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Oct 23, 2018

Takeda 2014

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Takeda 2014

© All Rights Reserved

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Takeda 2014

Takeda 2014

© All Rights Reserved

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PVP2014

July 20-24, 2014, Anaheim, California, USA

PVP2014-28610

Tokyo institute of Technology

2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8550, JAPAN

E-mail: takeda.k.ah@m.titech.ac.jp, inaba@mech.titech.ac.jp, ktakahashi@mech.titech.ac.jp

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

There are pipes with square or rectangular cross sectional A water hammer occurs by a sudden closing of a valve or

shape rather than more common circular shape. Moreover, a an accidental stopping of a pump [1-4]. The pressure of fluid in

part of the walls can be made of different materials or have a tube rises rapidly because kinetic energy of fluid is converted

different wall thicknesses. To estimate pressure wave into pressure by the occurrence of the water hammer. This

propagation in such a channel, we examined water hammer study is important in the fact that water hammer may cause a

phenomenon and measured wave speeds in rectangular tubes pipe rupture and leaking harmful material. There are many

assembled with different wall materials and thicknesses by studies of water hammer in circular tube but few studies of

strain gages and pressure transducers. We newly proposed water hammer in rectangular tube. However, there are many

theoretical wave speeds based on the classical theory and the rectangular tubes which have different thickness walls or

junction conditions of two walls: fixed, simply supported, and different material walls in industry.

mixed supported. Circumferential strains on the wall can be The present study reveals that water hammer wave speed

estimated from the different forms derived by the different in compound rectangular tube, which has different thickness

junction conditions. We confirmed that theoretical predictions walls or different material walls by experiment by building

with the simply supported conditions agreed with experimental compound tube made with different kinds of plates. By

wave speed in compound tubes, while wave speeds in ready- developing the existing water hammer theory for wave speeds

made square tubes with the same wall-thickness were close to in rectangular tubes, we will derive water hammer theory to

those by the fixed conditions. estimate wave speeds in compound rectangular tube with

considering aspect ratio of tube section and ratio of tube wall

NOMENCLATURE thickness. Comparing experiment wave speeds with theoretical

A Area of rectangular tube section [m2] speeds, we will examine the validity of the derived theory.

c Sound speed in elastic rectangular tube [m/s]

D Length of rectangular tube section [m]

E Young’s modulus of tube material [GPa] FORMULATION OF WAVE SPEEDS IN COMPOUND

e Thickness of tube wall [m] RECTANGULAR TUBE

G Modulus of transverse elasticity [GPa] The classical theory for wave speeds in uniform polygonal

I Second moment of area [m4] (square) tube [5, 6] is given by eq. (1) where ΔA / A is

K Bulk modulus of water [GPa] calculated by three terms as presented in eq. (2). The first term

L Length of rectangular tube section [m] indicates the influence of deformation by direct strain. The

P Pressure [Pa] second term and the third term are corresponding to bending

T Tensile load [N] deformation and shear deformation, respectively.

V Shear load [N]

u Buffer speed [m/s]

y Deflection of tube wall [m] 𝑲 ⁄𝝆

𝒄=√ (1)

ρ Density of water [kg/m3] ∆𝑨

𝟏+ 𝑲

𝑨∆𝑷

∆𝐴 ∆𝐴 ∆𝐴 ∆𝐴 𝑳

=( ) +( ) +( ) (2) 𝑽 = ∆𝑷 ( − 𝒙) (6)

𝐴 𝐴 𝐷 𝐴 𝐵 𝐴 𝑆 𝟐

1

Figure 1 indicates the cross-sectional dimensions of 𝑦= (𝐿𝑥 − 𝑥 2 )∆𝑃 (7)

2𝐺1 𝑒1

compound rectangular tube. In this study, we consider two pairs

of plates whose thickness and materials are the same while it is ∆𝐴 𝐿2 𝐷2

possible to expand our equations into the cases of three plates ( ) = + (8)

𝐴∆𝑃 𝑆 4𝐷𝐺1 𝑒1 4𝐿𝐺2 𝑒2

plus one plate or four different plates. In Fig. 2, equilibrium of

forces and deformations of the tube were considered after the

cross-sectional area in Fig. 1 was divided into 8 parts by Figure 3 illustrates the deformation of tube wall for the

considering symmetry. Tensile load T is given by eq. (3) and fixed supported due to pressure loading of water hammer.

cross-sectional area change ΔA due to the tensile load can be Bending moment M at displacement x is calculated as eq. (9).

calculated by eq. (4). The angle θ in eq. (4) is 90º for the Since the curvature of tube wall can be defined by the second

rectangular tube. According to eqs. (3) and (4), ΔA / A in eq. (5) derivative of y, the deflection y is calculated with the second

can be defined as the term of influence of the direct tensile load moment of area I in eq. (10). Cross-sectional area change ΔA

on tube wall lengths L and D. can be estimated by integrating y with respect to x from 0 to L

(from 0 to D). Bending deformation results in ΔA / A in eq.

(11).

rectangular tube. FIG. 3 Fixed wall.

𝟐

𝑳𝟐 𝟏 𝑳

𝑴 = −∆𝑷 + ( − 𝒙) ∆𝑷 (9)

𝟐𝟒 𝟐 𝟐

∆𝑃 1 1

𝑦= ( 𝑥 4 − 𝐿𝑥 3 + 𝐿2 𝑥 2 ) (10)

12𝐸1 𝐼1 2 2

∆𝐴 1 𝐿4 𝐷4

( ) = ( + ) (11)

𝐴∆𝑃 𝐵 30 𝐸1 𝑒13 𝐷 𝐸2 𝑒23 𝐿

FIG. 2 Equilibrium of forces and deformations of

considering the bending deflection of the tube wall. However, it

compound rectangular tube.

is also possible to consider different boundary conditions for

tube walls depending on the ratios of wall thickness in

𝟏 designing car body flame [7]; fixed supported or simply

𝑻= 𝑫∆𝑷 (3)

𝟐 supported. With this idea, we can consider the junction of a side

1 𝐷 𝐷 𝐷𝐿 plate is simply supported when the side plate and the vertical

∆𝐴 = ( + ∆𝐷) ( + ∆𝐷) tan 𝜃 − (4) plate are the same wall-thickness and same material, or the side

2 2 2 8

plate has thicker or larger Young’s modulus than that of the

∆𝐴 𝐷 𝐿 vertical plate. In the simply supported condition, deflection y

( ) = + (5)

𝐴∆𝑃 𝐷 2𝐸1 𝑒1 2𝐸2 𝑒2 becomes eq. (12). In the simply supported condition, the term

of bending moment is now calculated by eq. (13).

Equation (6) indicates the shear load V in Fig. 2.

Displacement of shear direction y can be estimated by eq. (7). ∆𝑷 𝟏 𝟏

Cross-sectional area change ΔA due to the shear load is 𝒚= ( 𝒙𝟒 − 𝑳𝒙𝟑 + 𝑳𝟑 𝒙) (12)

𝟏𝟐𝑬𝟏 𝑰𝟏 𝟐 𝟐

obtained by integrating y with respect to x from 0 to L (from 0

to D), and ΔA / A can be calculated by eq. (8).

∆𝐴 1 𝐿4 𝐷4

( ) = ( + ) (13)

𝐴∆𝑃 𝐵 5 𝐸1 𝑒13 𝐷 𝐸2 𝑒23 𝐿

FIG. 4 Simply supported wall. We also examined rectangular compound tubes by

assembling four plates, two pairs of side and vertical plates as

When the plate is jointed to thicker or stiffer plates, we presented in Fig. 6. Vertical plate is aluminum with thickness of

consider the joint as the fixed support. On the other hand, when 10 mm, and three types of plates are used for side plates;

the plate is jointed to thinner or softer plates, we consider the aluminum plates with thickness of 10 mm or 5 mm, or

joint as the simply supported. We can also consider the mixed polycarbonate (PC) plates with thickness of 5 mm. Table 1 lists

supported if one plate of the tube wall is supported by the fixed side plates materials and dimensions. Vertical plate and side

support and the other plate is supported as simply supported as plate are combined by M5 bolts and glued by silicon system

given in eq. (14).

adhesive. Inner cross-section of rectangular tube is 50 mm × 46

mm. Three pressure transducers are mounted at the interval of

∆𝑨

100 or 200 mm. Strain gages are glued in the same manner as

𝑨∆𝑷 the ready-made rectangular tubes. By changing side plates, we

𝑫 𝑳 𝑳𝟐 measure strain signals and obtained water hammer speeds from

= + + (14)

𝟐𝑬𝟏 𝒆𝟏 𝟐𝑬𝟐 𝒆𝟐 𝟒𝑫𝑮𝟏 𝒆𝟏 the arrival times at each gage location.

𝑫𝟐 𝟏 𝑳𝟒 𝟏 𝑫𝟒

+ ＋ ＋

𝟒𝑳𝑮𝟐 𝒆𝟐 𝟑𝟎 𝑬𝟏 𝒆𝟑𝟏 𝑫 𝟓 𝑬𝟐 𝒆𝟑𝟐 𝑳

speeds; all fixed, all simply supported, and mixed supported.

EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS

First, water hammer experiments are conducted with two

ready-made rectangular tubes filled with water as shown in Fig. FIG. 6 Experimental apparatus with compound rectangular

5. The ready-made rectangular tubes are 1000 mm axial length tube

with square section whose outer length of the side is 50 mm.

One rectangular tube is made of aluminum with thickness of TABLE 1 Side plates materials and dimensions.

2.3 mm. The other is steel with thickness of 2 mm. The free-fall Thickness Young's Poisson's

projectile impacts a polycarbonate buffer placed on the top of Material

[mm] modulus [GPa] ratio

the water surface [8]. By this impact test facility, pressure wave

and elastic stress wave propagate through water and tube wall (1) Al 10 70 0.345

as a water hammer wave. Total ten strain gages are glued on the (2) Al 5 70 0.345

rectangular specimen tube in the circumferential direction,

perpendicular to the axial direction. Five gages are glued at the (3) PC 5 2.5 0.380

axial center of the tube and the others are glued at near the

corner of the tube with 5 mm offset from the corner by the

interval of 100 mm. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Figure 7 indicates strain histories measured at (a) g1-g5

and (b) g6-g10 in the ready-made rectangular tube (Al with

thickness 2 mm). Here, baselines of each strain signal are

shifted by offsets proportional to the distance from gages g1

and g6. As shown in Fig. 7, strains at the center of the tube

increases (tension on outer surface) while strains near the

corner of the tube decreases (compression on outer surface) in

both ready-made tubes. Wave speeds obtained from strain

signals with Al 2 mm tube and Steel 2.3 mm tube were 266 m/s side plate are given in (a) and strain signals near the corner are

and 536 m/s. plotted in (b). In Figs. 9 and 10, strain signals at the center are

Figure 8 shows pressure histories measured at p1 to p5 in larger than that at corner of side plate and both strains are

compound rectangular tubes. It is possible to mount pressure generally positive (tension loading on the surface). However, in

transducer on the vertical plates because they are enough thick. Fig. 11, strains at the center of side plate increase (tension

In Fig. 8, baselines of pressure signals are shifted by offsets loading) while strains near the corner slightly decrease

proportional to the distance from the transducer p1 to the other (compression loading). Strain signals with PC side plates

transducers. The wave speeds of water hammer are calculated indicated different behavior from those with Al side plates and

by the distance between transducers and arrival times of waves. are similar as ready-made rectangular tubes.

Since strain signals are unstable for these compound tubes, we

used pressure signals to determine the wave speeds rather than

strain signals. Averaged wave speed for Al 10 mm side plate

was 837 m/s and was higher than 575 m/s with Al 5 mm side

plate. This is because the strength of the fluid-structure

interaction is changed by the thickness of the side plates. This

tendency becomes clear when we used PC tube as the side

plates. The wave speed with PC 5 mm side plates was 145 m/s

and much slower than those with Al side plates.

and g6 to g10 in compound rectangular tubes. In Fig. 9, side

plate is Al with thickness of 10 mm, Fig. 10 is the case with Al (c) Side plate: PC with thickness of 5 mm

with thickness of 5 mm, and Fig. 11 is the case with PC with

thickness of 5 mm. In each figure, strain signals at the center of FIG. 8 Pressure histories.

(a) At the center (a) At the center

FIG. 9 Strain histories (Al with thickness of 10 mm). FIG. 11 Strain histories (PC with thickness of 5 mm).

of strains at the center and near the corner. Figure 12 indicates

strain ratios. In Fig. 12, estimated strain ratios are plotted as

lines by assuming the simply supported condition and the fixed

condition. In Figs. 12(a, b), stain ratios are close to theoretical

ratios obtained by the simply supported condition. In Figs.

12(c-e), strain ratios are close to these with the fixed support

condition. According to these observations, we consider that the

deformations of the side plates with Al 10 mm and 5 mm are

close to the beam with the simply supported and the other

deformations are similar to the beam with the fixed boundary.

Table 2 summarizes experimental and theoretical wave

(a) At the center speeds. In the ready-made rectangular tubes, the experimental

wave speed agrees with theory wave speeds with the fixed

supported condition. In cases of Al side plates with thickness of

10 mm and 5 mm, experimental wave speeds are close to the

theoretical wave speeds with the simply supported condition.

With PC 5 mm side plates, wave speeds are around the middle

of the fixed supported condition and the simply supported

condition. We consider that deviations of wave speeds from

theories are caused by the bolt joints and incomplete joints.

Further investigation is required to verify these effects, by

clamping tubes at the space between bolts, and conducting

numerical analysis. However, we confirmed that our simple

theories can roughly predict wave speeds and that the fixed and

(b) Near the corner simply supported condition work better than the mixed support

FIG. 10 Strain histories (Al with thickness of 5 mm). generally used in the car industry for water hammer problems.

TABLE 2 Wave speeds for rectangular tubes in experiments

and theories.

Tube type Compound (Al 10 mm) Ready-made

Plate material and wall Al PC Al Steel

thickness (mm) 10 5 5 2 2.3

837 575 145 266 536

Experiment (m/s)

±77 ±81 ±19 ±5 ±18

Theory

881 495 103 119 253

(simply supported) (m/s)

Theory (fixed) (m/s) 1152 881 222 280 560

(a) Compound tube (Al 10 mm)

pressure with estimated wave speeds by eq. (15)

∆𝑷 = 𝝆𝒄∆𝒖 (15)

(b) Compound tube (Al 5 mm) confirm that theoretical pressure has similar tendency as

experimental results while pressure loss due to the imperfect

joints may occur and relatively low pressure was observed in

experiments. Further study will be necessary to predict pressure

jump across the water hammer in rectangular compound tubes.

pressure and theoretical pressure for compound tubes.

Al PC

Wall thickness (mm) 10 5 5

(c) Compound tube (PC 5 mm)

Experiments (kPa) 483 381 191

Simply supported

994 558 116

(kPa)

Fixed supported

1300 994 250

(kPa)

Mixed supported

1148 921 249

(kPa)

CONCLUSION

We conducted water hammer experiments with ready-made

rectangular tubes and compound rectangular tubes whose wall

plate thickness and wall materials are different. We also

developed the classical theory for water hammer wave speeds

to predict wave speeds in rectangular compound tubes by

considering three boundary conditions; fixed, simply supported,

and mixed. In ready-made rectangular tube, experiment wave

propagation speed agreed with the theory by the fixed

(e) Ready-made tube (Steel 2.3 mm) supported condition. In the case of same material, experiment

wave speed was close to the theory by the simply supported

FIG. 12 Ratios of strain signals behind wave fronts condition while in the case of different material with PC and Al,

experimental speeds are middle of the theories by the fixed

condition and the simply supported condition.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank Prof. Kikuo Kishimoto, Tokyo Institute of

Technology, for discussion and comments on this study.

REFERENCES

[1] G. Z. Watters, Analysis and Control of Unsteady Flow in

Pipelines, Butterworth Publishers, MA, (1984).

[2] E. B. Wylie and V. L. Streeter, Fluid Transients in

Systems, Prentice-Hall, Inc., NJ, (1993).

[3] A. S. Tijsseling, Fluid-structure interaction in liquid-filled

pipe systems: A review, Journal of Fluids and Structures,

10, (1996), pp. 109–146.

[4] D. C. Wiggert and A. S. Tijsseling, Fluid transients and

fluid-structure interaction in flexible liquid-filled piping,

Applied Mechanics Reviews, 54(5), (2001), pp. 455–481.

[5] A. R. D. Thorley and G. L. J. Buttigieg, Surge

Propagation Speeds in Ducts of Regular Polygonal Cross-

Section, Proceedings of 6th Australasian Hydraulics and

Fluid Mechanics Conference, (1997), pp. 561-565.

[6] A. R. D. Thorley and C. Guymer, Fundamental equations

governing pressure surge phenomena in rectangular cross

section, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical

Engineers, 189, (1975), pp. 325-332.

[7] D. E. Malen, Fundamentals of Automobile Body Structure

Design, SAE International, (2011), p. 85.

[8]. Inaba, K. and Shepherd, J. E., 2010. “Flexural waves in

fluid-filled tubes subject to axial impact”. ASME J.

Pressure Vessel Technol. 132, 021302.

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