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Matthew Munoz – 17822099 PDHPE

Assessment Task Sheet


Assessment Task Information
Faculty: PDHPE
Course: HSC PDHPE (Stage 6)
Unit: Factors affecting performance
Task Title: Team of exercise scientists – group presentation
Task marks: Out of 20
Weighting: 30% Task No: 1 of 3
Date issues: Week 2 Date for submission: Week 9

Assessment Task Details


Description of Activity:
You have been selected to be a part of a team of 3-4 exercise scientists for an elite level
athlete from your state’s representative team. You have been asked to create a
multimodal presentation with your team for a distance client which explores essential
elements which must be considered when creating an athlete’s training program. This
video must be suitable to be shown to a head coach as a final product of your
recommendation for their athlete’s training program. Include justification with relevant
studies and statistics for each of your recommendations and provide examples where
possible. The video is to be between 10-12 minutes long with each group member
appearing in the video. Please be sure to specify which sport your athlete plays in the
title.
Task instructions:
In your report, you must include the following:
1. Identify the main energy systems and components of fitness utilised in the
athlete’s sport (provide examples)
2. Describe how you would target the appropriate energy system needed for your
athlete and apply progressive overload principles to a custom training program for
your athlete (provide examples)

Stage 6 school-based assessment task - Year 12 (500 words) Evaluation (1500 words)
Matthew Munoz – 17822099 PDHPE

3. Explain and justify two psychological strategies that your athlete can employ to
effectively handle pressure induced anxiety and improve performance
4. Critically evaluate a contemporary recovery method you would recommend for
your athlete. Provide multiple choices for the athlete
5. Outline the specific nutritional needs of your athlete and describe how an
athlete’s diet differs from the average person’s (provide examples)

Context
Contextual statement:
This compulsory module examines the factors that affect performance. In this module,
students explore the physical and psychological bases of performance. They experience
and critically analyse approaches to training and skill development and investigate the
contributions of psychology, nutrition and recovery strategies to performance.

In this module, students investigate the following critical questions:

• How does training affect performance?


• How can psychology affect performance?
• How can nutrition and recovery strategies affect performance?
• How does the acquisition of skill affect performance?

This module enables students to take action to influence their own performance and
enhance that of others through coaching applications.

Task rationale
Contextual statement:
As students who have an interest of gaining knowledge related to fitness and exercise
science, it is important that to understand the factors relevant to athletes and coaches if
they are to optimize performance. It is important to understand the role of energy
systems, training principles and how to effectively implement them, utilising appropriate
psychological strategies to improve performance and manage anxiety, the importance of
prioritizing appropriate recovery strategies, as well as optimizing nutrition. This task will
deepen students’ knowledge on these areas

Outcomes to be assessed
Outcome Description
H7 explains the relationship between physiology and movement potential

Stage 6 school-based assessment task - Year 12 (500 words) Evaluation (1500 words)
Matthew Munoz – 17822099 PDHPE

explains how a variety of training approaches and other interventions enhance


H8 performance and safety in physical activity

H9 explains how movement skill is acquired and appraised

designs psychological strategies and nutritional plans in response to individual


H11
performance needs

Criteria for assessing learning


Marking criteria
Mark range Criteria
1-4 Unsatisfactory attempt at all sections or incomplete or did not adhere to
word limit
5-8 - Simplistic outline of main energy systems used, limited or irrelevant
examples
- Simplistic description of applying specificity and progressive overload
principles to a training program
- Simplistic explanation of 1-2 potential psychological strategies used to
handling anxiety and improving performance
- Simplistic critical evaluation of a chosen recovery method
- Simplistic examination of an athlete’s specific nutritional needs with
limited or irrelevant examples
9-12 - Good outline of main energy systems used, limited or irrelevant
examples
- Good description of applying specificity and progressive overload
principles to a training program
- Good explanation of 1-2 potential psychological strategies used to
handling anxiety and improving performance
- Good critical evaluation of a chosen recovery method
- Good examination of an athlete’s specific nutritional needs with
relevant

Stage 6 school-based assessment task - Year 12 (500 words) Evaluation (1500 words)
Matthew Munoz – 17822099 PDHPE

13-16 - Very good outline of main energy systems used, extensive and relevant
examples
- Very good description of applying specificity and progressive overload
principles to a training program
- Very good explanation of 1-2 potential psychological strategies used to
handling anxiety and improving performance
- Very good critical evaluation of a chosen recovery method
- Very good examination of an athlete’s specific nutritional needs with
relevant examples
17-20 - Excellent outline of main energy systems used, limited or irrelevant
examples
- Excellent description of applying specificity and progressive overload
principles to a training program
- Excellent explanation of 1-2 potential psychological strategies used to
handling anxiety and improving performance
- Excellent critical evaluation of a chosen recovery method
- Excellent examination of an athlete’s specific nutritional extensive and
relevant examples

Scaffold
Sample Scaffold
To prepare for this assessment students should:
- Engage in class research tasks which explore which energy systems are used in
different sports – students should focus on a sport which interests them
- Research into various psychosocial strategies athlete use to manage anxiety and
improve performance and focus on two which appeal to them
- Explore the core principles of progressive overload and specificity and investigate how
they are applied to training programs to improve performance
- Investigate how an athlete has different nutritional needs to the average person –
focus on what nutritional advice they should adhere to if they want to optimize
performance

Stage 6 school-based assessment task - Year 12 (500 words) Evaluation (1500 words)
Matthew Munoz – 17822099 PDHPE

- Investigate a contemporary recovery method and the impact it has on an athlete’s


performance
- Spend time in class teaching students how to use programs which may potentially be
used to create their presentation (iMovie, Powtoon, Storyboard etc.)
- Review definitions of glossary terms which will be used in assessment
- Spend time in class viewing past assignments to gather potential ways to film their
presentation

Allocated tasks should be designed with differentiation in mind. Tasks should allow
learners of different abilities to successfully complete them but allow for deeper or more
basic learning to be achieved for those who are at different ability levels.

Evaluation
Evaluate the importance of assessment and approaches to feedback and assessment design that
will inform your practice in your teaching area. 1500 words
Overview of assessment
Assessment in education is an effective tool which allows for collection,
analysation and interpretation of important information about teaching and learning
which contribute to making decisions aimed at improving student outcomes and
curricular success (Rea-Dickins & Geimanie, 1993). It allows for a clearer picture
on whether learning has been successful as well as providing clarification on what
teachers are expecting of their students. The assessment process involves four
basic elements

- A means of measuring improvements over time


- Increasing motivation levels of students to study
- Critical evaluation of delivery and teaching methods
- Measuring student’s current ability levels in relation to their peers

One of the primary concerns of education is whether students are able to achieve
the goals outlined by the curricular scope and sequence. These can be
categorised into two broad terms, known in the Australian syllabus as:

Stage 6 school-based assessment task - Year 12 (500 words) Evaluation (1500 words)
Matthew Munoz – 17822099 PDHPE

- Objectives: the underlying aims or purposes of a teaching period/instruction


- Outcomes: targeted, specific aims of a teaching period/instruction (Cartner
& Nunan, 2001)

Carter & Nunan (2001) state that assessment within the classroom can provide
guidance to improve instruction and student learning on a daily basis. Assessment
allows for a more accurate insight into:

- Suitability and relevance of instructions within planned lessons and units


- Success of chosen delivery and instructional methods, learning materials
and activities utilised to meet objectives and outcomes
- Quality of teacher resources used to assist student learning

Assessment in the classroom can also serve as a useful tool for professional
development if it is being actively managed and monitored by teachers. In
educational systems, teachers are at the forefront of developing and using
assessment. As such, it can be used as an effective tool for reflection on one’s
own teaching practices as it can give a clear insight into what strategies are having
particular success and highlight areas where there is room for improvement

Importance of assessment for teachers


Intelligent and effective use of assessment within educational contexts is directly
linked to good teaching practices and classroom management strategies.
Assessment is an essential element of effective teaching practice as curricular and
educational outcomes are predominantly broad in their scope and as such, can be
very vague at times. Responsibility therefore falls onto the teacher to appropriately
interpret these objectives and identify and establish specific, relevant and clearly
defined objectives. It is also important to ensure that these goals and objectives
are measurable, observable, testable and assessable.

Measuring, assessment and evaluation techniques lend themselves to the


teaching process itself. It is assumed that students will have obtained a certain

Stage 6 school-based assessment task - Year 12 (500 words) Evaluation (1500 words)
Matthew Munoz – 17822099 PDHPE

level of knowledge and understanding after completing a unit of work. This begs
the question of how much improvement has occurred? Hence, having objectives
which can be measured serve to determine the degree of improvement. In a
classroom context, the main goal of teacher instruction is to facilitate learning
aimed at meeting curricular outcomes and objectives. This places responsibility on
the teacher to a select particular teaching strategies and activities which they
believe will be most effective in achieving the desired outcome to the highest
degree. During the selection process of certain strategies and activities over
another, assessment can be used as a key influencer. Thus, the importance of
assessment is again demonstrated. In this regard, assessment is not only useful
as a post-teaching means of measuring improvement, but an integral component
of the teaching process (Cox & Godfrey, 1997)

Cole and Chan (1987) place emphasis on the high risk of inaccuracy of teachers
and their perceived capacity to make informal judgments about the capabilities of
their students and their achievements. They broadly categorise this type of
educator as a ‘self-reliant assessor’ (pp. 295). They highlight that teachers which
avoid engaging in assessment and related strategies are often doing so on an
unfounded philosophical high-ground or principle. This leads them to believe that
they have the capacity to answer questions on good teaching practices rather than
opting to use the large amount of well-established strategies of summative and
formative assessment which can assist in gathering efficient diagnostic
information.

Implications of assessment for students


Appropriate use of assessment also has implications for students results obtained
by their students. In the study by Cox & Godfrey (1997), they found that teachers
who did not make use of effective assessment strategies did not have the
necessary information about their students to make a judgment on how much they
are learning and were therefore not able to make informed judgements about their
own teaching practices and strategies. Thus, this did not allow for adjustments and
changes to be made during the teaching period to particular strategies which were
not achieving desired results and resulted in negative impacts upon student

Stage 6 school-based assessment task - Year 12 (500 words) Evaluation (1500 words)
Matthew Munoz – 17822099 PDHPE

educational outcomes. Students who were in the group in which their teacher
actively engaged in utilising formative and summative assessments as tools for
adjustments to teaching methods saw increased academic performance compared
to the other groups. Cox & Godfrey (1997) also state that the results of their study
indicates that students had a deeper level of understanding of the content they
were learning of the objectives of the course as teachers could better assess their
teaching strategies to ensure they had selected appropriate strategies to achieve
the desired learning outcomes.

As well as this, engaging in assessment provides a means of feedback for


students to increase their self-awareness of existing gaps in their ability and
knowledge (Boston, 2002). When specific, relevant, constructive feedback is given
to students on assessment tasks they have completed, it provides students with a
clear idea of where they need to dedicate more focus and attention. Effective
feedback with a strategic and timely follow-up has been shown to be one of the
most significant factors likely to improve academic performance markers (Hattie,
2003). Additionally, research by Scaife & Wellington (2010) states that students
place a high value and level of interest on receiving feedback on assessments
which results in students experiencing a heightened level of motivation as they feel
a more direct idea of what is needed to do to succeed in following assessment
tasks, which also results in increased levels of motivation and adherence reported
by students.

Limitations of assessment
However, a limiting factor of assessment is the nature of each assessment is that
some students will always feel uncomfortable with certain types of assessment
tasks and therefore may lead to negative mindsets and results if students do not
believe they are proficient in that particular assessment method. For example,
when designing and assigning assessment tasks, Poon Teng Fatt (2000)
highlights that students who prefer visual styles of learning will fare better in
assessment tasks which involve visual elements such as diagrams and videos
whereas auditory learners may prefer oral examinations, and kinesthetics learners
preferring practical, hands-on based assessments.

Stage 6 school-based assessment task - Year 12 (500 words) Evaluation (1500 words)
Matthew Munoz – 17822099 PDHPE

Another issue which needs to be acknowledged is the threat to the effectiveness of


assessment occurs when it is applied to large scale systems, such as NAPLAN in
Australia and the National Curriculum Assessment in England. These systems
involve wide-spanning measures of accountability, which often have financial and
reputational driven demands and consequences for schools which are under high
levels of pressure to achieve improved test scores. Ninomiya (2016) states that
this has created a culture which is too focused on achieving test scores and has
moved away from encouraging “authentic” learning as the results of assessments
have been put at the forefront of learning, rather than the learning process itself. It
is noted that assessment practices have been criticised for being implemented
without a meaningful understanding of why they are being used. Thus, there is a
weakness in the theoretical framework of assessment in the type of learning which
is encouraged and the high pressure and tensions to perform well which can lead
to misunderstanding of learning objectives and diversion away from authentic
learning experiences. This poses the question of how would educators move
forward and avoid this? It is a difficult task to balance authentic learning with
meeting curricular outcomes as the importance of these aspects will differ from
person to person, so responsibility falls on teachers to identify teaching methods
which will satisfy those on each end of the spectrum.

Conclusion
Intelligent use of assessment is an important tool which can improve and enhance
learning outcomes and educational experience. The outcomes of assessment
should be aligned with educational goals and curricular achievements.
Appropriately identifying necessary assessment required for useful evaluation of
student progression within learning periods is as important as curriculum content
and method of delivery. Employing various types of assessment is encouraged as
it allows for diverse domains of learners and different preferred learning styles to
be tested in a number of ways. Upon conclusion of learning periods and
assessment cycles, results are evaluated, and based on this, changes to curricular
structure, delivery method and content can be more intelligently made to improve
outcomes for future students (Fuentealba, 2011). To conclude, good teaching,

Stage 6 school-based assessment task - Year 12 (500 words) Evaluation (1500 words)
Matthew Munoz – 17822099 PDHPE

good learning and good assessment cannot work without one another. They are
integral to effective teaching methods and improving student outcomes and
achievements. A proficient teacher will intelligently and strategically utilise
methods of assessment to monitor progress and knowledge markers and provide
valuable feedback for students to identify their current levels of ability and highlight
gaps in their knowledge.

Stage 6 school-based assessment task - Year 12 (500 words) Evaluation (1500 words)
Matthew Munoz – 17822099 PDHPE

References
Boston, C. (2002). The Concept of Formative Assessment. Retrieved from
https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED470206.pdf

Carter, R., & Nunan, D. (2001). The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to
Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chan, L., & Coles, P. (1987). Teaching principles and practice. Sydney: Prentice
Hall.

Cox, P., & Godfrey, J. (1997). The importance of assessment procedures to student
learning outcomes in religious education. Australian Journal of Teacher
Education, 22(2). doi: 10.14221/ajte.1997v22n2.5

Fuentealba, C. (2011). The role of assessment in the student learning


process. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Education, 38(2).

Hattie, J. (2003). Teachers Make a Difference. What is the research evidence?


Paper presented at the Building Teacher Quality: What does the research tell us
ACER Research Conference, Melbourne, Australia. Retrieved from
http://research.acer.edu.au/research_conference_2003/4/

Ninomiya, S. (2016). The Possibilities and Limitations of Assessment for Learning:


Exploring the Theory of Formative Assessment and the Notion of Closing the
Learning Gap. Educational Studies in Japan, 10(0), 79-91. doi:
10.7571/esjkyoiku.10.79

Poon Teng Fatt, J. (2000). Understanding the learning styles of students:


implications for educators. International Journal of Sociology and Social
Policy, 20(11/12), 31-45. doi: 10.1108/01443330010789269

Rea-Dickins, P., & Geimanie, K. (1993). Evaluation (pp. 72-74). Oxford: Oxford
University Press.

Scaife, J., & Wellington, J. (2010). Varying perspectives and practices in formative
and diagnostic assessment: a case study. Journal of Education for
Teaching, 36(2), 137-151. doi: 10.1080/02607471003651656

Stage 6 school-based assessment task - Year 12 (500 words) Evaluation (1500 words)