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ME4245/ME4245E – Part II

Tutorial 1

1. A rigid body consists of a rectangular block 15 x 5 x 5 cm, a cylinder of diameter 5cm and length 8 cm, and a point mass (1kg) at coordinates (10cm, 0, 0), as shown. Determine the mass moments of

inertia of the rigid body with respect to the coordinate axes which are also the principal axes of inertia

of the rectangular block. The density of the block and cylinder are assumed to be uniformed

throughout with value of 7849 / .

Solution:

z

y
8cm

5cm

(10cm,0,0)

5cm

2.5cm

5cm

x

7.5cm

Rectangular block:

V = 15cm x 5cm x 5cm = 3.75 10

7849 3.75 10 2.943

Cylinder:

3.141 0.025 0.08 1.571 10

7849 1.571 10 1.233

Mass moments of inertia:

Rectangular block only:

1

1

12 0.15 0.05 6.131 10

1

12 0.05 0.05 1.226 10

Cylinder only:

y
r
x
z
h

1

2

1

12 3

With reference to the coordinate axes:

0.05 (Parallel-axis theorem)

1

1.233 0.025 1.233 0.05 3.46 10

2

3

0.065 (Parallel-axis theorem)

1

12 1.233 3 0.025 0.08 1.233 0.065 6.06 10

3 0.065 0.05 (Parallel-axis theorem)

1

12 1.233 3 0.025 0.08 1.233 0.065 0.05 9.14 10

Point mass only:

With reference to the coordinate axes:

0

1 0.1 1 10

1 0.1 1 10

2

Entire body (adding all the values obtained for each axis),

6.131 10 3.46 10 0 9.59 10

1.226 10 6.06 10 1 10 1.729 10

6.131 10 9.14 10 1 10 2.53 10

2. A 15 kg slender rod AB shown below is 1.5 m long and is pivoted about a point O which is 0.3 m

from end B. Determine its kinetic energy in terms of .

A

O
B

Solution:

The mass centroid of a slender rod is at the midpoint. That is, 0.75 m from either end A or B.

Centroidal Moment of Inertia of slender rod AB, 15 1.5 2.81

Let v be the linear velocity of the rod’s mass centroid.

Kinetic energy,

15 0.45 2.81 2.92

3. Given the linear spring constant k, cart mass m 1 , and pendulum end point mass m 2 , derive the

equations of motion using Lagrangian and Newton-Euler formulations separately for the 2-degree-of- freedom (2 dof) cart-pendulum system shown below (F is an external force acting on the cart and is the torque acting on the pendulum from a motor mounted on the cart). Assumptions: The pendulum consists of rigid massless rod and a point mass m 2 . The position of m 1 is equal to zero when the spring is not stretched or compressed.

3

q
p

y(j)

x(i)

Solution:

There are two degrees of freedom (coordinates x and ) and there will be two equations of motion:

one for the linear motion of the cart and one for the rotation of the pendulum.

First, express velocity of point p as a function of , , , (Kinematics):

Position vector of point p (m 2 ) r p with respect to the inertia frame which is placed at q when x = 0 (x axis is horizontal and y-axis is vertical as shown in the figure):

Velocity expression of point p:

cos sin

Lagrangian formulation:

Kinetic energy of the system comprised of the kinetic energy of the cart and of the pendulum:

TT

cart

T

pend

T

cart

T

pend

1

2

mx

1

2

11

2

22

 

m

v

22

p

mxl

T

1



m

2

12

m

x

2

1

2

m

2

l

22

cos

2

2

1

2

ml

2



lx

cos



sin

2

Potential energy is the summation of the potential energy in the spring and in the pendulum:

U

1

2

kx

2

m gl

2

cos

(Note that the zero-potential-energy line (datum) is chosen at q.)

4

The Lagrangian is:

LTU  

11

m

x

2



m

22

12

m

2

l

22

2

lx

cos

1



kx

2

2

m gl

2

cos

The derivatives and the equations of motion:

:

:

L

x

d

L

dt

 m

m

x

m

12

12

m

 L

x



 

 kx

ml

2

 x

cos

ml

2



cos

F

x

 m

12

m

 x

m l

2





cos

m l

2

2

ml

2



sin

2

sin

kx

L

m lx cos

d

dt

L

m l

2

2

2



 L

 





m l

2

m l

2

2

m lx  cos

m gl

sin

22

sin



x

m lx

2

sin





m l



2



m lx  cos

22

m gl

2

sin

Newton-Euler’s formulation (using D’Alembert’s principle):

Free body diagram of pendulum (treating inertial term as a negative force):

5

Applying D’Alembert’s principle for the pendulum and considering the summation of moment at point q (+ve anticlockwise):

0

Since

+

,

+

=

Considering the summation of all linear forces for the pendulum:

Free body diagram of cart (treating inertial term as a negative force) :

Now, applying D’Alembert’s principle for the cart and consideration the summation of horizontal linear forces:

0

0

0

F m m  x m lcos  m lsinkx

12

2

2

2

The resulting equations of motion are the same as those obtained by Lagrangian formuation.

6

4. Apply the Lagrangian formulation to obtain the dynamic equations of the following 2-link planar RP (Rotary/Prismatic) arm which has a point mass at the tip as shown in the figure below. The joint

displacement vector is:

q

 

r

. and f are the torque and force applied to the rotary and prismatic

joints, respectively. Express the dynamic equations in matrix-vector form.

Solution:

Joint displacement vector:

Joint velocities vector:

q

Generalized force vector:

r

 

q

   r

 

τ  

n

f

 

Kinetic and Potential Energy:

The total kinetic energy due to the angular motion and the linear motion ris:

The potential energy is:

Lagrange’s equation:

dL

L

dt

q

i

q

i

i

For ,

L

mr

2

d

L

dt

mr

L T U

2



2

mrr

T

1

mr

22

1

mr

2

2 2

U mgr sin

1 22

1

mgr sin
2

2

mr

mr

2

7

  mgr

L

cos

Generalized force is n

For r,

L

r d

mr

L

mr 

dt r

L

r

2

mr

mg sin

Generalized force is f Hence, the dynamic equations of the system is given by:

:

:

mr 2mrr

2



mgr cosn

2

mr  mr

mg sinf

They are coupled nonlinear differential equations. Given the control inputs n(t) and f(t), q(t) can be determined numerically.

Inertia terms:

Coriolis term:

mr 

2

, mr

2mrr

Centripetal term:

2

mr

Gravity terms:

mgr cos, mg sin

Manipulator dynamics in the matrix-vector form:

Hqq()Cqq, Gq()

τ

where

H – inertia matrix C – Coriolis/centripetal vector G – Gravity vector

  2 mrr  

 

   r

2

mr

0

0

m



   

2

mr

mgr

mg

cos

sin

  n

 

  f

8

5. A two-link RR robot arm is as shown below. The mass of each link is lumped at the end of the link. The lengths of the links are a 1 and a 2 . Obtain the dynamic equations of the following system using the Lagrangian Formulation. Express the dynamic equations in matrix-vector form.

Solution:

Kinetic and potential energy:

link 1:

T

1

1

ma

2 11

1

2

2

link 2:

T

2

U

1

m ga sin

11

1

xacos

2

1

a cos 

12

12

12

yasin

2

1

a sin 

12

xa

2

sina  sin 

11

1

2

1

2

1

2

ya

2

cosa   cos 

11

1

2

1

2

1

2

vxya   

2

2

2

2

2

2

22

11

2

a a

12

 

1

2

1



a

2

2





1

2

2

sin

1

sin



 



1

2

cos

1

cos



 

1

2

cos

1

cos

cos





12

A

cos

sin

B

1

sin

A

sin

B

sin





12

cos

cos

cos



AB

 

1



12

2



v

2

2

2

x y a a 2aa  cos

2

2

1

1

2

1

2

12

1

2

1

2

2

2

22

2







11

mv

2

22

22

22

1

ma

21

1

2

ma

2

2

2



2

maa

1

2

212







1

2

1

9

cos

2

U

2

m gy

22

m g a

2

1

sin

1

a

2

sin

1

2

Lagrange’s equation:

LTU

1

2

m

1

  

12

a

1

22

1

T

m

2

T



m

1

m

2

ga

1

sin

U

1

1

1

2

U

2

2

22

ma



 

1

2

2



maa

212

m ga

22

sin





1

2





 

1

2

1

L

1



m

1

m

2

2

a

1

1

ma 

22

1

2

2







maa

212



2



1

2

cos

2

cos

2

d

L

dt

1

 m

1

m

2

L

1



m

1

m

2

a

1

ga

2

1



1

cos

2

22

ma







 



1

2

maa

212

1

m ga

22

cos



 

1

2

1

  m

1

m

  ma

m



2

22

1

m

2

2

 





a

maa

1

2

2

22

ma

2



maa

212

cos



2

1

1

cos

cos

1

 

2

2

 

m ga

maa

212

cos

2

 

1

2

2





1

2

2

212

ga

22





 

2

1

2

sin

2

cos

2

maa

212

 

2

1

2

2

sin

2

L

2

2



ma  

2

2

1

2



maa 

2121

cos

2

d

L

dt

2

ma

2

2

2



 



1



2



maa

2121

cos

2



maa



2

2121

sin

2

L

2





m a  

22

1

1

2

2

2

sin

2

m ga

2

2

cos

 

1

2

2

m a m a a cos  m a m a a sinm ga cos

2

2

2

212

2



1

2

22

2

2

2121



2

2

2

1

2

In matrix-vector form:

Hqq()Cqq, Gq()

τ

where

H – Inertia matrix

 C – Coriolis/centripetal vector G – Gravity vector

m

1

22



m

2

a

1

2

22

ma

ma

22

maa

212

2

maa

212

cos

2

cos

2

2

22

ma

maa

212

2

22

ma

    

m

1

m

2

ga

1

cos

m ga

22

1

cos

m ga

22

 

1

2

cos





1

2

1

2

cos



 

2

1



2

 







 

maa

212





2

1

2

2

sin

2

2

2

maa

2121

sin

2

10

 

6.

Derive the dynamical equations of the given robot configuration. Given that the joints are

prismatic; the inertia of link 1 and link 2 are approximated by point masses m 1 and m 2 , respectively; the joint displacement variables are q 1 and q 2 and corresponding joint forces are f 1 and f 2 , respectively. Express the dynamic equations in matrix-vector form.

q 1

q 2

m 1
m 2
f
2
f
1

Solution:

v

vqq

2

1

2

q

2

1

22

212

111

T

 

mq

11

T

mq

21

222

1

q Hqq ( )

2

m

1

0

m

2

0

m

2

mq

2

222

2

H

g

H is a constant matrix (special case) and not function of the generalized coordinates. This also results in all the Christoffel symbols to be zero.

U

g

g

1

2

(

U

gm

1



q

1

m

)

q

21

gm

12

m

U

q

2

0

Dynamic equations:

m

1

m



q 

21

gm

1



m

2

mq 

22

In matrix-vector form:

Hqq()Cqq, Gq()

τ

f

1

f

2

11

where H – Manipulator inertia matrix

C – Coriolis/centripetal vector

G – Gravity vector

(

H q

)

m

1

0

m

2

0

m

2

Cqq(,)





0



0

(

G q

)

gm m

0

2

1

7. Figure below shows a planar 2-link manipulator with link 2 driven by motor 2 which is mounted at the base. The robot is under the influence of gravitational acceleration along the negative y direction. Assume the inertia of each link is a point mass at the end of the link. Derive the manipulator inertia matrix for the manipulator from its total kinetic energy expression. Based on the manipulator inertia matrix, derive the Christoffel’s three-index symbol elements and obtain the Centripetal/Coriolis vector. Derive the gravity term of the manipulator and express its dynamic equation in matrix vector form.

Hint:

In this case, the independent generalized coordinates can be chosen to be and as shown in the

right figure below. In this system, the angle

affected by

2

is controlled by the driving motor 2 and is not

1

.

Solution:

Generalized coordinates:

Kinetic and potential energy:

Position:

12

g

x 11

l cos

1

y 11

l sin

1

xl

21

yl

21

cos

sin

1

1

l

2

cos

2

l

2

sin

2

Velocity:

 l

x 1

y 1

l

1

1

sin

cos



11



11

xl

2



1

sin



11

yl

2

1

cos



11

l

2

vxyl 

v

l

2

1

2

2

1

2

2

1

2

2

 x y

2

2

22

11

22

1

1

l

2

sin



2

2

cos

 

2

2

l

22

2

2

2

ll

12





1

2

cos

 

2

1

Working for the above:

xl

2

1

2

2

2

sin



11

sin

2



11

2

l

2

sin

l

2

2

2



2

2

sin

cos

2

2

2





1

2





2

2

ll

12





1

2

2



1

1

1

l

2

2

l

2

l

l

22

cos

22

2

sin

1

sin

2

yl

2

2

1

 

2

x

2



1

1

cos

1

2

l

l

22

1

1

22

1

1

l

l

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

cos

2

2

ll

12

ll

12

2

1

2

2

ll

12





1

2

cos

cos

1

cos

2

cos

 

1

2

1

cos

sin

1

2

sin



y

2



2

T

1 1

2

1

2

1

mv

11

22

ml

11

 

2

2

mv

1

2

2

2

1

2

l

m

2

1

1



2

2

22

1

ml

1

m

1

mll

212

2

cos

l

22

l

22

22

22

2

m

2

l

2

1

 

2

1

 m

2

1

2

1

m

2

 

1

2

1

  