00 mi piace00 non mi piace

2 visualizzazioni45 pagineSUCO

Oct 25, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

DOCX, PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

SUCO

© All Rights Reserved

2 visualizzazioni

00 mi piace00 non mi piace

SUCO

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 45

Prepared By:

Ahmed Ahmed Mahmoud Abdel Nabi

Ramy Abd El-Hadi Abd El-Aziz Lasheen

Hitham Sami

Index:

Background

Background

Procedure

History

Calculation of Control Limits

When to Use a Control Chart?

Condition of Using X-Chart

Main Objectives of Quality Charts

Out of Limits Signals

Seven Quality Tools

Application 01

Statistical process control (SPC)

Application 02

Description of a Quality Charts

Application 03

Chart Usage

Application 04

Rules of detecting Signals

Performance of Control Charts

Common Types of Control

How to Select a Control Chart

Process Capability and Process Capability Index

Root Cause Analysis

N.B.

All of information mentioned in this paper is classified to be confidential that is used for research purposes only and not

allowed to be used in public except after prior agreement.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Part I

Theory

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

I.1 Background

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_chart

Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts (after Walter A. Shewhart) or process-behavior charts,

in statistical process control are tools used to determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state

of statistical control.

If analysis of the control chart indicates that the process is currently under control (i.e., is stable, with

variation only coming from sources common to the process), then no corrections or changes to process

control parameters are needed or desired. In addition, data from the process can be used to predict the

future performance of the process. If the chart indicates that the monitored process is not in control,

analysis of the chart can help determine the sources of variation, as this will result in degraded process

performance. A process that is stable but operating outside of desired (specification) limits (e.g., scrap rates

may be in statistical control but above desired limits) needs to be improved through a deliberate effort to

understand the causes of current performance and fundamentally improve the process.

The control chart is one of the seven basic tools of quality control. Typically control charts are used for

time-series data, though they can be used for data that have logical comparability (i.e. you want to

compare samples that were taken all at the same time, or the performance of different individuals),

however the type of chart used to do this requires consideration.

I.2 History

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_chart

The control chart was invented by Walter A. Shewhart while working for Bell Labs in the 1920s. The

company's engineers had been seeking to improve the reliability of their telephony transmission systems.

Because amplifiers and other equipment had to be buried underground, there was a stronger business

need to reduce the frequency of failures and repairs. By 1920, the engineers had already realized the

importance of reducing variation in a manufacturing process. Moreover, they had realized that continual

process-adjustment in reaction to non-conformance actually increased variation and degraded quality.

Shewhart created the basis for the control chart and the concept of a state of statistical control by carefully

designed experiments. While Shewhart drew from pure mathematical statistical theories, he understood

data from physical processes typically produce a "normal distribution curve" (a Gaussian distribution, also

commonly referred to as a "bell curve"). He discovered that observed variation in manufacturing data did

not always behave the same way as data in nature (Brownian motion of particles).

Shewhart concluded that while every process displays variation, some processes display controlled

variation that is natural to the process, while others display uncontrolled variation that is not present in the

process causal system at all times.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

In 1924 or 1925, Shewhart's innovation came to the attention of W. Edwards Deming, then working at

the Hawthorne facility. Deming later worked at the United States Department of Agriculture and became

the mathematical advisor to the United States Census Bureau. Over the next half a

century, Deming became the foremost champion and proponent of Shewhart's work.

After the defeat of Japan at the close of World War II, Deming served as statistical consultant to the

Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. His ensuing involvement in Japanese life, and long career as an

industrial consultant there, spread Shewhart's thinking, and the use of the control chart, widely in

Japanese manufacturing industry throughout the 1950s and 1960s.

http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/data-collection-analysis-tools/overview/control-chart.html

When controlling ongoing processes by finding and correcting problems as they occur.

When predicting the expected range of outcomes from a process.

When determining whether a process is stable (in statistical control).

When analyzing patterns of process variation from special causes (non-routine events) or common

causes (built into the process).

When determining whether your quality improvement project should aim to prevent specific

problems or to make fundamental changes to the process.

http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/data-collection-analysis-tools/overview/control-chart.html

Prediction requirements

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/seven-basic-quality-tools/overview/overview.html

The Seven Basic Tools of Quality is a designation given to a fixed set of graphical techniques identified as

being most helpful in troubleshooting issues related to quality. They are called basic because they are

suitable for people with little formal training in statistics and because they can be used to solve the vast

majority of quality-related issues.

Check sheet

Control chart

Histogram

Pareto chart

Scatter diagram

Stratification (alternately, flow chart or run chart)

The designation arose in postwar Japan, inspired by the seven famous weapons of Benkei. It was possibly

introduced by Kaoru Ishikawa who in turn was influenced by a series of lectures W. Edwards Deming had

given to Japanese engineers and scientists in 1950. At that time, companies that had set about training

their workforces in statistical quality control found that the complexity of the subject intimidated the vast

majority of their workers and scaled back training to focus primarily on simpler methods which suffice for

most quality-related issues.

The Seven Basic Tools stand in contrast to more advanced statistical methods such as survey

sampling, acceptance sampling, statistical hypothesis testing, design of experiments, multivariate analysis,

and various methods developed in the field of operations research.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_process_control

Statistical process control (SPC) is a method of quality control which uses statistical methods. SPC is applied

in order to monitor and control a process. Monitoring and controlling the process ensures that it operates

at its full potential.

Statistical Process Control provides a graphic description of the quantifiable characteristics of process,

process element or work activity.

At its full potential, the process can make as much conforming product as possible with a minimum (if not

an elimination) of waste (rework or scrap). SPC can be applied to any process where the "conforming

product" (product meeting specifications) output can be measured. Key tools used in SPC include control

charts; a focus on continuous improvement; and the design of experiments. An example of a process where

SPC is applied is manufacturing lines.

SPC must be practiced in 2 phases: The first phase is the initial establishment of the process, and the

second phase is the regular production use of the process. In the second phase, a decision of the period to

be examined must be made, depending upon the change in 4 - M conditions (Man, Machine, Material,

Method)and wear rate of parts used in the manufacturing process (machine parts, jigs and fixture and

tooling standard).

An advantage of SPC over other methods of quality control, such as "inspection", is that it emphasizes early

detection and prevention of problems, rather than the correction of problems after they have occurred.

In addition to reducing waste, SPC can lead to a reduction in the time required to produce the product. SPC

makes it less likely the finished product will need to be reworked.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmc/section3/pmc31.htm

characteristic in samples taken from the process at different times (i.e., the data)

The mean of this statistic using all the samples is calculated (e.g., the mean of the means, mean of

the ranges, mean of the proportions)

A centre line is drawn at the value of the mean of the statistic

The standard error (e.g., standard deviation/sqrt(n) for the mean) of the statistic is also calculated

using all the samples

Upper and lower control limits (sometimes called "natural process limits") that indicate the

threshold at which the process output is considered statistically 'unlikely' and are drawn typically at

3 standard errors from the centre line

The chart may have other optional features, including:

Upper and lower warning or control limits, drawn as separate lines, typically two standard errors

above and below the centre line

Division into zones, with the addition of rules governing frequencies of observations in each zone

Annotation with events of interest, as determined by the Quality Engineer in charge of the

process's quality

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

http://www.spcforexcel.com/knowledge/control-chart-basics/use-control-charts

If the process is in control (and the process statistic is normal), 99.7300% of all the points will fall between

the control limits. Any observations outside the limits, or systematic patterns within, suggest the

introduction of a new (and likely unanticipated) source of variation, known as a special-cause variation.

Since increased variation means increased quality costs, a control chart "signaling" the presence of a

special-cause requires immediate investigation.

This makes the control limits very important decision aids. The control limits provide information about the

process behavior and have no intrinsic relationship to any specification targets or engineering tolerance. In

practice, the process mean (and hence the centre line) may not coincide with the specified value (or target)

of the quality characteristic because the process' design simply cannot deliver the process characteristic at

the desired level.

Control charts limit specification limits or targets because of the tendency of those involved with the

process (e.g., machine operators) to focus on performing to specification when in fact the least-cost course

of action is to keep process variation as low as possible. Attempting to make a process whose natural

centre is not the same as the target perform to target specification increases process variability and

increases costs significantly and is the cause of much inefficiency in operations. Process capability studies

do examine the relationship between the natural process limits (the control limits) and specifications,

however.

The purpose of control charts is to allow simple detection of events that are indicative of actual process

change. This simple decision can be difficult where the process characteristic is continuously varying; the

control chart provides statistically objective criteria of change. When change is detected and considered

good its cause should be identified and possibly become the new way of working, where the change is bad

then its cause should be identified and eliminated.

The purpose in adding warning limits or subdividing the control chart into zones is to provide early

notification if something is amiss. Instead of immediately launching a process improvement effort to

determine whether special causes are present, the Quality Engineer may temporarily increase the rate at

which samples are taken from the process output until it's clear that the process is truly in control. Note

that with three-sigma limits, common-cause variations result in signals less than once out of every twenty-

two points for skewed processes and about once out of every three hundred seventy (1/370.4) points for

normally distributed processes.

The two-sigma warning levels will be reached about once for every twenty-two (1/21.98) plotted points in

normally distributed data. (For example, the means of sufficiently large samples drawn from practically any

underlying distribution whose variance exists are normally distributed, according to the Central Limit

Theorem.)

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_chart#Rules_for_detecting_signals

The Wheeler rules (equivalent to the Western Electric zone tests[10])

The Nelson rules

There has been particular controversy as to how long a run of observations, all on the same side of the

centre line, should count as a signal, with 6, 7, 8 and 9 all being advocated by various writers.

The most important principle for choosing a set of rules is that the choice be made before the data is

inspected. Choosing rules once the data have been seen tends to increase the Type I error rate owing

to testing effects suggested by the data.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_chart#Performance_of_control_charts

When a point falls outside of the limits established for a given control chart, those responsible for the

underlying process are expected to determine whether a special cause has occurred. If one has, it is

appropriate to determine if the results with the special cause are better than or worse than results from

common causes alone. If worse, then that cause should be eliminated if possible. If better, it may be

appropriate to intentionally retain the special cause within the system producing the results.

It is known that even when a process is in control (that is, no special causes are present in the system),

there is approximately a 0.27% probability of a point exceeding 3-sigma control limits. So, even an in

control process plotted on a properly constructed control chart will eventually signal the possible presence

of a special cause, even though one may not have actually occurred. For a Shewhart control chart using 3-

sigma limits, this false alarm occurs on average once every 1/0.0027 or 370.4 observations. Therefore,

the in-control average run length (or in-control ARL) of a Shewhart chart is 370.4.

Meanwhile, if a special cause does occur, it may not be of sufficient magnitude for the chart to produce an

immediate alarm condition. If a special cause occurs, one can describe that cause by measuring the change

in the mean and/or variance of the process in question. When those changes are quantified, it is possible to

determine the out-of-control ARL for the chart.

It turns out that Shewhart charts are quite good at detecting large changes in the process mean or variance,

as their out-of-control ARLs are fairly short in these cases. However, for smaller changes (such as a 1- or 2-

sigma change in the mean), the Shewhart chart does not detect these changes efficiently. Other types of

control charts have been developed, such as the EWMA chart, the CUSUM chart and the real-time contrasts

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

chart, which detect smaller changes more efficiently by making use of information from observations

collected prior to the most recent data point.

(http://www.uta.edu/faculty/sawasthi/Statistics/stquacon.html)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_chart

The types of charts are often classified according to the type of quality characteristic that they are

supposed to monitor: there are quality control charts for variables and control charts for

attributes. Specifically, the following charts are commonly constructed for controlling variables:

X-bar chart.

In this chart the sample means are plotted in order to control the mean value of a variable (e.g.,

size of piston rings, strength of materials, etc.).

R chart.

In this chart, the sample ranges are plotted in order to control the variability of a variable.

S chart.

In this chart, the sample standard deviations are plotted in order to control the variability of a

variable.

S2 chart.

In this chart, the sample variances are plotted in order to control the variability of a variable.

For controlling quality characteristics that represent attributes of the product, the following charts are

commonly constructed:

C chart.

In this chart (see example below), we plot the number of defectives (per batch, per day, per

machine, per 100 feet of pipe, etc.). This chart assumes that defects of the quality attribute

are rare, and the control limits in this chart are computed based on

the Poisson distribution (distribution of rare events).

U chart.

In this chart we plot the rate of defectives, that is, the number of defectives divided by the number

of units inspected (the n; e.g., feet of pipe, number of batches). Unlike the C chart, this chart does

not require a constant number of units, and it can be used, for example, when the batches

(samples) are of different sizes.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Np chart.

In this chart, we plot the number of defectives (per batch, per day, per machine) as in the C chart.

However, the control limits in this chart are not based on the distribution of rare events, but rather

on the binomial distribution. Therefore, this chart should be used if the occurrence of defectives is

not rare (e.g., they occur in more than 5% of the units inspected). For example, we may use this

chart to control the number of units produced with minor flaws.

P chart.

In this chart, we plot the percent of defectives (per batch, per day, per machine, etc.) as in the U

chart. However, the control limits in this chart are not based on the distribution of rare events but

rather on the binomial distribution (of proportions). Therefore, this chart is most applicable to

situations where the occurrence of defectives is not rare (e.g., we expect the percent of defectives

to be more than 5% of the total number of units produced).

Process

Chart Process observation

observations type

Quality characteristic measurement for one observation Variables

chart(ImR chart or XmR chart)

EWMA chart Exponentially weighted moving average of quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Attributes or variables

CUSUM chart Cumulative sum of quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Attributes or variables

Time series model Quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Attributes or variables

Regression control chart Quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Variables

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

http://www.isixsigma.com/tools-templates/control-charts/a-guide-to-control-charts/

Although this article describes a plethora of control charts, there are simple questions a practitioner can

ask to find the appropriate chart for any given use. Figure 13 walks through these questions and directs the

user to the appropriate chart.

A number of points may be taken into consideration when identifying the type of control chart to use, such

as:

Variables control charts (those that measure variation on a continuous scale) are more sensitive to

change than attribute control charts (those that measure variation on a discrete scale).

Variables charts are useful for processes such as measuring tool wear.

Use an individuals chart when few measurements are available (e.g., when they are infrequent or

are particularly costly). These charts should be used when the natural subgroup is not yet known.

A measure of defective units is found with u– and c-charts.

In a u-chart, the defects within the unit must be independent of one another, such as with

component failures on a printed circuit board or the number of defects on a billing statement.

Use a u-chart for continuous items, such as fabric (e.g., defects per square meter of cloth).

A c-chart is a useful alternative to a u-chart when there are a lot of possible defects on a unit, but

there is only a small chance of any one defect occurring (e.g., flaws in a roll of material).

When charting proportions, p– and np-charts are useful (e.g., compliance rates or process yields).

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmc/section1/pmc16.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_capability

The process capability is a measurable property of a process to the specification, expressed as a process

capability index (e.g., Cpk or Cpm) or as a process performance index (e.g., Ppk or Ppm). The output of this

measurement is usually illustrated by a histogram and calculations that predict how many parts will be

produced out of specification (OOS).

Process capability compares the output of an in-control process to the specification limits by

using capability indices. The comparison is made by forming the ratio of the spread between the process

specifications (the specification "width") to the spread of the process values, as measured by 6 process

standard deviation units (the process "width").

We are often required to compare the output of a stable process with the process specifications and make

a statement about how well the process meets specification. To do this we compare the natural variability

of a stable process with the process specification limits.

A process where almost all the measurements fall inside the specification limits is a capable process. This

can be represented pictorially by the plot below:

on Normal Distribution

Curve

There are several statistics that can be used to measure the capability of a process: Cp, Cpk, and Cpm.

Most capability indices estimates are valid only if the sample size used is "large enough". Large enough is

generally thought to be about 50 independent data values.

The Cp, Cpk, and Cpm statistics assume that the population of data values is normally distributed. Assuming

a two-sided specification, if μ and σ are the mean and standard deviation, respectively, of the normal data

and USL, LSL, and T are the upper and lower specification limits and the target value, respectively, then the

population capability indices are defined as follows.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_capability_index

The process capability index or process capability ratio is a statistical measure of process capability: the

ability of a process to produce output within specification limits. The concept of process capability only

holds meaning for processes that are in a state of statistical control. Process capability indices measure how

much "natural variation" a process experiences relative to its specification limits and allows different

processes to be compared with respect to how well an organization controls them.

Index Description

were to be centered between the specification limits. Assumes process

output is approximately normally distributed.

only (for example, strength). Assumes process output is approximately

normally distributed.

limit only (for example, concentration). Assumes process output is

approximately normally distributed.

process mean may not be centered between the specification limits. (If

the process mean is not centered, overestimates process

capability.) if the process mean falls outside of the specification

limits. Assumes process output is approximately normally distributed.

than zero. Assumes process output is approximately normally

distributed. is also known as the Taguchi capability index.[2]

center process mean. Assumes process output is approximately normally

distributed.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/root-cause-analysis/

http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/cause-analysis-tools/overview/overview.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_map

It is a study of original reason for nonconformance with a process. When the root cause is removed or

corrected, the nonconformance will be eliminated.

Use these tools when you want to conduct root cause analysis for a problem or situation.

Fishbone (Ishikawa) diagram:

One of the quality control tools that identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem and

sorts ideas into useful categories.

Pareto chart:

One of the quality control tools that shows on a bar graph which factors are more significant.

Scatter diagram:

One of the quality control tools that is graphs pairs of numerical data, with one variable on each

axis, to help you look for a relationship.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Five whys

The 5 why’s typically refers to the practice of asking, five times, why the failure has occurred in

order to get to the root cause/causes of the problem. There can be more than one cause to a

problem as well. In an organizational context, generally root cause analysis is carried out by a team

of persons related to the problem. No special technique is required.

Brain storming

A method to generate ideas. Groundrules such as -no idea is a bad idea- are typical. Benefit of

brainstorming is the power of the group in building ideas of each others ideas.

Mind maps

A mind map is a diagram used to visually organize information. A mind map is often created around

a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank landscape page, to which associated

representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are

connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Part II

Applications

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.1 Background

In statistical process control, the and R chart is a type of control chart used to

monitor variables data when samples are collected at regular intervals from

a business or industrial process.

1. The sample size is relatively small (say, n ≤ 10— and s charts are typically used

for larger sample sizes)

2. The sample size is constant

3. Humans must perform the calculations for the chart

II.2 Procedure

II.2.1 The "X-chart" is to monitor the process mean, as is done with the . The and R

chart plots the mean value for the quality characteristic across all units in the

sample, , plus the range of the quality characteristic across all units in the sample

as follows:

= X/n

R = xmax - xmin.

… Equation – II.2.1

The normal distribution is the basis for the charts and requires the following assumptions:

distributed random variable

The parameters μ and σ for the random variable are the same for each unit and each

unit is independent of its predecessors or successors

The inspection procedure is same for each sample and is carried out consistently from

sample to sample

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

The control limits for this chart type are calculated as follows:

That is for monitoring the process mean.

UCLR:

… Equation – II.2.4

LCLR:

… Equation – II.2.5

That is for monitoring the process variability, where A2 is sample size-specific anti-

biasing constants. Table II.2.1 shows the values of sample size-specific anti-

biasing constants in accordance with the sample size.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

As with the and s and individuals control charts, the chart is only valid if the within-sample

variability is constant. Thus, the R chart is examined before the chart; if the R chart indicates the

sample variability is in statistical control, then the chart is examined to determine if the sample mean

is also in statistical control. If on the other hand, the sample variability is not in statistical control, then

the entire process is judged to be not in statistical control regardless of what the chart indicates.

* Appendix VI (Page 702 – Introduction to Statistical Quality Control – 6th Edition – Douglas C. Montgomery)

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

If any of out-of-limits signals appeared during the establishment of the control chart,

a non-conforming work shall be considered and analysis for the situation shall be

carried out. Figure II.2.1 shows the Out of Limits Signals.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.3 Application 01

The chart monitors the performance of the (weighing test) performed by Nestle Employees in the

1st shift in the normal working days.

b) Sample Size:

30 Mean Points

c) Sample Description:

30 mean values of the (weight test) results (in gm) for Ice Cream Sample in (finished product)

stage.

d) Sample Duration:

e) Selection of Method

The method selected for such test is by using the direct way method by measuring the weight

using the electronic balance.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.3.2 Readings

Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

X1 79.2 83.1 82.3 81.5 78.2 83.5 83.5 84.6 76.9 84.3 84.6 85.1 85.5 79.2 86.3 77.8 84.2 80.9 81.7 79.5 79.8 84.5 82.4 78.9 78.4 79.1 81.4 75.6 77.5 85.4

X2 80.3 82.1 83.4 81.8 79.2 82.5 84.2 84.5 83.3 84.2 84.5 79.8 85.3 79.1 85.9 78.5 83.5 79.4 84.2 78.6 79.4 83.4 77.2 79.8 77.4 81.4 81.7 75.8 78.4 84.6

X3 81.2 83.2 82.2 83.5 78.3 83.4 82.9 82.4 77.8 82.6 82.7 82.8 82.9 77.2 83.0 79.4 82.9 83.4 83.4 77.4 83.6 83.7 83.8 83.9 76.5 83.7 82.5 78.6 79.4 83.2

X4 80.1 80.1 81.4 79.4 78.6 82.4 82.6 83.4 77.4 82.9 83.2 78.4 83.9 75.3 84.6 79.5 82.9 81.7 82.4 77.6 80.5 81.7 83.4 78.4 79.5 80.7 83.4 77.4 77.5 81.4

X5 78.2 79.2 80.3 78.3 78.4 81.6 81.4 83.7 81.4 83.0 83.4 84.0 84.5 84.4 85.6 78.1 81.7 82.4 83.5 77.1 81.4 80.4 82.9 83.7 80.9 80.9 81.7 77.9 76.5 78.9

X6 77.2 81.2 79.2 82.5 81.5 82.7 82.3 81.7 78.9 83.1 83.4 78.5 84.1 78.5 84.9 76.5 82.9 84.5 82.6 76.4 80.9 79.9 78.5 81.7 80.7 79.8 82.6 77.1 79.2 78.5

X7 79.6 79.5 79.2 78.5 78.2 83.6 82.4 82.4 80.9 82.7 83.0 79.5 83.6 78.4 84.3 76.4 83.7 83.4 83.7 79.4 80.7 82.4 81.9 82.7 81.7 79.8 80.7 76.5 79.7 79.8

X8 79.7 82.1 82.4 84.2 78.6 83.4 83.9 82.9 80.1 82.5 82.7 85.9 82.9 79.3 83.1 76.3 83.4 84.5 82.8 79.5 83.9 84.6 82.4 79.8 81.6 76.9 79.5 77.2 78.1 79.4

X9 79.2 78.1 83.3 84.1 77.2 84.1 83.7 81.6 83.4 82.1 82.3 81.4 82.6 78.1 82.9 75.1 83.3 84.1 84.2 78.5 84.1 82.4 81.7 84.6 82.5 78.5 79.8 77.1 77.2 79.2

X10 78.1 81.3 85.2 79.8 76.5 84.5 84.4 81.3 78.5 81.7 81.8 81.9 82.1 78.2 82.2 75.8 82.5 82.6 82.8 78.8 81.7 81.5 81.4 83.3 83.4 77.8 78.9 77.8 77.4 81.6

5003 5004 5005 5006 5009 5010 5011 5012 5016 5017 5020 5021 5026 5027 5028 5030 5031 5033 5034 5037 5038 5039 5044 5045 5053 5054 5058 5076 5077 5083

Bathc 0898 0898 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892

no. U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U

Mean 79.3 81.0 81.9 81.4 78.5 83.2 83.1 82.9 79.9 82.9 83.2 81.7 83.7 78.8 84.3 77.3 83.1 82.7 83.1 78.3 81.6 82.5 81.6 81.7 80.3 79.9 81.2 77.1 78.1 81.2

rdgs

Range 4.1 5.1 6.1 5.9 5.0 2.9 3.0 3.3 6.5 2.5 2.8 7.5 3.4 9.1 4.1 4.4 2.5 5.1 2.5 3.1 4.7 4.7 6.6 6.2 6.9 6.8 4.5 3.0 3.2 6.9

Mean of Range 4.75

UCLx 82.63

LCLx 79.71

UCLR 1.06

LCLR 8.43

Table II.3.2 – Characteristic Values of Total Weight Experiment

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.3.3 Charts

Figure II.3.1

Figure II.3.2

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

According to the out-of-limits signals shown in figure II.2.1, table II.3.3 summarizes the x and R

charts analysis results.

S Signal Existence

Yes

1 Points beyond Zone A

Point 14 & Others

2 Nine points in a raw zone C None

II.3.5 Conclusion:

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.4 Application 02

The chart monitors the performance of the (Volume test) performed by Nestle Employees in the

1st shift in the normal working days.

b) Sample Size:

30 Mean Points

c) Sample Description:

30 mean values of the (volume test) results (in ml) for Ice Cream Sample in (finished product)

stage.

d) Sample Duration:

e) Selection of Method

The method selected for such test is by using the indirect way method by measuring the weight

using the electronic balance then divide the result by the density of the product which is 1000

kg/m3.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.4.2 Readings

Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

X1 105.0 105.4 105.3 106.1 104.2 106.5 104.2 106.3 104.9 104.8 104.8 104.7 104.6 106.6 107.3 104.5 104.5 104.4 104.3 104.2 104.1 106.7 105.6 106.8 104.0 103.9 103.9 103.8 103.7 104.8

X2 106.5 105.9 106.4 105.4 104.9 107.2 103.4 107.1 105.5 105.4 105.4 105.2 105.2 105.1 105.1 104.9 104.9 104.8 104.7 104.7 104.6 104.5 104.4 104.4 104.3 104.2 104.1 104.1 104.8 105.6

X3 106.4 104.8 107.2 105.7 105.7 107.0 104.9 108.2 106.9 107.1 107.2 107.3 107.5 107.7 106.4 103.9 108.1 108.2 106.2 106.4 108.7 108.8 104.5 107.8 109.3 109.4 106.3 104.3 104.9 106.2

X4 105.3 106.5 106.5 106.1 106.4 105.2 105.8 108.1 105.4 106.7 106.8 106.9 105.4 107.1 107.2 105.8 105.3 107.4 105.1 107.5 106.0 107.7 106.2 107.9 105.6 108.0 106.2 107.1 105.7 107.3

X5 105.8 104.9 104.2 107.3 106.2 107.2 105.1 108.2 105.4 107.8 108.1 104.8 108.7 106.7 107.3 105.2 105.4 110.2 106.3 104.6 106.8 103.9 107.1 104.8 104.8 104.7 113.0 106.5 105.4 105.4

X6 105.2 105.8 106.4 108.2 105.7 109.2 103.9 107.4 105.7 107.2 107.3 107.5 107.7 106.2 105.3 104.8 108.2 108.4 105.2 108.7 108.8 106.2 106.2 109.2 109.4 105.6 107.3 104.8 104.3 105.7

X7 105.6 105.7 105.7 106.3 105.7 104.3 104.7 106.8 106.2 105.5 105.4 105.4 105.5 105.4 105.4 106.5 105.3 105.3 104.7 105.3 105.3 105.3 103.2 105.3 105.3 105.2 105.2 105.2 105.2 104.6

X8 104.3 106.2 105.2 107.1 105.6 106.2 104.2 106.9 104.8 107.2 107.5 107.6 105.0 106.4 104.8 106.1 108.7 108.9 105.3 107.2 106.7 104.8 104.9 107.9 110.5 108.1 104.9 104.3 106.2 104.3

X9 104.9 105.7 105.4 108.2 105.3 106.1 105.3 107.4 106.8 107.0 107.1 104.8 107.5 105.7 106.9 105.2 108.2 108.4 105.4 106.4 105.8 104.7 106.2 108.6 104.7 104.8 105.4 106.1 105.4 105.8

X10 105.7 106.0 105.8 106.2 104.9 105.2 104.9 106.8 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.1 105.6 105.5 106.0 105.5 105.5 104.9 105.5 105.5 105.5 105.5 105.4 105.4 105.3 105.9

5003 5004 5005 5006 5009 5010 5011 5012 5016 5017 5020 5021 5026 5027 5028 5030 5031 5033 5034 5037 5038 5039 5044 5045 5053 5054 5058 5076 5077 5083

Bathc 0898 0898 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892

no. U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U

Mean 105.5 105.7 105.8 106.7 105.5 106.4 104.6 107.3 105.7 106.4 106.5 106.0 106.3 106.2 106.1 105.2 106.4 107.2 105.3 106.1 106.2 105.8 105.4 106.8 106.3 105.9 106.2 105.2 105.1 105.6

rdgs

Range 2.2 1.7 3 2.8 2.2 4.9 2.4 1.9 2.1 3.0 3.3 2.9 4.1 2.5 2.5 2.6 4.2 5.8 2.0 4.4 4.7 4.9 3.9 4.9 6.4 5.5 9.1 3.3 2.5 3

Mean of Range 3.63

UCLx 107.10

LCLx 104.86

UCLR 6.46

LCLR 0.81

Table II.4.2 – Characteristic Values of Volume Experiment

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.4.3 Charts

Figure II.4.1

Figure II.4.2

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

According to the out-of-limits signals shown in figure II.2.1, table II.4.3 summarizes the x and R

charts analysis results.

S Signal Existence

Yes

1 Points beyond Zone A

Point 7 and 27

2 Nine points in a raw zone C None

II.4.5 Conclusion:

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.5 Application 03

The chart monitors the performance of a pressure calibration process at 20 bar (66% of the full

range of the used standard) performed by staff of Measurement and Calibration Laboratory –

Cairo University (MCL) according to MCL Standard Test Method (MCL-Pressure-01).

b) Sample Size:

30 Mean Points

c) Sample Description:

30 mean values of the (Pressure Measurement) results (in bars) for a standard reading of 20 bar.

d) Sample Duration:

MCL-Pressure- 01:

A calibration method used for pressure calibration for pressure gauges

None

specified for pneumatic pressure 0:30 bar

MCL-Pressure- 02:

Specified for hydraulic

A calibration method used for pressure calibration for pressure gauges

pressure 0:700 bar

MCL-Pressure- 03:

Specified for vacuum

A calibration method used for pressure calibration for pressure gauges

pressure -1:0 bar

So the calibration method MCL-Pressure- 01 is the most appropriate method to be used in such

study.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.5.2 Readings

Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

X1 21.2 21.4 21.0 20.0 21.2 22.0 21.4 21.9 22.0 21.2 20.0 20.0 20.7 21.0 20.0 21.2 20.7 21.0 21.9 21.1 21.2 20.0 20.0 20.7 21.0 21.4 21.9 22.0 21.2 21.0

X2 21.0 21.0 20.6 20.5 21.3 20.7 21.0 21.7 21.0 21.7 21.0 21.3 22.0 20.9 21.0 20.6 22.0 21.3 20.7 21.0 21.7 21.0 21.3 22.0 20.9 21.0 21.7 21.0 21.7 20.6

X3 21.3 20.5 22.0 21.3 20.2 20.5 20.9 21.0 20.9 21.0 21.0 21.7 21.5 20.8 21.0 21.2 21.3 20.2 22.0 20.9 21.0 21.0 21.7 21.5 20.8 20.9 21.0 20.9 21.0 22.0

X4 20.9 21.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 21.5 20.8 20.5 20.8 20.5 21.0 23.0 21.7 21.0 21.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 21.5 20.8 20.5 21.0 23.0 21.7 21.0 20.8 20.5 20.8 20.5 21.0

X5 20.8 20.7 21.5 21.0 21.6 21.4 22.0 21.7 21.5 21.0 21.6 21.4 20.0 20.2 20.7 21.5 21.0 21.6 21.4 20.0 20.2 20.7 21.7 22.0 20.8 22.0 21.7 21.5 21.0 21.5

Mean

21.0 20.9 21.2 21.0 21.5 21.2 21.2 21.4 21.2 21.1 20.9 21.5 21.2 20.8 20.7 21.1 21.4 21.4 21.5 20.8 20.9 20.7 21.5 21.6 20.9 21.2 21.4 21.2 21.1 21.2

rdgs

Range 0.5 0.9 1.4 2 2.8 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.6 3 2 0.8 1 0.9 1.3 2.8 1.3 1.1 1.5 1 3 1.3 0.2 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.4

21.16

Mean of Mean

1.44

Mean of Range

21.99

UCLx

20.33

LCLx

3.05

UCLR

0.00

LCLR

Table II.5.2 – Characteristic Values of Pressure Calibration Experiment

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.5.3 Charts

2 out of 3

Figure II.5.1

Figure II.5.2

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

According to the data mentioned in table II.5.1, the following data analysis discussing the data

characteristics (all in bars):

mean 21.16

mode 21

median 21

Range 3

Variance 0.3616

Std. deviation 0.6013

Coeff. of Variance 2.84

min 20

Q1 20.8

Q2 21

Q3 21.5

max 23

IQR 0.5

Q1-1.5 IQR 20.05

Q3+1.5 IQR 22.25

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

According to the out-of-limits signals shown in figure II.2.1, table II.5.3 summarizes the x and R

charts analysis results.

S Signal Existence

Yes

5 2 out of 3 points in a row in zone A or beyond

17,18,19 and 22,23,24

II.5.6 Conclusion:

The process is under control in all points except points 17, 18,19 and 22,23,24 are out of control.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.5.6.a) For points 17, 18 and 19 and by using fishbone diagram, we found the following:

Material Man

Both the unit under calibration Operator is Skilled,

and the used equipment are in Experienced, and Training &

a good condition as well as the annually evaluations are

used connections and valves checked.

too.

Process out

of limits at

points

17, 18 & 19

The environmental conditions The used method is The used equipment is in its calibration

log sheet indicates high MCL standard, period, monthly and regular checks are

temperature in the 18th day validated and in its checked and it's found that the unit is in its

which may affect the validity

latest version. normal condition

of test process as per stated

in equipment manual

instructions.

Answer: because it is working all the time and never stops, I guess it's got exhausted.

Why5: why does it never stop, why do you guess it's got exhausted?

Corrective Action:

Replace the timer/thermostat of the air conditioning unit of the lab by a new one.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.5.6.b) For points 22, 23 and 24 and by using fishbone diagram, we found the following:

Material Man

Both the unit under calibration Operator is Skilled,

and the used equipment are in Experienced, and Training &

a good condition as well as the annually evaluations are

used connections and valves checked.

too.

Process out

of limits at

points

22, 23 & 24

The environmental The used method is The used equipment gives strange readings in

conditions log sheet MCL standard, day 23th

indicates normal validated and in its

conditions as per stated in latest version.

equipment manual

instructions.

Why2: Why do you think that it has been supposed to a high electrical load?

Answer: it's not connected to a stabilizer and connected directly to the ordinary power supply

Answer: simply, because the lab didn't purchase enough stabilizers for critical equipment

Corrective Action:

Purchase Enough Stabilizers for Critical Equipment

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.6 Application 04

The chart monitors the performance of a Temperature calibration process at 20 ºC (60% of the full

range of the used standard) performed by staff of Measurement and Calibration Laboratory –

Cairo University (MCL) according to MCL Standard Calibration Method (MCL-Temperature-01).

b) Sample Size:

30 Mean Points

c) Sample Description:

30 mean values of the (Temperature Measurement) results (in ºC) for a standard reading of 20 ºC.

d) Sample Duration:

MCL- Temperature - 01:

A calibration method used for Temperature calibration for thermocouples

None

regardless of its type (k, j, or whatever) 0:1200 ºC

A calibration method used for Temperature calibration for liquid in glass

glass thermometers

thermometers only.

only.

So the calibration method MCL- Temperature - 01 is the most appropriate method to be used in

such study.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.6.2 Readings

Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

X1 21.2 21.4 21.0 20.0 21.2 22.0 20.2 20.0 22.0 21.2 22.0 21.9 21.1 21.2 20.0 21.2 20.7 21.0 21.7 21.0 20.4 21.0 20.0 20.7 21.0 21.2 20.7 21.0 20.2 21.4

X2 21.0 20.3 21.0 21.0 20.6 21.0 21.4 21.0 20.4 21.0 20.0 20.7 21.0 21.7 21.0 20.6 22.0 21.3 22.0 21.5 21.3 20.0 21.3 22.0 20.9 20.6 22.0 21.3 21.4 20.3

X3 21.3 20.0 21.0 21.3 21.5 21.3 21.0 21.5 21.3 20.0 21.3 22.0 20.9 21.0 21.0 21.2 21.3 20.2 22.0 20.9 20.8 20.9 21.7 21.5 20.8 21.2 21.3 20.2 21.0 20.0

X4 20.9 21.0 21.0 21.2 21.3 20.2 22.0 20.9 20.8 20.9 21.7 21.5 20.8 20.5 21.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 21.7 21.0 20.9 22.0 23.0 21.7 21.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 22.0 21.0

X5 20.8 20.5 21.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 21.7 21.0 20.1 20.5 20.8 21.4 20.0 20.2 20.7 21.5 21.0 21.6 21.7 20.5 20.0 20.9 21.7 22.0 20.8 21.5 21.0 21.6 21.7 20.5

Mean

21.0 20.6 21.0 20.9 21.3 21.5 21.3 20.9 20.9 20.7 21.2 21.5 20.8 20.9 20.7 21.1 21.4 21.4 21.8 21.0 20.7 21.0 21.5 21.6 20.9 21.1 21.4 21.4 21.3 20.6

rdgs

Range 0.5 1.4 0.0 1.3 1.4 2.8 1.8 1.5 1.9 1.2 2.0 1.3 1.1 1.5 1.0 0.9 1.3 2.8 0.3 1.0 1.3 2.0 3.0 1.3 0.2 0.9 1.3 2.8 1.8 1.4

21.12

Mean of Mean

1.43

Mean of Range

21.94

UCLx

20.29

LCLx

3.03

UCLR

0.00

LCLR

Table II.6.2 – Characteristic Values of Temperature Calibration Experiment

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.6.3 Charts

Figure II.6.1

Figure II.6.1

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

According to the data mentioned in table II.6.1, the following data analysis discussing the data

characteristics (all in ºC):

mean 21.12

mode 21.00

median 21.00

Range 3

Variance 0.4049

Std. deviation 0.6363

coeff. Of Variance 3.01

min 20

Q1 20.8

Q2 21

Q3 21.5

max 23

IQR 0.5

Q1-1.5 IQR 20.05

Q3+1.5 IQR 22.25

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

According to the out-of-limits signals shown in figure II.2.1, table II.6.3 summarizes the x and R

charts analysis results.

S Signal Existence

II.6.5 Conclusion:

The process is under control in points and there is no out of control signals.

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Appendix A - Symbols

Mean of a sample

R Range

n Sample size

s Standard deviation of a sample

μ Mean of a population

σ Standard deviation of a population

UCLx Upper Control Limit for X-Chart

LCLx Lower Control Limit for X-Chart

UCLR Upper Control Limit for R-Chart

LCLR Lower Control Limit for R-Chart

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Appendix B - Equations

II.2.1 Range and Mean Equations

II.2.2 Upper Control Limit for X-Chart

II.2.3 Lower Control Limit for X-Chart

II.2.4 Upper Control Limit for R-Chart

II.2.5 Lower Control Limit for R-Chart

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Appendix C - Tables

I.11.1 Summary of The Common Types Of Control Charts

I.14.1 Process Capability Indices

II.3.2 Characteristic Values of Total Weight Experiment

II.3.3 X and R Charts Analysis for Weighing Test

II.4.2 Characteristic Values of Volume Experiment

II.4.3 X and R Charts Analysis for Volume Test

II.5.2 Characteristic Values of Pressure Calibration Experiment

II.5.3 X and R Charts Analysis for Pressure Calibration

II.6.2 Characteristic Values of Temperature Calibration Experiment

II.6.3 X and R Charts Analysis for Temperature Calibration

ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Appendix D - Figures

I.5.1 Quality Control Tools

I.15.2 Example of a Pareto Chart

I.15.3 Scatter Diagram

I.15.4 Mind Maps

II.3.2 X-Chart for Total weight Test from 03/01/2015 to 25/03/2015

II.4.2 X-Chart for Volume Test from 03/01/2015 to 25/03/2015

II.5.1 R-Chart for Pressure Calibration from 01/01/2015 to 30/01/2015 (In Bars)

II.5.2 X-Chart for Pressure Calibration from 01/01/2015 to 30/01/2015 (In Bars)

II.6.1 R-Chart for Temperature Calibration from 01/01/2015 to 30/01/2015 (In ºC)

II.6.2 X-Chart for Temperature Calibration from 01/01/2015 to 30/01/2015 (In ºC)

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.