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ENGINEERING COLLEGES

2016-17 ODD SEMESTER

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

SUBJECT CODE: EC6702


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SUBJECT NAME: OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS
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REGULATION:2013 SEM / YEAR: VII/IV Prepared by

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FXEC

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Mrs. D.Regi

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Mrs.M.Chitra Evangelin Assistant
Christina Professor
FXEC

FXEC
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dated 23.06.2017

1
ANNA UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI-25
SYLLABUS COPY
REGULATION 2013
EC6702 OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS L T P C 3003
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL FIBERS 9
Evolution of fiber optic system - Element of an Optical Fiber Transmission link- Total
internal reflection-Acceptance angle –Numerical aperture – Skew rays Ray Optics-
Optical Fiber Modes and Configurations -Mode theory of Circular Wave guides-
Overview of Modes-Key Modal concepts- Linearly Polarized Modes -Single Mode
Fibers-Graded Index fiber structure.
UNIT II SIGNAL DEGRADATION OPTICAL FIBERS 9
Attenuation - Absorption losses, Scattering losses, Bending Losses, Core and
Cladding losses, Signal Distortion in Optical Wave guides-Information Capacity
This determination
is a watermark for trialDispersion,
-Group Delay-Material version, Waveregister to get
guide Dispersion, Signalfull one!
distortion in SM fibers-Polarization Mode dispersion, Intermodal dispersion, Pulse
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Broadening in GI fibers-Mode Coupling -Design Optimization of SM fibers-RI profile
and cut- off wavelength.
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2. No Direct
III
all trial watermark.
A D
FIBER OPTICAL SOURCES AND COUPLING
trial watermark ongap
thematerials-LED
output documents.
9
and indirect Band

S C structures -Light source materials -


Quantum efficiency and LED power, Modulation of a LED, lasers Diodes-Modes and
Remove
Threshold condition -Rate equations -External Quantum efficiency -Resonant it Now
frequencies -Laser Diodes, Temperature effects, Introduction to Quantum laser,
Fiber amplifiers- Power Launching and coupling, Lencing schemes, Fiber -to- Fiber
joints, Fiber splicing-Signal to Noise ratio , Detector response time.
UNIT IV FIBER OPTIC RECEIVER AND MEASUREMENTS 9
Fundamental receiver operation, Pre amplifiers, Error sources – Receiver
Configuration– Probability of Error – Quantum limit.Fiber Attenuation measurements-
Dispersion measurements – Fiber Refractive index profile measurements – Fiber
cut- off Wave length Measurements – Fiber Numerical Aperture Measurements –
Fiber diameter measurements.
UNIT V OPTICAL NETWORKS AND SYSTEM TRANSMISSION 9
Basic Networks – SONET / SDH – Broadcast – and –select WDM Networks –

Wavelength Routed Networks – Non linear effects on Network performance –-Link

Power budget -Rise time budget- Noise Effects on System Performance-Operational

2
Principles of WDM Performance of WDM + EDFA system – Solutions – Optical
CDMA – Ultra High Capacity Networks.
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Gerd Keiser, "Optical Fiber Communication" Mc Graw -Hill
International, 4th Edition., 2010.
2. John M. Senior , “Optical Fiber Communication”, Second Edition,
Pearson Education, 2007.
REFERENCES:
1. Ramaswami, Sivarajan and Sasaki “Optical Networks”, Morgan Kaufmann, 2009.
2. J.Senior, "Optical Communication, Principles and Practice", Prentice Hall
of India, 3rd Edition, 2008.

This 3.isJ.Gower,
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"Optical Communication System", Prentice Hall of India, 2001

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EC6702 OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS LT P C
3003

1. Aim and Objective of the Subject


Aim:
To understand the optical communication systems and networks and to
emphasize the theory,applications and design principles.
OBJECTIVES:
 To Facilitate the knowledge about optical fiber
sources and transmission techniques
 To Enrich the idea of optical fiber networks
algorithm such as SONET/SDH and optical CDMA.
 To Explore the trends of optical fiber measurement systems.
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of the Subject register to get full one!
Need for Study of the Subject:
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Makes it possible to enable the design of data transmission

network.
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optical systems,local area network and multichannel optical
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Allows students to upgrade their knowledge in optical networks field.

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Helps students/engineers in touch with the latest technologies.(SONET/
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SDH, WDM Networks, Optical CDMA – Ultra High Capacity Networks).
Importance for Study of the Subject:
At the end of the course, the student should be able to:
Discuss the various optical fiber modes, configurations and
various signal degradation factors associated with optical fiber.
Explain the various optical sources and optical detectors and their
use in the optical communication system.
Analyze the digital transmission and its associated parameters on
system performance.
3. Industry Connectivity and Latest
Developments Industry Connectivity:
The following companies (Industries) are connectivity to optical Network:
CICSO, SIEMENS, NORTEL.
Latest Developments:
4
Found a way for transmission fibers used in undersea,terrestrial,metro and LAN.
Provide higher bandwidth,supporting long distances,reducing overall cost New
development in LAN fiber world is wide band multimode fiber(WBMMF)
4. Industrial Visit (Planned if any): -NO

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5
FRANCIS XAVIER ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DETAILED
LESSON PLAN
Name of the Subject& Code: EC6702 : OPTICAL COMMUNICATION
AND NETWORKS
Name of the Faculty:1. Mrs.J.Friska, AP/ECE-FXEC
2. Mrs. D.Regi Timna, AP / ECE-FXEC,
3. Mrs.M.Chitra Evangelin Christina, AP / ECE-FXEC.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Gerd Keiser, "Optical Fiber Communication" Mc Graw -Hill
International, 4th Edition., 2010. (copy available in library).
2. John M. Senior , “Optical Fiber Communication”, Second Edition,
Pearson Education, 2007. (copy available in library).
This REFERENCES:
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1. Ramaswami, Sivarajan and Sasaki “Optical Networks”, Morgan Kaufmann, 2009.
Benefits for registered user:
(copy available in library).

2. No 3.
all trial2008.
India, 3rd Edition,
trial watermark
watermark.
A D
2. J.Senior, "Optical Communication, Principles and Practice", Prentice Hall
1. Canofremove (copy available in library).
on the outputSystem",
documents.
J.Gower, "Optical Communication
(copy available in library).

S C Prentice Hall of India, 2001

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SL. NO. WEEK TOPICS LECT NO TEXT


Evolution of fiber optic system,
1 Element of an Optical Fiber 1 T1
Transmission link
WEEK I
Total internal reflection
Acceptance angle, Numerical T1,
2 1
aperture T2
Skew rays

6
NO. WEEK TOPICS NO TEXT
Optical Fiber Modes and
Configurations ,Mode theory of Circular T1,
3 Wave guides,Linearly Polarized 1
Modes,Single Mode Fibers,Graded T2
Index fiber structure.
Overview of Modes,Key Modal T1,
4 1
concepts T2
5 Linearly Polarized Modes 1 T1
Single Mode Fibers-Graded Index fiber
6 WEEK II structure. 1 T1,
T2
T1,
9 Attenuation, absorption losses 1
T2
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scattering losses
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10 registered
II
user: 1 T1, R1

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11 all trial watermark.
losses
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Bending losses,core and cladding
1
T1,
T2

12

13
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Signal Distortion in Optical Wave
guides,Information Capacity

S
determination ,Group Delay
Material and waveguide Dispersion
1

1
T1,

T2
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T1, T2
14 Signal distortion in SM fibers 1 T1
WEEK Polarization Mode dispersion,
15 III Intermodal dispersion 1 T1

Pulse Broadening in GI fibers,Mode T1,


16 1
Coupling, Optical fiber connectors T2
WEEK Design Optimization of SM fibers-RI
17 IV profile and cut-off wavelength. 1 T1
Direct and indirect Band gap materials-
20 LED structures 1 T1, T2
WEEK
V Light source materials ,Quantum
21 efficiency and LED power, Modulation 1 T1 ,T2

of a LED

7
NO. WEEK TOPICS NO TEXT
lasers Diodes,Modes and Threshold
22 condition ,Rate equations , 1 T1, T2
External Quantum efficiency ,Resonant
23 frequencies ,Laser Diodes, 1 T1, T2
Temperature effects
24 WEEK Introduction to Quantum laser 1 T1, T2
VI Fiber amplifiers- Power Launching and
25 1 T1, T2
coupling, Lencing schemes
T1,
26 Fiber -to- Fiber joints 1
T2

Fiber splicing. T1,


27 1
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VII Signal to Noise ratio , Detector T2,
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33 watermark
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WEEK Fundamental receiver operation

the output documents.


1

1
T2

T2, R1

34
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Error sources- Receiver Configuration–

,Probability of Error , Quantum limit


1 T2
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T1,
35 Fiber Attenuation measurements 1
WEEK R1
VIII
36 Dispersion measurements 1 T1

Fiber Refractive index profile T1,


37 measurements 1 R1

Fiber cut- off Wave length T1,


38 1
WEEK Measurements R1
IX Fiber Numerical Aperture
39 1 T1
Measurements

8
NO WEEK TOPICS NO TEXT
Fiber diameter measurements.
40 1 T1

41 WEEK IX Basic Networks 1 T2


T2,
42 SONET / SDH 1
R2
Broadcast-Select WDM Networks,
43 1 T2
WEEK X Wavelength Routed Networks
44 Non linear effects on Network performance 1 T2
Link Power budget ,Rise time budget,Noise
45 1 T2
Effects on System Performance
Performance operation of WDM , WDM +
46 1 T2
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EDFA system
T2,
47 WEEK XI Solitons 1
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48 Optical CDMA
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High Capacity Networks
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CONTENT
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BEYONDdocuments.
SYLLABUS
1
1
T2
T2

50
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Optical fiber evaluation, free space optics

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

NO
I 1-15 11-15

1 Ray theory transmission 16- 21


2 Electromagnetic Mode Theory 21-26
3 Single Mode Fiber 26-30
4 Classification of fiber 30-34
5 Linearly Polarized Mode And Problems 34-38
II 1-14 39-43

1 Attenuation 44-51
2 Intra modal dispersion 51-55
3 Intermodal dispersion 55-61
4 Pulse Broadening 61-64
III 1-13 65-67

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LED
LASER
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68-71
71-77
3 Fiber splices, comparison of LED and LASER 77-82
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Lensing Schemes, 83-87

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coupling,Detector Response time
5 Quantum efficiency, Fiber to fiber joints,Laser 93-100
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2. IV 1-18
rate equation.

C A
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1 Fiber optic receiver operation and Quantum Limit, 105- 107
2 Probabilty of error 107-114
3 Fiber Attenuation and dispersion measurements Remove
114-121 it Now
4 Measurement of refractive index and numerical 121-130
aperture-
5 Measurement of cut-off wavelength 131-133
V 1-15 134- 137

1 SONET 138- 142


2 Broadcast and Select WDM 142-145
3 Soliton 145-147
4 Wavelength Routed networks 148-152
5 Non linear effects 152-156
6 Optical CDMA and Ultra High capacity networks 156-160
161-183

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UNIT I

INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL FIBERS

PART A

1.Define acceptance angle and numerical aperture of a fiber.(NOV/DEC 2015,NOV/DEC


2016)

The acceptance angle is the maximum angle to the fiber axis at which light

may enter the fiber axis in order to propagate θa(max)= sin-1√ n12 –n2 2

Numerical aperture of the fiber is the collecting efficiency of the fiber


and is the measure of the amount of light rays that can be accepted by the
fiber.It is equal to the sine of acceptance.

NA=sinθa = n1 √ 2Δ=(n12 - n2 2 )1/2


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and n are the refractive
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core and cladding respectively. to
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advantages of single mode optical fiber.(NOV/DEC 2014)

(i)No intermodal dispersion


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capacity of single mode fiber is large.
on the output documents.

Meridional rays
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3.Distinguish meridional rays from skew rays. (MAY/JUNE 2014)

S Skew rays
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Meridional rays pass through fiber Skew rays does not pass through fiber

axis axis.

Its path is easy to track It is difficult to track as they travel through

fiber.

4.A typical refractive index difference for an optical fiber designed for long
distance transmission is 1%.Determine the NA when the core index is
1.46.calculate the critical angle at the core cladding interface within the

fiber. NA== n1 (2Δ)1/2 =1.46*(2*0.01)1/2 = 0.21

Critical angle:

11
NA= (n12 –n22 )1/2

N2 =sqrt (n12 – NA2 )

= sqrt[ (1.46)2 – (1.21)2 ]

= 1.4448

Critical angle ɸc = sin-1 (n2/n1 ) =sin-1 (1.4448/1.46 )

=81.9 degrees

5.The refractive index of the core and cladding of a silica fiber are 1.48 and
1.46respectively.Find the acceptance angle of the fiber. (NOV/DEC

2013,APRIL/MAY 2017)

NA= (n12 –n22 )1/2


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=sqrt [(1.48)2 – (1.46)2 ]
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θa =sin-1 (NA)

= sin-1 (0.245)
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=14.18 degrees.

6.Determine the normalized frequency at 820 nm for a step index fiber having
a 25µm radius.The refractive index of the cladding and the core are 1.45 and
1.47 respectively.How many modes propagate inside this fiber at 820 nm.
(NOV/DEC 2013)

a)Normalized frequency for the fiber is V= 2πa

(NA)/λ NA= (n12 –n22 )1/2

=[(1.47)2 –(1.45)2 ]1/2

=0.245

V=2π*25*10-6*0.245/0.820*10-6

12
=46.9 = 47

b)Total number of guided mode,M = v2/2 = 2209/2 = 1104.5

Hence this fiber has V number of approximately 47 and giving nearly 1105

guided modes.

7. For n1 = 1.55 and n2 =1.52.Calculate the critical angle and

numerical aperture.(MAY/JUNE 2013,APRIL/MAY 2015)

Critical angle ɸc = sin-1 (n2/n1 ) =sin-1 (1.52/1.55) = 78.5 degrees.

NA= (n12 –n22 )1/2 =[(1.55)2 - (1.52)2 ] = 0.30

8.What is linearly polarized mode? (MAY/JUNE 2013)

With weakly guiding approximation rule , only four field components (HE, EH,
This TE,
is TM)
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expressions become to get full one!
significantly

similar. The field components are called linearly polarized components.


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9.Calculate the cut off wavelength of single mode fiber with core radius of

1. Can4µm
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and Δ=0.003(NOV/DEC 2012)
2. No trialλcwatermark
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on the output documents.
=2πan1 (2Δ)1/2 / Vc

C
S
For single mode Vc =2.405 and n1 = 1

λc =2*3.14*1(2*0.003)1/2 /2.405
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=0.809 µm

10.For a fiber with core refractive index of 1.54 and fractional refractive

index difference of 0.01.Calculate its NA.(NOV/DEC 2012)

NA= n1 (2Δ)1/2

=1.54*(2*0.01)1/2

NA = 0.217

11.A SI fiber has a normalized frequency V=26.6at 1300 nm wavelength. If

the core radius is 25µm find out NA.

13
V=2πan1 (2Δ)1/2 /λ

=2πa NA/λ

NA=26.6*1.3 / (2*3.14*25)

= 0.22

12. What is total internal reflection in a fiber?(Or)

what is the principle used in the working of fibers as light

guides?(NOV/DEC 2015,NOV/DEC 2016)

The phenomenon of total internal reflection is used to guide the light in the

Optical fiber. When the angle of incidence is less than the critical angle,the total
energy is reflected back into the original medium and no part of it is refracted in
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13. Define phase and group velocity.(MAY/JUNE 2016,NOV/DEC 2015) Within all
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waves ,there are points of constant phase.For

1.
2.
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ʋp=ω/β
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watermark.
on the output documents.
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plane waves these constant phase points form a surface called wavefront.As a
Canmonochromatic propagates along awaveguide in Z direction these
points of constant phase travel at a velocity called phase velocity ʋp.

S C
The group of waves with closely similar frequencies propagate so it results in
the formation of packet of waves.This wave packet does not travel at the phase
velocity of individual waves but move at a velocity called group velocity ʋg
ʋg=δω/δβ.
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14. State snells law.(APRIL/MAY 2015)

The relationship at the interface is known as Snell’s law and is

given by n1 sin ɸ1 = n2 sin ɸ2

15.What are the conditions for propagation for the single

mode propagation?(APRIL/MAY 2016)

The single mode propagation is possible ,

i)for large variation in values of the physical core size a ii)for

large variation in the core –cladding index difference

14
16.What are the advantages of optical fibre?(APRIL/MAY 2017)
(i)Enormous potential bandwidth
(ii)small size and weight
(iii)Electrical isolation
(iv)Immunity to intereference and crosstalk
(v)signal security
(vi)Low transmission loss

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PART B

1.Describe the Ray theory transmission. (Dec2012, May 2013, May 2014, May
2016)
Total internal reflection
The refractive index of a medium is defined as the ratio of the velocity
of light in a vacuum to the velocity of light in the medium.
A ray of light travels more slowly in an optically dense medium than in one
that is less dense, and the refractive index gives a measure of this effect.
A dielectric of refractive index n and is at an angle φ1 to the normal at the
surface of the interface. If the dielectric on the other side of the interface
has a refractive index n2 which is less than n1, then the refraction is such
that the ray path in this lower index medium is at an angle φ2 to the

This is anormal, where φ is greater than φ . The angles of incidence φ and


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2 1 1

refraction φ2 are related to each other and to the refractive indices of the
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Fig:Light rays incident on a high to low refractive index interface (e.g.

glass air): (a)refraction; (b) the limiting case of refraction showing the

critical ray at an angle φc (c) total internal reflection where φ >φc

A small amount of light is reflected back into the originating dielectric medium (partial

internal reflection). As n1 is greater than n2, the angle of refraction is

15
always greater than the angle of incidence. Thus when the angle of
refraction is 90° and the refracted ray emerges parallel to the interface
between the dielectrics, the angle of incidencemust be less than 90°.
This is the limiting case of refraction and the angle of incidence is now
known as the critical angle

At angles of incidence greater than the critical angle the light is


reflected back into the originating dielectric medium (total internal
reflection) with high efficiency (around 99.9%).This is the mechanism
by which light at a sufficiently shallow angle (less than 90° − φ c) may
be considered to propagate down an optical fiber with low loss.

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Fig.The transmission of a light ray in a perfect optical
fiber Acceptance angle
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Only rays with a sufficient critical angle are transmitted by total
internal reflection and will continue to be propagated down its length.
Hence, any rays which are incident into the fiber core at an angle
greater than θa will be transmitted to the core–cladding interface at an
angle less than φc, and will not be totally internally reflected.
Thus for rays to be transmitted by total internal reflection within the
fiber core they must be incident on the fiber core within an
acceptance cone defined by the conical half angle θa.
Hence θa is the maximum angle to the axis at which light may enter the

fiber in order to be propagated, and is often referred to as the

acceptance angle for the fiber.

16
Fig: The acceptance angle θa when launching light into an
optical fiber Numerical aperture
Relationship between the acceptance angle and the refractive indices

of the three media involved, namely the core, cladding and air is called

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the numerical aperture of the fiber.

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Fig:The ray path for a meridional ray launched into an optical fiber in air at
an input angle less than the acceptance angle for the fiber
Assume the entrance face at the fiber core to be normal to the axis,
then considering the refraction at the air–core interface and using
Snell’s law given by the equation

Considering the right-angled triangle ABC indicated in Figure , then:

where φ is greater than the critical angle at the core–cladding interface.

Hence equation becomes:

since sin2 φ + cos2 φ = 1, it may be rewritten in the form:

17
When the limiting case for total internal reflection is considered, φ

becomes equal to the critical angle for the core–cladding interface.

Also in this limiting case θ1 becomes the acceptance angle for the

fiberθa. Combining these limiting cases gives:

Relating the acceptance angle to the refractive indices, serves as the

basis for the definition of the important optical fiber parameter, the

numerical aperture (NA). Hence the NA is defined as:

Since the NA is often used with the fiber in air where n 0 is unity, it is
simply equal to sin θa. It may also be noted that incident meridional
rays over the range 0 ≤ θ1 ≤ θa will bepropagated within the fiber. The
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difference user:
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Skew rays
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 The category of ray which is transmitted without passing through
the fiber axis. These raysfollow a helical path through the fiber, are
called skew rays.
 The helical path traced through the fiber gives a change in
direction of 2γ at each reflection, where γ is the angle between the
projection of the ray in two dimensions and the radius of the fiber
core at the point of reflection.
 When the light input to the fiber is non uniform, skew rays
will therefore tend to have a smoothing effect on the
distribution of the light as it is transmitted, giving a more
uniform output.
 To calculate the acceptance angle for a skew ray it is

necessary to define the direction of the ray in two

perpendicular planes.

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Fig: The helical path taken by a skew ray in an optical fiber: (a) skew ray

path down the fiber; (b) cross-sectional view of the fiber

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a skew ray incident at an angle θ s
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to the normal at the air–core interface.
2. Using Maxwell’s theorem explain Electromagnetic mode theory for
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optical propagation. (Or)

Describe and derive modes in planar wave guide .( May 2013,May 2016,

May 2014, May 2013, Dec 2012 APRIL/MAY 2017)

The basis for the study of electromagnetic wave propagation is provided

by Maxwell’s equations. For a medium with zero conductivity these vector

relationships may be written in terms of the electric field E , magnetic field H,

electric flux density D and magnetic flux density B as the curl equations:

(1)

(2)

19
and the divergence conditions:

D= 0 (no free charges) (3)

B= 0 (no free poles) (4)

where∇ is a vector operator.

The four field vectors are related by the relations:

D =εE (5)

B =μH (6)
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where ε is the dielectric permittivity and μ is the magnetic permeability of the

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medium. registered for Duser:
and B and taking the curl of Eq 1 and 2) gives:

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A D (7)

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Then using the divergence conditions of Eq (3) and (4) with the vector identity:

We obtain the nondispersive wave equations:

And (9)
(10)

20
where∇2 is the Laplacian operator. For rectangular Cartesian and cylindrical

polar coordinates the above wave equations hold for each component of the

field vector, every component satisfying the scalar wave equation:

(11)

Where ψ may represent a component of the E or H field and up is the phase


velocity (velocity of propagation of a point of constant phase in the wave) in
the dielectric medium. It follows that:

(12)

Where μr and εr are the relative permeability and permittivity for the
dielectric medium and μ0 and ε0 are the permeability and permittivity of free
This space.
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velocity of light in free space c is therefore:
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by rectangular Cartesian coordinates
output documents.

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(x, y, z), or circular fibers, described by cylindrical polar coordinates (r, φ, z),

are considered, then the Laplacian operator takes the form: Remove it Now

(14)

Or

(15)

It is necessary to consider both these forms for a complete treatment of


optical propagation in the fiber, although many of the properties of interest

may be dealt with using Cartesian coordinates.


(16)

21
ω is the angular frequency of the

field, t is the time,

k is the propagation vector

r specify the coordinate point at which the field is

observed. λ is the optical wavelength in a vacuum

(17)

k is referred to as the free space wave number.

Modes in a planar guide

The planar guide is the simplest form of optical waveguide.


It consists of a slab of dielectric with refractive index n1 sandwiched
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Fig.The formation of a mode in a planar dielectric guide

The component of the phase propagation in the Z direction is given by:

22
The component of the phase propagation constant in the x direction βx is:

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trialPhysical
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model showing the ray propagation and
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in the planar dielectric guide
C
transverseelectric (TE) field patterns of three lower order models (m =1, 2, 3)

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The optical wave is effectively confined within the guide and the
electric field distribution in the x direction does not change as the
wave propagates in the z direction.
The stable field distribution in the x direction with only a periodic
dependence is known as a mode.
To visualize the dominant modes propagating in the z direction we
may consider plane waves corresponding to rays at different specific
angles in the planar guide.
Such rays for m = 1, 2, 3, together with the electric field distributions in

the x direction. It may be observed that m denotes the number of zeros

in this transverse field pattern. In this way m signifies the order of the

mode and is known as the mode number.

23
When light is described as an electromagnetic wave it consists of a
periodically varying electric field E and magnetic field H which are
orientated at right angles to each other.
The transverse modes:
When the component of the magnetic field H is in the
direction of propagation. In this instance the modes are said
to be transverse electric (TE).
When a component of the E field is in the direction of propagation, but

Hz =0, the modes formed are called transverse magnetic (TM).

When the total field lies in the transverse plane, transverse


electromagnetic (TEM) waves exist where both Ez and Hz are zero.
However, although TEM waves occur in metallic conductors (e.g.
coaxial cables) they are seldom found in optical waveguides.

This 3.isDescribe
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Single-mode fiber trial version,
its mode register
field diameter. to get full one!
(May 2013)

The core size of single mode fibers is small. The core size (diameter) is
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A fiber core of this size allows only the fundamental or lowest order
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mode to propagate around a 1300 nanometer (nm) wavelength.
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Single mode fibers have a lower signal loss and a higher information

S
capacity (bandwidth) than multimode fibers.
Single mode fibers are capable of transferring higher amountsRemove
of data it Now
due to low fiber dispersion.
Basically, dispersion is the spreading of light as light propagates
along a fiber.
Dispersion mechanisms in single mode fibers are discussed in more
detail later in this chapter. Signal loss depends on the operational
wavelength (λ).
In single mode fibers, the wavelength can increase or decrease the
losses caused by fiber bending.
Single mode fibers operating at wavelengths larger than the cutoff
wavelength lose more power at fiber bends.
They lose power because light radiates into the cladding, which is lost

at fiber bends.

24
In general, single mode fibers are considered to be low-loss fibers,
which increase system bandwidth and length.
Cutoff wavelength
It may be noted that single-mode operation only occurs above a
theoretical cutoff wavelength λc given by:

where Vc is the cutoff normalized frequency. Hence λc is the wavelength above

which a particular fiber becomes single-moded. Dividing by

Thus for step index fiber where Vc = 2.405, the cutoff wavelength is given by:

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extent of its electromagnetic field including losses at launching and

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micro bend losses, waveguide dispersion and the width of
the radiation pattern.
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The MFD is an important parameter for measuring the functional

S
properties of characterizing single-mode fiber properties which
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takes into account the wavelength-dependent field penetration into
the fiber cladding.
 For step index and graded (near parabolic profile) single-
mode fibers operating near the cutoff wavelength λc, the
field is well approximated by a Gaussian distribution.
 Here MFD is generally taken as the distance between
theopposite 1/e = 0.37 field amplitude points and the power
1/e2 = 0.135 points in relation to the corresponding values
on the fiber axis.
 Another parameter which is directly related to the MFD of a

single-mode fiber is the spot size (or mode- field radius) ω0.

Hence MFD = 2ω0, where ω0 is the nominal half width of the

input excitation.

25
Fig:Field amplitude distributionE(r) of the fundamental mode in a single-

mode fiberillustrating the mode-field diameter (MFD) and spot size.

The MFD can therefore be regarded as the single- mode analog of the fiber
core diameter in multimode fibers.

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Effective refractive index
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It is convenient to define an effective refractive index for single-mode it Now
fiber, sometimes referred to as a phase index or normalized phase

change coefficient neff, by the ratio of the propagation constant of the

fundamental mode to that of the vacuum propagation constant:

Group delay and mode delay factor

The transit time or group delay τg for a light pulse propagating along a

unit length of fiber is the inverse of the group velocity υg . Hence:

26
The dispersive properties of the fiber core and the cladding are often

about the same and therefore the wavelength dependence of can be

ignored. Hence the group delay can be written as:

Fig Guassian Field shape of the fundamental mode for normalized


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Equivalent user:
step index method

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fibers) is to define an equivalent step index (ESI) fiber on which to

model the fiber to be investigated.


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27
Fig: Refractive index distributionsn(r) and electric field distributionsE(r) for
gradedindex fibers and their ESI fibers for: (a) α=2, V =3.5; (b) α=4, V =3.0.

4. Describe in detail the Classification of fibers OR Compare the

structure and characteristics of step index and graded index fiber

structures. (May 2015, Dec 2014, Dec 2011,NOV/DEC 2016)

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and by their
properties of transmission.
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multimode fibers.

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The basic structural difference is the core size. Single mode fibers are
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manufactured with the same materials as multimode fibers.

The core size of single mode fibers is small.


The core size (diameter) is typically around 8 to 10 micrometers.
A fiber core of this size allows only the fundamental or lowest order
mode to propagate around a 1300 nanometer (nm) wavelength.
Single mode fibers propagate only one mode, because the
core size approaches the operational wavelength (λ).
The value of the normalized frequency parameter (V) relates core size with

mode propagation.In single mode fibers, V is less than or equal to 2.405.

Advantages:

Lower signal loss.


Higher information capacity (bandwidth) than multimode fibers.
28
Transferring higher amounts of data due to low fiber

dispersion. Multimode Fibers

Multimode fibers propagate more than one mode.


Multimode fibers can propagate over 100 modes.
The number of modes propagated depends on the core size and

numerical aperture (NA). As the core size andNA increase, the number

of modes increases. Typical values of fiber core size and NA are 50 to

100 micro meter and 0.20 to 0.29, respectively.

A large core size and a higher NALight is launched into a multimode


fiber with more ease.
The higher NA and the larger core size make it easier to make
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Single mode fibers typically must use laser diodes.

dispersion increases.
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When the number of modes increases, the effect of modal

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An optical fiber's refractive index profile and core size further


distinguish single mode and multimode fibers.
The refractive index profile describes the value of refractive
index as a function of radial distance at any fiber diameter.
Fiber refractive index profiles classify single mode and multimode

fibers as follows:

 Multimode step-index fibers


 Multimode graded-index fibers
 Single mode step-index fibers
29
Step-index fiber:

The refractive index of the core is uniform and undergoes an abrupt


change at the core-cladding boundary.
Step-index fibers obtain their name from this abrupt change called

the step change in refractive index.

The refractive index of the core varies gradually as a function of


radial distance from the fibercenter.
Single mode and multimode fibers can have a step-index or
graded-index refractive index profile.\
The performance of multimode graded-index fibers is usually superior to
multimode step-index fibers. However, each type of multimode fiber can
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on the intended

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application.

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Performance advantages for single mode graded-index fibers

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compared single

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mode step-index fibers are relatively small.
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Therefore, single mode fiber production is almost exclusively step-

index.
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30
Fig: Light Confinement in Step Index Fiber

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Fig: Ray Trajectory in Graded Index Fiber

a)Derive the expression for linearly polarized modes in optical fibers


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and obtain the expression for normalized frequency.( Dec 2012)

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TE (i.e. Ez = 0) and TM (Hz = 0) modes are obtained within the circular
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optical fiber. These modes correspond to meridional rays (pass through

the fiber axis). As the circular optical fiber is bounded in two dimensions

in thetransverse plane, =>two integers, l and m, are necessary in order to

specify the modes i.e. We refer to these modes as TElm and TMlm modes.

Hybrid modes are modes in which both Ez and Hz are nonzero.These modes

result from skew ray propagation (helical path withoutpassing through the

fiber axis). The modes are denoted as HElmand EHlm depending on

31
whether the components of H or E makethe larger contribution

to the transverse field.

The full set of circular optical fiber modes therefore comprises:


TE, TM (meridional rays), HE and EH (skew rays) modes.

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when considering
telecommunicationsgrade optical fibers. These fibers have the
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<< 1 (Δ = (ncore – nclad)/ncore typically less than 1 %).=>the
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propagation is preferentially along the fiber axis (θ ≈ 90o).i.e.
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the field is therefore predominantly transverse.=>modes are

approximated by two linearly polarized components


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These linearly polarized (LP) modes, designated as LPlm, aregood


approximations formed by exact modes TE, TM, HE and EH.
The mode subscripts l and m describe the electric field intensityprofile.

There are 2l field maxima around the thefiber corecircumference and m

field maxima along the fiber core radial direction

32
Normalized propagation constant b as afunction of V for various LP modes

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V = (2πa/λ) (n12 – n22)1/2 = (u2 + w2)1/2
b = (β2 – k22)/(k12 – k22)
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Normalized Frequency:

Normalized frequency is a dimensionless parameter and sometimes it


is referred as V number. It gives the relation between core radius(a),
relative refractive index difference(Δ) and operating wavelength (λ).
Normalized frequency variable, V is given as
V= (2πa (n12-n22)1/2) / λ
Where, a=Core Radius
λ = Freespace wavelength
V=(2πa . NA) / λ
The total number of modes in a multimode fiber is given by

33
M=1/2((2πa)2 (n12-n22))/ λ

M=1/2 (2πa . NA/λ)2

M=1/2[(πd/λ).NA]2 ‘d’ is core diameter

M=[V]2/ 2
For fiber optic communication system guided mode is used for signal
transmission. Considering a step index fiber with core radius ‘a’

The cylindrical coordinates ρ, ϕ can be used to refer boundary conditions.

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n= {n1; ρ≤a
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The general solution for boundary condition of optical field under

guided mode is infinite at ρ= 0 and decay to zero at ρ = α. Using


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maxwell’s equation in the core region

The cut off condition is defined as

34
V=KOa√(n12-n22)

V=(2π/λ)an1√(2Δv)

It is also called as normalized frequency.


5.b)For a multimode step-index fiber with glas core (n1=1.5) and fused
quartz cladding (n2=1.46).Determine the acceptance angle and numerical
aperture.The source to fiber medium is air.(APRIL/MAY 2015)

NA= (n12 –n22 )1/2

=[(1.5)2 –(1.46)2 ]1/2


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=0.344
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on the output documents.
= sin-1 (0.344)

=20.12 degrees.
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5.C)A Single mode step index fiber has a core diameter of 7µm an a core
refractive index of 1.49.Estimate the shortest wavelength of light which allows
single mode operation when the relative refravtive index difference for the
fiber is 1%.(NOV/DEC 2014)
Vλ=2πa(n12-n22)1/2

=2πan1√2∆

=2*3.14*7*10-6*1.49*√2 ∗ 0.01

=9.26*10-6

λc=9.26*10-6/2.405

=3.85 nm

35
6. A step index multimode fiber with a numerical aperture of 0.2 support
approximately 1000 modes at 850 nm wavelength.What is the diameter of its
core?How many modes does the fiber support at 850 nm and 1550 nm (APRIL/MAY
2017)

NA=sinθ =(n12 –n22)1/2


M=2π2A2/λ2 (NA)2
=2π2 (30.25µm)2 /(1.32µm) 2 (0.2)2 =414
D=2a=60.5 µm
At 1550 nm,M=300

6..B Consider a fiber with 25µm core radius core index n1=1.48 and Δ =0.01.If λ=1320
nm what value of V and how many modes propagates in the fiber.What percent of
optical power flows in the cladding?If the core cladding difference is reduced
toΔ=0.003,how many modes does the fiber support and what fraction of the optical
power flows in the cladding .(NOV/DEC 2016)
Numerical Aperture,NA= n1 (2Δ)1/2 =1 =1.48(2*0.01)1/2 =0.020
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V2= (2Πa/λ)2 (NA)2
V=25
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M=V /2= 625/2= 312
Power flow in the cladding,(Pclad/P)total =4/3 (M)-1/2

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A D =7.5%

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7. Draw the block diagram of optical fiber transmission link and explain.(Remove
NOV/DEC it Now
2016,APRIL/MAY 2017)

OPTICAL FIBER LINK


An optical fiber communication system is similar in basic concept to any
type of communication system. A block schematic of a general communication
system is shown in Figure.The function of which is to convey the signal
from the information source over the transmission medium to the destination.
The communication system therefore consists of a transmitter or modulator
linked to the information source, the transmission medium, and a receiver or
demodulator at the destination point. In electrical communications the
information source provides an electrical signal, usually derived from a
message signal which is not electrical (e.g. sound), to a transmitter comprising
electrical and electronic components which converts the signal into a suitable
form for propagation over the transmission medium. This is often achieved by
modulating a carrier, which, as mentioned pre viously, may be an
electromagnetic wave.

In this case the information source pro- vides an electrical signal to a


transmitter comprising an electrical stage which drives an optical source to give
modulation of the light wave carrier. The optical source which pro- vides the
electrical–optical conversion may be either a semiconductor laser or light-
emitting diode (LED).

The transmission medium consists of an optical fiber cable and the receiver
consists of an optical detector which drives a further electrical stage and
hence provides demodulation of the optical carrier. Photodiodes (p–n, p–i–n or
avalanche) and, in some instances, phototransistors and photoconductors are
utilized for the detection of the optical signal and the optical–electrical
conversion. Thus there is a requirement for electrical interfacing at either end of
the optical link and at present the signal processing is usually performed
electrically

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The optical carrier may be modulated using either an analog or digital


information signal. In the system .Analog modulation involves the variation of
the light emitted from the optical source in a continuous manner. With digital
modulation, however, discrete changes in the light intensity are obtained (i.e.
on–off pulses). Although often simpler to implement, analog modulation
with an optical fiber communication sys- tem is less efficient, requiring a far
higher signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver than digital modulation. Also, the
linearity needed for analog modulation is not always provided by
semiconductor optical sources, especially at high modulation frequencies. For
these reasons, analog optical fiber communication links are generally limited
to shorter distances and lower bandwidth operation than digital links.

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UNIT – II

SIGNAL DEGRADATION OPTICAL FIBERS


PART A

1.What are the types of fiber losses which are given per

unit distance?(NOV/DEC 2014)

(i)Absorption loss

(ii)Scattering loss

(iii)Radiative loss

(iv)Mode coupling

(v) Dispersion

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2.Identify the causes of scattering loss. (MAY/JUNE

1. Can2014) (i)Microscopic
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in material density

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fluctuations

(iii)structural inhomogeneties
S
3.The optical power launched in to the fiber is 200µw.The transmission distance
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is 20 km.The optical power at the output of the fiber is 50µw.Calculate a)signal

attenuation per unit length b)the overall signal attenuation

a)signal attenuation per unit length=10 /L log (Pi /Po )

=10/20 log (200* 10-6 /50 *10-6 )

=0.5*0.6020

=0.3Db Km-1

b)overall signal attenuation=attenuation /Km *20 Km

=0.3*20 =6dB.

36
4.What is material dispersion? (or) What is chromatic dispersion? (or)What is
intramodal dispersion?(APRIL/MAY2016) (APRIL/MAY 2017)

It arises from the variation of refractive index of the core material as a


function of wavelength. This causes a wavelength dependence of group
velocity of any given mode, that is pulse spreading occurs even when
different wavelength follow the same path.
5.A continuous 12 Kms long optical fiber link has a loss of 1.5 dB/Km.What is
the minimum optical power that must be launched in to the fiber to maintain
an optical power level of 0.3 µw at the receiving end. (NOV/DEC2013)

The output power in db Pout (db) =10 log Pout =10 log (0.3*10 -6 )

We know that Pout (db) =Pin (db) -αL (db) =-65.22 db

This is -65.22 db = P (db) – (1.5


a watermark in
forDB/Km)
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km) register to get full one!
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in (db) = -47.22 db
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=0.18 µw
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6.Define dispersion in Multi Mode fiber. What is its effect?(NOV/DEC 2013)

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Dispersion of the transmitted optical signal causes distortion for both digital and

analog transmission along optical fiber. Dispersion mechanisms within the fiber causes

broadening of transmitted light pulses as they travel along the channel.

7. Define Rayleigh scattering. (MAY/JUNE 2013)

Rayleigh scattering is a fundamental loss mechanism arising from local


microscopic fluctuations in density. Density fluctuation lead to random
fluctuations of refractive index on a scale smaller than the optical wavelength.
Light scattering in such a medium is known as Rayleigh scattering.

8. State the reasons for chromatic dispersion.(NOV/DEC 2012)

(i) The dispersion arises due to the variation of refractive index of the core

material as a function of wavelength or frequency of light.

37
(ii)This causes a wavelength dependence of the group velocity of any given mode.

9. Afiber has an attenuation of 0.5 dB/Km at 1500 nm.If 0.5 mW of optical power
is initially launched into the fiber,what is the power level in after 25Km?
(NOV/DEC 2015,MAY/JUNE 2014)

The input power in dbm units

Pin (dBm) =10 log [Pin(W)/1 mw]

=10 log [0.5*10-3 /1*10 -3 ]

= -3dBm

The output power level (in dBm) at 25 km

Pout (dBm) =10 log [Pout(W)/1mw]


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in

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= -7.0 dBM –(0.5 dB/Km) (250Km)

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= -3.0all
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(dBm) = -15.0on
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10. Define Polarization Mode Dispersion in a fiber.(NOV/DEC 2015,NOV/DEC 2016)
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Single mode fibers generally suffer from a special type of dispersion called

Polarization Mode Dispersion. Dispersion arising out of birefringence phenomenon.

It affects the polarization state of light propagating through cylindrical optical fibers.

The birefringence manifests itself in the form of an additional pulse broadening

component termed as Polarization Mode Dispersion.

11. Define signal attenuation (APR/MAY 2015)

It is the measure of decay of signal strength or it is the measure of loss of light power that

occurs as the light pulse propagates through the length of the fiber.It also determine the

maximum transmission distance between a transmitter and receiver.

αp=1/z(ln(P(0)/P(z)))
P(0)-optical powere in fiber at orgin.

38
P(z)-optical power at distance z.
αp-attenuation coefficient .unit is Km-1.
For simplicity the signal attenuation coefficient is expressed in dB/Km and it
is represented as α.
12. What are bending losses? Name any two types. (APR/MAY 2015)

Bending the fiber also causes attenuation. Bending loss is classified


according to the bend radius of curvature: microscopic bend loss or
macroscopic bend loss. Macroscopic bend losses
This loss occurs when a fiber bend's radius of curvature(ROC) is
large compared to the fiber diameter.
Microscopic bend losses
This loss occurs due to small scale fluctuations in radius of curvature

of fiber axis.
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13.What are the most important nonlinear effects of optical
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fiber communication?(NOV/DEC
Self phase modulation
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Stimulated Raman Scattering

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Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

14.What are the causes of self phase modulation and cross


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phase modulation?(APRIL/MAY 2016)

Self phase modulation is due to variation in refractive index of the


medium ,which results in phase shift in the pulse,leading to change
of the pulse’s frequency spectrum.
Cross phase modulation is due to the change in the optical
phase of light beam caused by the interaction with other beam
in a nonlinear medium.
15. What are the causes for absorption?(NOV/DEC 2016)
(i)absorption by atomic defects in the glass composition
(ii)Extrinsic absorption by impurity atoms in the glass material.
(iii)Intrinsic absorption by the basic constituent atoms of the fiber
material.

16.Define group delay.(APRIL/MAY 2017)


As the signal propagates along the fiber,each spectral
component can be assumed to travel independently and it
undergoes a time delay or group delay per unit length in the
direction of propagation.

39

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PART B
1.Explain the variation attenuation mechanism in optical fiber.(or)
With necessary diagram ,explain the causes and types of fiber
attenuation loss.( or)
What are the loss or signal attenuation mechanisms in a fiber? Explain.(or)
Explain the attenation and losses in fiber.( or) APRIL/MAY

2015.MAY/JUNE 2014,NOV/DEC 2013,APRIL/MAY 2017)

a)Bending
b)Scattering
c)Absorption.( MAY/JUNE 2016, NOV/DEC 2015,

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Attenuation is also called as fiber loss of signal loss or power loss.
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of the
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fiber.
on the
the output A D
of light power that occurs as the light pulse propagates through the

documents.
C
It also determine maximum transmission distance between a

S
transmitter and receiver.
Attenuatuion units: Remove it Now

As light travels along a fiber,its power decreases exponentially with


distance. P(z)=P(0)e-αpz
P(0)-optical powere in fiber at orgin.
P(z)-optical power at distance z.
αp=1/z(ln(P(0)/P(z)))
αp-attenuation coefficient .unit is Km-1.
For simplicity the signal attenuation coefficient is expressed in dB/Km
and it is represented as α.
α(dB/Km)=10/z(log(P(0)/P(z)))
=4.343 αp Km-1
Relation between α and αp
40
α=4.343 αp Km-1
The basic attenuation mechanisms in fiber are,
i)absorption.
ii)Scattering.
iii)bending.

ABSORPTION:
Absorption is a major cause of signal loss in an optical fiber.
Absorption is defined as the portion of attenuation resulting from the
conversion of optical power into another energy form, such as heat.

Absorption in optical fibers is explained by three factors:

i) Imperfections in the atomic structure of the fiber

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material ii)The intrinsic or basic fiber-material properties
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atomic
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iii)The extrinsic (presence of impurities) fiber- material properties i)

structure of the fiber material

A
documents.
structure induce absorption by the

C
presence of missing molecules or oxygen defects in glass structure

S
The absorption loss due to atomic defects is negligible compared to
other two absorption losses.
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This loss become significant when exposed to ionizing radiation as in

nuclear reactor,medical radiation therapies in accelerator instrumentation.

ii)Intrinsic Absorption.
It occurs when material is in absolutely pure state with no density
variation,no impurieties and material in homogeneities.
Intrinsic absorption in the ultraviolet region is caused by electronic
absorption bands and in infrared region due to atomic vibration bands.
The electronic absorption band is association with the band gap of
amorphous glass materials.
41
The UV edge of absorption band of both crystalline and amorphous
materials follow empirical relation
αuv=CeE/Eo
This is represented as urbach’s rule.
C& Eo -emprical constant.
E-photon energy. E is directly proportional to 1/λ.UV absorption
decays as λ increases.
Intrinsic absorption occurs when a light particle (photon) interacts
with an electron and excites it to a higher energy level.
If an optical fiber were absolutely pure, with no imperfections or

impurities, then all absorption would be intrinsic.

iii)Extrinsic Absorption.

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watermarkabsorption is caused by impurities introduced into the fiber material.
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inner subshell on thetooutput
or due
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Extrinsic absorption is caused by the electronic transition of these
one energy level to another with incompletely filled
documents.
charge transitions from one ion to another.

introduced into the fiber. C


Extrinsic absorption also occurs when hydroxyl ions (OH-) are

S
Due to OH impurity it results from oxyhydrogen flame used for the
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hydrolysis reaction of SiCl4,GeCl4 and POCl3.
The amount of water (OH-) impurities present in a fiber should be less
than a few parts per billion. Fiber attenuation caused by extrinsic
absorption is affected by the level of impurities (OH-) present in the fiber.
SCATTERING:
Scattering losses are caused by the interaction of light with density
fluctuations within a fiber.
Scattering losses arises from,
i)Microscopic variations in material density.
ii)compositional fluctuations.
iii)structural inhomogeneities.
iv)Structural defects during fiber manufacture.

42
Types:
Linear Scattering
i)Rayleigh scattering.
ii)Mie scattering.
Non Linear Scattering
i)Stimulated Brillouin
ii)Stimulated Raman
LINEAR SCATTERING:
Rayleigh scattering
Glass is composed of randomly connected network of molecules.
The glass structure has randomly contains regions in which the
molecular density is either high or low than the average density.
Also the glass is made of several oxides SiO2,GeO2,P2O5 this

This is aleads to compositional fluctuations.


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Due these two effects leads to variation in refractive index. This
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proportional
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to 1/λ4
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theisoutput
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Rayleigh scattering occurs in all directions and produces an

given as documents.

S C
α scat=8π3/3λ4((n2-1)2KBTf βT) Remove it Now
also can be written as α scat=8π3/3λ4 n8p2KBTf
βT p-photo elastic coefficient.
Unit of α scat is nepers.
To convert neper to dB multiply by 10loge
For multicomponent glass Rayleigh scattering is

given as α scat=8π3/3λ4(δn2)2δV

(δn2)2-mean square refractive index


Rayleigh scattering is related to transmission loss factor ɸ.
ɸ=exp(-α scat L)
L-length of the fiber.

43
Mie Scattering
The scattering caused by in homogeneities in forward direction is
called Mie Scattering.
Depending on fiber material design and manufacture, Mie
scattering can cause significant losses.
Losses in fiber due to in homegeneties are,
i)Non perfect cylindrical structure of fiber.
ii)Irregularity in core and cladding interface.
iii) Irregularity in core and cladding index
iv)diameter fluctuation
v)Strains and bubbles.
These in homegeneties can be reduced by,
i)removing imperfections in glass manufacturing process.

This ii)carefully controlled coating of fiber.


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iii)increasing relative refractive index difference.
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from one mode toonthethe
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scattering it causes the optical power to be transferred
or other documents.
mode in forward or backward direction.

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Stimulated Brillouin Scattering(SBS)

S
SBS occurs from the scattering of the propagating light by
molecular vibrations .
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The interaction of photon with the vibrating molecules produces a
phonon of acoustic frequency as well as scattered photon.Due to thi
there is a shift in optical frequency.
This leads to variation in scattering angle.
The frequency shift is maximum in backward direction and zero in
forward direction.SBS is a backward process.
The threshold power required for SBS can be
obtained by PB=4.4*10-3d2λ2αdBν watts
d-fiber core dia(µm)
λ-operating wavelength(µm)
αdB-fiber attenuation in dB/Km
ν-source bandwidth(GHz)

44
Stimulated Raman Scattering(SRS)
It is similar to Brillouin scattering except the high frequency optical
phonon is produced rather than an acoustic phonon.
Also it occurs both in forward and backward direction in an optical fiber.
The threshold power required for SRS can be obtained by
PR=5.9*10-2d2λαdB watts
The optical threshold of SRS is greater than optical threshold of SBS.
BENDING LOSS:
Bending the fiber also causes attenuation.
Bending loss is classified according to the bend radius of curvature:
microscopic bend loss or macroscopic bend loss.

This Macroscopic bend losses (Large curvature radiation losses)


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During installation, if fibers are bent too sharply, macrobend losses will
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This loss occurs when a fiber bend's radius of curvature(ROC) is large

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compared to the fiber diameter.
As the all
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of bend
D
decreases, the loss increases exponentially upto
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A
certain critical radius.

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At the fiber bent optical radiation occurs and it depends on ROC.The


higher order mode will radiate out first.
Large bending loss occurs in fiber at critical radius of curvature
Rc,given by Rc=3n12λ/4π(n12-n22)3/2
Radius of curvature for single mode fiber is given as

45
Microscopic Bend Loss(Mode coupling loss)
Microbends are small microscopic bends of the fiber axis that occur
mainly when a fiber is cabled.
Microbends are due to small scale fluctuations in radius of curvature
of fiber axis.
The fluctuation is caused either by non uniformities in the
manufacturing of the fiber.
External forces are also a source of microbends. An external force

deforms the cabled jacket surrounding the fiber but causes only a

small bend in the fiber.

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Microbends change the path that propagating modes and cause mode
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coupling between adjacent modes,which in turn creates radiative loss.
To miniminize the microbend loss a compressible jacket is introduced.
When the external force is applied the jacked is deformed but the
fiber tends to say straight
2. With diagram derive the expression for intramodal dispersion.(or)

Derive the expression for material and wave guide

dispersion.(NOV/DEC 2015,MAY/JUNE 2014,MAY/JUNE 2013,NOV/DEC

2016)

INTRAMODAL DISPERSION:
Also called chromatic dispersion
It is the spreading of pulse that takes place within a single mode.

46
This spreading results from the finite spectral linewidth of the optical
source.This phenomena is also known as group velocity dispersion.
Since optical sources do not emit just a single frequency but a band of
frequencies there may be propagation delay differences between the
different spectral components of the transmitted signal. This causes
broadening of each transmitted mode and hence intramodal dispersion.
The two main causes of intramodal
dispersion are i)Material Dispersion.
ii)Waveguide dispersion.
Material dispersion
Arises due to the variation of the refractive index of the core
material as a function of wavelength.
Pulse spreading occurs even when different wavelengths follow

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watermark
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To calculate user:consider plane wave propagating in an
material dispersion

remove
core.Theallpropagation
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λ
trial watermark. D
infinitely extended dielectric medium of refractive index n(λ) equal to the
1. Canfiber constant β is given as,

A
on the output documents.
λ ------------(1)
Sub β in the group delay τg

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The pulse delay τm due to material dispersion in a fiber of length L is therefore:

--------------
For a source with rms spectral width σλ and a mean wavelength λ,the rms

pulse broadening due to material dispersion σm may be obtained as

-------------

47
Use equation (2) for τm

-------(4)
Sub equation (4) in (3)

In terms of a material dispersion parameter M which is defined as:

Waveguide dispersion

This is aItpower
occurs because single mode fiber confines only about 80% of optical
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to the core and 20% of light propagates through cladding.
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light that propagates through cladding travels fast than the light

D
propagates through the core.
The amount
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The group delay in terms of the normalized propagation constant b is

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The derivation moves forward by assuming the weakly guided condition where Δ<<1

Solving for β

48
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The first term in the equation is a constant. It is the time delay for a
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pulse traveling user:
in a waveguide where n2 = a constant.

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The second term above is the group delay arising from waveguide
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dispersion. The V factor in terms of Bessel functions.
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Main message on waveguide dispersion:


The group delay is different for every guided mode.
For small radius waveguides, waveguide dispersion can be significant.
For large radius waveguides (multimode), waveguide dispersion is
very small and can be neglected.
This pulse spreading can be found by taking the derivative of the

group delay with respect to wavelength λ.

49
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3.Explain the intermodal dispersion with necessary expressions.

(MAY/JUNE 2014,MAY/JUNE 2013)


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INTERMODAL DISPERSION:

Modal dispersion is the dominant source of dispersion in multimode


fibers. Modal dispersion does not exist in single mode fibers
Pulse broadening due to intermodal dispersion (modal or mode
dispersion) results from the propagation delay differences between
modes within a multimode fiber.
As the different modes which constitute a pulse in a multimode fiber
travel along the channel at different group velocities, the pulse
width at the output is dependent upon the transmission times of the
slowest and fastest modes.
This dispersion mechanism creates the fundamental difference in the

50
overall dispersion for the three types of fiber.
The multimode step index fibers exhibit a large amount of intermodal
dispersion which gives the greatest pulse broadening.
The overall pulse broadening in multimode graded index fibers is far
less than that obtained in multimode step index fibers (typically by a
factor of 100) .
Thus multi mode graded index fibers have a tremendous bandwidth
advantage over multimode step index fibers.
Multimode step index fiber
Using the ray theory model, the fastest and slowest modes

propagating in the step index fiber may be represented by the axial ray

and the extreme meridional ray (which is incident at the core–cladding

interface at the critical angle φc) respectively.


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A
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The paths taken by these two rays in a perfectly structured step index
fiber is shown in figure .
The delay difference between these two rays when traveling in the fiber
core allows estimation of the pulse broadening resulting from
intermodal dispersion within the fiber.
As both rays are traveling at the same velocity within the constant
refractive index fiber core, then the delay difference is directly related
to their respective path lengths within the fiber.
Hence the time taken for the axial ray to travel along a fiber of length L

gives the minimum delay time TMin and:

--------(1)

51
n1 is the refractive index of the core and c is the velocity of light in a
vacuum.
The extreme meridional ray exhibits the maximum delay time TMax where:

-----------------(2)
Using Snell’s law of refraction at the core–cladding interface

n2 is the refractive index of the cladding,sub cosθ in equ(2)

-------------(3)
The delay difference δTs between the extreme meridional ray and the axial
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S C ---------------(4)
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-----------(5)
where is the relative refractive index difference. However, when Δ<< 1, then
from the definition
given the relative refractive index difference may also be given approximately by

,sub in equ (5)

-------------------(6)

NA is the numerical aperture for the fiber


The approximate expressions for the delay difference given in Eqs (6) and

(7) are usually employed to estimate the maximum pulse broadening in

time due to intermodal dispersion in multimode step index fibers.

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52
RMS pulse broadening due to intermodal dispersion in multimode step-

Index fiber

Broadened rectangular pulse due to intermodal dispersion


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useful quantity
regard to intermodal dispersion on an optical fiber link is the rms pulse
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When the optical input to the fiber is a pulse pi(t) of unit area,then

S C
It may be noted that pi(t) has a constant amplitude of 1/ Ts over the range
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The rms pulse broadening at the fiber output due to intermodal dispersion

for the multimode step index fiber may be given in terms of the variance σs2

where M1 is the first temporal moment which is equivalent to the mean

value of the pulse and M2,

the second temporal moment,

53
The mean value M1 for the unit input pulse is zero,then

Integrating over the limits of the input pulse and substituting for pi(t)

This Hence
is a substite
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for δTs gives,

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2. No This
trialeuation
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is the rms impulse response of a multimode step index fiber.
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Multimode graded index fiber

S C
Intermodal dispersion in multimode fibers is minimized with the use of
graded index fibers.
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Multimode graded index fibers show substantial bandwidth
improvement over multimode step
index fibers.

54
The reason for the improved performance of graded index fibers may be

observed by considering the ray diagram for a graded index fiber shown in

Fig . The fiber shown has a parabolic index profile with a maximum at the

core axis. Analytically,the index profile is given by,

The dramatic improvement in multimode fiber bandwidth achieved with a


parabolic or near parabolic refractive index profile is highlighted by
consideration of the reduced delay difference between the fastest and
slowest modes for this graded index fiber δTg.
Using a ray theory approach the delay difference is given by:

--------(1)
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----------------------(2)
which corresponds to an increase in transmission time for the slowest
mode of 2/8 over the fastest mode.
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rms pulse broadening of a near-parabolic index profile graded index
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C
fiber self phase modulation self phase modulation σg is reduced compared

S
with similar broadening for the corresponding step index fiber σs (i.e. with
the same relative refractive index difference) following
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----------------------(3)
where D is a constant between 4 and
The best minimum theoretical intermodal rms pulse broadening for a
graded index fiber with
an optimum characteristic refractive index profile for the core

op of We knw ,

Sub in σg,

55
,chosen D as 10.

4.Explain pulse broadening and its effect on information carrying capacity


on fiber.
Intermodal or modal dispersion causes the input light pulse to spread.
The input light pulse is made up of a group of modes.
As the modes propagate along the fiber, light energy distributed
among the modes is delayed by different amounts.
The pulse spreads because each mode propagates along the fiber at
different speeds.
Since modes travel in different directions, some modes travel longer
distances.

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dispersion occurs because each mode travels a different
distance over the same time span, The modes of a light pulse that
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enter user:
the fiber at one time exit the fiber a different times.

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2. No trialAswatermark
trial watermark.
as pulse broadening.
onfiber
the length of the theincreases,
A D
This condition causes the light pulse to spread. This phenomenon is

output documents.
modal dispersion increases.

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Information Capacity Determination
A light pulse will broaden as it travels along the fiber.
The pulse broadening will eventually cause neighboring pulses to overlap.
After a certain amount of overlap, neighboring pulses will not be
distinguishable.
Thus, this dispersive mechanism limits the information capacity of a fiber.
One measure of the information capacity of an optical waveguide is called

the bandwidth-distance product. This value is usually given as x Hz km.

56
Group Delay
Let us presume a linear system where an optical source launches light

This is apower into a fiber where all the modes carry equal power.
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The spectral components will be assumed to travel independently.
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in the
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Each component will undergo a time delay called the group delay

outputof documents.
direction travel.

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57
Since the index of refraction depends on the wavelength and the velocity of

light in a medium depends on the index of refraction, then the group velocity

depends on the wavelength of the light.

Under this chromatic dispersion each spectral component will undergo a

different time delay and the pulse will spread with transmission distance.

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the time register
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trialterm
watermark ongroup
β2 called the the velocity
A D
outputdispersion
documents.
(GVD).

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β2 indicates how rapidly the index of refraction is changing per unit wavelength.

The dispersion coefficient D defines the pulse spread as a function of wavelength.

58
The units of the dispersion coefficient may be typically listed as A

dimensionless coefficient for the group velocity dispersion can be defined as

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59
UNIT III

FIBER OPTICAL SOURCES AND COUPLING

PART A

1.Define internal quantum efficiency of LED. (NOV/DEC 2015.MAY/JUNE

2014,NOV/DEC 2014)

The internal quantum efficiency (ηint )is defined as the ratio of radiative

recombination rate to the total recombination rate.

ηint =Rr /(Rr +Rnr)

where Rr –radiative recombination rate

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R a watermark
=non
nr for trialrate.
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2.What user: region?
active or recombination

A D
When PN junction is forward biased electrons and holes are injected in to the P
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and N regions respectively.These minority carrier can recombine either radiatively
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C
or non radiatively. This PN junction is known as active or recombination region.

S
3.Write the difference between laser diode and LED.(NOV/DEC
2013)(APRIL/MAY 2017)
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1 Output Beam Coherent Incoherent


2 Coupling Efficiency High Low
3 Output Power High Low
4 Cost Expensive less

4.Define detector response time.(MAY /JUNE 2013)


The detector response time of a photo detector depends on

(i)Transmit time

(ii)Diffusion time

60
(iii)RC time constant

5.Calculate the band gap energy for an LED to emit 850 nm.(MAY/JUNE 2013)

λ (µm) =1.240/ Eg (eV)

Eg (eV)= 1.240/0.850 =1.459

6. Compare and contrast surface and edge emitting LED.(NOV/DEC 2012)

(i)Edge emitter has better modulation bandwidth of the order of hundreds of

megahertz than comparable surface emitting structures with the same drive level.

(ii)In surface emitting LED, the plane of active light emitting region is
perpendicular to fiber axis and the edge emitting LED s emit more directional

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than surface trialLED.
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7.What are the advantages of LED?
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(iii)less temperature dependence

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8. What is meant by hetero junction structure? (NOV/DEC 2015)

A hetero structure LED generally consists of a combination of multiple

heterojunctions that secure the carriers and subsequently the emitted photon in

such a way that the overall quantum efficiency and radiance of LED is increased.

9.Define power bandwidth product.(APR/MAY 2015)

It is the important characteristics of an LED.


It is defined as the product of LED’s optical output power and its

modulation bandwidth is a constant

BW P=constant(9.12)
61
10.List the factors that cause intrinsic joint losses in a fiber.(NOV/DEC

2014) (i)Different core and cladding diameters

(ii)Different NA or relative refractive index

differences (iii)Different refractive index profiles

(iv)Fiber faults.

11.Define mechanical splice.(MAY/JUNE 2013)

The mechanical splice alignment may be achieved by various methods including the

use of tubes around the fiber end or V -grooves ito which the butted fibers are placed.

12.Define power signal to noise ratio.


It is defined as the ratio of signal power from photocurrent to the

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13.What registered user:
the conditions to achieve high signal to noise ratio?

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The photo trial watermark.
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must have high quantum efficiency.
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The photodetector and amplifier noises should be kept low.

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14.What are the mechanisms behind the lasing action?(NOV/DEC 2016)
Laser action is the result of three key processes (i)photon absorption
(ii)spontaneous emission (iii)stimulated emission

15. Define external quantum efficiency (NOV/DEC 2016)


External quantum efficiency is defined as the ratio of the photons
emitted from the LED to the number of internally generated photons.

16. What is minimum detectable optical power?(APRIL/MAY 2017)


The optical power necessary to produce a photo current of the same
magnitude as the root mean square of the total noise current or a signal to
noise ratio of 1.The sensitivity of a photo detector is describable in terms
of minimum detectable optical power.
62
PART B
1.Write a note on LED Structures. OR Discuss about surface emitting LED and
edge emitting LED (NOV/DEC 2015,APRIL/MAY 2015,MAY/JUNE
2014,MAY/JUNE 2013,APRIL/MAY 2017)
LED STRUCTURES
Surface emitter LEDs

This method gives high radiance.

The internal absorption in this device is very low due to the larger band

gap confining layers

The reflection coefficient at the back crystal face is high giving good
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forward radiance.
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A
estimated from the relationship:
D
The power coupled Pc into a multimode step index fiber may be
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on the output documents.

S C (3.1)
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where r is the Fresnel reflection coefficient at the fiber surface,
A is the smaller of the fiber core cross-section or the emission area
of the source and
RD is the radiance of the source.
The power coupled into the fiber is also dependent on many other factors
including
The distance and alignment between the emission area and the
fiber The SLED emission pattern and
The medium between the emitting area and the fiber.
For instance, the addition of epoxy resin in the etched well tends to

reduce the refractive index mismatch and increase the external power

efficiency of the device.


63
Double Hetero junction surface emitters often give more coupled optical

power than predicted by Eq. (3.1)

The lens coupling may give increased levels of optical power coupled

into the fiber but at the cost of additional complexity.

Other factors which complicate the LED fiber coupling are the transmission

characteristics of the leaky modes or large angle skew rays.

Much of the optical power from an incoherent source is initially coupled

into these large-angle rays, which fall within the acceptance angle of the

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Figure The structure of an AlGaAs DH surface-emitting LED

Hence much of the light coupled into a multimode fiber from an LED is

lost within a few hundred meters. It must therefore be noted that the

effective optical power coupled into a short length of fiber significantly

exceeds that coupled into a longer length.

64
This current spreading in SLED results in a reduced current density as well

as an effective emission area substantially greater than the contact area.

Edge emitter LEDs

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Figure The structure
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a stripe documents.
geometry DH AlGaAs edge-emitting LED

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It has transparent guiding layers with a very thin active layer (50 to 100 μm)

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The light produced in the active layer spreads into the transparent

guiding layers, reducing self -absorption in the active layer.

The consequent wave guiding narrows the beam divergence to a half-


power width of around 30° in the plane perpendicular to the junction.
Most of the propagating light is emitted at one end face only due

to a reflector on the other end face and an antireflection coating

on the emitting end face.

Comparisons have shown that edge emitters couple more optical power

into low NA (less than 0.3) than surface emitters, whereas the opposite is

true for large NA (greater than 0.3).

65
The coupling efficiency has been found to be increased by 3.5 to 6 times

than SLED.

The use of lens coupling in the edge emitters may increase the coupling

efficiencies by five times.

Edge emitters have also been found to have a substantially better

modulation bandwidth of the order of hundreds of MHz than comparable

surface-emitting structures with the same drive level.

ELED’s have lesser spectral line width than SLED.

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2.Write a note on semiconductor Injection laser Or Explain the working
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2016)watermark.

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principle of laser diode.(NOV/DEC 2015,(NOV/DEC 2014,MAY/JUNE
1. Can2013,NOV/DEC

C
The Semiconductor Injection Laser

S Remove
This gives the injection laser several major advantages over other it Now
semiconductor sources (e.g. LEDs) that may be used for optical

communications. These are as follows:

High radiance due to the amplifying effect of stimulated emission.

Injection lasers will generally supply milliwatts of optical output power.

Narrow line width on the order of 1 nm (10 Å) or less which is

useful in minimizing the effects of material dispersion.

Modulation capabilities which at present extend up into the

gigahertz range and will undoubtedly be improved upon.

66
Relative temporal coherence which is considered essential to

allow heterodyne (coherent) detection in high-capacity systems,

but at present is primarily of use in single-mode systems.

Good spatial coherence which allows the output to be focused by

a lens into a spot which has a greater intensity than the dispersed

unfocused emission.

Figure GaAs homojunction injection laser with a Fabry–Pérot cavity


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into the p-type
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encourage stimulated emission in the cavity when electrons are injected

the output documents.

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These devices had a high threshold current density (greater than 104 A cm−2)
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due to their lack of carrier containment and proved inefficient light sources.

Improved carrier containment and thus lower threshold current densities


(around 103 A cm−2) were achieved using hetero junction structures.
Stripe geometry

Figure A broad-area GaAs/AlGaAs DH injection laser

67
The DH laser structure provides optical confinement in the vertical direction

Lasing takes place across the whole width of the device, hence it is

called broad area laser

Low quantum efficiency, by comparisons with more advanced designs,

resulting in high threshold current values

Output light geometry is unsuitable for coupling to fibers

To overcome these problems while also reducing the required threshold

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edges of the device were developed.
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active

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region in narrow stripe that runs the length of the device
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Figure An oxide stripe AlGaAs DH injection laser


Result is a narrow emission region , with a lower lasing threshold and a
narrower output beam

Injection Laser Structures


Gain-guided lasers
Two other basic techniques for the fabrication of gain-guidelaser structures

68
are illustrated in Figure which show the proton-isolated stripe and the p–

n junction isolated stripe structures respectively.

Figure 3.6 (a) & (b)

In Figure the resistive region formed by the proton bombardment gives

better current confinement than the simple oxide stripe and has superior
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thermal properties due to the absence of the silicon dioxide layer
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In the gain guided laser the current flow is restricted to a narrow stripe by

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Gain guiding is not very successful, thresholds are high >100mA, with low
differential quantum efficiencies and non linear kinks in output characteristics.

Index-guided lasers
The drawbacks associated with the gain-guided laser structures were largely

overcome through the development of index-guided injection lasers.

A ridge is produced above the active region and the surrounding areas

are etched close to it (i.e. within 0.2 to 0.3 μm).

The ridge not only provides the location for the weak index guiding but

also acts as the narrow current confining stripe.

69
The threshold currents for such weakly index-guided structures are in the range
40 to 60 mA, which compares a light output versus current characteristic for a
ridge waveguide laser with that of an oxide stripe gain-guided device.

Alternatively, the application of a uniformly thick, planar active

waveguide can be achieved through lateral variations in the confinement

layer thickness or the refractive index.

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Figure Index-guided lasers:(a) ridge waveguide injection laser structures;
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(b) rib (plano-convex) waveguide injection laser
structure Quantum-well lasers
In this structure the thin active layer causes drastic changes to the electronic

and optical properties in comparison with a conventional DH laser.

70
Figure Energy band diagrams showing various types of quantum-well

structure: (a) single quantum well (b) multiquantum well

Quantum-well lasers exhibit an inherent advantage over conventional DH

devices in that they allow high gain at low carrier density, thus providing

the possibility of significantly lower threshold currents.

Both single-quantum-well (SQW), corresponding to a single active


region, and multiquantum-well (MQW), corresponding to multiple active
regions, lasers are utilized. In the latter structure, the layers separating
the active regions are called barrier layers.

3.a) Write a note on Fiber Splices.(NOV/DEC 2012,NOV/DEC 2016


Fiber splices
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A permanent joint formed between two individual optical fibers in the
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Fusion Splicing
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Welding Accomplished by applying localized heating (a
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flame or an electric arc) at the interface between two butted, prealigned fiber

S
ends causing them to soften and fuse.
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• Mechanical Splicing Fibers are held in alignment by some mechanical means

Achieved by various methods

Tube Splices

Groove Splices

Require Fiber end surfaces to be prepared for joint


Heating of prepared fiber ends to fusion point with application of axial
pressure between two fibers.
Positioning & alignment using microscopes

71
Prefusion Method- A development of the basic arc fusion process which involves

the rounding of the fiber ends with a low-energy discharge before pressing the

fibers together and fusing with a stronger arc is called prefusion method.

Characteristics of Prefusion methods

No need for end preparation


Smaller Fresnel Reflection loss

Typical Losses : 0.1 to 0.2 dB

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Figure Electric arc fusion splicing (a) an example of fusion splicing


(b) The pre fusion method for accurately splicing optical fibers

72
Drawback:
Fiber get weakened near splice
Fiber fracture occurs near the heat-affected zone adjacent to the fused
joint. Splice be packaged to reduce tensile loading
Mechanical Splicing

It uses accurately produced rigid alignment tubes into which the prepared

fiber ends are permanently bonded.

Techniques for tube splicing of optical fibers:

(a) Snug Tube Splice

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Figure Techniques for tube splicing of optical fibers: (a) snug

tube splice; (b) loose tube splice

Snug Tube Splices

Exhibits problems with capillary tolerance requirements


Losses up to 0.5 dB with Snug tube splice (ceramic capillaries) using

MMGI and SM fibers.

Avoids the critical tolerance requirements

73
Losses 0.1 dB with loose tube splice using MMGI fibers.

V-groove splices

V-groove splices formed by sandwiching the butted fiber ends

between a V-groove glass substrate and a flat glass retainer plate

The splice is made permanent by securing the fibers in the V-groove with

epoxy resin.

Jigs for producing Vgroove splices have proved quite successful, giving

joint insertion losses of around 0.1 dB.

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Figure V-groove splices
Elastic Tube or Elastomeric Splice

The device comprises two elastomeric internal parts, one of which

contains a V-groove.

Figure The elastomeric splice: (a) cross-section; (b) assembly

74
An outer sleeve holds the two elastic parts in compression to ensure

alignment of the fibers in the V -groove, and fibers with different

diameters tend to be centered and hence may be successfully spliced.

Loss0.25 dB for commercial product

Spring Groove Splice

Utilizes a bracket containing two cylindrical pins, which serve as an


alignment guide for two prepared fibers.
An elastic element (a spring) used to press the fibers into groove and
maintain alignment of fiber ends.
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Mean Losses 0.05 dB with MMGI Fibers.
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Figure Springroove splice: (a) overview of the splice; (b) schematic cross-

section of the splice

3.b) Distinguish between LED and ILD. (NOV/DEC 2014)


Comparison of LED and ILD:

1S.No Principle of Spontaneous emission Stimulated emission


operation
2 Output beam Non coherent Coherent

3 Spectral width Broad spectrum(20- Much narrower (1-5nm)

75
100nm)
4 Data rate Low Very high
5 Transmission Smaller Greater
distance
6 Temperature Less sensitive More temperature
sensitivity
7 Coupling High
efficiency Very low
8 Compatible Multimode Single mode
fibers Step multimode GRIN SI Multimode GRIN
9 Circuit
complexity Simple Complex
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hours 5 to get full one!
10 hours 4

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Cost Low
user: High
12 Linearly proportional to Proportional to current

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drive current
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Current on the output
A
Drive current
D
50 to 100
documents.
above threshold
Threshold current 5 to

14
required
Wavelengths
available S C
mA peak

0.66 to 1.65 µm
40 mA

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0.78 to 1.65µm
15 Moderate distance low Long distance high data
Applications data rate rates

4.a) Describe the Lensing Scheme for Coupling Improvement OR Explain


different types of lensing schemes used in improving the efficiency of light
emitting diode (APRIL/MAY 2017)
Several Possible lensing schemes are:
1. Rounded end fiber
2. Nonimaging Microsphere (small glass sphere in contact with both the
fiber and source)
3. Imaging sphere ( a larger spherical lens used to image the source on the
core area of the fiber end)
4. Cylindrical lens (generally formed from a short section of fiber)
5. Spherical surfaced LED and spherical ended fiber

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76
6. Taper ended fiber.
Problems in Using Lens
One problem is that the lens size is similar to the source and fiber core
dimensions, which introduces fabrication and handling difficulties.

In the case of taper end fiber, the mechanical alignment must be carried

out with great precision

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Examples of possible lensing scheme used to improve optical source to fiber
coupling efficiency
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Non Imaging Microsphere

Figure Schematic diagram of LED Emitter with microsphere lens


Assumptions: refractive indices shown in the fig. and emitting area is circular
• To collimate the output from the LED, the emitting surface should be located
at the focal point of the lens which can be found as
77
where s and q are object and image distances as measured from the lens
surface, n is the refractive index of the lens,
n’ is the refractive index of the outside medium and

r is the radius of curvature of the lens surface.

The following sign conventions are used


1) Light travels from left to right
2) Object distances are measured as positive to the left of a vertex and
negative to the right
3) Image distances are measured as positive to the right of a vertex and
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For these conventions, we can find the focal point for the right hand
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surface of the lens shown in the last fig.
We set q = infinity, solve for s yields
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So the focal point is at point A. Magnification M of the emitting area is given as

With the lens, the optical power PL that can be coupled into a full aperture

angle 2Ɵ is given by

78
For the fiber of radius a and numerical aperture NA, the maximum coupling

efficiency is given by

So when the radius of the emitting area is larger than the fiber radius, there’ll

be no improvement in the coupling efficiency with the use of lens

4.b) Explain in detail about Laser diode to Fiber Coupling


Edge emitting laser diodes have an emission pattern that nominally has
FWHM of
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30 – 50o in the plane perpendicular to the active area
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5 – 10o in the plane parallel to the junction
output distribution of the laser is greater than the fiber
on the
andoutput documents.
acceptance angle

S C
since the laser emitting area is much smaller
than the fiber core, so that one can use
• spherical lenses Remove it Now
• cylindrical lenses
• Fiber taper
to improve the coupling efficiency between edge emitting laser
diodes and optical fibers
Same technique is used for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs).
Mass produced connections of laser arrays to parallel multimode fiber has

efficiencies of 35%
Direct (lensless) coupling from a single VCSEL source to a
multimode fiber results into efficiencies of upto 90%.
The use of homogeneous glass microsphere lenses has been tested in

series of several hundred laser diode assemblies.

79
Spherical glass lens of refractive index 1.9 and diameters ranging
between 50 and 60μm were epoxied to the ends of 50 μm core diameter
graded index fibers having NA of 0.2.
The measured FWHM values of the laser output beams were as follows
Between 3 and 9μm for the near field parallel to the junction
Between 30 and 60 μm for the field perpendicular to the
junction
Between 15 and 55 μm for the field parallel to the junction

Coupling efficiencies in these experiments ranged between 50 and 80%.

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Figure Coupling Efficiency for Surface emitting LED c)

Explain in detail about Detector Response Time.(NOV/DEC 2014)

Detector Response Time

The response time of photodiode together with its output circuit depends

mainly on the following three factors:

1) The transit time of the photocarriers in the depletion region.


2) The diffusion time of the photocarriers generated outside the

depletion region.

80
3) The RC time constant of the photodiode and its associated

circuit. Reverse-biased pin photodiode

Depletion Layer Photocurrent

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steady state the total trial version, register
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the depletion getisfull one!
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Jdrift is the current output
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Where Jdr is the drift current from the carriers inside the depletion region

documents.
to the carriers generated diffusion outside the

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depletion region (in n or p side) and diffuses into the reverse bias region.

The drift current density is


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Where

81
Depletion Layer Photocurrent

The surface p layer of a pin photodiode is normally very thin. The diffusion current

is mainly due to the holes diffusion from bulk n region. The hole diffusion in the

material can be determined by the one dimensional diffusion equation

Where Dp is the hole diffusion constant,

p n is the hole concentration in the n-type material,

τ p is the excess hole life time,


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pno is the equilibrium hole density, and
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G ( x) is the electron-hole generation rate.

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Solving the diffusion equation using the electron hole generation rate it Now

The diffusion current density is given as

The total current density can be written as

82
Photodetector Response Time

The response time of a photo detector with its output circuit depends mainly on

the following three factors:

The transit time of the photo carriers in the depletion region. The transit

time td depends on the carrier drift velocity vd and the depletion layer

width w, and is given by:

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documents.
given by:

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Where

The photodiode parameters responsible for these three factors (transient time,

diffusion time, RC time constant) are:

1) Absorption coefficient α
2) Depletion region width
3) Photodiode junction and package capacitance Detector Response Time
4) Photodiode junction and package capacitance

83
5) Amplifier capacitance
6) Detector load resistor
7) Amplifier input resistance
8) Photodiode series resistance

The diffusion processes are slow compared with the drift of carriers in the high

field region.

To have a high speed photodiode:

Photocarriers should be generated in the depletion region or close to the


depletion region.
Diffusion times should be less than or equal to the carrier drift times.

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The effect of long diffusion times can be seen by considering the photodiode
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Response
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the detector outputwhen
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time is described by the rise time and the fall time of

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documents.
the detector is illuminated by the step

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input of optical radiation.

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The rise time is typically measured from the 10 toRemove
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points of the leading edge of the output pulse.
For Fully depleted photodiodes the rise time and the fall time are
generally the same.
They can be different at low bias levels where the photodiode is

not fully depleted.

Fast carriers

Charge carriers produced in the depletion region are separated and

collected quickly.

84
Slow carriers

Electron hole pairs generated in the n and p regions must slowly diffuse to

the depletion region before they can be separated and collected.

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To achieve a high quantum efficiency, the depletion layer width must be
on the output documents.
C
larger than1/ α s (the inverse of the absorption coefficient), so that most

S
of the light will be absorbed.
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At the same time with large width, the capacitance is small and RC time
constant getting smaller, leading to faster response, but wide width
results in larger transit time in the depletion region. Therefore there is a
trade- off between width and QE.
It is shown that the best is:

85
Figure Photodiode pulse response under various detector parameters

5.a) Explain in detail about the Quantum Efficiency .(APRIL/MAY 2015,NOV/DEC


2013)

Internal quantum efficiency

• The internal quantum efficiency of a semiconductor material is the ratio of the


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radiative electron-hole recombination coefficient to the total (radiative and

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recombination coefficient.
• This parameter is significant because it determines the efficiency of light

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material.
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= r ndocuments.
on the output p [cm-3 s-1]

nonradiative parts,
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• If the recombination coefficient r is split into a sum of radiative and

S
r = rr + rnr,
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the internal quantum efficiency is

• The internal quantum efficiency may also be written in terms of the


recombination lifetimes as τ is inversely proportional to r.
• The radiative and nonradiative recombination lifetimes τ r and τ nr has the relation

• The internal quantum efficiency is then given by

86
Semiconductor optical sources require internal efficiency to be large (in typical

direct bandgap materials τr ≈ τnr).

b) Write a note on Fiber to fiber joints

LOSS MECHANISMS AT JOINTS


Intrinsic losses
Losses due to:
Fresnel Reflection
Deviation in Geometrical & Optical

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parameters i. Fresnel Reflection
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Optical Loss encountered at the interfaces (Even when two fiber ends are

smooth, perpendicular to fiber axes and perfectly aligned), a small proportion of


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the light may be reflected back into the transmitting fiber causing attenuation at

the joint. This phenomenon, known as Fresnel reflection.


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It occours due to the step changes in refractive index at the jointed

interface (i.e. glass–air–glass).

The magnitude of this partial reflection of the light transmitted through

the interface may be estimated using the classical Fresnel formula for

light of normal incidence and is given by

(3.2)

where r is the fraction of the light reflected at a single

interface, n1 is the refractive index of the fiber core and

87
n is the refractive index of the medium between the

two jointed fibers (i.e. for air n =1).

However, in order to determine the amount of light reflected at a fiber joint,

Fresnel reflection at both fiber interfaces must be taken into account. The

loss in decibels due to Fresnel reflection at a single interface is given by:

(3.3)

Deviation in Geometrical & Optical Parameters

All light from one fiber is not transmitted to another fiber because of
mismatch of mechanical dimension
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Three major cases :
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Figure Some intrinsic coupling losses at fiber joints: (a) core diameter mismatch;

(b) numerical aperture mismatch; (c) refractive index profile difference

(3.4)

(3.5)

(3.6)

88
(3.7)

Steps to minimize intrinsic loss


It can be minimized using fibers manufactured with lowest tolerance
i.e.(same fiber)
Extrinsic Losses

These losses are due to some imperfection in splicing caused by


Misalignment Three possible types of misalignment at joint
Longitudinal misalignment
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Lateral misalignment
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Figure (a) longitudinal misalignment; (b) lateral misalignment; (c)

angular misalignment

89
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fiber;

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Figure (a) Loss due to lateral and longitudinal misalignment for a 50 m
(b) insertion loss due to angular misalignment for
on the output documents.
C
in two MMSI fibers with NA of 0.22 and 0.3.

S
Therefore, it is clear that relatively small levels of lateral and/or angular
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misalignment can cause significant attenuation at a fiber joint.
5.c)Write a note on laser diode rate equation.(NOV/DEC 2012)
it Now

The two rate equations for electron density n, and photon density φ, are:

(3.8)

where J is the current density, in amperes per square

meter, e is the charge on an electron,

90
d is the thickness of the recombination region,
τsp is the spontaneous emission lifetime which is equivalent to
τ21 C is a coefficient which incorporates the B coefficients
δ is a small fractional value and τph is the photon lifetime.

The first term in first equation of 3.8 indicates the increase in the electron
concentration in the conduction band as the current flows into the
junction diode.
The electrons lost from the conduction band by spontaneous and stimulated
transitions are provided by the second and third terms respectively.
The first term in second equation of 3.8 depicts the stimulated emission
as a source of photons.
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the transient
and steady-state behavior of the semiconductor laser, we are particularly
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The steady state is characterized by the left hand side of Equation 3.8
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In addition, the fields in the optical cavity which are represented by φ

must build up from small initial values, and hence dφ/dt must be positive
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when φ is small. Therefore, setting δ equal to zero in second equation of

3.8 , it is clear that for any value of φ, dφ /d t will only be positive when:

(3.9)
From Equation 3.9 the threshold value for the electron density nth is:

(3.10)
The steady-state photon density φs is provided by substituting Equation

3.10 in first equation of 3.8 giving:

91
(3.11)
Substituting for Cnth we can write Equation 3.11 in the form:

(3.12)

The photon density φs cannot be a negative quantity as this is meaningless, and

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output power against current characteristic (also
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called light output against current characteristic) for a semiconductor

laser is illustrated in Figure .


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The solid line represents the laser characteristic, whereas the dashed line

is a plot of Eq. 3.12 showing the current threshold.

It may be observed that the device gives little light output in the region

below the threshold current which corresponds to spontaneous emission

only within the structure.

However, after the threshold current density is reached, the light output

increases substantially for small increases in current through the device.

This corresponds to the region of stimulated emission when the laser is

acting as an amplifier of light.

92
For strongly confined structures the threshold current density for

stimulated emission Jth is to a fair approximation related to the threshold

gain coefficient gth for the laser cavity through:

(3.13)
where the gain factor β is a constant appropriate to specific devices.

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Figure power Vs current
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Substituting the value of gth in 3.13 we get
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(3.14)

93
UNIT IV

FIBER OPTIC RECEIVER AND MEASUREMENTS

PART -A
1. What are requirements of an optical receiver ?[AUC NOV
2006] Light detector
Pre amplifier
Equalizer
Signal discriminator circuits
2. List out various error sources? [AUC MAY 2013/NOV
2012] Quantum noise
Bulk dark current noise
Surface leakage current noise
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Amplifier noise
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3. Why do we prefer trans-impedance pre amplifier rather than high impedance
preamplifier? [AUC MAY 2007]
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Since the high impedance produces large input
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RC time constant, the

C
front end bandwidth is less than the signal bandwidth. This drawback is

S
overcome in the trans-impedance amplifier.
4. Define threshold level. [AUC NOV 2009]
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A decision circuit compares the signal in each time slot with a certain
reference voltage known as threshold level.
5. Define quantum limit? [AUC MAY 2013,MAY 2016,]
It is possible to find the minimum received optical power required for a
specific bit error rate performance in a digital system. This minimum
received power level is known as quantum limit.
6. What are the methods used to measure the fiber refractive index
profile? [AUC MAY 2012]
Interferometric method
Near field method
Refracted near field method

94
7. Define dark current. [AUC NOV 2012]
It is the current to flow through thr bias current of the device when no
light is incident on photo diode.
8. What are the advantages of preamplifier [AUC NOV
2011] Low noise level
High bandwidth
High dynamic range
High sensitivity
High gain
9. List out the advantages of outer diameter measurement. Mention the
few fiber diameter measurement techniques [AUC NOV 2009,NOV 2015]
The advantages of outer diameter
measurement, Speed is large
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diameter measurements

alldiameter
i)Outer
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measurements.
on the
ii)Inner diameter
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The fiber diameter measurement techniques are,
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measurements.

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10. Define effective cutoff wavelength? [AUC April 2004, MAY2010]

S
It is defined as wavelength greater than the ratio between Remove it Now
the total power
to the launched higher order modes and fundamental mode power.
11. Define Bit-Error Rate BER? [AUC MAY 2012,MAY 2015,APRIL/MAY
2017,NOV/DEC 2016]
An approach is to divide the number of errors occurring over a certain
time interval t by the number of pulses transmitted during this interval.
This is called bit error rate or error rate.
12. What are the requirements of preamplifier. [AUC MAY 2008]
Preamplifier bandwidth must be greater than or equal to signal
bandwidth. It must reduce all source of noise
It must have high receiver sensitivity

95
13. State the significance of maintaining the fiber outer diameter constant.

(NOV/DEC 2014)

Due to irregular fiber outer diameter the dispersion produces pulse broadening

of light wave signals in optical fibers .thereby limiting the information capacity.

14. What are the receiver error sources? (MAY/JUNE 2014) (MAY/JUNE 2013)

Internal
External
Shot and thermal

atmospheric noise

15.A digital fiber optic link operating at 1310 nm requires a maximum BER of
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10 . Calculate the required average photons per pulse.
-8

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The probability of error Pr (0) = e-N =10-8

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=18 (approx)
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An average of 18 photons per pulse is required for BER.

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16.The photo detector output in a cutback attenuation set up is 3.3V at the
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far end of the fiber. After cutting the fiber at the near end, 5m from the far
end, photo detector output read was 3.93 V.What is the attenuation of fiber in
dB/km?(NOV/DEC 2013)
α db =10 /L 1 – L2 log 10 V2 / V1

= 10/ (5*10 3 ) log 10 (3.92.3.3)

=0.148*10-3 db/km.

96
17. Draw the describe the operation of fiber optic receiver. (NOV/DEC 2015)

The first two blocks consisting of photo detector and low noise preamplifier
constitute the front end of optical receiver. It is followed by equalizer to remove
the signal distortion caused by nonlinearity of front end. The filter filters the
unwanted signal,maximizing the signal to noise ratio and reconstruct the signal
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to finally deliver the digital signal output.
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18.List advantages ofuser:
transimpedance amplifier.(AUC MAY 2015,NOV 2014)

1. Can remove
Low Noise

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allimpedance
High input
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bandwidth
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with negative feedback.
onwithout
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feedback
Greater dynamic range.

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19.What is cutback method? (NOV/DEC 2016)
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The cutback method involves taking a set of optical output power measurements
over the requires spectrum using a long length of the fiber.The fiber is then cut back
to a point two metres from the input end and maintaining the same launch
conditions another set of power output measurements are taken

20.What are the methods employed for measuring attenuation in optical


fiber.(APRIL/MAY 2017)
(i) cut back technique
(ii) single wavelength attenuation measurements using interference filters using
cutback technique.

97
PART-B
1.(a).Explain the fiber optic receiver operation? [AUC NOV 2010] [AUC MAY
2015] [AUC NOV 2014] [AUC MAY 2014, AUC NOV/DEC 2016, AUC APRIL/MAY
2017]

The receiver must first detect weak, distorted signal and then make

decisions on what type of data was sent based on amplified version of

the distorted signal.

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Fig: Signal path through an optical data link

A digital fiber transmission link is shown in the above figure. The


transmitted signal is a two level binary data stream consisting of
either a 0 or 1 in a time slot of duration Tb.
This time slot is referred to as bit period. Electrically there are many
ways of sending a given digital message. One of the simplest
techniques for sending binary data is Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK),
98
Where in a voltage level is switched between two values, which are
generally on and off. The resultant signal wave thus consists of a
voltage pulse of amplitude V relative to zero voltage level when a
binary 1 occurs and a zero voltage level space when a binary 0 occurs.

When a 1 is sent, a voltage pulse of duration Tb occurs, whereas for a


0 the voltage remains at its zero level.
The function of the optical transmitter is to convert the electric
signal to an optic signal.
Here 1 is represented by a pulse of optical power (light) of
duration Tb, whereas a 0 is the absence of any light.
The optical signal that gets coupled from the light source to the fiber becomes
attenuated and distorted as it propagates along the fiber waveguide.

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avalanche photodiode
converts the optical signal back to an electric format.
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signal then gets amplified and filtered.

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A decision circuit compares the signal in each time slot with a
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certain reference voltage known as the threshold level.
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If the received signal level is greater than the threshold level, a 0 is assumed

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to be received. In some cases an optical amplifier is placed ahead of the
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photodiode to boost the optical signal level before photo detection. it Now
This is done so that the signal to noise ratio degradation caused by
thermal noise in the receiver electronics can be suppressed.
Compared to APD’s or optical heterodyne detectors, an optical

preamplifier provides a large gain factor and a broader bandwidth.

1.(b).Write short notes on quantum limit? [AUC NOV 2013]


THE QUANTUM LIMIT:

Consider an ideal photodetector which has unity quantum efficiency and

which produces no dark current that is no electron hole pairs are

generated in the absence of an optical pulse.

99
With this condition it is possible to find the minimum received optical
power required for a specific bit error rate performance in a digital
system. This minimum received power level is known as the quantum
limit, since all system parameters are assumed ideal and the
performance is only limited by the photodetection statistics.
Assume that an optical pulse of energy E falls on the photodetector in a

time interval τ. This can only be interpreted by the receiver as a 0 pulse if

no electron hole pairs are generated with the pulse present. The

probability that n=0 electrons are emitted in a time interval τ is

Thus for a given error probability Pr(0), we can find the minimum
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energy E required at a specific wavelength λ.
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2.Explain the error sources and device the Probability of error for fiber optic
system? [AUC NOV 2015 ,AUC NOV/DEC 2016,AUC APRIL/MAY 2017]

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Errors arise from various noise and disturbances associated with the
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signal detection system which is shown in the following figure.

100
Fig:Noise sources and disturbances in the optical pulse detection mechanism.

The term noise is used to describe unwanted components of an electric

signal that tend to disturb the transmission and processing of the signal
in a physical system.

The noise sources can be either external or the system (for example

atmospheric noise, equipment generated noise) or internal to the system.

Let us consider the internal noise. This noise is caused by the

spontaneous fluctuations of current or voltage in electronic circuits.

The two most common examples of these spontaneous fluctuations are

shot noise and thermal noise.

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Shot noises arise for trial version,
in electronic register
devices because to get
of the discrete fullofone!
nature

current flow in the device.


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Thermal noises arise from the random motion of electrons in a conductor.
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The random arrival rate of signal photons produces a quantum (shot)
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noise at the photodetector.
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When using an avalanche photodiode, an additional shot noise arises

from the statistical nature of the multiplication process.

These noise level increases with increasing avalanche gain M. Additional

photodetector noises come from the dark current and leakage current.

When an avalanche photodiode is used in low optic signal level

applications, the optimum avalanche gain is determined.

The thermal noises are of Gaussian nature. The primary photocurrent

generated by the photodiode is a time varying Poisson process resulting

from the random arrival of photons at the detector.

101
If the detector is illuminated by an optical signal P(t), then the average

number of electron hole pairs generated in a time τ is

Where η is the detector quantum efficiency, hv is the photon energy,

and E is the energy received in a time interval τ.

The actual number of electron hole pairs n that are generated

fluctuates from the average according to the Poisson distribution

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Where for trialthatversion,
Pr(n) is the propobality n electrons register toanget
are emitted in full
interval τ. one!

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The fact that it is not possible to predict exactly how many electron hole

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pairs are generated by a known optical power incident on the detector is
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the origin of the type of shot noise called quantum noise.
on the output documents.

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For a detector with a mean avalanche gain M and an ionization rate ratio

k, the excess noise factor F(M) for electron injection is


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This equation is often approximated by the empirical expression

Where the factor x ranges from 0 to 1, depending on the photodiode


material. Intersymbol interference (ISI) results from pulse spreading in

the optical fiber.


When a pulse is transmittedIn a given time slot, most of the pulse energy will

arrive in the corresponding slot at the receiver as shown in the following

102
figure .

Fig:Pulse spreading in optical signal leads to Intersymbol interference

Due to pulse spreading some of the transmitted energy will progressively

spread into neighbouring time slots as the pulse propagates along the fiber.

The presence of this energy in adjacent time slots results in an


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interfering signal hence the term Intersymbol interference.
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There are many ways to measure the rate of error in a digital stream. One
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common approach is to divide the number N e of errors occurring over a certain
on the output documents.

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time interval t by the number Nt of pulses transmitted during this interval.
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This is called either the error rate or the bit error rate, which is

commonly, abbreviated BER. Thus we have

Where b= 1/ Tb is the bit rate. Error rate is expressed by a number such as

10-6.error rates for fiber telecommunication system ranges from 10-6 to 10-10.
This error rate depends on the signal to noise ratio at the receiver.
To compute the bit error rate at the receiver, we have to know the

propability distribution of the signal at the equalizer output.

103
The shapes of two signal probability distributions are shown in the

following figure.

Fig: probability distribution for two signal levels (0 and 1).

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is the probability that the output voltage exceeds v when a 1

pulse was sent and


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Which is the probability that the output voltage exceeds v when a 0
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was transmitted? The functions p(y|1) and p(y|0) are the conditional
probability distribution functions.

If the threshold voltage is Vth then the error probability Pe is defined as

a and b are the probabilities that either a 1 or 0 occurs respectively.

To calculate the error probability we require square noise voltage v2N,

which is superimposed on the signal voltage at the decision time.

The simplest method is based on Gaussian approximation.

104
It is assumed that when the sequence of optical input pulses is known

the equalizer output voltage Hout(t) is a Gaussian random variable.

Thus to calculate error probability we need to know the standard

deviation of vout(t). Let us assume the noise has a gaussian probability

density function with zero mean.


If we sample the noise voltage n(t) at any arbitrary time t1, the probability

that the measured sample n(t1) falls in the range n to n+dn is given by

Where σ2 is the noise


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density

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When a 1 is transmitted the decoder sees a pulse of amplitude V it Now
volts plus superimposed noise.

In this case the equalizer output voltage v(t) will fluctuate around V, so

that the probability density function becomes

where the subscript 1 denotes the presence of a 1 bit.

The probability of error that a 1 is decoded as 0 is that the sampled

signal plus noise pulse falls below V/2. This is simply given by

105
The probability of error Pe in decoding of any digit is given by

where

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the error function. for
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Fig:Probability error function

106
3.Explain detail in fiber attenuation measurement and Dispersion
measurements. [AUC NOV 2009] [AUC MAY 2011] [AUC MAY 2015] [AUC MAY
2014] [AUCNOV 2013AUC NOV/DEC 2016,AUC APRIL/MAY 2017]

FIBER ATTENUATION MEASUREMENT:

Measurement techniques to obtain the total fiber attenuation give either

the spectral loss characteristic or the single wavelength.

A commonly used technique for determining the total fiber attenuation

per unit length is the cutback or differential method.

It consists of a white light source, usually tungsten halogen or xenon arc lamp.
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The focused light is then mechanically chopped at a low frequency of a
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diffraction grating
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is then fed to monochromator which utilizes a prism or
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output documents.
arrangement to select the required wavelength at

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which the attenuation is to be measured.
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Hence the light is filtered before being focused onto the fiber it
by means Now
of microscope objective lens.

A beam splitter is used for viewing optics and a reference signal is used

for compensating output power fluctuations.

A mode stripper can also be used at the fiber output end to remove any

optical power which is scattered from the core into the cladding.

107
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Fig: Arrangement for measurement of spectral loss in optical fibers using the
cut back technique.
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The optical power at the receiving end is detected using a pin or APD. In
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order to obtain reproducible results the photodetector surface is usually

index matched using epoxy resin or an index matched cell.


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Finally the electric output from the photodetector is fed to a lock in

amplifier, the output of which is recorded.

The cutback method involves taking a set of optical output power

measurements over the required spectrum using a long length of fiber

(usually at least one kilometer).


The fiber is then cut back to a point a few meters from the input end and
maintaining the same launch conditions another set of power output
measurements are taken.

The following relationship for the optical attenuation per unit length αdB

for the fiber may be obtained by

108
L1 and L2 are the original and cut back fiber lengths respectively, and P01 and

P02 are the corresponding output optical powers at a specific wavelength from

the original and cut back fiber lengths. Hence when L1 and L2 are measured in

kilometers αdB has units of dB km-1. The above eqn becomes

Where V1 and V2 correspond to output voltage readings from the original

fiber length and the cut back fiber length respectively.


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The accuracy of the result obtained for αdB using the method is largely
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dependent on constant optical launch conditions.

1. CanSPOT MEASUREMENTS
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thedocuments.
It may be performed

S C above set up. However interference filters

are widely used instead of monochromators in order to obtain a

measurement for a particular wavelength.


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A typical optical configuration for spot attenuation measurements is

shown below.

109
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Fig:Experimental setup for making spot attenuation measurements using

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interference filters and employing cut back technique. it Now
The interference filters are located onto a wheel to allow measurement at

selection of different wavelengths.

The source spot size is defined by a pin hole and the beam angular width

is varied by using different diaphragms.

The determination of optical loss is performed in the same manner,

using the cut back technique.

Fiber dispersion depends upon the type of the fiber.

110
In multimode fibers, intermodal dispersion occurs and tends to be

dominant mechanism,

whereas in single mode fibers intermodal dispersion does not exist.

Dispersion effects may be measured by taking the impulse response of

the fiber in the time domain,

If the fiber response is linear with regard to power, a mathematical

expression can be obtained for optical power P0(t) by convoluting the

power impulse response h(t) with the optical input power P1

Where the asterisk * denotes the convolution.


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The convolution of h(t) with Pi(t) shown in above eqn can be evaluated
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using the convolutional integral where

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In the frequency domain the power transfer function H(ω) is the
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fourier transform of h(t) and therefore by taking the fourier

transform of all the functions we obtain

The most common method for time domain measurement of pulse

dispersion in optical fibers is illustrated below.

111
Fig: Experimental arrangement for making fiber dispersion measurements in
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the time domain.
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optical pulses (100- 400 ps) are launched into the fiber from a suitable

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source (e.g. AlGaAs injection laser) using fast driving electronics
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.The pulse travel down the length of fiber under test and are broadened
on the output documents.
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due to various dispersion mechanisms.

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In multimode fibers intramodal dispersion is negligible andRemove
intermodalit Now
dispersion occurs.

The pulses are received by a high speed photodetector and are displayed

on a fast sampling oscilloscope and for input pulse measurement.

After the initial measurement of output pulse width, the long fiber length

may be cut back to a short length and the measurement repeated in order

to obtain the effective input pulse width. If Pi(t) and P0(t) are assumed to

have Gaussian shape then

112
Where τi(3dB) and τo(3 dB) are the 3 dB pulse widths at the fiber input

and output respectively and τ(3 dB) is the width of the fiber impulse

response again measured at half the maximum amplitude.

Hence the pulse dispersion in the fiber in nskm-1 is given by

when the launched optical pulses and the fiber impulse response are Gaussian

the the 3 dB optical bandwidth for the fiber Bopt may be calculated using

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The pulse at the output end is displayed on a sampling oscilloscope
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pulse

of the outputon
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broadening may be measured by comparing the widths

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pulses.

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An index matching fluid is also utilized between the fiber end faces and
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the mirrors in order to achieve optimum optical transmission.

113
This isFig:
a Apparatus
watermarkused infor trial
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pulse register
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time domain get full one!
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diagram explain the measurement of numerical aperture
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of a fiber

2014,MAY 2013,NOV 2012)

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and measurement of refractive index fiber? (MAY 2016,NOV

FIBER NUMERICAL APERTURE MEASUREMENTS:


2014,MAY

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The numerical aperture is an important optical fiber parameter as it affects
characteristics such as the light gathering efficiency and the normalized
frequency of the fiber (V).
the numerical aperture of a step index fiber is given by

Where θa is the maximum acceptance angle, n1 is the core refractive

index and n2 is the cladding refractive index.

A simple commonly used technique for measuring the fiber numerical aperture

involves measurement of the far field radiation pattern from the fiber.

114
This measurement may be performed by directly measuring the far field

angle from the fiber using a rotating stage, or by calculating the far field

angle using trigonometry.An experimental arrangement with a rotating

stage is shown below

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Fig: fiber numerical aperture measurement using a scanning photodetector and

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rotating stage.
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The fiber endon theareoutput
faces
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documents.
prepared in order to ensure square smooth

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terminations. The fiber output end is then positioned on the rotating
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stage with its end face parallel to the plane of the photodetector input,it Now
and so that its output is perpendicular to the axis of rotation.
Light is launched into the fiber at all possible angles using an optical

system similar to that used in spot attenuation measurements.

The photodetector may be either a small area device or an aperture large

area device, is placed 10-20 cm from the fiber and positioned in order to

obtain a maximum signal with no rotation (0°).

Hence when the rotating stage is turned the limits of the far field pattern

may be recorded.

115
The output power is monitored and plotted as a function of angle, the

maximum acceptance angle being obtained when the power drops a

predetermined amount.
Thus the numerical aperture can be found out by using the above eqn.

Another method for finding the numerical aperture is shown below,

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trigonometric fiber numerical aperture measurement

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Where the end prepared fiber is located on an optical base plate or slab.
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Again light is launched into the fiber under test over the full range of its
on the output documents.

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numerical aperture, The test fiber is then aligned so that the optical

intensity on the screen is maximized. Remove it Now


Finally the pattern size on the screen A is measured using a calibrated vernier

caliper. The numerical aperture can be obtained from simple trigonometric

relationships where

It must be noted that the accuracy of the measurement technique is


dependent upon the visual assessment of the far field pattern from the fiber.
The above measurements is employed with only multimode fibers, as the far

field patterns from single mode fibers are affected by diffraction phenomena.

116
FIBER REFRACTIVE INDEX PROFILE MEASUREMENT:

A detailed knowledge of the refractive index profile enables the impulse


response of the fiber to be predicted. There are different methods for
measuring the refractive index profile.
1. Interferometric Methods:

Interference microscopes (e.g. Mach- Zehnder, Michelson) have been

widely used to determine the refractive index profiled of optical fibers.

The technique usually involves the preparation of a thin slice of fiber which has

both ends accurately polished to obtain square and optically flat surfaces.

The slab is often immersed in an index matching fluid, and the assembly
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microscope.

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Two user:using either a transmitted light interferometer or
methods are used;

a reflected light interferometer.


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In both cases light from the microscope travels normal to the prepared
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fiber slice faces, and differences in refractive indx result in different

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optical path lengths. This situation is illustrated in the case of Mach-
Zehnder interferometer in the following figure.
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The fringe displacements for the points within the fiber core are then

measured using as reference the parallel fringes outside the fiber core.

The refractive index difference between a point in the fiber core and the

cladding can be obtained from the fringe shift q, which corresponds to a

number of fringe displacements.

117
Fig: the principle of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer b) the

interference fringe pattern obtained with an interference microscope

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a graded index fiber.

This difference in refractive index δn is given by


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Where x is the the output
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of thedocuments.
fiber slab and λ is the incident optical

wavelength.
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2. Near field scanning Method:
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The near field scanning method utilizes the close resemblance that
exists between the near field intensity distribution and the refractive

index profile, for a fiber with all the guided modes equally illuminated.
When a diffuse Lambertian source (e.g. tungsten filament lamp or LED) is
used to excite all the guided modes then the near field optical power density at

a radius r from the core axis PD(r)may be expressed as a fraction of the core

axis near field optical power density PD(0) following

118
Where ni(0) and n1(r) are the refractive indices at the core axis and at a

distance r from the core axis respectively, n2 is cladding refractive index

and C(r,z) is a correction factor.

The correction factor is used for compensating the leaky modes. An


experimentalconfigurationisshowninfollowingfigure.

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Fig:4.14
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trial watermark. D
setup for near field scanning measurement of the
on profile.
A
the output documents.
refractive index

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The output from a lambertian source is focused onto the end of the fiber

using a microscope objective lens.


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A magnified image of the fiber output end is displayed in the plane of a

small active area photodetector.

The photodetector which scans the field transversely receives

amplification from the phase sensitive combination of the optical

chopper and lock in amplifier.


Hence the profile may be directly plotted on X- Y recorder.

The test fiber is generally less than 1m in length to eliminate any

differential mode attenuation and mode coupling.

119
A typical refractive index profile for a step index fiber measured by

the near field scanning method is shown below.

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Fig:Refractive foroftrial
index profile a stepversion, register
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using nearfull
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scanning method.
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Measurements
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far field pattern the output
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of the refractive index profile may also be obtained from the

A
by thedocuments.
laser light scattered by the fiber under test.

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This technique, generally known as the scattered pattern method,
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requires complex analysis of the forward or backward patterns in order

to determine the refractive index profile.

End Reflection Method:

The refractive index at any point in the cross section of an optical fiber is
directly related to the reflected power from the fiber surface in air at that point
following the Fresnel reflection formula.

Hence the fraction of light reflected at the air fiber interface is given by

120
Where n1is the refractive index at the point on the fiber surface. For small

changes in the
value of refractive index:

Therefore combining both the eqn’s we have

The above eqn gives the relative change in the Fresnel reflection
coefficient r which corresponds to the change of refractive index at the
point of measurement.
 However when the measurement is performed in air the small
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changes in refractive index δn1 that must be measured give only
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Two experimental arrangements for performing end reflection
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polarizer and a λ/4 plate in order

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To prevent feedback of the reflected power from both the fiber
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end face and the intermediate optics, causing modulation of the
laser output through interference.

 The circularly polarized light beam from the λ/4 plate is then

spatially filtered and expanded to provide a suitable spot size.

 A beam splitter is used to provide both a reference from the

input light beam which is monitored with a solar cell, and two

beams from the fiber end face reflection are shown below

121
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Fig: Experimental arrangement for end reflection measurement of fiber

refractive index profile a) without index matching of fiber input end


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face b) with index matching of fiber input end face

Figure shows end reflection measurements without index matching of

the fiber input end face.

The reflected beams are used for measurement via a pin photodiode,

lock in amplifier combination and for visual check of the alignment on

the fiber end face using a screen.

Focusing on the fiber end face is achieved with a microscope

objective lens, and the fiber end is scanned slowly across the focal

spot using precision translation stages.

122
The reflected optical power is monitored as a function of the fiber linear

position on an X -Y recorder and the refractive index profile may be obtained

directly using
Possible reflections from the other fiber end face are avoided by
immersing it in an index matching liquid.
The experimental arrangement shown in fig b) provides increased
sensitivity by immersing the fiber in index matching oil.
In this case the laser beam which is again incident on a polarizer and λ/4
plate is deflected vertically using a mirror.
Also in both techniques it is essential that the fiber end face should be
perfectly flat because the reflected power is severely affected by surface
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be studied by sampling the pulse after each 2N -1 transits.
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through the partially transparent mirror.
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Hence the pulse broadening may be measured by comparing the widths
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of the output pulses.

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5. With diagram explain the measurement of Cutoff wavelength of optical
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fiber? [AUC MAY 2013] [AUC NOV 2012]
Fiber cutoff wavelength measurements :
A multimode fiber has many cutoff wavelengths because the number of
bound propagating modes is usually large.It is clear that as the
wavelength is increased, a growing number of modes are cutoff where
the cutoff wavelength of a LPlm mode is the maximum wavelength for
which the mode is guided by the fiber.
Usually the cutoff wavelength refers to the operation of single-mode
fiber in that it is the cutoffwavelength of the LP11 mode (which has the
longest cutoff wavelength) which makes the fiber single moded when
the fiber diameter is reduced to 8 or 9 μm.
123
Hence the cutoff wavelength of the LP11 is the shortest wavelength

above which the fiber exhibits single-mode operation and it is therefore

an important parameter to measure..

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Figure Configurations for the measurement of uncabled fiber cutoff
wavelength: (a) single turn; (b) split mandrell Remove it Now
In the bending- reference technique the power Ps(λ) transmitted
through the fiber sample in the configurations shown in Figure is
measured as a function of wavelength.
Thus the quantity Ps(λ) corresponds to the total power, including launched
higher order modes, of the ITU-T definition for cutoff wavelength.
Then keeping the launch conditions fixed, at least one additional loop of
sufficiently small radius (60 mm or less) is introduced into the test sample
to act as a mode filter to suppress the secondary LP11 mode without
attenuating the fundamental mode at the effective cutoff wavelength.
The bend attenuation ab(λ) is the level difference between the total

power and the fundamental power.

124
The bend attenuation characteristic exhibits a peak in the wavelength
region where the radiation losses resulting from the small loop are
much higher for the LP11 mode than for the LP01 fundamental mode.
It should be noted that the shorter wavelength side of the attenuation

maximum corresponds to the LP11 mode, being well confined in the fiber

core, and hence negligible loss is induced by the 60 mm diameter loop,


The wavelength above which the fiber is single-mode; only at wavelengths

above the cut-off will the fiber guide be single-mode.Cut-off wavelength is

important because, in most cases, it determines your choice of fiber type.

Just below cut-off a few modes may be guided, and multi-mode fiber

operates far below the single-mode cut-off point.

Cut-off is measurable from a plot of transmission with wavelength.


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At the cut-off wavelength there is a noticeable dip in transmission as the
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the fundamental mode field expands into the cladding
onattenuation
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documents.
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slightly, where is less.

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The number in the fiber product code (i.e. HB450, SM600 etc.) is the
‘nominal’ cut-off wavelength.
If Single Mode operation is needed, we should choose the fiber type with
the closest cut-off wavelength range below the operating wavelength of
your optical source.
For example, if you are using a helium-neon laser, at 632.8nm, then you
need HB600, while a 1550nm diode laser would call for HB1500.
The cut -off wavelength is the wavelength at which an optical fiber
becomes single-mode
125
At wavelengths shorter than cut-off several optical modes may

propagate - the fiber is multi-mode.

As the cut-off wavelength is approached, progressively fewer modes


may propagate until, at cut-off, only the fundamental mode may
propagate - the fiber is then single-mode
At wavelengths longer then cut-off the guidance of the fundamental

mode becomes progressively weaker, until eventually (usually at a

wavelength several hundred nanometers above cut-off) the fiber ceases

to guide - the fiber loses all optical function

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126
UNIT V
OPTICAL NETWORKS AND SYSTEM TRANSMISSION
PART A
1. State the concept of WDM.(NOV/DEC 2014)

An increase in the information capacity of a fiber can be achieved by the simultaneous

transmission of optical signals over the same fiber from many different light sources.

By operating each source at different peak wavelength, the integrity of the independent

messages from each source is maintained for subsequent conversion to electrical

signals at the receiving end. This is the basis of WDM.

2. What is a soliton? (APR/MAY 2015)(NOV/DEC 2014) (MAY/JUNE 2014)

Soliton are pulses that travel along the fiber without change in shape or
amplitude or velocity .The term soliton refers to special kind of waves that can
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propagate undistorted over long distances and remain unaffected after
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collisions with each other. The family of pulses that do not change the shape
are called fundamental solitons.
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3. Write the function of Path Over Head (POH)
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SPE in SONET/SDH. C
The nine POH bytes are always in a column and can be located anywhere in

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POH supports performance monitoring by the end equipment, status, signal
labelling ,a tracing function and a user channel
4. List out the benefits of SONET over PDH network.(MAY/JUNE 2014)

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH )has restricted management capacity. It


is the non availability of world standard in the digital format.
SONET/SDH is an international standard and used for high speed data transfer of

telecommunication and digital signals. This synchronous system has been

specially designed in order to provide a simple and flexible network infrastructure.

127
5. Obtain the transmission bit rate of basic SONET frmae in Mbps.(NOV/DEC

2013)

51840000 bits or 51840 Mbps

5. Illustrate interchannel cross talk that occurs in WDM system. (NOV/DEC


2013)
Inter channel crosstalk arises when an interfering signal comes from a neighbouring

channel that operates at different wavelengths. It is called nonlinear cross talk as it

depends on nonlinear nature of communication channel.

7. What is broadcast and select networks?(APR/MAY 13)

In broadcast and select networks, a node sends its transmission to the star on
the available wavelength using a laser which produces an optical information
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stream. The information streams from multiple source are optically combined
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and the signal power of each stream is equally split and forwarded

Eg. Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI Networks


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to all of the nodes on their receiver fibers.
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8. Enumerate the various SONET/SDH layers.(NOV/DEC 12)

The SONET/SDH has four optical interface layers .They are Remove it Now
i) Path layer ii) Line layer iii) Section layer iv) Photonic layer.

9. What are the drawbacks of broadcast and select networks for wide
area network applications?(APR/MAY 2012)
There is an electro optical conversion that takes place between
transmitter and receiver.
There is no direct connection between
nodes. No wavelength reuse on the network
Limited achievable throughput

128
Non linear effects such as four wave mixing, cross phase modulation
limits performance
10. What are the three common topologies used for fiber optical network?

Give the schematic of any one network? (NOV/DEC 2011)

i) Linear bus topology

ii) Ring topology

iii) Star topology

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Linear bus topology

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11. Define Optical CDMA.(NOV/DEC 2015)
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Optical Code Division Multiple Access scheme can provide multiple access it
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a
network without using wavelength sensitive components as in WDM and
without employing very high speed electronic data processing devices as are
needed in TDM networks.
12. Distinguish SONET and SDH.(NOV/DEC 2015)

SONET terminology is used in North America whereas SDH terminology


is used in Europe and Asia
Sonnet standard is developed by ANSI IT 105.6 , SDH terminology is
developed by ITU-TG 57.
13. What is SONET?(APRIL/MAY 2015)

SONET is synchronous optical networking

129
SONET equipment generally uses one wavelength to carry an optical
carrier level which can be divided into time slots for individual circuits
SONET is designed to support real time , uncompressed, circuit switched
voice in PCM format
14. Give the Significance of Solitons. (APR/MAY 14)

Solitons overcome the detrimental effects of chromatic dispersion completely.


Combined effects of solitons and EDFA ensures very high data transmission
rate (80 dB/s) without repeaters, without errors over a distance of 10000km
15. What are the pumping mechanisms used in Erbium doped fiber amplifiers
(MAY/JUNE 16)
Co directional pumping
Counter directional pumping
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(i)Two fiber,unidirectional,path switched ring(two fiber UPSR)
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(II)two fiber or four fiber,bidirectional,line switched ring(two fiber or foue fibre
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BLSR)

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17.What are the key parameters required for analyzing the optical link.(APRIL/MAY
2017)
The following key requirements are needed for analyzing a link
(i) The desired or possible transmission distance
(ii) The data rate or channel bandwidth
(iii) The Bit Error Rate (BER)

130
PART B
1.Explain SONET layers and frame structure with diagram. What is a four
fiber BLSR ring in a SONET?. (MAY/JUNE 16, NOV/DEC 15,MAY/JUNE
14,NOV/DEC 2016,APRIL/MAY 2017)
SONET is the TDM optical network standard for North America
SONET is called Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) in the rest of the
world SONET is the basic physical layer standard
Other data types such as ATM and IP can be transmitted over SONET
The SONET/SDH standards enable the interconnection of fiber optic

transmission equipment from various vendors through multiple-


owner trunk networks.
In SDH the basic rate is 155.52 Mb/s.

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Figure : SONET/SDH layers
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The SONET layer consists of four sublayers—the path, line, section, and
physical
layers.
The path layer in SONET (and SDH) is responsible for end-to-end connections
between nodes and is terminated only at the ends of a SONET connection.

The line layer (multiplex section layer in SDH) multiplexes a number of


path-layer
connections onto a single link between two nodes.
Each link consists of a number of sections, corresponding to link
segments between regenerators.
The section layer (regenerator-section layer in SDH) is terminated at each
regenerator in the network.
131
Finally, the physical layer is responsible for actual transmission of bits

across the fiber.

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Figure: Basic format of an STS-N SONET frame
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(A1/A2). These two bytes are used for delineating the frame and are

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each STS-1 within an STS-N.

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Section Trace(J0)/Section Growth(Z0). The J0 byte is present in the first STS-

1 in an STS-N and is used to carry an identifier. Remove it Now


Section BIP-8 (B1). This byte is located in the first STS-1 in an STS-N and is

used to monitor the bit error rate performance of each section.

Orderwire (E1). This byte (located in the first STS-1 in a frame) is used to carry a

voice channel between nodes, for use by maintainence personnel in the field.

Section User Channel (F1). This byte (located in the first STS-1 in a frame) is

made available to the user for inserting additional user-specific information.

Section Data Communication Channel (D1, D2, D3). These bytes (located in

the first STS-1 in a frame) are used to carry a data communication channel

(DCC) for maintenance purposes such as alarms, monitoring, and control.

132
Line Overhead

STS Payload Pointer (H1 and H2). The H1 and H2 bytes in the line overhead

carry a two-byte pointer that specifies the location of the STS SPE.

Line BIP-8 (B2). The B2 byte carries a bit interleaved parity check value for

each STS-1 within the STS-N.

APS channel (K1, K2). The K1 and K2 bytes are used to provide a channel for

carrying signaling information during automatic protection switching (APS)

Line Data Communication Channel. BytesD4 throughD12 (located in the first

STS-1 in a frame) are used to carry a line data communication channel for

maintenance purposes such as alarms, monitoring, and control.


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Fig: Commonly used SONET and SDH transmission Remove it Now
rates Path overhead
The POH supports performance monitoring by the end equipment, status,

signal labeling, a tracing function, and a user channel. The 9 path-overhead

bytes are always in a column and can be located anywhere in the SPE

SPE
The remaining field of 87 columns is called the synchronous payload envelope
(SPE) and carries user data.
SONET/SDH rings

133
The SONET/SDH rings commonly are called self-healing rings, since the traffic
flowing along a certain path can be switched automatically to an alternate or
standby path following failure or degradation of the primary link segment.
First, there can be either two or four fibers running between the nodes on a
ring. Second, the operating signals can travel either clockwise only (which is
termed a unidirectional ring) or in both directions around the ring (which is
called a bidirectional ring).
Third, protection switching can be performed via either a line-switching or a
path-switching scheme.
The following architectures have become popular for SONET and SDH networks:

■ Two-fiber, unidirectional, path-switched ring (called two-fiber UPSR)

■ Two-fiber or four-fiber, bidirectional, line-switched ring (called two-


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fiber or four-fiber BLSR)

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Figure registered user: of a four-fiber BLSR. Here two primary fiber
the architecture

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loops (with fiber segments labeled 1p through 8p) are used for normal
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bidirectional communication, and the other two secondary
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standby links for protection purposes

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Figure :Architecture of a four-fiber bidirectional lineswitched ring (BLSR).

134
Figure: Reconfiguration of a four-fiber BLSR under transceiver or line failure.
The four-fiber BLSR has a capacity advantage because it uses twice as much fiber
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cabling and because traffic between two nodes is sent only partially around the ring
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2. Explain in detail different types of broadcast and select WDM networks
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(MAY/JUNE 16, NOV/DEC 13)

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Optical signals of different wavelength can propagate without interfering with
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each other. The scheme combining a number of wavelengths over a single fiber
is wavelength division multiplexing.
Two categories of broadcast and select wdm networks
1. Single hop networks 2. Multihop networks

Broadcast and select single hop networks

Fig: star configuration and bus configuration

135
In single hop network , data transmitted reaches its destination without
being converted to electrical energy at any intermediate point
Two physical configurations : star and bus
Each transmitter sends its information at different wavelengths
All transmissions from various nodes are combined in a passive star
coupler or coupled onto a bus. The result is sent to all receivers
A coupler is a device which is used to combine and split signals in an
optical network
Each receiver sees all wavelengths and uses a tunable filter to select the
particular wavelength
Passive star topology is attractive
- No tapping or insertion loss
- Logarithmic splitting loss in the
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coupler Advantages of single hop networks
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- Protocol transparent
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Broadcast and select multihop networks
Intermediate electro optical conversion may take place Remove it Now
Each node has fixed tuned optical transmitters and receivers
Each node transmits signals on its wavelengths and presented to WDM mux.

Figure : multihop broad cast and select networks


The mux broadcasts all signals to all nodes each node selects the
desired wavelength by filtering the entire signal.
136
A wdm mux is a passive device that does wavelength division
multiplexing and transmits a multiplexed signal further along the fiber
Shuffle net Multi hop network
One of the topologies for multihop networks is shuffle net
A cylindrical arrangement of ‘k’ columns, each having ‘Pk’ nodes where P
is the number of fixed transceiver per node.
Total number of nodes, N = k Pk with k = 1,2,3… and P =1,2,3..
Each node requires P wavelengths to transmit information, the total
number of wavelengths Nλ = PN = k Pk+1
Maximum no. of hops = Hmax = 2k-1
Consider the connections between node 1 and 5 and between nodes 1 and 7.
first case hop number is one . second case , three hops are needed .

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Figure: logical interconnection pattern and wavelength assignment of a(p,k) =


(2,2) shuffle net
Per user throughput ‘S’ = C/N , where C= total network
capacity Advantages of multihop networks
1. No packet collision within the network
2. Rapidly tunable lasers are not required
Disadvantages
There is a throughput pernalty of 1/H for H hops between nodes .

137
3. Write a note on Solitons (NOV/DEC 13)
Solitons are narrow pulses with high peak powers and special shapes. The
most commonly used soliton pulses are called fundamental solitons.
The shape of these pulses is shown in Figure.
The soliton pulses take advantage of nonlinear effects in silica,
specifically self-phase modulation, to overcome the pulse-broadening
effects of group velocity dispersion.
These pulses can propagate for long distances with no change in shape.

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Figure fundamental soliton pulse Remove it Now

Figure :soliton pulse -envelope


The pulse shapes for which this balance between pulse compression and
broadening occurs so that the pulse either undergoes no change in
shape or undergoes periodic changes in shape only are called solitons.
The family of pulses that undergo no change in shape are called
fundamental solitons, and those that undergo periodic changes in shape
are called higher-order solitons.
138
The significance of solitons for optical communication is that they
overcome the detrimental effects of chromatic dispersion completely
Solitons and optical amplifiers, when used together, offer the promise of
very high-bit- rate, repeaterless data transmission over very large distances.
By the combined use of solitons and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers
repeaterless data transmission at a bit rate of 80 Gb/s over a distance of
10,000 km.
The use of soliton pulses is key to realizing the very high bit rates
required in OTDM systems.
The main advantage of soliton systems is their relative immunity to fiber

dispersion, which in turn allows transmission at high speeds of a few

tens of gigabits per second.


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Figure : Block schematic of optical fiber soliton transmission system
The major element in the transmitter section is a return-to-zero pulse
generator.
A simple approach to generate RZ pulses is to employ an optical modulator
and an NRZ-to-RZ converter which is driven by a DFB laser source.
Instead of using a single NRZ data stream, however, it is useful to
modulate an optical NRZ signal incorporating several multiplexed NRZ
data streams before the
conversion into RZ pulses takes place.
At the receiving end the incoming signal requires conversion back from
RZ to NRZ and then finally a demultiplexer separates the specific NRZ
data for each channel.
139
The transmission bit rate of a soliton communication system is
dependent on mainly
two factors: namely, the soliton pulse width τ and the duration of the bit
period To
BT = 1/To = 1/2qoτ
qo = To / 2τ
The ratio of To / τ determines the nature of the nonlinear propagation for
soliton pulses.
4. Write short notes on wavelength routed networks
With suitable example explain the conditions and constraints in the formulation
and solution of routing and wavelength assignment in an optimal way
(MAY/JUNE 2014)
Three network nodes are interconnected using two wavelength channels where
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the solid line connecting the nodes represents the available wavelength channel
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andregistered
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If the network node 1 is required to connect with node 3 then as indicated

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wavelength channel available to establish a light path
between them.

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When a lightpath cannot be established on a link using a single it Now
wavelength

channel it is referred to as a wavelength continuity constraint.

Figure : Wavelength-dependent interconnection: (a) fixed wavelength

nodes; (b) wavelength convertible node (Node 2)

140
To reduce this wavelength continuity constraint is to switch the
wavelength channel at node 2 by converting the incoming wavelength λ2
to λ1 (which is available between nodes 2 and 3) to enable a link between
node 2 and 3 to be established. This process is shown in Figure (b).
The newly set up path uses two wavelength stages (i.e. two hops) to
interconnect nodes 1 and 3.
Such networks which employ wavelength conversion devices (or
switches) are known as wavelength convertible networks.
Three different WDM network architectures employing the
wavelength conversion function are
Full wavelength conversion, where each network link utilizes a dedicated

wavelength converter, is depicted in Figure All the wavelength channels at

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wavelength channel by the appropriate wavelength converter (WC).


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Figure : Wavelength convertible routing network architectures: full or


rededicated wavelength converters;
It is more cost effective to implement networks with fewer and hence
shared wavelength converters.
The arrangement of wavelength converters organized in a WCB is illustrated in

the inset to Figure. This figure depicts a WCB servicing the optical fiber links

where only the required wavelength channels are switched through the WCB

141
Figure : Wavelength convertible routing network architectures: shared per link

By contrast two optical switches are required to construct the shared per node
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wavelength convertible network architecture indicated in Figure . Optical switch
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Figure : Wavelength convertible routing network architectures: shared per

node Routing and wavelength assignment

In dense WDM networks a lightpath is established by reserving a

particular wavelength on the physical links between the source and

destination edge nodes.

142
It is a two-stage search and-select process related to both routing (i.e.
searching/selecting a suitable path) and wavelength assignment (i.e.
searching/selecting or allocating an available wavelength for the connection).
The overall process is often referred to as the routing and wavelength
assignment (RWA) problem.
The implementation of RWA can be static or dynamic depending upon
the traffic patterns in the network.
Static RWA techniques are employed to provide a set of semi permanent
connections, which remain active for a relatively longer time.
Dynamic RWA deals with establishing the lightpath in frequently varying
traffic patterns.
The traffic patterns are not known and therefore the connection requests

are initiated in a random fashion, depending on the network state at the


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time of a request each time a request is made, an algorithm must be
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the request and, if so, to perform RWA.

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Figure: wavelength routing and selection of a path


A five-node network with fixed connections where node 1 requested to
establish a link with node 5 is illustrated in Figure.
Although there is no direct physical connection or path available, there are
four possibilities to establish the link between nodes 1 and 5, depending on
the available or assigned wavelengths between each of the network nodes.
These are: via node 2 using a single hop;
nodes 4 and 2 comprising two hops;

143
nodes 2 and 3 with two hops;
and the longest possible route stretching over three hops via nodes 4, 2

and 3. Considering these four routes, the single hop remains the shortest

path between nodes 1 and 5.

5. Discuss the nonlinear effects on optical network performance (APR/MAY 15)


There are two categories of nonlinear effects.
The first arises due to the interaction of light waves with phonons
(molecular vibrations) in the silica medium—Rayleigh scattering. The two
main effects in this category are stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS)
and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS).
The second set of nonlinear effects arises due to the dependence of the
This is a watermark for
refractive index on the trial version,
intensity register
of the applied to which
electric field, get full one!
in turn

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is proportional user:
to the square of the field amplitude. The most important

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four-wave watermark.
mixing (FWM).
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nonlinear effects in this category are self-phase modulation (SPM) and

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Modeling the nonlinear processes can be quite complicated, since they


depend on the transmission length, the cross-sectional area of the fiber,
and the optical power level in the fiber.
Stimulated Raman scattering

Figure : SRS generates scattered light at a longer wavelength, thereby


decreasing the power in the pump wavelength signal
144
Stimulated Raman scattering is an interaction between light waves and
the vibrational modes of silica molecules.
If a photon with energy hv1 is incident on a molecule having a vibrational
frequency vm, the molecule can absorb some energy from the photon.
In this interaction the photon is scattered, thereby attaining a lower
frequency v2 and a corresponding lower energy hv2.
The modified photon is called a Stokes photon.
Because the optical signal wave that is injected into a fiber is the source
of the interacting photons, it is often called the pump wave , since it
supplies power for the newly generated wave.
This process generates scattered light at a wavelength longer than that of the

incident light. If another signal is present at this longer wavelength, the SRS
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light will amplify it and the pump wavelength signal will decrease in power
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Stimulated Brillouin scattering arises when light waves scatter from acoustic
waves. The resultant scattered wave propagates principally in the backward
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direction in single-mode fibers. This backscattered light experiences gain from

S
the forward-propagating signals, which leads to depletion of the signal power.
The frequency of the scattered light experiences a Doppler shift
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given by VB = 2nVs /λ
where n is the index of refraction and Vs is the velocity of sound in the
material.
The effects of SBS accumulate individually for each channel, and
consequently they occur at the same power level in each channel as
occurs in a single-channel system.
Self-Phase Modulation (SPM)

SPM arises because the refractive index of the fiber has an intensity-

dependent component.

145
This nonlinear refractive index causes an induced phase shift that is
proportional to the intensity of the pulse.
Thus different parts of the pulse undergo different phase shifts, which
gives rise to chirping of the pulses.
Pulse chirping in turn enhances the pulse-broadening effects of
chromatic dispersion.
This chirping effect is proportional to the transmitted signal power so that SPM

effects are more pronounced in systems using high transmitted powers.

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Figure: Phenomenological description of spectral broadening of a pulse due


to self-phase modulation
In WDM systems, the refractive index nonlinearity gives rise to cross-phase

modulation (XPM), which converts power fluctuations in a particular

wavelength channel to phase fluctuations in other co propagating channels.

146
This can be mitigated greatly in WDM systems operating over standard non-

dispersion shifted single-mode fiber, but can be a significant problem in

WDM links operating at 10 Gbps and higher over dispersion-shifted fiber.

Four-wave mixing

Four-wave mixing is a third-order nonlinearity in silica fibers that is analogous

to intermodulation distortion in electrical systems. When wavelength channels

are located near the zero-dispersion point, three optical frequencies (νi, νj, νk)

will mix to produce a fourth intermodulation product νijk given by

Vijk = Vi + Vj - VK with i,j # k

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Fig: Two optical waves at frequencies ν1 and ν2 mix to generate two third-order

sidebands..
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Figure shows a simple example for two waves at frequencies ν1 and ν2. As
these waves co propagate along a fiber, they mix and generate sidebands at
2V1 – V2 and 2V2 – V1

When this new frequency falls in the transmission window of the original

frequencies, it can cause severe crosstalk

6.Write short notes on optical CDMA (APRIL/MAY 2017)


In OCDMA, each user has a unique code as an assignment address that

spreads over a relatively wide bandwidth.

147
This specific code is modulated and then a message signal is transmitted
at an arbitrary time to an intended receiver, which can match the correct
code to recover the encoded information.
The principle of OCDMA multiplexing leads to support of a larger channel count
than other techniques, allows asynchronous transmission with efficient access
and enhances information security potentially in the network.
Furthermore, it has employment of simplified network control and
management, multi-class traffic with different formats and bit rates and
can be easily upgraded in terms of its architecture.
Each user has been assigned to some chips of the code sequences to
share the same transmission line using power splitters or combiners.
This operation can be performed in the optical-domain and/or in the
space-domain as well.
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Decoders at the receiver recognize a target code by employing match
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Direct-sequence or temporal coding optical CDMA systems

Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) Optical CDMA systems


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· Spectral Phase Coding (SPC) optical CDMA systems
· temporal phase coding optical CDMA systems;
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· Two-Dimensional (2-D) spatial or spread space coding optical CDMA it Now
systems
· hybrid coding optical CDMA systems

Figure : Hybrid System


Two signals are used as shown in Fig. 2; a secure signal is encoded and

temporally spread to be hidden under a host channel.

148
The purpose of the host channel in this scheme is to provide an ad hoc
security enhancement for an encoded signal.
The OCDMA en/decoder consists of a coherent spectral phase with

direct detection

6.(b)Write short notes on ultra high capacity networks (nov/dec 2014)

In long haul transmission links the capacity can be improved by ultrafast


optical TDM scheme
Two forms of optical TDM schemes are used.
Bit interleaved optical TDM, packet interleaved TDM
Optical signals representing data streams from multiple sources are
interleaved in time to produce a single data stream.
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on a register
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in Figure

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Fig : Bit interleaved optical TDM

149
In the bit-interleaved case, if n input data streams are to be multiplexed, a
framing pulse is used every n bits.
The periodic pulse train generated by a mode-locked laser is split, and
one copy is created for each data stream to be multiplexed.
The pulse train for the ith data stream, i = 1, 2, . . . ,n, is delayed by τ .
This delay can be achieved by passing the pulse train through the

appropriate length of optical fiber.

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Figure: optical multiplexer to create nit interleaved TDM Stream


Since the velocity of light in silica fiber is about 2 × 108 m/s, 1 meter of
fiber provides a delay of about 5 ns.
Thus the delayed pulse streams are non overlapping in time.
The undelayed pulse stream is used for the framing pulses.

150
Each data stream is used to externally modulate the appropriately
delayed periodic pulse stream.
The outputs of the external modulator and the framing pulse stream are

combined to obtain the bit-interleaved optical TDM stream.

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thepacket
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interleaved optical TDM
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In both the bit-interleaved and the packet-interleaved case, framing

S
pulses can be used In the packet-interleaved case, framing pulses mark
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the boundary between packets.

151
The j th compression stage is shown in Figure Each compression stage

consists of a pair of 3 dB couplers, two semiconductor optical amplifiers

(SOAs) used as on-off switches, and a delay line. the output pulses are

separated by a time interval of τ .

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152
B.E./B.TECH. DEGREE EXAMINATIONS, APRIL / MAY - 2017
(REGULATIONS 2013)
SEVENTH SEMESTER
EC 6702 – OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
PART-A
1. What are the advantages of optical fiber?(Pg.no.14)
2. A multimode silica fiber has a core refractive index n1=1.48 and cladding refractive
index n2= 1.46. Find the numerical aperture of fiber. (Pg.no.13)
3. What is intra modal dispersion? (Pg.no.37)
4. Define group delay. (Pg.no.39)
5. What is minimum detectable optical power? (Pg.no.62)
6. Compare the optical sources:LASER and LED. (Pg.no.60)
7. What are the methods employed for measuring attenuation in optical fiber.
8.
ThisDefine
is abitwatermark
error rate. (Pg.no.95)
for trial version, register to get full one!
9. What is an optical layer? (Pg.no.97)
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10. for
What are theregistered user:
key parameters required for analyzing the optical link. (Pg.no.130)

11. (a) (i).A step index multimode


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watermark
does theon the
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PART –B – (5*16 = 80 marks)
fiber with a numerical aperture of 0.2 support
approximately 1000 modes at an 850 nm wavelength. What is the diameter of its core?
2. Nomany outputat documents.
How fiber

S C
supports 850 nm and 1550 nm? (Pg.no.12)
(8)

Remove
(ii) Draw the block diagram of optical fiber transmission link and explain. it Now
(Pg.no.36)
(8)
(or)
(b) (i) Find the core radius necessary for single mode operation at 1320 nm of a step
index fiber with n1=1.48 and n2=1.478.Determine the numerical aperture and
acceptance angle of this fiber. (Pg.no.35) (7)
(ii) Derive the wave equations for a cylindrical fiber. (Pg.no.19) (9)
12. (a) What are the causes of signal attenuation in optical fiber? Explain about it in
detail. (Pg.no.41) (16)

(Or)
(b)Derive an expression for pulse broadening in graded index fiber(Pg.no.56)
(16)
13. (a)Discuss about surface emitting LED and edge emitting LED with neat sketch.
(Pg.no.63) (16)

(or)
(b)Explain about different types of lensing schemes used in improving the efficiency of
light emitting diode. (Pg.no.76) (16)
14. (a) Discuss in detail about the methods used for measuring intermodal dispersion
and chromatic dispersion. (Pg.no.46) (16)
(or)
(b)Explain about the operation of an optical receiver and source of error during
transmission. Draw the configuration of receiver. (Pg.no.98)
(16)
15. (a)(i)An engineer has the following available:

 GaAlAs laser diode,operating at 850nm,fiber coupled power 0dBm

 Ten sections of cable each of which is 500m long,has $ dB/Km attenuation, has
connectors at both ends.

 2dB/connector connector loss

 A pIN photodiode receiver, -45dBm sensitivity

 An avalanche photodiode receiver, -56 dBm sensitivity

The engineer wishes to construct a 5 km link operating at 20 Mb/s.Analyze which


receiver should be used if a 6-dB operating margin is required.
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(ii)Discuss about the principle of optical code division multiple access. (Pg.no.147)
(8)
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(b)(i)An optical fiber system is to be designed to operate over an 8km length without

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(2) Fiber: intermodal 5ns km-1
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repeaters.The rise time of the chosen components are:
(1) source(LED)
documents.
C
(3) (pulse broadening) intramodal 1ns km-1
(4) Detector (pin photodiode) 6ns

S
From system rise time considerations estimate the maximum bit rate that may be
achieved on the link when using an NRZ format. Remove it Now
(ii)Discuss about the protection mechanism in UPSR and BLSR ring architecture
(8)

with neat sketch. (Pg.no.134) (8)


QUESTION PAPER CODE 80353
B.E/B.Tech DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2016

Seventh Semester

Electronics and Communication Engineering

EC6702– OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS

PART A – (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. Define numerical aperture.(Pg.no.11)


2. What are the conditions for light to be propagation inside the fiber? .(Pg.no.14)
3. What are the causes for absorption? .(Pg.no.39)
4. What is polarization Mode Dispersion? .(Pg.no.38)
5. What are the mechanisms behind Lasing action? .(Pg.no.62)
6. Define external quantum efficiency. .(Pg.no.62)
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7. Define BER. .(Pg.no.95)
8. What is cut-back method? .(Pg.no.97)
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9. How dofor
youregistered
ensure that theuser:
required system performance is met or not?

10. Name
1. Can two popular
remove architectures
all trial watermark.
A
2. No trial watermark on the output documents.
D (Pg.no.144)
of SONET/SDH Networks. .(Pg.no.130)

C
PART-B- (5*16=80 MARKS)

S
11. (a) (i) Compare the structure and characteristics of step index and graded
index fiber. .(Pg.no.28) Remove it Now
(12)
(ii)A Graded index fiber with a core with a parabolic refractive index profile
(α=2) and diameter of 50 µm.The fiber has numerical aperture of 0.2.Estimate the
numberof guided modes propagating in the fiber when the transmitted light has a
wavelength 1µm. .(Pg.no.12) (4)
OR
11. (b) (i) Consider a fiber with 25µm core radius core index n1=1.48 and Δ =0.01.If
λ=1320 nm what value of V and how many modes propagates in the fiber.What
percent of optical power flows in the cladding?If the core cladding difference is
reduced toΔ=0.003,how many modes does the fiber support and what fraction of the
optical power flows in the cladding.(Pg.no.35)
(8)

b. (ii) Explain the functional blocks of an optical communication link with neat block
diagram. .(Pg.no.36)
(8)

12 (a) Discuss about the design optimization of single mode fiber.(Pg.no.24)(16)


OR
(b)What is waveguide dispersion?Derive an expression for time delay produced
due to waveguide dispersion.(Pg.no.46) (16)

13. (a) (i) A Double heterojunction LED emitting at a peak wavelrngth of 1310 nm has
radiative and nonradiative recombination time of 45ns and 95 ns respectively.The
drive current is 35ma. Determine internal quantum efficiency and internal power
level.If the refractive index of the light source material is n=3.5. find the power
emitted from the device. (6)
(ii) What is fiber splicing?Discuss about fusion splicing and mechanical splicing.
(Pg.no.71) (10)
OR
(b) Explain the working principle of laser diode and derive its rate equation.
(Pg.no.66,90)
(16)

This isExpalin
14. (a) a watermark for trial
the different methods version,
employed register
in measuring to get infull one!
the attenuation
optical fiber with neat block diagram. (Pg.no.107)
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OR

remove
error rate all trial
of a digital watermark.
receiver.

A D
(b)What are the performance of a digital receiver?Derive an expression for bit
1. Can (Pg.no.98)
2. No trial watermark on the output documents. (16)

S C
15 (a) (i) Draw the generic configuration of SONET and explain the function of
Add/Drop multiplexer in SONET. .(Pg.no.131) Remove it Now
(8)

(ii)A 90 Mb/s NRZ data transmission system that sends two DS3 channels uses a
GaAl As Laser diode that has a spectral width of 1 nm. The rise time of the laser
transmitter output is 2 ns. The transmission distance is 7km over a graded index
fiber that has 800 MHz. Km bandwidth distance product. If the receiver bandwidth is
90 MHz and mode mixing factor q=0.7.What is the system rise time? What is the rise
time if there is no mode mixing? (8)
OR
(b)Discuss in detail about the effects of noise on system performance. .(Pg.no.144)
(16)
Question Paper Code:51468

B.E/B.Tech DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2016

EC2402/EC72/10144 EC702-OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING

(Regulations 2008/2010)

PART-A (10*2=20 Marks)

1. What are the conditions for the single mode propagation?( pg.no.15)

2. What do you understand by phase and group velocity? (pg.no.14)

2. What is chromatic dispersion? (pg.no.41)

4. What are the causes for self phase modulation and cross phase modulation?
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(pg.no.43)
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5. Compare the characteristics of LED and ILD. (pg.no.65)

1. Can6.remove
2. No trial
all trial
A GaAs laser
watermark
3.7.What
watermark.
operating
on theand
are the frequency output
D
at 850 nm and 250µm length and a refractive index of

A documents.
wavelength spacing?

S C
7. For a pin photo diode having operating wavelength of 1300 nm,the quantum
Remove it Now
efficiency is around 90%.Calculate the responsivity of the photo diode.

8. Define quantum limit. (pg.no.101)

9. What are the pumping mechanisms used in erbium doped fiber amplifiers.
(pg.no.137)

10. What is optical code division multiple access mechanism?


(pg.no.136)

153
PART-B (5*16=80 Marks)

11.(a) (i)Explain the ray propagation in the optical fiber based on ray

theory analysis.(4) (pg.no.16)

(ii)Derive the numerical aperture of an optical fiber.(4) (pg.no.18)

(iii)Determine the normalized frequency at 820 nm for a step index fiber


having a 25 µm core radius, n1 =1.48 and n2= 1.46. (a)How many modes
propagate in this fiber at 820 nm? (b) How many modes propagate in this fiber
at 1320 nm? (c) How many modes propagate in this fiber at 1550 nm? (d)What
percent of the optical power flows in the cladding in each case? (8)
OR

This is(b)aUsing
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Maxwell’s equations, derive version,
the expressionregister tomagnetic
for electric and get fullfield one!

components and also arrive boundary condition of the circular waveguide.(16)


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12 (a) Explain in detail with necessary mathematical expression the
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(pg.no.21)

S C
various attenuation mechanisms in optical fiber. (pg.no.44)

OR Remove it Now
(b) (i) Describe the mechanism of intermodal dispersion in a multimode step
index fiber. Show that the total broadening of a light pulse ðTs due to
intermodal dispersion in a multimode step index fiber may be given by
ðTs=L(Na)2 /2n1 c, where L is fiber length, NA is the numerical aperture,n1 is
the core refractive index and c is the velocity of light in a vacuum. (8)
(ii)A multimode step index fiber has a numerical aperture of 0.2 and a core
refractive index of 1.47.Estimate the bandwidth –distance product for the
fiber assuming only intermodal dispersion and return to zero code when
there is no mode coupling between the guided modes.

154
Mode coupling between the guided modes gives a characteristic length equivalent

to 0.6 of the actual fiber length.(8)

13. (a) (i) Draw and explain double hetero structure light emitter with

energy band diagram and refractive index profile.

(ii)Why is the double hetero-structure preferred for optical fiber

communication? Justify your answer.

LED. (iii)Derive with relevant mathematical expression of optical power

emitter from OR
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(b) Discuss various noise sources available in APD and also derive the
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gain at maximum signal to noise ratio

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transwatermark
2. No trial impedance amplifier.
on the (10)
A D
14. (a) (i)Explain in detail with necessary circuit diagram and advantages of

output documents.
C
(ii) Consider a digital fiber optic link operating at a bit rate of 622 Mbps at

S Remove
1550 nm. The InGaAs pin detector has a quantum efficiency of 0.8.Find the it Now
minimum number of photons in a pulse required for a BER of 10-9.Find the
corresponding minimum incident power.
OR

(b) Explain any two methods used for measurement of refractive index profile

of the fiber. (16) (pg.no.124)

15.(a) (i)Explain the layered architecture and transmission formats of SONET.(8)

(pg.no.138)

(II) Explain with neat sketch of two popular architecture of SONET.(8)

155
(pg.no.138)

OR

(b) Explain in detail different types of broadcast and select WDM networks. (16)

(pg.no.143)

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156
Question Paper Code:21468

B.E/B.Tech DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2015

EC2402/EC72/10144 EC702-OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING

(Regulations 2008/2010)

PART-A (10*2=20 Marks)

1. What is total internal reflection in a fiber?( pg.no.14)

2. Define phase and group velocity. (pg.no.14)

3. What do you mean by polarization dispersion in a fiber? (pg.no.41)

4. A fiber has an attenuation of 0.5 dB/Km at 1500 nm. If 0.5 mW of optical power is
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initially launched in to the fiber, what is the power level in after 25 Km? (pg.no.41)
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5. What is meant by hetero junction structure? (pg.no.67)

1. Can6.remove
2. No trial
all trial
Define internal watermark.
quantum
D
efficiency of LED and Laser. (pg.no.65)
watermark on the output documents.
A
S C
7. Draw and describe the operation of fiber optic receiver. (pg.no.104)

8. Mention few fiber diameter measurement techniques. (pg.no.102)


Remove it Now
9. What is optical CDMA? (pg.no.136)

10. Distinguish SONET and SDH. (pg.no.136)

11 (a) (i) With diagram, explain acceptance angle and numerical aperture of fibers. (8)
(pg.no.16)

(ii)Classify fibers and explain them. (8) (pg.no.30)

OR

(b) Describe and derive the modes in planar guide. (16) (pg.no.21)

157
12. (a) With necessary diagrams, explain the causes and types of fiber

attenuation loss. (16) (pg.no.44)

OR

(b) (i) With diagram derive the expression for intramodal dispersion. (10)

(pg.no.51)

(ii) Describe about fiber connectors, splices and couplers. (6) (pg.no.77,85)

13. (a) Draw and compare LED and Injection Laser Diode Structures.

(16) (pg.no.82)

OR
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(b)Discuss about optical detection noise. (16)
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2. No trial watermark on the output documents.
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14. (a) Derive the probability of error of fiber optic receiver. (16) (pg.no.107)

S C
(b) Explain how attenuation and dispersion measurements could be done. (16)

Remove it Now
(pg.no.114)

15. (a) Explain SONET layers and frame structure with diagram. (16) (pg.no.138)

OR

(b)Discuss the performance improvement of WDM and EDFA systems. (16)

158
Question Paper Code:71468

B.E/B.Tech DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRIL/MAY 2015

EC2402/EC72/10144 EC702-OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING

(Regulations 2008/2010)

PART-A (10*2=20 Marks)

1. Calculate the critical angle of incidence between two substances with


different refractive indices, where n1 = 1.5 and n2 =1.46. (pg.no.13)
2. State Snell’s law. (pg.no.14)
3. Define signal attenuation. (pg.no.42)
4. What are bending losses? Name any two types. (pg.no.42)
This is a
5. watermark for trial
Define power –bandwidth version,
product. register to get full one!
(pg.no.67)
6. Contrast the advantages of PIN diode with APD diode.
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Define Bit-Error Rate. (pg.no.103)

9. What is SONET? (pg.no.137)


2. No trial watermark on the output documents.
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8. List any two advantages of trans-impedance amplifiers. (pg.no.104)
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10. What is Soliton? (pg.no.134)

Remove it Now
11. (a) (i) For a multimode step index fiber with glass core (n1 =1.5) and
fused quartz cladding (n2 =1.46).Determine the acceptance angle and
numerical aperture. The source to fiber medium is air. (6) (pg.no.38)
(ii)Explain the ray propagation in to and down an optical fiber

cable. Also derive the expression for acceptance angle. (pg.no.16)

(b) (i) Describe a step index and graded index cable. (6) (pg.no.32)

(ii) Contrast the advantages and disadvantages of step index, graded

index single mode propagation and multi -mode propagation. (10) (pg.no.30)

159
12. (a) What are the loss or signal attenuation mechanisms in a fiber?

Explain. (44)

OR

(b) (i) Discuss in detail about fiber splicing . (10) (pg.no.77)

(ii) What are the primary requirements of a good fiber connector design? (6)

13. (a) (i) With neat sketch, explain the working of a light emitting

diode. (8) (pg.no.68)

(ii) Derive an expression for the quantum efficiency of a double


hetero structure LED. (8) (pg.no.93)
OR
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(b) (i) A photo diode is constructed of GaAs which has a band gap
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of 1.43 Ev AT 300 k.Find the long wavelength cut-off. (4)

(8)
(iii) Writeon
2. No trial watermark a note
theonoutput
detector
A D
(ii) Derive an expression for the mean square photo detector noise current

1. Can remove all trial watermark.


response time. (4) (pg.no.87)
documents.

S C Remove
14.(a) With schematic diagram, explain the blocks and their functions it Now
of an

optical receiver. (16) (pg.no.105)

OR

(b) (i) A digital fiber optic link operating at 850 nm requires a maximum

BER of 10-9 .Find the quantum limit in terms of quantum efficiency of the

detector and the energy of the incident photon. (6)


(ii)Explain the attenuation and dispersion measurements in detail.(10)
(pg.no.114)

160
14.(a) (i)Explain the principle of WDM networks. (8) (pg.no.143)

(ii) Discuss the non linear effects on optical network performance. (8) (pg.no.152)

OR

(b) (i) Explain the features of Ultra High Capacity networks. (8) (pg.no.157)

(ii) Explain OTDR and its applications. (8)

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161
Question Paper Code: 91420

B.E/B.Tech DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2014

EC2402/EC72/10144 EC702-OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING

(Regulations 2008/2010)

PART-A (10*2=20 Marks)

1. Define acceptance angle and NA of a fiber. (pg.no.11)


2. 2.List any two advantages of single mode fibers. (pg.no.11)
3. What are the types of fiber losses which are given per unit
distance? (pg.no.39)
4. List the factors that cause intrinsic joint losses in a fiber. (pg.no.67)
This is a
5. watermark for trial
Define internal quantum version,
efficiency register to get full one!
of LED. (pg.no.65)
6. What are the drawbacks of avalanche photo diode?
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7. Mention the advantages of using transimpedance front and
receiver configuration. (pg.no.104)
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8. State the significance of maintaining the fiber outer diameter
2. No trial watermark on the output documents.
constant. (pg.no.103)

S C
9. State the concept of WDM. (pg.no.134)
10. What is a soliton? (pg.no.134) Remove it Now

11. (a) (i) Define the normalized frequency for an optical fiber and explain its use.
(8) (pg.no.36)
(ii) Discuss on the transmission of light through graded index fiber. (8)

(pg.no.32)

OR

(b) (i) Explain the features of multimode and single mode step index

fiber and compare them. (8) (pg.no.30)

162
(ii) A single mode step index fiber has a core diameter of 7µm and a core
refractive index of 1.49.Estimate the shortest wavelength of light which allows
single mode operation when the relative refractive index difference for the fiber
is 1%(8) (pg.no.38)

12. (a) (i) What is meant by critical bending radius of optical fibers? Explain. (8)
(ii) Explain the following in single mode fiber: Modal birefringence

and beat length. (8)

OR

(b) (i) Describe the three types of fiber misalignment that

contribute to insertion loss at an optical fiber joint. (8) (pg.no.94)

This is(ii)aOutline
watermark for trialof version,
the major categories multiport fiberregister to (8)
optic coupler. get full one!
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13 (a) registered
(i) Describe user: of a injection laser. (10) (pg.no.71)
the operation

2. No trial watermark on the output documents.


OR
A D
(ii) Compare the optical sources LED and ILD. (6) (pg.no.82)
1. Can remove all trial watermark.

S C
(b) (i) What are the possible noise sources that contribute the photo

detector noise?
Remove it Now

( 8)

(ii)What is meant by detector response time? Explain. (8) (pg.no.87)

14.(a) Draw the block diagram of fundamental optical receiver. Explain each block.
(16) (pg.no.105)

OR

(b) With diagrams explain the following: (pg.no.121)

(i) Measurement of NA of a fiber (8)

163
(ii) Measurement of refractive index profile. (8)

14. (a) Draw the block diagram of OTDR.. Explain the measurement of any

two fiber optic measurement with this. (16)

OR

(b) Discuss the following:(8+8)

(i) WDM networks (pg.no.143)

(ii) Ultra High capacity networks (pg.no.157)

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164
B.E/B.Tech DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2014

Seventh Semester

Electronics and Communication Engineering

EC2402/EC 72/10144 EC702 – OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING

PART A – (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. A multimode fiber has core diameter of 50 µm and cladding refractive index of


1.45. If its modal dispersion is 10 ns/km, find its numerical aperture.
2. Distinguish meridional rays from skew rays. (pg.no.11)
3. Identify the causes of scattering loss. (pg.no.39)
4. A fiber has an attenuation of 1.5 dB/km at 1300 nm. If 0.5 mW of optical power
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is initially launched into the fiber, what is the power level in micowatts after 9
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km? (pg.no.41) user:

D
5. If the absorption coefficient of silicon is 0.05 micrometer-1 at 860 nm, find the
1. Can remove all trialdepth
penetration watermark.
at which p(x)/pin = 0.368.
2. No trial6.watermark on the
Define the internal quantum

C A
outputefficiency
documents.of LED. (pg.no.65)
7. What are the receiver error sources? (pg.no.103)

S
8. Describe the term ‘quantum limit’. (pg.no.101)
9. List out the benefits of SONET over PDH networks. (pg.no.134)
Remove it Now

10. Give the significance of solitons. (pg.no.137)


PART B – (5 × 16 = 80 marks)
11. (a) (i) Draw and explain ray theory transmission in an optical communication.
(8) (pg.no.16)
(ii) With neat diagram, explain acceptance angle, numerical aperture and total
internal reflection. (18) (8)
Or
(b) With diagram, explain electromagnetic mode theory of optical propogation.
(16) (pg.no.21)
12. (a) Explain the attenuation and losses in fiber. (16) (pg.no.44)

Or

165
(b) With diagram, explain intra and inter modal dispersion. (16) (pg.no.51,65)

13. (a) With diagram, explain surface and edge emitters of LED structures. (16)

(pg.no.68)
Or

(b) Draw and compare the construction and characteristics of PIN and
Avalanche photo-diode. (16)
14. (a) With suitable diagram, explain optical receiver operation and its
performance. (16) (pg.no.105)
Or
(b) Describe the dispersion and numerical aperture measurements of fiber.
(16)
This is a watermark for trial version, register to get full one!
(pg.no.118,121)
Benefits15.(a)
for Explain
registered user:
SONET layers and frame structure with diagram. (16)

(pg.no.138)
1. Can remove all trial watermark.
Or
A
2. No trial watermark on the output documents.
D
S C
(b) With suitable example, explain the conditions and constraints in the formulation
and solution of routing and wavelength assignment problem in an optimal way.
Remove it Now
(16) (pg.no.148)

166
B.E/B.Tech DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2013

Seventh Semester

Electronics and Communication Engineering

EC2402/EC 72/10144 EC702 – OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING

PART A – (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. The refractive indexes of the core and the cladding of a silica fiber are 1.48
and 1.46 respectively. Find the acceptance angle of the fiber. (pg.no.12)
2. Determine the normalized frequency at 820 nm for a step-index fiber having
a 25 µm radius. The refractive indexes of the cladding and the core are 1.45
and 1.47 respectively. How many modes propagate in this fiber at 820 nm?
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3. A continuous 12 kms-long optical fiber link has a loss of 1.5 dB/km. What
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is the minimum optical power that must be launched into the fiber to

A D
maintain an optical power level of 0.3 µW at the receiving end? (pg.no.40)
1. Can remove all trial watermark.
4. Define dispersion in multimode fibers. What is its effect? (pg.no.40)
2. No trial watermark on the output documents.
C
5. Write two differences between a Laser diode and a LED. (pg.no.65)

S
6. For a photodiode define quantum efficiency-ɳ and responsivity-R.
Remove
7. A digital fiber optic link operating at 1310 nm, requires a maximum it Now
BER of 10-8. Calculate the required average photons per pulse.
8. The photodetector output in a cutback-attenuation set up is 3.3 V at the
far end of the fiber. After cutting the fiber at the near end, 5 m from the
far end, photo detector output read was 3.92 V. What is the attenuation of
the fiber in dB/km? (pg.no.103)
9. Obtain the transmission bit rate of the basic SONET frame in
Mbps. (pg.no.135)
10. Illustrate interchannel cross talk that occurs in a WDM system. (pg.no.135)

PART B – (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

167
11. (a) (i) With the help of a block diagram explain the different
components of a optical fiber link.
(12)
(ii) Compare the optical fiber link with a satellite link.(4) Or

(b) (i) Explain the differences between meridional and skew rays.(4)( pg.no.11)
(ii) Bring out the differences between phase and Group velocities, (6)

(pg.no.14)
(iii) Deduce an expression for NA of a fiber with the help of a neat figure
showing all the details. (6) (pg.no.18)
12. (a) (i) Discuss the attenuation encountered in optical fiber communication due
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(1) Bending
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(2) Scattering
(3) Absorption
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A D (12) (pg.no.44)
(ii) Calculate the maximum transmission distance for a fiber link with an
2. No trial watermark on the output documents.
C
attenuation of 0.2 dB/km if the power launched in 1 mw and the receiver

S
sensitivity is 50 µW. Calculate the attenuation for another link with same
parameters and the distance of 26 kms. Remove(4)
it Now
Or
(b) (i) Clearly bring out the differences between intra and inter modal
dispersion. (12)
(pg.no.51,55)
(ii) Find the maximum bit rate for the fiber link of 5 kms. The numerical

aperture is 0.25 and the refractive index is 1.48. (4)

13. (a) (i) Explain the working of n hetero structure LED. (10) (pg.no.68)

(ii) Define Internal quantum efficiency of a LED. Deduce the expression for

the same. (6) (pg.no.93)


Or

168
(b) (i) What do you understand by optical-wave-confinement and current
confinement in LASER diode? Explain with suitable structures. (10)
(ii) Briefly explain the different noise sources of a photo detector. (6)
15. (a) (i) Explain any two types of preamplifiers used in a receiver (12)
(ii) Define the terms – ‘Quantum limit’ and ‘Probability of Error’ with respect
to a receiver with typical values. (4) (pg.no.101,107)
Or
(b) (i) Explain the ‘Insertion-loss method’ used for attenuation measurement.

(8)
(pg.no.114)
(ii) Explain the technique used in ‘Frequency – Domain Intermodal

Dispersion measurement. (8) (pg.no.121)


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15. (a) (i) What is a ‘four-fiber BLSR’ ring in a SONET? Explain the reconfiguration of
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the same during node oruser:
fiber failure. (8) (pg.no.138)

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2. No trial watermark on the output documents.
A D
(ii) What is ‘broadcast-and-select mutihop network? Explain. (8)(pg.no.143)

S C Or
Remove
(b) (i) Explain the following requirements for the design of an optically it Now
amplified
WDM link :
(1) Link Bandwidth

(2) Optical power requirements for a specific BER. (8)

(ii) Write a note on solitons (8) (pg.no.145)

169
B.E/B.Tech DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2013

Seventh Semester

Electronics and Communication Engineering

EC2402/EC 72/10144 EC702 – OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING

PART A – (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. For n1 = 1.55 and n2 = 1.52, calculate the critical angle and numerical
aperture. (pg.no.13)
2. What is a Linearly polarized mode? (pg.no.13)
3. What is Rayleigh scattering? (pg.no.40)
4. What is meant by mechanical splice? (pg.no.67)
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5. Calculate the band gap energy for an LED to emit 850 nm. (pg.no.66)
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Define user: time. (pg.no.66)
detector response

D
7. What are the error sources of receiver? (pg.no.101)
1. Can remove
8. Whatall trial watermark.
is known as quantum limit? (pg.no.101)
2. No trial9.watermark on theand
What is a broadcast output
A
selectdocuments.

C
10. What is a soliton? (pg.no.134)
network? (pg.no.135)

S PART B – (5 × 16 = 80 marks)
Remove it Now
11. (a) (i) Derive the mode equations for a circular fiber using Maxwell’s equations.
(8) (pg.no.21)
(ii) Calculate the Numerical aperture of a fiber having n1 = 1.6 and n2 =
1.49 and another fiber having n1 = 1.458 and n2 = 1.405. Which fiber has
greater Acceptance angle? (8)
(pg.no.12)
Or
(b) (i) Explain the ray theory of a fiber with a special mention about TIR,
Acceptance angle and NA. (8) (pg.no.16)
(ii) Describe Single mode fibers and their mode – field diameter. What are
the propagation modes in them? (8)

(pg.no.26)

170
12. (a) (i) Derive expressions for material dispersion and waveguide dispersion
and explain them. (8) (pg.no.51)

(8) (ii) Describe the various types of fiber connectors and couplers.
Or
(b) (i) Explain fiber alignment and joint losses. (8) (pg.no.94)

(ii) Describe various fiber splicing techniques with their diagrams. (8)

(pg.no.77)

13. (a) (i) Draw the structures of SLED and ELED and explain their principle

of . operations. (8) (pg.no.68) (ii) Draw the injection laser diode structure and

This isexplain lasing in it. (8) (pg.no.71)


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operations.
2. No trial watermark on the output
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(b) (i) Draw the structures of PIN and APD photodetectors and explain their

documents.
(8)

all noise sources.


S C
(ii) Derive expressions for the SNR of both PIN and APD by incorporating
(8)
Remove
16. (a) What are the various types of Pre amplifiers available for optical it Now
networks?
Explain any three of them with their circuit diagrams. (16)
Or
(b) Write detailed notes on the following:
(i) Fiber refractive index profile measurement. (8)
(pg.no.124)

(ii) Fiber cut off wavelength measurement. (8) (pg.no.131)

15.(a) (i) Explain the SA/SA protocol and modified SA/SA protocol of

Broadcast and select networks. (8) (pg.no.143)


(ii) What are the non – linear effects on network performance? (pg.no.152)

171
Explain them briefly. (8)
Or
(b) (i) Explain the layered architecture of SONET/SDH with neat diagram.

(8) (pg.no.138)

(ii) Write detailed notes on optical CDMAand its applications.(8) (pg.no.156)

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2. No trial watermark on the output documents.

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172
B.E/B.Tech DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2012

Seventh Semester

Electronics and Communication Engineering

EC2402/EC 72/10144 EC702 – OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING

PART A – (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. Calculate the cutoff wavelength of a single mode fiber with core radius
of 4 µm and ∆ = 0.003. (pg.no.13)
2. For a fiber with core refractive index of 1.54 and fractional refractive
index difference of 0.01, calculate its numerical aperture. (pg.no.13)
3. What are the two reasons for chromatic dispersion? (pg.no.41)
This is a watermark
4. What for trial
are the mostversion, register
important non-linear toofget
effects full
optical one!
fiber
communication? (pg.no.42)
Benefits for registered user:
5. Compare and contrast between surface and edge emitting LEDs. (pg.no.66)

7. What is dark current? (pg.no.102)


2. No trial watermark on the output documents.
A D
6. What is the significance of intrinsic layer in PIN diodes?
1. Can remove all trial watermark.

C
8. List out the various error sources. (pg.no.101)

S
9. What were the problems associated with PDH networks? (pg.no.11)
10. Enumerate the various SONET/SDH layers. (pg.no.138)
Remove it Now
PART B – (5 × 16 = 80 marks)
11. (a) (i) Starting from the Maxwell’s equation, derive the expression for wave
equation of an electromagnetic wave propagating through optical fiber. (8)
(pg.no.21)
(ii) Desribe the ray theory behind the optical fiber communication by total
internal reflection. State the application of Snell’s law in it. (8) (pg.no.16,14)
Or
(b) (i) A SI fiber with silica-core refractive index of 1.458, V = 75 and NA = 0.3

is to be operated at 820 nm. What should be its core size and cladding

refractive index? Calculate the total number of modes entering this fiber. (8)

173
(ii) Derive expression for the linearly polarized modes in optical fibers and
obtain the equation for V number. (8)
(pg.no.34)
12. (a) (i) Describe the linear and non-linear scattering losses in optical fibers.(8)
(pg.no.47)
(ii) An LED operating at 850 nm has a spectral width of 45 nm. What is the
pulse spreading when a laser diode having a 2 nm spectral width is used?

(8)
Or

(b) (i) Draw and explain the various fiber alignment and joint losses. (8)

(pg.no.94)
This is a watermark
(ii) Write notesfor trialsplices
on fiber version, register to get
and connectors. (8) full one!
(pg.no.77)
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13. (a) Draw and explain the structure of Fabry-Perot resonator cavity for a Laser

1. Can remove all trial watermark.


(pg.no.97)
A
2. No trial watermark on the output documents.
D
Diode. Derive Laser diode rate equations. (16)

S C Or
(b) (i) Draw the structure and electric fields in the APD and explain its working.
(8) Remove it Now
(ii) What are the three factors that decides the response time of
photodiodes? Explain them in detail with necessary sketches. (8)
14. (a) (i) Draw the front end optical amplifiers and explain. (8)
(ii) Considering the probability distributions for received logic 0 and 1 signal
pulses, derive the expressions for BER and error function. (8)
(pg.no.107)
Or
(b) Write notes on the following:
(i) Fiber refractive index profile measurement. (8)

(pg.no.124)

174
(ii) Fiber cut- off wavelength measurement. (8) (pg.no.131) (a) Discuss the

concepts of Media Access Control protocols in Broadcast and select networks.

(16) (pg.no.143)

Or
(b) (i) Describe the non-linear effects on network performance in detail. (8)

(pg.no.152)

(ii) Explain the basics of optical CDMA systems. (8) (pg.no.156)

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2. No trial watermark on the output documents.

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175