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ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015

Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Prepared By:
Ahmed Ahmed Mahmoud Abdel Nabi
Ramy Abd El-Hadi Abd El-Aziz Lasheen
Hitham Sami

Index:

I. Theory II. Application


 Background
 Background
 Procedure
 History
 Calculation of Control Limits
 When to Use a Control Chart?
 Condition of Using X-Chart
 Main Objectives of Quality Charts
 Out of Limits Signals
 Seven Quality Tools
 Application 01
 Statistical process control (SPC)
 Application 02
 Description of a Quality Charts
 Application 03
 Chart Usage
 Application 04
 Rules of detecting Signals
 Performance of Control Charts
 Common Types of Control
 How to Select a Control Chart
 Process Capability and Process Capability Index
 Root Cause Analysis

N.B.
All of information mentioned in this paper is classified to be confidential that is used for research purposes only and not
allowed to be used in public except after prior agreement.

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Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Part I

Theory

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Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

I.1 Background
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_chart

Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts (after Walter A. Shewhart) or process-behavior charts,
in statistical process control are tools used to determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state
of statistical control.

If analysis of the control chart indicates that the process is currently under control (i.e., is stable, with
variation only coming from sources common to the process), then no corrections or changes to process
control parameters are needed or desired. In addition, data from the process can be used to predict the
future performance of the process. If the chart indicates that the monitored process is not in control,
analysis of the chart can help determine the sources of variation, as this will result in degraded process
performance. A process that is stable but operating outside of desired (specification) limits (e.g., scrap rates
may be in statistical control but above desired limits) needs to be improved through a deliberate effort to
understand the causes of current performance and fundamentally improve the process.

The control chart is one of the seven basic tools of quality control. Typically control charts are used for
time-series data, though they can be used for data that have logical comparability (i.e. you want to
compare samples that were taken all at the same time, or the performance of different individuals),
however the type of chart used to do this requires consideration.

I.2 History
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_chart

The control chart was invented by Walter A. Shewhart while working for Bell Labs in the 1920s. The
company's engineers had been seeking to improve the reliability of their telephony transmission systems.
Because amplifiers and other equipment had to be buried underground, there was a stronger business
need to reduce the frequency of failures and repairs. By 1920, the engineers had already realized the
importance of reducing variation in a manufacturing process. Moreover, they had realized that continual
process-adjustment in reaction to non-conformance actually increased variation and degraded quality.

Shewhart created the basis for the control chart and the concept of a state of statistical control by carefully
designed experiments. While Shewhart drew from pure mathematical statistical theories, he understood
data from physical processes typically produce a "normal distribution curve" (a Gaussian distribution, also
commonly referred to as a "bell curve"). He discovered that observed variation in manufacturing data did
not always behave the same way as data in nature (Brownian motion of particles).

Shewhart concluded that while every process displays variation, some processes display controlled
variation that is natural to the process, while others display uncontrolled variation that is not present in the
process causal system at all times.

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Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

In 1924 or 1925, Shewhart's innovation came to the attention of W. Edwards Deming, then working at
the Hawthorne facility. Deming later worked at the United States Department of Agriculture and became
the mathematical advisor to the United States Census Bureau. Over the next half a
century, Deming became the foremost champion and proponent of Shewhart's work.

After the defeat of Japan at the close of World War II, Deming served as statistical consultant to the
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. His ensuing involvement in Japanese life, and long career as an
industrial consultant there, spread Shewhart's thinking, and the use of the control chart, widely in
Japanese manufacturing industry throughout the 1950s and 1960s.

I.3 When to Use a Control Chart?


http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/data-collection-analysis-tools/overview/control-chart.html

 When controlling ongoing processes by finding and correcting problems as they occur.
 When predicting the expected range of outcomes from a process.
 When determining whether a process is stable (in statistical control).
 When analyzing patterns of process variation from special causes (non-routine events) or common
causes (built into the process).
 When determining whether your quality improvement project should aim to prevent specific
problems or to make fundamental changes to the process.

I.4 Main Objectives of Quality Charts


http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/data-collection-analysis-tools/overview/control-chart.html

In everyday business applications, control charts have five uses:

 Determine if a process is trending

 Determine if a process is in control

 Improve Processes by reducing process variability

 Prediction requirements

 Achieve statistical process control

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Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

I.5 Seven Quality Tools


http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/seven-basic-quality-tools/overview/overview.html

The Seven Basic Tools of Quality is a designation given to a fixed set of graphical techniques identified as
being most helpful in troubleshooting issues related to quality. They are called basic because they are
suitable for people with little formal training in statistics and because they can be used to solve the vast
majority of quality-related issues.

The seven tools are:

 Cause-and-effect diagram (also known as the "fishbone" or Ishikawa diagram)


 Check sheet
 Control chart
 Histogram
 Pareto chart
 Scatter diagram
 Stratification (alternately, flow chart or run chart)

Figure I.5.1 Quality Control Tools

The designation arose in postwar Japan, inspired by the seven famous weapons of Benkei. It was possibly
introduced by Kaoru Ishikawa who in turn was influenced by a series of lectures W. Edwards Deming had
given to Japanese engineers and scientists in 1950. At that time, companies that had set about training
their workforces in statistical quality control found that the complexity of the subject intimidated the vast
majority of their workers and scaled back training to focus primarily on simpler methods which suffice for
most quality-related issues.

The Seven Basic Tools stand in contrast to more advanced statistical methods such as survey
sampling, acceptance sampling, statistical hypothesis testing, design of experiments, multivariate analysis,
and various methods developed in the field of operations research.

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Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

I.6 Statistical process control (SPC)


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_process_control

Statistical process control (SPC) is a method of quality control which uses statistical methods. SPC is applied
in order to monitor and control a process. Monitoring and controlling the process ensures that it operates
at its full potential.

Statistical Process Control provides a graphic description of the quantifiable characteristics of process,
process element or work activity.

At its full potential, the process can make as much conforming product as possible with a minimum (if not
an elimination) of waste (rework or scrap). SPC can be applied to any process where the "conforming
product" (product meeting specifications) output can be measured. Key tools used in SPC include control
charts; a focus on continuous improvement; and the design of experiments. An example of a process where
SPC is applied is manufacturing lines.

Objective analysis of variation

SPC must be practiced in 2 phases: The first phase is the initial establishment of the process, and the
second phase is the regular production use of the process. In the second phase, a decision of the period to
be examined must be made, depending upon the change in 4 - M conditions (Man, Machine, Material,
Method)and wear rate of parts used in the manufacturing process (machine parts, jigs and fixture and
tooling standard).

Emphasis on early detection

An advantage of SPC over other methods of quality control, such as "inspection", is that it emphasizes early
detection and prevention of problems, rather than the correction of problems after they have occurred.

Increasing rate of production

In addition to reducing waste, SPC can lead to a reduction in the time required to produce the product. SPC
makes it less likely the finished product will need to be reworked.

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Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

I.7 Description of a Quality Charts


http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmc/section3/pmc31.htm

A control chart consists of:

Figure I.7.1 – Control Chart Description

 Points representing a statistic (e.g., a mean, range, proportion) of measurements of a quality


characteristic in samples taken from the process at different times (i.e., the data)
 The mean of this statistic using all the samples is calculated (e.g., the mean of the means, mean of
the ranges, mean of the proportions)
 A centre line is drawn at the value of the mean of the statistic
 The standard error (e.g., standard deviation/sqrt(n) for the mean) of the statistic is also calculated
using all the samples
 Upper and lower control limits (sometimes called "natural process limits") that indicate the
threshold at which the process output is considered statistically 'unlikely' and are drawn typically at
3 standard errors from the centre line
 The chart may have other optional features, including:
 Upper and lower warning or control limits, drawn as separate lines, typically two standard errors
above and below the centre line
 Division into zones, with the addition of rules governing frequencies of observations in each zone
 Annotation with events of interest, as determined by the Quality Engineer in charge of the
process's quality

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I.8 Chart Usage


http://www.spcforexcel.com/knowledge/control-chart-basics/use-control-charts

If the process is in control (and the process statistic is normal), 99.7300% of all the points will fall between
the control limits. Any observations outside the limits, or systematic patterns within, suggest the
introduction of a new (and likely unanticipated) source of variation, known as a special-cause variation.
Since increased variation means increased quality costs, a control chart "signaling" the presence of a
special-cause requires immediate investigation.

This makes the control limits very important decision aids. The control limits provide information about the
process behavior and have no intrinsic relationship to any specification targets or engineering tolerance. In
practice, the process mean (and hence the centre line) may not coincide with the specified value (or target)
of the quality characteristic because the process' design simply cannot deliver the process characteristic at
the desired level.

Control charts limit specification limits or targets because of the tendency of those involved with the
process (e.g., machine operators) to focus on performing to specification when in fact the least-cost course
of action is to keep process variation as low as possible. Attempting to make a process whose natural
centre is not the same as the target perform to target specification increases process variability and
increases costs significantly and is the cause of much inefficiency in operations. Process capability studies
do examine the relationship between the natural process limits (the control limits) and specifications,
however.

The purpose of control charts is to allow simple detection of events that are indicative of actual process
change. This simple decision can be difficult where the process characteristic is continuously varying; the
control chart provides statistically objective criteria of change. When change is detected and considered
good its cause should be identified and possibly become the new way of working, where the change is bad
then its cause should be identified and eliminated.

The purpose in adding warning limits or subdividing the control chart into zones is to provide early
notification if something is amiss. Instead of immediately launching a process improvement effort to
determine whether special causes are present, the Quality Engineer may temporarily increase the rate at
which samples are taken from the process output until it's clear that the process is truly in control. Note
that with three-sigma limits, common-cause variations result in signals less than once out of every twenty-
two points for skewed processes and about once out of every three hundred seventy (1/370.4) points for
normally distributed processes.

The two-sigma warning levels will be reached about once for every twenty-two (1/21.98) plotted points in
normally distributed data. (For example, the means of sufficiently large samples drawn from practically any
underlying distribution whose variance exists are normally distributed, according to the Central Limit
Theorem.)

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ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015
Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

I.9 Rules of detecting Signals


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_chart#Rules_for_detecting_signals

The most common sets are:

 The Western Electric rules


 The Wheeler rules (equivalent to the Western Electric zone tests[10])
 The Nelson rules
There has been particular controversy as to how long a run of observations, all on the same side of the
centre line, should count as a signal, with 6, 7, 8 and 9 all being advocated by various writers.
The most important principle for choosing a set of rules is that the choice be made before the data is
inspected. Choosing rules once the data have been seen tends to increase the Type I error rate owing
to testing effects suggested by the data.

I.10 Performance of Control Charts


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_chart#Performance_of_control_charts

When a point falls outside of the limits established for a given control chart, those responsible for the
underlying process are expected to determine whether a special cause has occurred. If one has, it is
appropriate to determine if the results with the special cause are better than or worse than results from
common causes alone. If worse, then that cause should be eliminated if possible. If better, it may be
appropriate to intentionally retain the special cause within the system producing the results.

It is known that even when a process is in control (that is, no special causes are present in the system),
there is approximately a 0.27% probability of a point exceeding 3-sigma control limits. So, even an in
control process plotted on a properly constructed control chart will eventually signal the possible presence
of a special cause, even though one may not have actually occurred. For a Shewhart control chart using 3-
sigma limits, this false alarm occurs on average once every 1/0.0027 or 370.4 observations. Therefore,
the in-control average run length (or in-control ARL) of a Shewhart chart is 370.4.

Meanwhile, if a special cause does occur, it may not be of sufficient magnitude for the chart to produce an
immediate alarm condition. If a special cause occurs, one can describe that cause by measuring the change
in the mean and/or variance of the process in question. When those changes are quantified, it is possible to
determine the out-of-control ARL for the chart.

It turns out that Shewhart charts are quite good at detecting large changes in the process mean or variance,
as their out-of-control ARLs are fairly short in these cases. However, for smaller changes (such as a 1- or 2-
sigma change in the mean), the Shewhart chart does not detect these changes efficiently. Other types of
control charts have been developed, such as the EWMA chart, the CUSUM chart and the real-time contrasts

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Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

chart, which detect smaller changes more efficiently by making use of information from observations
collected prior to the most recent data point.

I.11 Common Types of Control


(http://www.uta.edu/faculty/sawasthi/Statistics/stquacon.html)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_chart

The types of charts are often classified according to the type of quality characteristic that they are
supposed to monitor: there are quality control charts for variables and control charts for
attributes. Specifically, the following charts are commonly constructed for controlling variables:
 X-bar chart.
In this chart the sample means are plotted in order to control the mean value of a variable (e.g.,
size of piston rings, strength of materials, etc.).

 R chart.
In this chart, the sample ranges are plotted in order to control the variability of a variable.

 S chart.
In this chart, the sample standard deviations are plotted in order to control the variability of a
variable.

 S2 chart.
In this chart, the sample variances are plotted in order to control the variability of a variable.

For controlling quality characteristics that represent attributes of the product, the following charts are
commonly constructed:
 C chart.
In this chart (see example below), we plot the number of defectives (per batch, per day, per
machine, per 100 feet of pipe, etc.). This chart assumes that defects of the quality attribute
are rare, and the control limits in this chart are computed based on
the Poisson distribution (distribution of rare events).

 U chart.
In this chart we plot the rate of defectives, that is, the number of defectives divided by the number
of units inspected (the n; e.g., feet of pipe, number of batches). Unlike the C chart, this chart does
not require a constant number of units, and it can be used, for example, when the batches
(samples) are of different sizes.

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 Np chart.
In this chart, we plot the number of defectives (per batch, per day, per machine) as in the C chart.
However, the control limits in this chart are not based on the distribution of rare events, but rather
on the binomial distribution. Therefore, this chart should be used if the occurrence of defectives is
not rare (e.g., they occur in more than 5% of the units inspected). For example, we may use this
chart to control the number of units produced with minor flaws.

 P chart.
In this chart, we plot the percent of defectives (per batch, per day, per machine, etc.) as in the U
chart. However, the control limits in this chart are not based on the distribution of rare events but
rather on the binomial distribution (of proportions). Therefore, this chart is most applicable to
situations where the occurrence of defectives is not rare (e.g., we expect the percent of defectives
to be more than 5% of the total number of units produced).

Process
Chart Process observation
observations type

and R chart Quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Variables

and s chart Quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Variables

Shewhart individuals control


Quality characteristic measurement for one observation Variables
chart(ImR chart or XmR chart)

Three-way chart Quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Variables

p-chart Fraction nonconforming within one subgroup Attributes

np-chart Number nonconforming within one subgroup Attributes

c-chart Number of nonconformances within one subgroup Attributes

u-chart Non-conformances per unit within one subgroup Attributes

EWMA chart Exponentially weighted moving average of quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Attributes or variables

CUSUM chart Cumulative sum of quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Attributes or variables

Time series model Quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Attributes or variables

Regression control chart Quality characteristic measurement within one subgroup Variables

Table I.11.1 – Summary of The Common Types Of Control Charts

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I.12 How to Select a Control Chart


http://www.isixsigma.com/tools-templates/control-charts/a-guide-to-control-charts/

Although this article describes a plethora of control charts, there are simple questions a practitioner can
ask to find the appropriate chart for any given use. Figure 13 walks through these questions and directs the
user to the appropriate chart.

Figure I.12.1 - How to Select a Control Chart

A number of points may be taken into consideration when identifying the type of control chart to use, such
as:
 Variables control charts (those that measure variation on a continuous scale) are more sensitive to
change than attribute control charts (those that measure variation on a discrete scale).
 Variables charts are useful for processes such as measuring tool wear.
 Use an individuals chart when few measurements are available (e.g., when they are infrequent or
are particularly costly). These charts should be used when the natural subgroup is not yet known.
 A measure of defective units is found with u– and c-charts.
 In a u-chart, the defects within the unit must be independent of one another, such as with
component failures on a printed circuit board or the number of defects on a billing statement.
 Use a u-chart for continuous items, such as fabric (e.g., defects per square meter of cloth).
 A c-chart is a useful alternative to a u-chart when there are a lot of possible defects on a unit, but
there is only a small chance of any one defect occurring (e.g., flaws in a roll of material).
 When charting proportions, p– and np-charts are useful (e.g., compliance rates or process yields).

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I.13 Process Capability and Process Capability Index


http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmc/section1/pmc16.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_capability

The process capability is a measurable property of a process to the specification, expressed as a process
capability index (e.g., Cpk or Cpm) or as a process performance index (e.g., Ppk or Ppm). The output of this
measurement is usually illustrated by a histogram and calculations that predict how many parts will be
produced out of specification (OOS).

Process capability compares the output of an in-control process to the specification limits by
using capability indices. The comparison is made by forming the ratio of the spread between the process
specifications (the specification "width") to the spread of the process values, as measured by 6 process
standard deviation units (the process "width").

We are often required to compare the output of a stable process with the process specifications and make
a statement about how well the process meets specification. To do this we compare the natural variability
of a stable process with the process specification limits.

A process where almost all the measurements fall inside the specification limits is a capable process. This
can be represented pictorially by the plot below:

FigureI.13.1 - Process Spread


on Normal Distribution
Curve

There are several statistics that can be used to measure the capability of a process: Cp, Cpk, and Cpm.
Most capability indices estimates are valid only if the sample size used is "large enough". Large enough is
generally thought to be about 50 independent data values.
The Cp, Cpk, and Cpm statistics assume that the population of data values is normally distributed. Assuming
a two-sided specification, if μ and σ are the mean and standard deviation, respectively, of the normal data
and USL, LSL, and T are the upper and lower specification limits and the target value, respectively, then the
population capability indices are defined as follows.

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Process Capability Index


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_capability_index

The process capability index or process capability ratio is a statistical measure of process capability: the
ability of a process to produce output within specification limits. The concept of process capability only
holds meaning for processes that are in a state of statistical control. Process capability indices measure how
much "natural variation" a process experiences relative to its specification limits and allows different
processes to be compared with respect to how well an organization controls them.

Index Description

Estimates what the process is capable of producing if the process mean


were to be centered between the specification limits. Assumes process
output is approximately normally distributed.

Estimates process capability for specifications that consist of a lower limit


only (for example, strength). Assumes process output is approximately
normally distributed.

Estimates process capability for specifications that consist of an upper


limit only (for example, concentration). Assumes process output is
approximately normally distributed.

Estimates what the process is capable of producing, considering that the


process mean may not be centered between the specification limits. (If
the process mean is not centered, overestimates process
capability.) if the process mean falls outside of the specification
limits. Assumes process output is approximately normally distributed.

Estimates process capability around a target, T. is always greater


than zero. Assumes process output is approximately normally
distributed. is also known as the Taguchi capability index.[2]

Estimates process capability around a target, T, and accounts for an off-


center process mean. Assumes process output is approximately normally
distributed.

Table I.13.1 - Process Capability Indices

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I.14 Root Cause Analysis


http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/root-cause-analysis/

http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/cause-analysis-tools/overview/overview.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_map

It is a study of original reason for nonconformance with a process. When the root cause is removed or
corrected, the nonconformance will be eliminated.

Use these tools when you want to conduct root cause analysis for a problem or situation.
 Fishbone (Ishikawa) diagram:

Figure I.15.1 – Example of a Fishbone Diagram


One of the quality control tools that identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem and
sorts ideas into useful categories.

 Pareto chart:

Figure I.15.2 – Example of a Pareto Chart


One of the quality control tools that shows on a bar graph which factors are more significant.

 Scatter diagram:

Figure I.15.3 – Scatter Diagram


One of the quality control tools that is graphs pairs of numerical data, with one variable on each
axis, to help you look for a relationship.

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 Five whys
The 5 why’s typically refers to the practice of asking, five times, why the failure has occurred in
order to get to the root cause/causes of the problem. There can be more than one cause to a
problem as well. In an organizational context, generally root cause analysis is carried out by a team
of persons related to the problem. No special technique is required.

 Brain storming
A method to generate ideas. Groundrules such as -no idea is a bad idea- are typical. Benefit of
brainstorming is the power of the group in building ideas of each others ideas.

 Mind maps

Figure I.15.4 – Mind Maps

A mind map is a diagram used to visually organize information. A mind map is often created around
a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank landscape page, to which associated
representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are
connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those.

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Part II

Applications

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II.1 Background
In statistical process control, the and R chart is a type of control chart used to
monitor variables data when samples are collected at regular intervals from
a business or industrial process.

The chart is useful in the following situations:

1. The sample size is relatively small (say, n ≤ 10— and s charts are typically used
for larger sample sizes)
2. The sample size is constant
3. Humans must perform the calculations for the chart

II.2 Procedure

II.2.1 The "X-chart" is to monitor the process mean, as is done with the . The and R
chart plots the mean value for the quality characteristic across all units in the
sample, , plus the range of the quality characteristic across all units in the sample
as follows:

=  X/n

R = xmax - xmin.

… Equation – II.2.1

The normal distribution is the basis for the charts and requires the following assumptions:

 The quality characteristic to be monitored is adequately modeled by a normally


distributed random variable
 The parameters μ and σ for the random variable are the same for each unit and each
unit is independent of its predecessors or successors
 The inspection procedure is same for each sample and is carried out consistently from
sample to sample

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II.2.2 Calculation of Control Limits


The control limits for this chart type are calculated as follows:

UCLx: + A2 … Equation – II.2.2

LCLx: - A2 … Equation – II.2.3


That is for monitoring the process mean.

UCLR:
… Equation – II.2.4

LCLR:
… Equation – II.2.5

That is for monitoring the process variability, where A2 is sample size-specific anti-
biasing constants. Table II.2.1 shows the values of sample size-specific anti-
biasing constants in accordance with the sample size.

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Table II.2.1 - Sample size-specific anti-biasing constants

II.2.3 Condition of Using X-Chart

As with the and s and individuals control charts, the chart is only valid if the within-sample
variability is constant. Thus, the R chart is examined before the chart; if the R chart indicates the
sample variability is in statistical control, then the chart is examined to determine if the sample mean
is also in statistical control. If on the other hand, the sample variability is not in statistical control, then
the entire process is judged to be not in statistical control regardless of what the chart indicates.

* Appendix VI (Page 702 – Introduction to Statistical Quality Control – 6th Edition – Douglas C. Montgomery)

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II.2.4 Out of Limits Signals

If any of out-of-limits signals appeared during the establishment of the control chart,
a non-conforming work shall be considered and analysis for the situation shall be
carried out. Figure II.2.1 shows the Out of Limits Signals.

Figure II.2.1 – Out of Limit Signals

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II.3 Application 01

II.3.1 Experiment Details

a) Problem of the Study

The chart monitors the performance of the (weighing test) performed by Nestle Employees in the
1st shift in the normal working days.

Material No.: 12070749

Product: NESTLE MEGA Vanilla 12x105ml EG

Shift Leader: Eng. Ashraf ElHusseiny

Tested By: Amr

b) Sample Size:

30 Mean Points

c) Sample Description:

30 mean values of the (weight test) results (in gm) for Ice Cream Sample in (finished product)
stage.

d) Sample Duration:

30 days starting from 03.01.2015 to 24.03.2015

e) Selection of Method

The method selected for such test is by using the direct way method by measuring the weight
using the electronic balance.

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II.3.2 Readings

Table II.3.1 – Readings of Total Weight Experiment


Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
X1 79.2 83.1 82.3 81.5 78.2 83.5 83.5 84.6 76.9 84.3 84.6 85.1 85.5 79.2 86.3 77.8 84.2 80.9 81.7 79.5 79.8 84.5 82.4 78.9 78.4 79.1 81.4 75.6 77.5 85.4

X2 80.3 82.1 83.4 81.8 79.2 82.5 84.2 84.5 83.3 84.2 84.5 79.8 85.3 79.1 85.9 78.5 83.5 79.4 84.2 78.6 79.4 83.4 77.2 79.8 77.4 81.4 81.7 75.8 78.4 84.6

X3 81.2 83.2 82.2 83.5 78.3 83.4 82.9 82.4 77.8 82.6 82.7 82.8 82.9 77.2 83.0 79.4 82.9 83.4 83.4 77.4 83.6 83.7 83.8 83.9 76.5 83.7 82.5 78.6 79.4 83.2

X4 80.1 80.1 81.4 79.4 78.6 82.4 82.6 83.4 77.4 82.9 83.2 78.4 83.9 75.3 84.6 79.5 82.9 81.7 82.4 77.6 80.5 81.7 83.4 78.4 79.5 80.7 83.4 77.4 77.5 81.4

X5 78.2 79.2 80.3 78.3 78.4 81.6 81.4 83.7 81.4 83.0 83.4 84.0 84.5 84.4 85.6 78.1 81.7 82.4 83.5 77.1 81.4 80.4 82.9 83.7 80.9 80.9 81.7 77.9 76.5 78.9

X6 77.2 81.2 79.2 82.5 81.5 82.7 82.3 81.7 78.9 83.1 83.4 78.5 84.1 78.5 84.9 76.5 82.9 84.5 82.6 76.4 80.9 79.9 78.5 81.7 80.7 79.8 82.6 77.1 79.2 78.5

X7 79.6 79.5 79.2 78.5 78.2 83.6 82.4 82.4 80.9 82.7 83.0 79.5 83.6 78.4 84.3 76.4 83.7 83.4 83.7 79.4 80.7 82.4 81.9 82.7 81.7 79.8 80.7 76.5 79.7 79.8

X8 79.7 82.1 82.4 84.2 78.6 83.4 83.9 82.9 80.1 82.5 82.7 85.9 82.9 79.3 83.1 76.3 83.4 84.5 82.8 79.5 83.9 84.6 82.4 79.8 81.6 76.9 79.5 77.2 78.1 79.4

X9 79.2 78.1 83.3 84.1 77.2 84.1 83.7 81.6 83.4 82.1 82.3 81.4 82.6 78.1 82.9 75.1 83.3 84.1 84.2 78.5 84.1 82.4 81.7 84.6 82.5 78.5 79.8 77.1 77.2 79.2

X10 78.1 81.3 85.2 79.8 76.5 84.5 84.4 81.3 78.5 81.7 81.8 81.9 82.1 78.2 82.2 75.8 82.5 82.6 82.8 78.8 81.7 81.5 81.4 83.3 83.4 77.8 78.9 77.8 77.4 81.6
5003 5004 5005 5006 5009 5010 5011 5012 5016 5017 5020 5021 5026 5027 5028 5030 5031 5033 5034 5037 5038 5039 5044 5045 5053 5054 5058 5076 5077 5083
Bathc 0898 0898 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892
no. U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U
Mean 79.3 81.0 81.9 81.4 78.5 83.2 83.1 82.9 79.9 82.9 83.2 81.7 83.7 78.8 84.3 77.3 83.1 82.7 83.1 78.3 81.6 82.5 81.6 81.7 80.3 79.9 81.2 77.1 78.1 81.2
rdgs
Range 4.1 5.1 6.1 5.9 5.0 2.9 3.0 3.3 6.5 2.5 2.8 7.5 3.4 9.1 4.1 4.4 2.5 5.1 2.5 3.1 4.7 4.7 6.6 6.2 6.9 6.8 4.5 3.0 3.2 6.9

Mean of Mean 81.17


Mean of Range 4.75
UCLx 82.63
LCLx 79.71
UCLR 1.06
LCLR 8.43
Table II.3.2 – Characteristic Values of Total Weight Experiment

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II.3.3 Charts

Figure II.3.1

Figure II.3.2

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II.3.4 Charts Analysis

According to the out-of-limits signals shown in figure II.2.1, table II.3.3 summarizes the x and R
charts analysis results.

S Signal Existence
Yes
1 Points beyond Zone A
Point 14 & Others
2 Nine points in a raw zone C None

3 Six Points in a row steadily increasing or decreasing None

4 14 points in a row alternating up and down None

5 2 out of 3 points in a row in zone A or beyond Yes

6 4 out of 5 points in a row in zone B or beyond None

7 15 points in a row in zone C (above & below the centerline) None

8 8 points in a row on both sides of centerline with none in zone C None

Table II.3.3 – X & R- Charts Analysis for Weighing Test

II.3.5 Conclusion:

The process is under control and there is no out of limit signals.

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II.4 Application 02

II.4.1 Experiment Details

a) Problem of the Study

The chart monitors the performance of the (Volume test) performed by Nestle Employees in the
1st shift in the normal working days.

Material No.: 12070749

Product: NESTLE MEGA Vanilla 12x105ml EG

Shift Leader: Eng. Ashraf ElHusseiny

Tested By: Amr

b) Sample Size:

30 Mean Points

c) Sample Description:

30 mean values of the (volume test) results (in ml) for Ice Cream Sample in (finished product)
stage.

d) Sample Duration:

30 days starting from 01/01/2015 to 30/01/2015

e) Selection of Method

The method selected for such test is by using the indirect way method by measuring the weight
using the electronic balance then divide the result by the density of the product which is 1000
kg/m3.

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II.4.2 Readings

Table II.4.1 – Readings of Volume Experiment


Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
X1 105.0 105.4 105.3 106.1 104.2 106.5 104.2 106.3 104.9 104.8 104.8 104.7 104.6 106.6 107.3 104.5 104.5 104.4 104.3 104.2 104.1 106.7 105.6 106.8 104.0 103.9 103.9 103.8 103.7 104.8
X2 106.5 105.9 106.4 105.4 104.9 107.2 103.4 107.1 105.5 105.4 105.4 105.2 105.2 105.1 105.1 104.9 104.9 104.8 104.7 104.7 104.6 104.5 104.4 104.4 104.3 104.2 104.1 104.1 104.8 105.6
X3 106.4 104.8 107.2 105.7 105.7 107.0 104.9 108.2 106.9 107.1 107.2 107.3 107.5 107.7 106.4 103.9 108.1 108.2 106.2 106.4 108.7 108.8 104.5 107.8 109.3 109.4 106.3 104.3 104.9 106.2
X4 105.3 106.5 106.5 106.1 106.4 105.2 105.8 108.1 105.4 106.7 106.8 106.9 105.4 107.1 107.2 105.8 105.3 107.4 105.1 107.5 106.0 107.7 106.2 107.9 105.6 108.0 106.2 107.1 105.7 107.3
X5 105.8 104.9 104.2 107.3 106.2 107.2 105.1 108.2 105.4 107.8 108.1 104.8 108.7 106.7 107.3 105.2 105.4 110.2 106.3 104.6 106.8 103.9 107.1 104.8 104.8 104.7 113.0 106.5 105.4 105.4
X6 105.2 105.8 106.4 108.2 105.7 109.2 103.9 107.4 105.7 107.2 107.3 107.5 107.7 106.2 105.3 104.8 108.2 108.4 105.2 108.7 108.8 106.2 106.2 109.2 109.4 105.6 107.3 104.8 104.3 105.7
X7 105.6 105.7 105.7 106.3 105.7 104.3 104.7 106.8 106.2 105.5 105.4 105.4 105.5 105.4 105.4 106.5 105.3 105.3 104.7 105.3 105.3 105.3 103.2 105.3 105.3 105.2 105.2 105.2 105.2 104.6
X8 104.3 106.2 105.2 107.1 105.6 106.2 104.2 106.9 104.8 107.2 107.5 107.6 105.0 106.4 104.8 106.1 108.7 108.9 105.3 107.2 106.7 104.8 104.9 107.9 110.5 108.1 104.9 104.3 106.2 104.3
X9 104.9 105.7 105.4 108.2 105.3 106.1 105.3 107.4 106.8 107.0 107.1 104.8 107.5 105.7 106.9 105.2 108.2 108.4 105.4 106.4 105.8 104.7 106.2 108.6 104.7 104.8 105.4 106.1 105.4 105.8
X10 105.7 106.0 105.8 106.2 104.9 105.2 104.9 106.8 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.6 105.1 105.6 105.5 106.0 105.5 105.5 104.9 105.5 105.5 105.5 105.5 105.4 105.4 105.3 105.9
5003 5004 5005 5006 5009 5010 5011 5012 5016 5017 5020 5021 5026 5027 5028 5030 5031 5033 5034 5037 5038 5039 5044 5045 5053 5054 5058 5076 5077 5083
Bathc 0898 0898 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892 0892
no. U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U
Mean 105.5 105.7 105.8 106.7 105.5 106.4 104.6 107.3 105.7 106.4 106.5 106.0 106.3 106.2 106.1 105.2 106.4 107.2 105.3 106.1 106.2 105.8 105.4 106.8 106.3 105.9 106.2 105.2 105.1 105.6
rdgs
Range 2.2 1.7 3 2.8 2.2 4.9 2.4 1.9 2.1 3.0 3.3 2.9 4.1 2.5 2.5 2.6 4.2 5.8 2.0 4.4 4.7 4.9 3.9 4.9 6.4 5.5 9.1 3.3 2.5 3

Mean of Mean 105.98


Mean of Range 3.63
UCLx 107.10
LCLx 104.86
UCLR 6.46
LCLR 0.81
Table II.4.2 – Characteristic Values of Volume Experiment

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II.4.3 Charts

Figure II.4.1

Figure II.4.2

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II.4.4 Charts Analysis

According to the out-of-limits signals shown in figure II.2.1, table II.4.3 summarizes the x and R
charts analysis results.

S Signal Existence
Yes
1 Points beyond Zone A
Point 7 and 27
2 Nine points in a raw zone C None

3 Six Points in a row steadily increasing or decreasing Yes

4 14 points in a row alternating up and down None

5 2 out of 3 points in a row in zone A or beyond Yes

6 4 out of 5 points in a row in zone B or beyond None

7 15 points in a row in zone C (above & below the centerline) None

8 8 points in a row on both sides of centerline with none in zone C None

Table II.3.3 – X and R Charts Analysis for Volume Test

II.4.5 Conclusion:

The process is out of control in points 7 and 27

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II.5 Application 03

II.5.1 Experiment Details

a) Problem of the Study

The chart monitors the performance of a pressure calibration process at 20 bar (66% of the full
range of the used standard) performed by staff of Measurement and Calibration Laboratory –
Cairo University (MCL) according to MCL Standard Test Method (MCL-Pressure-01).

b) Sample Size:

30 Mean Points

c) Sample Description:

30 mean values of the (Pressure Measurement) results (in bars) for a standard reading of 20 bar.

d) Sample Duration:

30 days starting from 01/01/2015 to 30/01/2015

e) Selection of Calibration Method

Method Advantage Disadvantage


MCL-Pressure- 01:
A calibration method used for pressure calibration for pressure gauges
None
specified for pneumatic pressure 0:30 bar

MCL-Pressure- 02:
Specified for hydraulic
A calibration method used for pressure calibration for pressure gauges
pressure 0:700 bar

MCL-Pressure- 03:
Specified for vacuum
A calibration method used for pressure calibration for pressure gauges
pressure -1:0 bar

So the calibration method MCL-Pressure- 01 is the most appropriate method to be used in such
study.

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II.5.2 Readings

Table II.5.1 – Readings of Pressure Calibration Experiment


Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

X1 21.2 21.4 21.0 20.0 21.2 22.0 21.4 21.9 22.0 21.2 20.0 20.0 20.7 21.0 20.0 21.2 20.7 21.0 21.9 21.1 21.2 20.0 20.0 20.7 21.0 21.4 21.9 22.0 21.2 21.0

X2 21.0 21.0 20.6 20.5 21.3 20.7 21.0 21.7 21.0 21.7 21.0 21.3 22.0 20.9 21.0 20.6 22.0 21.3 20.7 21.0 21.7 21.0 21.3 22.0 20.9 21.0 21.7 21.0 21.7 20.6

X3 21.3 20.5 22.0 21.3 20.2 20.5 20.9 21.0 20.9 21.0 21.0 21.7 21.5 20.8 21.0 21.2 21.3 20.2 22.0 20.9 21.0 21.0 21.7 21.5 20.8 20.9 21.0 20.9 21.0 22.0

X4 20.9 21.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 21.5 20.8 20.5 20.8 20.5 21.0 23.0 21.7 21.0 21.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 21.5 20.8 20.5 21.0 23.0 21.7 21.0 20.8 20.5 20.8 20.5 21.0

X5 20.8 20.7 21.5 21.0 21.6 21.4 22.0 21.7 21.5 21.0 21.6 21.4 20.0 20.2 20.7 21.5 21.0 21.6 21.4 20.0 20.2 20.7 21.7 22.0 20.8 22.0 21.7 21.5 21.0 21.5
Mean
21.0 20.9 21.2 21.0 21.5 21.2 21.2 21.4 21.2 21.1 20.9 21.5 21.2 20.8 20.7 21.1 21.4 21.4 21.5 20.8 20.9 20.7 21.5 21.6 20.9 21.2 21.4 21.2 21.1 21.2
rdgs
Range 0.5 0.9 1.4 2 2.8 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.6 3 2 0.8 1 0.9 1.3 2.8 1.3 1.1 1.5 1 3 1.3 0.2 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.4

21.16
Mean of Mean
1.44
Mean of Range
21.99
UCLx
20.33
LCLx
3.05
UCLR
0.00
LCLR
Table II.5.2 – Characteristic Values of Pressure Calibration Experiment

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II.5.3 Charts

2 out of 3

Figure II.5.1

Figure II.5.2

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II.5.4 Data Analysis

According to the data mentioned in table II.5.1, the following data analysis discussing the data
characteristics (all in bars):

II.5.4.a Central Tendency

mean 21.16
mode 21
median 21

II.5.4.b Homogeneity of data

Range 3
Variance 0.3616
Std. deviation 0.6013
Coeff. of Variance 2.84

II.5.4.c Detecting Outliers

min 20
Q1 20.8
Q2 21
Q3 21.5
max 23

Coeff. Of Skewness 0.80 (+ve: skewed to right)

IQR 0.5
Q1-1.5 IQR 20.05
Q3+1.5 IQR 22.25

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II.5.5 Charts Analysis

According to the out-of-limits signals shown in figure II.2.1, table II.5.3 summarizes the x and R
charts analysis results.

S Signal Existence

1 Points beyond Zone A None

2 Nine points in a raw zone C None

3 Six Points in a row steadily increasing or decreasing None

4 14 points in a row alternating up and down None


Yes
5 2 out of 3 points in a row in zone A or beyond
17,18,19 and 22,23,24

6 4 out of 5 points in a row in zone B or beyond None

7 15 points in a row in zone C (above & below the centerline) None

8 8 points in a row on both sides of centerline with none in zone C None

Table II.5.3 - X and R Charts Analysis for Pressure Calibration

II.5.6 Conclusion:

The process is under control in all points except points 17, 18,19 and 22,23,24 are out of control.

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II.5.6 Root Cause Analysis

II.5.6.a) For points 17, 18 and 19 and by using fishbone diagram, we found the following:

Material Man
Both the unit under calibration Operator is Skilled,
and the used equipment are in Experienced, and Training &
a good condition as well as the annually evaluations are
used connections and valves checked.
too.

Process out
of limits at
points

17, 18 & 19

Environment Method Machine


The environmental conditions The used method is The used equipment is in its calibration
log sheet indicates high MCL standard, period, monthly and regular checks are
temperature in the 18th day validated and in its checked and it's found that the unit is in its
which may affect the validity
latest version. normal condition
of test process as per stated
in equipment manual
instructions.

Problem: The environmental condition indicates high temperature

Why1: Why the environmental condition indicates high temperature?

Answer: because it's getting hot in the lab these days.

Why2: Why it's getting hot in the lab these days?

Answer: because the air conditioning unit is not working well.

Why3: Why the air conditioning unit is not working well?

Answer: I think it has some kind of malfunction.

Why4: why do you think it has a malfunction?

Answer: because it is working all the time and never stops, I guess it's got exhausted.

Why5: why does it never stop, why do you guess it's got exhausted?

Answer: I believe its timer/thermostat is broken.

Corrective Action:
Replace the timer/thermostat of the air conditioning unit of the lab by a new one.

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II.5.6.b) For points 22, 23 and 24 and by using fishbone diagram, we found the following:

Material Man
Both the unit under calibration Operator is Skilled,
and the used equipment are in Experienced, and Training &
a good condition as well as the annually evaluations are
used connections and valves checked.
too.

Process out
of limits at
points

22, 23 & 24

Environment Method Machine


The environmental The used method is The used equipment gives strange readings in
conditions log sheet MCL standard, day 23th
indicates normal validated and in its
conditions as per stated in latest version.
equipment manual
instructions.

Problem: The environmental condition indicates high temperature

Why1: Why does the equipment give strange readings?

Answer: seems like it has been supposed to a high electrical load

Why2: Why do you think that it has been supposed to a high electrical load?

Answer: because it's not connected to a stable electrical source

Why3: Why it is not connected to a stable electrical source?

Answer: it's not connected to a stabilizer and connected directly to the ordinary power supply

Why4: why it's not connected to a stabilizer?

Answer: because there are no enough stabilizers in the lab

Why5: why there are no enough stabilizers in the lab?

Answer: simply, because the lab didn't purchase enough stabilizers for critical equipment

Corrective Action:
Purchase Enough Stabilizers for Critical Equipment

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II.6 Application 04

II.6.1 Experiment Details

a) Problem of the Study

The chart monitors the performance of a Temperature calibration process at 20 ºC (60% of the full
range of the used standard) performed by staff of Measurement and Calibration Laboratory –
Cairo University (MCL) according to MCL Standard Calibration Method (MCL-Temperature-01).

b) Sample Size:

30 Mean Points

c) Sample Description:

30 mean values of the (Temperature Measurement) results (in ºC) for a standard reading of 20 ºC.

d) Sample Duration:

30 days starting from 01/01/2015 to 30/01/2015

e) Selection of Calibration Method

Method Advantage Disadvantage


MCL- Temperature - 01:
A calibration method used for Temperature calibration for thermocouples
None
regardless of its type (k, j, or whatever) 0:1200 ºC

MCL- Temperature - 02: Specified for liquid in


A calibration method used for Temperature calibration for liquid in glass
glass thermometers
thermometers only.
only.

So the calibration method MCL- Temperature - 01 is the most appropriate method to be used in
such study.

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II.6.2 Readings

Table II.6.1 – Readings of Temperature Calibration Experiment


Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

X1 21.2 21.4 21.0 20.0 21.2 22.0 20.2 20.0 22.0 21.2 22.0 21.9 21.1 21.2 20.0 21.2 20.7 21.0 21.7 21.0 20.4 21.0 20.0 20.7 21.0 21.2 20.7 21.0 20.2 21.4

X2 21.0 20.3 21.0 21.0 20.6 21.0 21.4 21.0 20.4 21.0 20.0 20.7 21.0 21.7 21.0 20.6 22.0 21.3 22.0 21.5 21.3 20.0 21.3 22.0 20.9 20.6 22.0 21.3 21.4 20.3

X3 21.3 20.0 21.0 21.3 21.5 21.3 21.0 21.5 21.3 20.0 21.3 22.0 20.9 21.0 21.0 21.2 21.3 20.2 22.0 20.9 20.8 20.9 21.7 21.5 20.8 21.2 21.3 20.2 21.0 20.0

X4 20.9 21.0 21.0 21.2 21.3 20.2 22.0 20.9 20.8 20.9 21.7 21.5 20.8 20.5 21.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 21.7 21.0 20.9 22.0 23.0 21.7 21.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 22.0 21.0

X5 20.8 20.5 21.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 21.7 21.0 20.1 20.5 20.8 21.4 20.0 20.2 20.7 21.5 21.0 21.6 21.7 20.5 20.0 20.9 21.7 22.0 20.8 21.5 21.0 21.6 21.7 20.5

Mean
21.0 20.6 21.0 20.9 21.3 21.5 21.3 20.9 20.9 20.7 21.2 21.5 20.8 20.9 20.7 21.1 21.4 21.4 21.8 21.0 20.7 21.0 21.5 21.6 20.9 21.1 21.4 21.4 21.3 20.6
rdgs
Range 0.5 1.4 0.0 1.3 1.4 2.8 1.8 1.5 1.9 1.2 2.0 1.3 1.1 1.5 1.0 0.9 1.3 2.8 0.3 1.0 1.3 2.0 3.0 1.3 0.2 0.9 1.3 2.8 1.8 1.4

21.12
Mean of Mean
1.43
Mean of Range
21.94
UCLx
20.29
LCLx
3.03
UCLR
0.00
LCLR
Table II.6.2 – Characteristic Values of Temperature Calibration Experiment

Issue Date: 02/05/2015 Page 38 of 45


ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015
Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.6.3 Charts

Figure II.6.1

Figure II.6.1

Issue Date: 02/05/2015 Page 39 of 45


ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015
Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.6.4 Data Analysis

According to the data mentioned in table II.6.1, the following data analysis discussing the data
characteristics (all in ºC):

II.6.4.a Central Tendency

mean 21.12
mode 21.00
median 21.00

II.6.4.b Homogeneity of data

Range 3
Variance 0.4049
Std. deviation 0.6363
coeff. Of Variance 3.01

II.6.4.c Detecting Outliers

min 20
Q1 20.8
Q2 21
Q3 21.5
max 23

Coeff. Of Skewness 0.54 (+ve: skewed to right)

IQR 0.5
Q1-1.5 IQR 20.05
Q3+1.5 IQR 22.25

Issue Date: 02/05/2015 Page 40 of 45


ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015
Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

II.6.5 Charts Analysis

According to the out-of-limits signals shown in figure II.2.1, table II.6.3 summarizes the x and R
charts analysis results.

S Signal Existence

1 Points beyond Zone A None

2 Nine points in a raw zone C None

3 Six Points in a row steadily increasing or decreasing None

4 14 points in a row alternating up and down None

5 2 out of 3 points in a row in zone A or beyond None

6 4 out of 5 points in a row in zone B or beyond None

7 15 points in a row in zone C (above & below the centerline) None

8 8 points in a row on both sides of centerline with none in zone C None

Table II.6.3 - X and R Charts Analysis for Temperature Calibration

II.6.5 Conclusion:

The process is under control in points and there is no out of control signals.

Issue Date: 02/05/2015 Page 41 of 45


ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015
Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Appendix A - Symbols
Mean of a sample
R Range
n Sample size
s Standard deviation of a sample
μ Mean of a population
σ Standard deviation of a population
UCLx Upper Control Limit for X-Chart
LCLx Lower Control Limit for X-Chart
UCLR Upper Control Limit for R-Chart
LCLR Lower Control Limit for R-Chart

Issue Date: 02/05/2015 Page 42 of 45


ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015
Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Appendix B - Equations
II.2.1 Range and Mean Equations
II.2.2 Upper Control Limit for X-Chart
II.2.3 Lower Control Limit for X-Chart
II.2.4 Upper Control Limit for R-Chart
II.2.5 Lower Control Limit for R-Chart

Issue Date: 02/05/2015 Page 43 of 45


ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015
Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Appendix C - Tables
I.11.1 Summary of The Common Types Of Control Charts
I.14.1 Process Capability Indices

II.2.1 Sample size-specific anti-biasing constants

II.3.1 Readings of Total Weight Experiment


II.3.2 Characteristic Values of Total Weight Experiment
II.3.3 X and R Charts Analysis for Weighing Test

II.4.1 Readings of Volume Experiment


II.4.2 Characteristic Values of Volume Experiment
II.4.3 X and R Charts Analysis for Volume Test

II.5.1 Readings of Pressure Calibration Experiment


II.5.2 Characteristic Values of Pressure Calibration Experiment
II.5.3 X and R Charts Analysis for Pressure Calibration

II.6.1 Readings of Temperature Calibration Experiment


II.6.2 Characteristic Values of Temperature Calibration Experiment
II.6.3 X and R Charts Analysis for Temperature Calibration

Issue Date: 02/05/2015 Page 44 of 45


ISSR – Statistical Analysis & Quality Assurance Diploma -2014/2015
Project Title: Application of 𝐗 and R charts in Metrology

Appendix D - Figures
I.5.1 Quality Control Tools

I.7.1 Control Chart Description

I.12.1 How to Select a Control Chart

I.13.1 Process Spread on Normal Distribution Curve

I.15.1 Example of a Fishbone Diagram


I.15.2 Example of a Pareto Chart
I.15.3 Scatter Diagram
I.15.4 Mind Maps

II.2.1 Out of Limit Signals

II.3.1 R-Chart for Total weight Test from 03/01/2015 to 25/03/2015


II.3.2 X-Chart for Total weight Test from 03/01/2015 to 25/03/2015

II.4.1 R-Chart for Volume Test from 03/01/2015 to 25/03/2015


II.4.2 X-Chart for Volume Test from 03/01/2015 to 25/03/2015

II.5.1 R-Chart for Pressure Calibration from 01/01/2015 to 30/01/2015 (In Bars)
II.5.2 X-Chart for Pressure Calibration from 01/01/2015 to 30/01/2015 (In Bars)

II.6.1 R-Chart for Temperature Calibration from 01/01/2015 to 30/01/2015 (In ºC)
II.6.2 X-Chart for Temperature Calibration from 01/01/2015 to 30/01/2015 (In ºC)

Issue Date: 02/05/2015 Page 45 of 45