Q

6

b) The boundary conditions of the structure,

Q 1 Q Q 0 (homogeneoustype)

2

6

50

0

0

0

0

0

10

3

Solution (cont.)

Example 4.2

c) By eliminating the 1 st , 2 nd and 6 th row and column,

1.767

10

4

180

  1. 681 0. 639  0.431 0.639  1.25 0      Q 0 1  9     0. 639  0 .431  0 .639 0. 958  0.  0. 639 958  0.639 0.861 0  0.958 0 1.917  0 0.431 0.639 0 0.639  0.958     Q    Q   Q 3        50  0  0 10 3    1 .25 0 0.431 0.639 1.681 0.638       Q 4   0    5     0 0 0.639  0.958  0.638 0.958    Q  6  0

10

 

2

Therefore, the reduced system of linear equation is,

1.767

10

4

180

10

9

  0.431

0.861

0

0

1.917

0.639

0.431   Q

Q

Q

3

4

5

0.639

1.681

50

0

0

10

3

4.9 Stress Calculations

Normal stress in a plane truss element, in local coordinate system is,

EBq'

In the global coordinate system, since {q’} = [L]{q},

EBLq

Expanding the [B] and [L] matrices,

   E 1   1 1     l m 0 0     l e 0 0 l m       E 1   l  m l m      q 1 q 2     l e    q q 3 4   

1

q

q

q

q

2

3

4

Reconsider Exercise 4-2.

Example 4.3

 a) Determine the unknown nodal displacements at B and C. b) Compute the stresses in the member AC and BC.

Use: E = 180 GPa; d = 15 mm for all members.

Solution

Example 4.3

a) Solving using Gaussian elimination method,

1.767

10

4

180

10

9

  0.431

0.861

0

0

1.917

0.639

0.431   Q

3

4

5

0.639

1.681

Q

Q

50

0

0

10

3

Thus, the nodal displacements at B (at Node 2) and C (at Node 3) are,

Q

Q

Q

2.14 mm

3

4  0.209 mm

0.628 mm

5

Example 4.3

Solution (cont.)

b)

Recall,

 Element l e l m 1 0.72 0.56 0.83 2 0.8 1 0 3 0.72 0.56 -0.83

Thus, the stresses are:

Member AC (element 2):

2

E

1

l

e

l

m

l

141.3 MPa

m

q

1

q

2

q

q

5

6

180

10

9

0.8

1

0

1

0

0

0

0.628

0

10

3

Solution (cont.)

Member BC (element 3):

3

E

1

l

e

180

l

10

9

0.72

m

l

0.56

 255.05 MPa

Example 4.3

m

q

q

q

q

3

4

5

6

0.83

0.56

0.83

2.14

10

3

0.209 10

0.628

10

0

3

3

The plane truss shown in figure is composed of members having a

diameter of 16 mm and modulus of

elasticity E = 193 GPa. Given the yield strength, σ y of material is 205 MPa.

 a) Compute the nodal displacements in the global coordinate system for the loads shown. b) Compute the axial stress in

each element.

Example 4.4

Solution

1) Finite Element Modelling

Nodes and Elements Numbering.

Example 4.4

Example 4.4

Solution (cont.)

2) Material and Geometric Properties.

Young’s Modulus:

E 1 E E

2

3

193 10

6

Pa

Cross-sectional Area:

Length:

L 1

0.4m,

2

A A A r

1

2

3

L

2

0.40.9

2

2

0.008

2

2.0106

0.985m,

10

4

m

2

L 3

0.9m

3) Establish Nodal Coordinate Data, Element Connectivity Information and

Direction Cosines.

Nodal Coordinate

Data

 Node x y 1 0 0 2 0.4 0 3 0 0.9

Solution (cont.)

Element Connectivity Information

Direction Cosines

Example 4.4

 Element Node 1 Node 2 1 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 1
 Element l e l m 1 0.4 1 0 2 0.985 0.406 -0.914 3 0.9 0 -1

Solution (cont.)

Example 4.4

4) Write the Stiffness Matrix for Each Element.

Element 1:

  l 2 lm l 2 lm    AE l    lm 2  lm  2   k  truss   k    l 2 m  lm l 2 m lm   e     lm  m 2 lm 2 m    1 2 3 4  k  1  2.0106  10  4  193  10 9     1 0 0 0  1 0 0 0    0.4   1  0 0 0 1 0 0   0

1

2

3

4

Solution (cont.)

Element 2:

Element 3:

k

k

Example 4.4

5

0.165

  10  4 193  10 9  0.985   10  4 193  10 9 

2.0106

5

0.371

  0.165

0.371

2

6

0 0

0

0

0

1

0

1

3 2.0106

0.9

6

0.371

0.835

0.371

1

0

0

0

0

0.835

2

0

1

0

1

5

6

1

2

3

0.165

0.371

0.165

0.371

4

0.371

0.835

0.371

0.835

5

6

3

4

Solution (cont.)

Example 4.4

Assemble the global stiffness matrix [K] for the entire truss structure.

K

2.0106

10

4

193

10

9

1

2.5

0

2.5

0

0

0

2

0

1.111

0

0

0

1.111

3

2.5

0

2.668

0.377

0.168

0.377

4

0

0

0.377

0.848

0.377

0.848

5

0

0

0.168

0.377

0.168

0.377

6

0

1.111

0.377

0.848

0.377

1.959

1

2

3

4

5

6

Solution (cont.)

Example 4.4

5) Write the Element Force Vector Matrix.

Since the bar is subjected by two concentrated forces; 35 kN and 18 kN at Node 2. Therefore, the global force vector for the entire structure is,

F

 

0

0

35

10

18

10

3

0

0

3

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

Solution (cont.)

Example 4.4

6) Assemble the Global System of Linear Equations.

2.0106

10

4

193

10

9

2.5

0

2.5

0

0

0

 0  2.5 0 1.111 0 0
 0 0 0  1.111
 0 2.668  0.377  0.168 0  0.377 0.848 0.377 0  0.168 0.377 0.168

1.111

0.377

0.848

0.377

0.377

0.848

0.377

1.959

K

Q

1

Q

2

Q

3

Q

4

Q

5

Q

6

Q

F

35

0

0

10

18

10

3

0

0

3

Solution (cont.)

Example 4.4

7) Impose Boundary Conditions & Write the Reduced System of Linear

Equations. We have,

Q

1

Q Q

5

6

0

Using elimination method, the above equations reduced to,

2.0106

10

4

193

10

9

1.111

0

0

0

2.668

0.377