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GATERPiLLAR ® Gerald L. Shaheen
Vice President
Caterpillar inc.
Engine Division
Daniel M. Murphy
Vice President
Caterpillar, Inc.
Engine Division
Dear Valued Customer:
We want to thank you for purchasing a Caterpillar powered truck.
We have a goal to supply customers with the highest quality engines.
If at anytime you have problems or feel that you have not received the
reliability that you have purchased, please contact your authorized
Caterpillar truck engine dealer or contact Caterpillar directly by dialing
1-800-447-4986.
We have enclosed in your owners information package the Caterpillar
Authorized Truck Engine Parts and Service Directory to assist you.
Engine Division strives for the highest customer satisfaction possible.
Therefore, we offer you our fullest cooperation to treat you as a valued
partner in business. Thank you for your trust in purchasing Caterpillar
products.

Sincerely, Sincerely,

xA__W^-pv ^-^t_»_^tj»e-i—-
Dealer Locating Serwice 1
Information Section
Table of Contents

Customer Assistance
When a problem arises concerning the sale, operation or service of your Table of Contents
engine, it will normally be handled by the distributor or dealer in your
area. Please refer to the Caterpillar Truck Engine Parts & Service Directory
which will identify the facility nearest you, the hours of operation, phone Information Section
number and how to locate the dealer.
Foreword 3
Caterpillar has authorized parts & service outlets throughout North
America to satisfy your needs. These authorized dealers provide: Safety Section
Important Safety Information 5
• Factory Trained Service Personnel
6
• At many locations, 24 hour a day service and parts availability Safety
• Complete offering of Remanufactured Components Warning Signs and Labels 6
• Product information and published service literature General Hazard Information 8
Burn Prevention 10
Your satisfaction is a primary concern to Caterpillar, its distributors and Fire or Explosion Prevention 11
their dealers. If you have a problem that has not been handled to your Crushing or Cutting Prevention 12
satisfaction, we suggest the steps that follow. Mounting and Dismounting 12
Before Starting the Engine 12
Step One
Engine Starting 13
Discuss your problem with a member of management from the Electrical System 14
distributorship or dealership. If your problem originates with a dealer, Caterpillar Electronic Engines , 15
explain the matter to a management member of the distributorship with
whom the dealer has his parts and service agreement. Product Information Section
Model Views 16
Step Two
Engine Information 17
fj.
When it appears that your problem cannot be readily resolved at the Product Identification 21
distributor level without additional assistance, contact your Caterpillar
District Office. The phone number is available at the dealer/distributor. Reference Numbers and Ordering Parts 23
Emergency Vehicle Engine Features 25
Step Three
Engine Lifting and Storage 26
If you are still not satisfied, call Caterpillar Factory Customer Services
(24 hour service) at 1-800-447-4986. Operation Section
Gauges 27
When contacting Caterpillar direct, please keep in mind that ultimately
your problem will likely be resolved at the distributorship/dealership using Engine Diagnostics 29
their facilities, equipment and personnel. Therefore, it is suggested that Starting the Engine 35
you follow the above steps in sequence when experiencing a problem.
Operating the Engine 42
Auxiliary Engine Brakes 50
Cold Weather Operation 53
Stopping the Engine 63
Information Section
Table of Contents Information Section
Foreword

Maintenance Section
Torque Specifications .... ,__,. Foreword
D4
Lubricant Specifications -~
DO
Fuel Specifications 77 Literature Information
Coolant Specifications 7q This manual contains safety, operation instructions, lubrication and
S®0«S Oil Analysis Q1 maintenance information. Read, study and keep it with the vehicle
S*0*S Coolant Analysis qo literature and engine information.
Terminology qc_ Some photographs or illustrations in this manual show details or
Maintenance Section attachments that may be different from your engine. Guards and covers
may have been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
Refill Capacities qR
improvement and advancement of product design may have caused
Maintenance Schedule Recommendations 97 changes to your engine which are not included in this manual. Whenever
a question arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please consult
Maintenance Schedule - Engines with a Shallow Oil Sump 97
your Caterpillar dealer for the latest available information.
Maintenance Schedule - Engines with a Deep Oil Sump 100
N0tes
IZl02 Safety
Severe Service Application 151
The safety section lists basic safety precautions. In addition, this section
Maintenance Records _, _-n
I !_>__. identifies hazardous, warning situations. Read and understand the basic
Maintenance Log _.,-_ precautions listed in the safety section before operating or performing
lubrication, maintenance and repair on this product.
Warranty Section
Federal Emission Control Warranty 154 I. Operation
California Emission Control Warranty Statement 157 Operating techniques outlined in this manual are basic. This manual will
Emissions Warranty Information 162 assist with developing the skills and techniques required to operate the
Engine Protection Plans 165
engine more efficiently and economically.
The operation section is a reference for operators. Photographs and
Reference Information Section illustrations guide the operator through correct procedures of inspecting,
Customer Assistance .. ,<?n starting, operating and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
166
Ordering Replacement Parts discussion of gauges, indicators, features and controls, engine starting,
170
operating and stopping and diagnostic information.
Reference Materials 171

Index Section Maintenance


Index The maintenance section is a guide to engine care. The illustrated, step-
174 by-step instructions are grouped by Preventive Maintenance servicing
intervals. Items in the Maintenance Schedule are referenced to detailed
instructions that follow.

MHP
Information Section Safety Section
Foreword Important Safety Information

Recommended service should always be performed at the fuel Important Safety Information
consumption interval first, however Caterpillar recognizes that
distance traveled (kilometers/miles) or time (service hours) are more
convenient. Under very severe, dusty or freezing cold operating
conditions, more frequent maintenance than is specified in the Most accidents involving product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by
Maintenance Schedule may be necessary. Refer to the Severe failure to observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided
Service Application topics in this publication for the information. by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person
must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary training,
skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Maintenance Intervals
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the original requirement. dangerous and could result in injury or death.
The maintenance interval for each item listed in the Maintenance
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this
Schedule is primarily based on the item and its relationship to either product, until you have read and understood the operation, lubrication,
engine speed or load. Caterpillar recommends that a maintenance record maintenance and repair information.
be maintained as part of the engine's permanent record.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If
See the Maintenance Records section in this manual for information these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or
regarding documents that are generally accepted as proof of other persons.
maintenance or repair. Your authorized Caterpillar dealer can assist you in The hazards are identified by the "Safety Alert Symbol" and followed by a "Signal Word"
tailoring your Maintenance Schedule to meet the needs of your operating such as "WARNING" as shown below.
environment.

Owerhayl & WARNING


Major engine repair such as overhaul is not covered in this manual. Major
repairs are best left to the trained personnel of an authorized Caterpillar
dealer. Your Caterpillar dealer offers a variety of options regarding The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
overhaul programs. Consult your dealer for information regarding these Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
options.
The message that appears under the warning, explaining the hazard, can be either
If you experience a major engine failure which necessitates removal of the written or pictorially presented.
engine from the chassis, there are numerous overhaul options available
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the
from your Caterpillar dealer.
product and in this publication.
California Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a
potential hazard. The warnings in this publication and on the product are
Proposition 65 W a r n i n g therefore not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating
technique not specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used, you must
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the state satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and others. You should also ensure that
of California to cause cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm. the product will not be damaged or made unsafe by the operation, lubrication,
maintenance or repair procedures you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis
of information available at the time it was written. The specifications, torques,
pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change
at any time. These changes can affect the service given to the product. Obtain the
complete and most current information before starting any job. Caterpillar dealers
have the most current information available. For a list of the most current
publication form numbers available, see the Service Manual Contents Microfiche,
REG1139F.
Safety Sectior Safety Section
Safety Safety

Safety

Warning Signs and Labels

There may be several specific safety signs on your engine. Please take
the time to familiarize yourself with the safety signs.
Make sure that you can read all safety signs. Clean or replace these if you
cannot read the words or see the pictures. When cleaning the labels use
a cloth, water and soap. Do not use solvents, gasoline, etc, to clean
safety signs. The use of solvents, gasoline, etc, could loosen the sign's
adhesive and cause the sign to fall off.
Ether, Unit Injectors, High Pressure, Read Manual warning
You must replace a label if it is damaged, missing or cannot be read. If a label.
label is attached to a part, and that part is replaced, make sure a new
-label is installed on the replaced part. See your Caterpillar dealer for new The following paragraphs describe the warnings that are depicted on the
labels. warning label.

Do not operate or work on the engine unless you have read and Ether
understand the instructions and warnings in this Manual. Failure to follow The engine is equipped with an air inlet heater for cold weather starting
the instructions or heed the warnings could result in injury or death. Do not spray aerosol types of starting aids such as ether into the air inlet.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for replacement manuals. Proper care is Such use could result in an explosion and personal injury.
your responsibility.
yl. Unit Injectors
Ether, Unit Injectors, High Pressure, Read Manual O,
This engine uses high voltage to the unit injectors. Disconnect the unit
injector connector to prevent personal injury. Do not come in contact with
the injector harness connector while the engine is operating.

High Pressure
High pressure fluid spray can inject fluid into the body resulting in serious
injury or death. Always use a piece of cardboard or a board to detect
leaks. Never use your hand. \

Read Manual
Do not operate or work on this engine unless you have read and
understand the instructions and warnings in the Operation and
D04471 Maintenance Manual. Failure to follow the instructions or heed the
warnings could result in injury or death.
The Ether, Unit Injectors, High Pressure, Read Manual
warning label is located on the valve cover.
8
Safety Section Safety Section
Safety Safety

Consult any Caterpillar dealer for replacement labels. Proper care is your UNLESS INSTRUCTED DIFFERENTLY, PERFORM ALL
responsibility. MAINTENANCE AS FOLLOWS:
• Stop the engine.
General Hazard Information • Ensure the protective locks or controls are in the applied position.
• Engage the secondary (emergency) or parking brakes.
. Block or restrain the vehicle before performing maintenance or repair.
• Disconnect the batteries whenever performing any maintenance or
before servicing the electrical system.
• Do NOT attempt repairs you do not understand.
. When starting an engine after repairs have been made to the fuel
system make provisions for shutting off the engine's inlet air and/or fuel
supply (to stop the engine), in case there is an overspeed on start-up.
• Start the engine only from the operator's station (cab). Never short
across the starting motor terminals or the batteries as this could bypass
the engine neutral start system as well as damage the electncal system.

Pressure Air and Water


Pressure air can cause personal injury. When using pressure air for
Attach a DO NOT OPERATE or similar warning tag to the start switch or cleaning wear a protective face shield, protective clothing and protective
controls before performing maintenance or repairing the engine. These shoes Pressurized water could cause debris and/or hot water to be
tags, SEHS7332, are available from your Caterpillar dealer. blown and result in personal injury. The maximum air pressure must be
below 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on, around or in the vehicle
when maintenance or repair is being performed.
Fluid Penetration
• Tampering with the engine installation or with the vehicle OEM wiring
Always use a board or cardboard protector when checking for a leak.
installation can be dangerous and could result in personal injury or
death and/or engine damage. Escaping fluid under pressure, even a pin-hole size leak, can penetrate
• When operating the engine in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the body tissue, causing serious injury or possible death. If fluid is injected
outside. into your skin, it must be treated by a doctor familiar with this type of
• If the engine is not running, do NOT release the secondary or parking injury immediately.
brake systems unless the vehicle is blocked or restrained.
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, hearing protection and other Fluid Spillage Containment
protective equipment as required by job conditions.
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can catch on controls or other performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of
parts of the engine. the engine Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
• Make certain all protective guards and covers are secured in place. openinq any compartment or disassembling any component containing
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers since glass fluids Refer to NENG2500, Tools And Shop Products Guide, for tools and
containers can break. supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids in Caterpillar products.
• Report ai! needed repairs. Dispose fluids according to local regulations and mandates.
11
Safety Section Safety Section
Safety Safety

Asbestos Information Batteries give off flammable fumes which can explode. Always thaw a
frozen battery before jump starting. Frozen batteries can explode. Do not
This Caterpillar product and replacement parts shipped from the factory
smoke when observing the battery electrolyte levels.
are asbestos free. Caterpillar recommends the use of only genuine
Caterpillar replacement parts.
Fire or Explosion Prevention
Burn Prevention Determine whether the engine will be operated in an environment in which
combustible gases could be drawn through the air inlet system. These
Do not touch any part of an operating engine. Allow the engine and
gasls could cause the engine to overspeed, which in turn could seriously
components to cool before any repair or maintenance is performed on the
damage the engine and result in bodily injury or property damage. If your
engine. Relieve all pressure in air, oil, fuel or cooling systems before any
lines, fittings or related items are disconnected or removed. application involves the presence of combustible gases, consult your
Caterpillar dealer to obtain additional information concerning protection
devices suitable for the application involved.
Coolant
If equipped with an air conditioner, do not smoke when servicing,
To prevent personal injury, do not step up on engine to remove the filler charqinq or working around air conditioner leaks. Inhaling freon gas
cap, if applicable. Use an adequate ladder. At operating temperature, the through a lit cigarette or other smoking method, or inhahng fumes
engine coolant is hot and under pressure. The radiator and all lines to released from a flame contacting freon could cause bodily harm or death.
heaters or the engine contain hot coolant. Check the coolant level only DO NOT allow these situations to occur when servicing air conditioners or
after the engine has been stopped and the filler cap is cool enough to where freon gas may be present.
remove with your bare hand.
All fuels, most lubricants and some coolant mixtures are flammable.
Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly to relieve pressure. Allow Diesel fuel is flammable. Gasoline is flammable. The mixture of diesel and
cooling system components to cool before draining. When pressure is gasoline fumes are extremely explosive. Do not smoke while refueling or
relieved rapidly, this hot coolant water can turn into steam. Any contact
in a refueling area.
with hot water or steam can cause severe burns.
Keep all fuels and lubricants stored in properly marked containers and
Cooling system supplemental additive (conditioner) contains alkali. To away from all unauthorized persons.
prevent personal injury, avoid contact with the skin and eyes and do not
drink. Store all oily rags or other flammable material in a protective container, in
a safe place. Remove all flammable materials such as fuel, oil and other
Oils debris before they accumulate on the engine. Do not expose the engine
to flames, burning brush, etc, if at all possible.
Hot oil and components can cause personal injury. Do not allow hot oil or
components to contact the skin. Do not weld or flame cut on pipes or tubes that contain flammable fluids.
Clean them thoroughly with nonflammable solvent before welding or flame
Batteries cutting on them.
Exhaust shields (if equipped), which protect hot exhaust components from
Battery electrolyte contains acid and can cause injury. Avoid contact with
the skin and eyes. Wash hands after touching batteries and connectors. oil or fuel spray in the event of a line, tube or seal failure, must be
Use of gloves is recommended. Always wear protective glasses when installed correctly.
working with batteries. Provide adequate and proper waste oil disposal. Oil and fuel filters must
be properly installed and housing covers tightened to proper torque when
being changed.
12 13
Safety Section Safety Section
Safety Safety

Fire Extinguisher Determine the settings that have been selected for the Engine Monitoring
Have a fire extinguisher available and know how to use it. Inspect and System and for the idle shutdown timer. These settings should be
have it serviced as recommended on its instruction plate. recorded in the General Section of this manual under the Reference
Numbers chart. If you do not know these settings, consult your Caterpillar
dealer for assistance.
Crushing or Cutting Prevention
Support equipment and attachments properly when working beneath Engine Starting
them. Never work under a partially tilted cab unless it is properly secured.
Do not start the engine or move any of the controls or disengage the
Never attempt adjustments while the vehicle is moving or while the engine parking brakes if there is a warning tag attached to the controls. Check
is operating unless otherwise specified in this manual. Stay clear of all with the person who attached the tag before starting.
rotating and moving parts. Guards should be in place whenever
maintenance is not being performed. Keep objects away from moving fan Make sure no one is working on, or close to the engine or engine driven
blades. They will throw or cut any object or tool that falls or is pushed into components before starting it. Always make an inspection of the engine
them. before and after starting.

• Wear protective glasses when striking objects to avoid injury to your eyes. Enqine exhaust contains products of combustion which may be harmful
-Chips or other debris can fly off objects when struck. Make sure no one to your health. Always start and operate the engine in a well-ventilated
can be injured by flying debris before striking any object. area and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the outside.
Start the engine only from the operator's station (cab). Never short across
Mounting and Dismounting the electric starting motor terminals or the batteries to start the engine as
this could bypass the engine neutral-start system as well as damage the
Do not climb on, or jump off the engine. Do not stand on components electrical system. Always start the engine according to the required
which cannot support your weight. Use an adequate ladder. Clean steps, Engine Starting procedure described in this manual to prevent major
handholds and areas of the vehicle that you will be working on or around. engine component damage and personal injury.

Before Starting the Engine Starting Aids (if Used)


Inspect engine for potential hazards. Be sure all protective guards and Ether and other starting aids are poisonous and flammable. Do not smoke
covers are installed if an engine must be started to make adjustments or while using ether or changing ether cylinders. Use ether only in well
checks. To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work ventilated areas.
carefully around them.
Do not store replacement ether cylinders in direct sunlight or at
Do not disable or bypass automatic alarm/shutoff circuits. They are temperatures above 39°C (102°F), or in living or sleeping areas, or in the
provided to prevent personal injury and engine damage. enqine compartment or cab. Keep ether cylinders out of the reach of
unauthorized persons. Discard ether cylinders or canisters in a safe place.
Make provisions to shut off the air and/or fuel supply to stop the engine if Do not puncture or burn ether cylinders or canisters.
there is an overspeed on start-up after performing repair or maintenance
to the engine.
See the Service Manual for adjustment and repairs.
14 15
Safety Section Safety Section
Safety Safety

Electrical System To prevent potential sparks from igniting combustible gases produced by
some batteries, attach the negative (-) boost ground cable last, to the
Grounding Practices starting motor negative (-) terminal (if equipped) or to the engine block.
Proper grounding for the vehicle and for the engine electrical system is Check regularly for loose or frayed electrical wires. Have all loose or
necessary for proper vehicle performance and reliability. Improper frayed electrical wires tightened, repaired or replaced before operating the
grounding will result in uncontrolled and unreliable electrical circuit paths. vehicle. See the Operation Section of this manual for specific starting
instructions.
Uncontrolled engine electrical circuit paths can result in damage to main
bearings, crankshaft journal surfaces and aluminum components. Caterpillar Electronic Engines
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can also cause electrical noise which
may degrade the performance of the vehicle and the radio. Tampering with the engine electronic system installation or with the
vehicle OEM wiring installation can be dangerous and could result in
To prevent damage from electrical discharge, check to make sure that the personal injury or death and/or engine damage.
engine's electrical system has an engine to frame ground strap. For
engines with the alternator connected to an engine component, the This engine uses high voltage to the electronic unit injectors. Do not
ground strap must connect that component to the frame which in turn come in contact with the electronic unit injector connector while the
must be connected to the negative (-) battery terminal. engine is operating.
To insure proper functioning of the vehicle and the engine electrical This engine is equipped with customer selected monitoring features that
system, an engine-to-frame ground strap with a direct path to the battery may cause reduced power under certain conditions. The monitoring
must be used. This may be provided by way of a starting motor ground, a features and the idle features can only be programmed and/or changed
frame-to-starting motor ground, or a direct frame to engine ground. with electronic service tools and passwords. The engine may also be
equipped by the vehicle OEM with a shutdown that will shut the engine
The cylinder head must be grounded to the negative (-) battery terminal. down under certain conditions. The shutdown may take as little as 20
An engine-to-frame ground strap may be used from the cylinder head seconds from the time the warning indicator is activated. Read and
ground stud to the frame and to the negative (-) battery terminal. understand the information in this manual concerning the programmable
Alternatively, use a ground strap from the cylinder head ground stud to engine monitoring options and the idle shutdown timer. Also refer to the
the starting motor and to the negative (-) battery terminal. Reference Numbers section in this manual for the specific settings of your
The engine alternator must be grounded with a wire of a size that is engine.
adequate to handle the full charging current of the alternator. When selected or programmed, high coolant temperature can cause the
All grounds must be tight and free of corrosion. Ground wires and ground engine power and vehicle speed to be limited.
straps should be combined only at the points that are dedicated for The OEM may use a shutdown feature that will shut the engine down
ground use. when a warning indicator activates. If possible, the vehicle should be
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery cable from the steered carefully off the roadway and brought to a stop. The vehicle can
battery when the charging unit is operating. A spark can cause the be restarted following the shut down if necessary for emergency repairs.
flammable vapor mixture of hydrogen and oxygen to explode. Refer to the OEM for information about your particular electronic engine
shutdown features.
16 17
Product Information Section Product Information Section
Model Views Engine Information

Model ¥iews Engine Information

The 3116 and 3126 HEUI Air-to-Air Aftercooling (ATAAC) Engines are
designed primarily for on-highway medium duty applications. The engines
are four stroke cycle, in-line six cylinder engines with direct fuel injection.

6 5 4 3 2 1

^9) (^9) (^9) (^9) (^9) (^9

E00996

(1) through (6) Engine cylinder numbers. (A) Exhaust


valves. (B) Inlet valves.

3116 HEUI Engine Specifications


Cylinders and Arrangement 6 In-Line
Bore 105 mm (4.13 in)
Stroke 127 mm (5.0 in)
Displacement 6.6 L (403 cu in)
Firing Order 1-5-3-6-2-4
Rotation (viewed from flywheel) Counterclockwise
Inlet Valve Lash Setting 0.38 mm (0.015 in)
Exhaust Valve Lash Setting 0.64 mm (0.025 in)

(1) Lifting eye. (2) Oil filler cap. (3)-Oil level gage. (4) Crankcase breather.
(5) Cylinder head ground stud. (6) Air compressor. (7) Oil drain-plug. (8) Fuel
filter. (9) Electronic control module (ECM). (10) Water temperature regulator
(thermostat) housing. (11) Belt tensioner. (12) Water drain plug.
(13) Turbocharger. (14) Oil filter. (15) Water pump. (16) Crankshaft vibration
damper.
• 19
18
Product Information Section Product Information Section
Engine Information Engine Information

3126 HEUI Engine Specifications


The engine has built-in diagnostics to assure that all of the components
are functioning properly. In the event of a deviation from the programmed
Cylinders and Arrangement 6 In-Line
limits the operator will be alerted to the condition by a CHECK
Bore 110 mm (4.33 in) ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC lamp that is mounted on the dashboard. Under
Stroke 127 mm (5.0 in) certain conditions, the engine horsepower and the vehicle speed may be
Displacement 7.2 L (440 cu in) limited A Caterpillar electronic service tool or the vehicle's cruise control
Firing Order 1-5-3-6-2-4
- switches (if equipped) may be used to display the diagnostic code There
are three types of diagnostic codes; active, logged and event. Most of the
Rotation (viewed from flywheel) Counterclockwise
diagnostic codes are logged and stored in the ECM. Refer to Engine
Inlet Vaive Lash Setting 0.38 mm (0.015 in) Diagnostics section of this publication for additional information.
Exhaust Valve Lash Setting 0.64 mm (0.025 in)
The ECM provides an electronic governor that controls the unit injector
output in order to maintain the desired engine rpm. The electronic
The 3116 and 3126 HEUI Engines are electronically controlled. The governor functions like the Caterpillar mechanical governor, but includes
electronic engine control system was designed to provide electronic additional features.
governing, automatic air/fuel ratio control, torque rise shaping, fuel
injection timing control, and system diagnostics. The following The cooling system consists of a belt driven centrifugal water pump and
programmable features are included in the electronic control: cruise a water temperature regulator (thermostat) that regulates the engine
control, PTO governing, vehicle speed limiting, idle shutdown timer, and coolant temperature. The cooling system includes and oil cooler and
exhaust brake control. radiator connections which incorporate a shunt system.

NOTE: Some 3116 Engines have the following features: high gear rpm The engine lubricating oil, which is both cooled and filtered, is supplied
limiting, low gear rpm limiting, and progressive shift engine speed control. by a qear type pump. Bypass valves provide flow of lubrication oil to the
engine when oil viscosity is high, or if either the oil cooler or the oil filter
Additional features such as improved cold starting capability, tamper elements become plugged.
resistance, diagnostics, an American Trucking Association (ATA) data link
(SAE J1587), and an optional Engine Monitoring Package provide I Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls and engine performance
increased engine fuel economy and serviceability. depend on adherence to proper operation and maintenance
recommendations, and the use of recommended fuels lubrication oils,
Hydraulically Actuated Electronic Unit Injectors (HEUI) perform fuel and coolants. Follow the maintenance recommendations in the
pumping, fuel metering, and fuel timing functions. The unit injectors are Maintenance Schedule.
controlled by the Electronic Control Module (ECM) using the camshaft
position and the engine speed signals from the speed/timing sensors as
well as inlet manifold pressure from the boost sensor. The engine's rated Aftermarket Products and Caterpillar Engines
rpm is identified on the Information Film. When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables (such as filters, oil
additives catalysts, etc) which are made by other manufacturers are used
on Caterpillar products, the Caterpillar warranty is not effected simply
because of such use. However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers' devices, accessories, or consumables
are NOT Caterpillar factory defects and therefore are NOT covered
under the Caterpillar warranty.
21
20
Product Information Section
Product Information Section
Engine Information Product Identification

Welding and Caterpillar Electronic Engines


Product Identification
NOTICE
Because the strength of the frame may decrease, some manufacturers
do not recommended welding onto a vehicle frame or rail. Refer to your Caterpillar engines are identified with Serial Numbers, Performance
OEM regarding welding on a vehicle frame or rail. S p l c i S o n Numbers (fuel system settings) and Arrangement Numbers.
In some cases Modification Numbers are also used.
Fuel setting information, engine arrangement, serial number, and the full
Before welding on a vehicle equipped with an electronic engine, the
load rpm are printed on the Information Film.
precautions that follow should be observed:
Fuel setting information numbers are also stored in the ECM and can be
• Disconnect all of the cables that are connected to the vehicle batteries
read by using Caterpillar electronic service tools.
• Disconnect both of the ECM Connectors (J1/P1 and J2/P2) Caterpillar dealers need all of these numbers to determine which
• Do not ground the welder to the ECM or to the engine ground stud S S e n t s were included on the engine when it was assemb ed at the
factor? This permits accurate identification of replacement part numbers.
• Locate the ground as close as possible to the welding area
Serial Number Plate

The Serial Number Plate is located on the side of the cylinder block.
C v X*% iA, #4 A i / ii /*»• TJ 4 /f XO

4 £. "f 10 0 0 7

A0\/ 3 3 2 HfZH-U.Q
22 23
Product Information Section Product Information Section
Product identification Reference Numbers and Ordering Parts
llll
lift

lit Reference Numbers and Ordering


Parts
Information Film Quality Caterpillar replacement parts are available from Caterpillar dealers
throughout North America and the rest of the world. Their parts stocks
are up to date and include all of the parts that are normally required to
CORE M
protect your Caterpillar engine investment.
BiSBE m o .
OT. 110. FACT0OT MSTMIEB
WBIFICAHOtt 1®.
SOIMESSIOIt ESAKE ® When ordering parts, your order should specify the part number, the
rew SKC
MAX
M.T
g_
p,.
part name and the quantity of the parts that are needed. Your order
@Ei w. should specify the serial number, the arrangement number and the
as FTS
modification number of the engine for which the parts are needed. If you
HATH. f^
are in doubt about the part number, please provide your dealer with a
Is® AT RPH
complete description of the needed item.
MM r.- to AT mi
m-m» ® When maintenance or repair is needed for your Caterpillar engine, be
prepared to give the dealer all of the information that is provided on the
D40217 engine's Information Film.
The Information Film is located on the valve cover. ® Discuss the problem with the dealer, such as when the problem occurs,
what happens, etc. This will help the dealer to troubleshoot and solve
the problem faster.
Fill in blanks for future reference.
Chassis Serial No
Eng ne ModeL
Eng ne Serial No._
Engine Arrangement No._
Modification No
Engine Low Idle RPM_
Engine Full Load RPM_
Engine Full Torque
Performance Specification No._
Engine kW (hp)
24 25
Product Information Section Product Information Section
Reference Numbers and Ordering Parts Emergency Vehicle Engine Features

Fuel Filter No..


Emergency Vehicle Engine Features
Primary Fuel Filter No..
Lubrication Oil Filter Element No..
NOTE: The emergency vehicle engine features refer 3126 to fire truck
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element No and ambulance engines that are equipped with an automatic transmission
and power ratings of 275 hp or 330 hp.
Liquid Supplemental Coolant Additive
(Conditioner) Initial Fill Quantity The emergency vehicle engine features have the following modifications.
Liquid Supplemental Coolant Additive • Top Tank Design Temperature (maximum allowable)
Maintenance Quantity 110°C(230°F)
Air Cleaner Element No.. • High Coolant Temperature Warning
113°C(235°F)
Fan and Accessory Drive Belt No..
• Very High Coolant Temperature Warning
Water Pump Belt No
115°C(240°F)
Alternator Belt No
• Very High Coolant Temperature Shutdown (OEM installed)
Lubrication System Capacity (Total). 115°C(240°F)

Cooling System Capacity (Total) If the emergency vehicle engine is programmed to derate, reduced power
will begin when the High Coolant Temperature Warning [113°C (235°F)]
fault code flashes. The derate will continue until the coolant temperature
Engine Monitoring System Parameters reaches 115°C(240°F).
Engine Monitoring Mode Selected
DOff
• Warning Only
D Derate (Warn/Derate) "
Idle Shutdown Timer. . Minutes
26 27
Product Information Section Operation Section
Engine Lifting and Storage # Gauges
:

Engine Lifting and Storage Gauges

Engine Lifting Refer to the Truck Owners Manual for information on the layout of your
gauge package. Gauges provide a "look" inside the engine. Be sure they
NOTICE are in good working order. Determine what is the "normal" operating
When it is necessary to remove a component, remember that the capa- range by observing your gauges over a period of time.
city of an eyebolt is less as the angle between the supporting members
and the object becomes less than 90 degrees. Eye bolts and brackets Noticeable changes in gauge readings are an indicator of potential gauge
should never be bent and should only be loaded in tension. or engine problems. This also applies to gauge readings that have
changed significantly but are still within specifications. The cause of any
sudden or significant change in the gauge readings should be determined
and corrected. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance as needed.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Lift the engine by using an
adjustable lifting beam. All of the supporting members (chains and Caterpillar Electronic engines require one lamp in addition to the gauge
cables) should be parallel to each other, and as near perpendicular as package that is normally provided.
possible to the top of the object that is being lifted.
The CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC lamp is yellow/amber. The purpose
Some removals require the use of lifting fixtures in order to obtain proper of the CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC (YELLOW) lamp is to communicate
balance and to provide safe handling. Lifting eyes are designed for the the status of the engine's electronic system.
arrangement as sold. Alterations to the lifting eyes and/or to the
arrangement weight make the lifting devices inadequate and deficient. If An optional red WARNING lamp is available. The purpose of the
you make alterations, you are responsible for providing adequate lifting WARNING (RED) lamp is to warn the operator of engine problems such
devices. To remove the engine, use the two lifting eyes that are on the as low oil pressure, high coolant temperature, low coolant level or high
front and the rear of the engine. inlet air temperature.

Engine Storage
NOTICE
Special precautions should be taken for engines that will remain out of If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. Engine damage can
service for prolonged time periods. result.

The lubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls and from the piston
rings of engines that are not started for several weeks. Rust can form on yj-\\ Oil Pressure - Typical oil pressure range is 240 to 480 kPa (35
the cylinder liner surface, which will increase engine wear and may result W ^ W to 70 psi) when the engine is operating at rated engine speed,
in shorter engine service life. ^ — ^ with SAE 15W40 oil, at operating temperature. Higher oil pressure
is normal on start-up with cold oil. A lower pressure is normal at low idle
Check the cooling system for adequate protection against freezing (if
speed. Oil pressure will increase and stabilize as the engine speed
applicable). A 50/50 solution of Caterpillar (permanent-type) Antifreeze
increases.
and approved water will provide protection to -37°C (-34°F).
Refer to SEHS9031, Storage Procedures For Caterpillar Products, for more
detailed information on engine storage. Consult with your Caterpillar
dealer for instructions to prepare your engine for longer storage periods.
•ill
28 29
Operation Section Operation Section
llll Gauges 'I Engine Diagnostics

Water (Coolant) Temperature - Typical water temperature range


is 88 to 102°C (190 to 215°F). Maximum allowable water
Engine Diagnostics
temperature is 105°C (220°F) with the cooling system
pressurized. Higher temperatures may occur under certain conditions.
Self-Diagnostics
Ammeter - Indicates the amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. When the engine is operating, the Caterpillar Electronic Engines have self diagnostic capability. When the
ammeter indicates the charging system voltage. The indicator system detects a problem, the CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC (YELLOW)
up should normally be slightly to the positive (right) side of "0" (zero). If the lamp activates. In most cases a diagnostic code will be stored in
lite indicator is constantly to the negative (left or red band) side of "0" (zero) permanent memory within the ECM. The diagnostic code can be
or if the indicator shows an excessive (positive) charge during normal retrieved by using either of the following methods.
operation, have the charging system checked for malfunction and • Caterpillar electronic service tool
corrected.
• CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC lamp
Some vehicles have electronic dashboards that provide a direct readout
NOTICE of engine diagnostic codes. If equipped with an electronic dashboard
Do not exceed 2900 rpm in any situation. display, follow the instructions that are provided by the vehicle
manufacturer in order to retrieve the engine diagnostic codes.

Tachometer (If Equipped) - Indicates engine speed [revolutions Check Engine/Diagnostic Lamp
per minute (rpm)]. The engine can be operated at high idle
without damage, but the engine should not be allowed to The CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC (YELLOW) lamp on the vehicle
overspeed. Overspeeding when downshifting, going downhill, etc, can dashboard is used to communicate the status or the operation situations
result in serious damage to the engine. of the electronic engine and the control system.
Engine Oil Temperature - Measures oil temperature in the oil When the ignition key switch is turned ON, the YELLOW lamp will
pan. Higher than normal oil temperature indicates a heat problem illuminate for five seconds (as a lamp check). The lamp will also illuminate
in the lubrication system and/or the cooling system. This can and flash every five seconds whenever the ECM detects an ACTIVE fault
damage the cylinder heads, the cylinder liners, the pistons, and the or condition. If the lamp comes ON and continues to flash every five
crankshaft bearings. seconds after initial start-up, the ECM has detected a system problem.

Fuel Level - This electrically operated gauge indicates the level The YELLOW lamp is also used for the Idle Shutdown Timer. The lamp will
of fuel in the fuel tank. The fuel level gauge registers only when start to flash at a rapid rate 90 seconds before the programmed idle time
the ignition key switch is ON. expires. The engine will shut down after the 90 second interval. To disable
the Idle Shutdown Timer, the ALLOW IDLE SHUTDOWN OVERRIDE must
Fuel Pressure - Indicates fuel pressure to the unit injectors from be programmed to YES. The clutch pedal or the service brake pedal must
the fuel filter. The indicator should register in the NORMAL be depressed during the final 90 seconds while the YELLOW lamp is
(green) range. A drop in fuel pressure usually indicates dirty or flashing. A diagnostic EVENT code, Override of Idle Shutdown Timer, will
plugged fuel filters. be logged 1n the ECM.
Service Hour Meter - Indicates the total number of clock hours
that the engine has operated.
atsga

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Diagnostic Flash Code/Engine Performance Relationship


Effect On Engine Performance Suggested Operator Action

Diagnostic Flash Code Low Engine Speed Engine Shut Down Service Schedule
Engine Service
Misfire Power Reduced Shutdown Vehicle ASAP

0 1 - Idle Shutdown Override


1 5 - Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor Fault
1 7 - Excessive Injection Actuation Pressure Fault
1 8 - Inj. Actuation Press. Control Valve Driver Fault
1 9 - Inj. Actuation Pressure System Fault
2 1 - Sensor Supply Voltage F a u l t '
2 5 - Boost Pressure Sensor F a u l t 1
2 7 - Coolant Temperature Sensor F a u l t '
2 8 - Check Throttle Sensor Adjustment
3 1 - Loss Of Vehicle Speed Signal
3 2 - Throttle Position Sensor Fault
3 4 - Engine RPM Signal Fault
3 5 - Engine Overspeed Warning
3 6 - Vehicle Speed Signal Fault
3 8 - Inlet Air Temperature Sensor F a u l t '
4 1 - Vehicle Overspeed Warning
4 2 - Check Sensor Calibrations
4 7 - Idle Shutdown Occurrence
4 9 - Inlet Air Heater Driver F a u l t '
5 1 - Intermittent Battery Power To ECM
5 5 - No Detected Faults
5 6 - Check Customer/System Parameters
5 9 - Incorrect Engine Software
6 1 - High/Very High Coolant Temperature Warning rs 0
7 1 - Cylinder 1 Fault CQ TJ
7 2 - Cylinder 2 Fault •3 CO
7 3 - Cylinder 3 Fault CD 03
7 4 - Cylinder 4 Fault O O
7 5 - Cylinder 5 Fault £J_> TJ
7 6 - Cylinder 6 Fault CU
N O T E : - An 'X" indicates that the effect on engine performance WILL occur if the code is active. A •/ (check mark) indicates that the effect on engine performace MAY occur il -J
C/3
1
0 CD
- These ^ ^ \ S ^ n i ^ ^ m ^ ^ ^ l m s i ^ e m a ^ ' \ x v i e ) specific environmental conditions, such as engine start-up at cold temperature, cold weather operation at
hiqh altitudes, etc. , __ . . . . . . . . _. ..
f-t- y.
2
- These Diagnostic Flash Codes reduce the effectiveness of the Engine Monitoring feature when active. 0 0 w
Shut Down Vehicle: Drive the vehicle cautiously off the road and get immediate service. Severe engine damage may result. (fl 13
Service ASAP (As Soon As Possible): The operator should go to the nearest qualified service location.
Schedule Service: The operator should have the problem investigated when convenient.
32 33
Operation Section Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics Engine Diagnostics
|

Operation With Intermittent Diagnostic Codes Engine Monitoring Package


If the YELLOW lamp illuminates during engine operation and then shuts This programmable feature monitors:
off, an intermittent fault may have occurred. Intermittent faults are logged ® coolant temperature
into the permanent memory of the ECM. • inlet manifold air temperature
In most cases it is not necessary to stop the engine because of an ® coolant level (if equipped with the sensor supplied by the OEM)
intermittent code. However, we recommend that the operator retrieve the
code(s) and refer to the chart in order to identify the nature of the event.
The operator should note or document the circumstances (low power, i \ WARNING
vehicle/engine speed limits, excessive smoke, etc) involved during the
time the lamp was ON. Documentation may be useful for future reference, If the Shutdown Mode has been selected and the warning indicator
and in order to help troubleshoot the situation. activates, engine shutdown may take as little as 20 seconds from the
time the warning indicator is activated. If possible, the vehicle should
The most likely cause of an intermittent code is a faulty connection or be steered carefully off of the roadway and brought to a stop. The
damaged wiring. Next is a component failure such as a sensor or a vehicle can be restarted following shutdown if necessary for emer-
switch. The least likely cause is the ECM. gency maneuvers.
Jli LOGGED diagnostic codes can be a valuable indicator for
troubleshooting intermittent problems. A code that is logged repeatedly
may indicate a problem that needs special investigation. Codes that are NOTICE
logged only a few times and do not result in operator complaints may not The Engine Monitoring Package is NOT a guarantee against catastro-
need attention until a scheduled maintenance interval. phic failures. Programmed delays and derate schedules are designed to
minimize false alarms and provide time for the operator to bring the
Operation With Active Diagnostic Codes vehicle to a stop.

If the YELLOW lamp stays ON during normal engine operation, first


ensure that the engine has proper oil pressure, coolant temperature and Engine Derating
coolant level. If the engine has the proper oil pressure and the YELLOW
lamp is ON, this indicates that the system has identified a situation that is Derate is initiated when the CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC lamp flashes,
not within specification. depending on the severity of the condition. The full derate places the
following limits on operation.
Retrieve the code(s), refer to the Diagnostic Flash Code chart, and follow ®The engine power is limited to 90 kW (120 hp)
the Suggested Operator Action (i.e., Shut Down Engine/Vehicle, Service • The vehicle speed is limited to 72 km/h (45 mph)
ASAP, or Schedule Service).
Refer to the Service Manual for troubleshooting the system operation. For
The ACTIVE code should be investigated and corrected as soon as further information or assistance, consult your Caterpillar dealer.
possible. Repairing the cause of the code will shut the lamp OFF (if there
is only one ACTIVE code).
35
34
Operation Section
Operation Section
Starting the Engine
Engine Diagnostics |

Customer Specified Parameters Starting the Engine


Customer Specified Parameters can be programmed into the ECM to
enhance fuel efficiency and operator convenience. Some parameters may
affect engine operation and lead to operator complaints about power or
performance, even though the engine is performing to specification. / ^ WARNING
These parameters allow the owner/customer to influence how the vehicle
is driven. The parameters can be changed as often as needed. Password Engine exhaust contains products of combustion which may be
protection enables the owner/customer to control the options and who harmful to your health. Always start and operate the engine in a well
can change the parameters. Refer to LEXT7203, Programming Caterpillar ventilated area and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
Electronic Truck Engines, for information. Consult with your Caterpillar outside.
dealer for detailed instructions on how to program the electronic engine
for optimum performance and fuel economy.
Under-the-Hood Inspection
A few of the Customer Specified Parameters for the PTO Governor are
explained below. Make a thorough under-the-hood inspection before starting the engine.
Look for items such as fuel, oil, or coolant leaks, worn belts, and trash
Idle/PTO Vehicle Speed Limit - The maximum vehicle speed at which buildup. Remove trash buildup and have repairs made as needed.
the Idle/PTO Governor will function [between 0 and 24 km/h (0 and 15
mph)]. if the vehicle speed exceeds the programmed value, the control Perform required Daily maintenance before starting the engine.
will exit the Idle/PTO Vehicle Speed Limit mode.
Idle RPM Limit - The maximum engine rpm when the engine is in the Idle Air Inlet Heater
Mode. The idle rpm limit is between 600 rpm and the Top Engine Limit
(TEL) for the particular engine rating. ^WARNING
Idle/PTO RPM Ramp Rate - The rate of increase or decrease in engine
speed (rpm). This parameter determines the rate of ACCEL, DECEL, and DO NOT USE ETHER (starting fluids) unless specifically instructed to
RESUME Idle/PTO. The programmable limits are between 5 rpm/second do so. This diesel engine is equipped with an electric air inlet heater
and 1000 rpm/second. system to aid cold weather starting and reduce white smoke. Do not
spray ether into the air inlet. It will contact the heater elements. Use
starting fluid ONLY if the vehicle is equipped with the optional auto-
matic ether injection system or immediate engine damage and per-
sonal injury may result.

NOTE: There will be an indicator lamp on the dashboard of the vehicle


marked AIR INLET HEATER.
To aid cold weather starting and reduce white smoke at start-up, the
engine is equipped with an electric air heater grid located at the air inlet
elbow. Under the proper conditions, the ECM activates a relay which
cycles the Air Inlet Heater on and off.
37
36
Operation Section Operation Section
Starting the Engine Starting the Engine
|

The Air Inlet Heater system is designed to operate prior to start-up, during 3 Turn the ignition key switch to the START position in order to crank
cranking, and after the engine has started. If the sum of the coolant the engine. The Air Inlet Heater will turn ON if the sum of the coo ant
temperature and the inlet air temperature is below 25°C (77°F), the ECM temperature and the inlet air temperature is less than 25 C {it A
allows the heater to stay on for preheating when the ignition key switch is
turned to the ON (RUN) position. The indicator lamp on the instrument DO NOT PUSH DOWN OR HOLD THE THROTTLE DOWN while
panel will turn on when the Air Inlet Heater system is functioning. The cranking the engine. The system will automatically provide the correct
electric air heater grid, the starting motor solenoid, the ECM, and sensors amount of fuel to start the engine.
are part of the engine arrangement. If the engine does not start after 15 to 20 seconds of cranking, release
he ignSPon key switch. If the sum of the coolant temperature and the inlet
Start the engine using the following procedure.
aTtemperature is less than 25°C (77°F), the Air Inlet Heater preheat cycle
1. Engage the parking brake. Place the transmission in NEUTRAL. If the will S t a r t Turn to the ignition key switch to the OFF posrtion. Allow the
vehicle is equipped with a manual transmission, depress the clutch pedal starting motor to cool for two minutes. Repeat steps 2 and 6.
in order to disengage the flywheel clutch. This reduces transmission drag
and prevents movement of the vehicle. Depressing the clutch in cold
weather can mean the difference between starting and not starting by NOTICE
reducing battery drain. Do not increase engine speed until the oil pressure gauge indicates
normal. OH pressure should raise within 15 seconds after the engine
The CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC lamp will turn ON for five seconds as
a system lamp check when the ignition key switch is first turned on. If the ^ p r e s s u r e is not indicated on gauge within 15 seconds, do not drive
lamp fails to turn ON, notify your Caterpillar dealer. If the lamp continues the vehicle. STOP the engine, investigate and correct the cause.
to flash after the engine has started, the ECM has detected an engine
system problem. Refer to Engine Diagnostics topic.
4. Release the ignition key switch to the ON (RUN) position immediately
2. Turn the ignition key switch to the ON position. The Air Inlet Heater
after the engine starts. After the engine starts, check to make sure the
system has a preheat function to improve cold weather starting.
Snsmission is still in NEUTRAL and release the clutch pedal (manual
NOTE: The AIR INLET HEATER indicator lamp will turn ON for a minimum transmission). The vehicle may be operated at a light load and speed as
of two seconds regardless of the coolant temperature. If the AIR INLET soon^s the engine oil pressure and air pressure have reached normal
HEATER indicator lamp stays ON for more than two seconds, wait until levels.
the indicator lamp turns to OFF (approximately 30 seconds) before
After the engine has started, the Air Inlet Heater may continue to operate
attempting to start the engine. If the operator attempts to start the engine
fn a Continuous mode and/or in an On/Off cycle mode. The Continuous
before the indicator lamp goes OFF, the ECM will control the Air Inlet
mode can last for a maximum of seven minutes, followed by the On/Off
Heater for the cranking cycle. Attempting to start the engine before the
indicator lamp goes OFF could result in excessive white smoke at start- cvde mode During the On/Off cycle mode, the Air Inlet Heater cycles ON
up. and OFFfor ten seconds. The Air Inlet Heater will turn OFF when the sum
of the coolant temperature and the air inlet temperature exceeds 35 C
(95°F).
NOTICE If the engine is operated with a low load, the engine will reach .normal
Do not keep the starting motor engaged for more than 30 seconds at a operating temperature sooner than when the engine is id ed with no load
time. Allow the starting motor to cool for two minutes before trying When idling in cold weather, increase the engine speed to approximately
again. If the engine does not start after three attempts, determine the 1000 to 1200 rpm in order to warm-up the engine more quickly. Do not
cause of malfunction. Pumping the accelerator will in no way assist in race the engine in order to speed the warm-up. Limit unnecessary idle
starting the engine.
time to ten minutes.
38 39
Operation Section Operation Section
Starting the Engine Starting the Engine

Ether Injection System Starting Problems


Occasional starting difficulty may be caused by a low battery charge, a
A WARNING lack of fuel, or a wiring harness problem.

Personal injury or property damage can result from alcohol or start- If the engine fuel system has been run dry, fill the fuel tank and prime the
ing fluids. Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and toxic fuel system. Refer to the Priming the Fuel System topic.
and if improperly stored could result in injury or property damage. If the other problems are suspected, perform the appropriate following
When using starting fluid, carefully follow the instructions that are procedure in order to start the engine.
provided by the manufacturer of the vehicle. Use ether sparingly and
spray it only while cranking the engine. Starting From An External Electrical Source
Failure to follow these instructions could result in an explosion
and/or fire and possible personal injury. ^ WARNING

Improper Jumper cable connections can cause an explosion resulting


NOTICE in personal injury.
Excessive ether can cause piston and ring damage. Use ether for cold Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could cause vapors to
starting purposes only. Do not use excessive starting fluid during start- explode. Do not allow jumper cable ends to contact each other or the
ing or after the engine is running. engine.

NOTICE NOTICE
The optional automatic ether injection system is the only starting fluid When jump starting an engine, follow the instructions below to properly
system that is recommended. Excessive starting fluid can cause piston start the engine. This engine may be equipped with a 12 volt or a 24 volt
and ring damage. Use starting fluid for cold starting purposes only. starting system. Use only equal voltage for boost starting. The use of
higher voltage will damage the electrical system.
When using jumper cables always connect the positive (+) cable to the
Startability will be improved at temperatures below 0°C (32°F) by the use positive (+) terminal of battery which is connected to starting motor
of an automatic ether injection system and/or use of a jacket water solenoid. Connect the negative (-) cable from the external source to
heater. This will help alleviate white smoke and misfire during cold starting motor negative (-) terminal. If NOT equipped with a starting
weather start-up. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for other means of motor negative (-) terminal, connect the negative (-) terminal to the
improving startability in cold temperatures. engine block.
An optional ether starting aid is available for use with the engine. The Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can be damaged.
system injects ether into the air inlet manifold AFTER the air inlet heater. Attach the ground cable last and remove the ground cable first.
Extensive damage to the engine could occur if ether is directed at the air
inlet heater element while the air inlet heater is activated.
1. Turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position. Remove the key and
If the vehicle is equipped with the ether injection system, crank the turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching the cables.
engine, depress the ether switch, hold the ether switch for three seconds,
and release the ether switch. Additional injections may be necessary to
start and/or achieve low idle speed.
1
40 41
Operation Section Operation Section
Starting the Engine Starting the Engine
>

2. Connect one end of the positive (+) cable to the positive (+) terminal Harness/Wiring Problem
of the battery being started. Connect the other of the positive (+) cable to
the positive (+) terminal of the power source.
3. Connect one end of the negative (-) cable to the negative (-) terminal
of the power source. Connect the other end of the negative (-) cable to
the starting motor negative (-) terminal or to the engine block. This
prevents potential sparks from igniting combustible gases produced by
some batteries.
4. Allow sufficient time to partially charge the battery. The engine will not
continue to operate after the engine is started if the battery does not have
a partial charge.
5. Start the engine. After the engine starts, disconnect the negative (-)
cable from the starting motor negative (-) terminal or from the engine
block. Disconnect the other end of the negative (-) cable from the
negative (-) terminal of the power source. Locate the ECM. Two harness connectors are attached to the ECM. The
upper connector is the engine harness and the lower connector is the
6. Disconnect the positive (+) cable from the positive (+) terminal of the chassis harness. Check the connectors to be sure that the connectors
battery on the engine that is being started. Disconnect the positive (+) are secure. Perform a "tug test" on EACH wire in the lower connector.
cable from the positive (+) terminal of the power source.
1. Pull (tug) on each wire with approximately 4.5 kg (10 pounds) of force.
The wire should remain in the connector.
2. If a wire feels loose, push the wire back into the connector. Then tug
the wire again in order to ensure that the wire is locked into place.
3. Start the engine. If the engine does not start, consult the nearest
Caterpillar dealer for assistance.

A.

1
pi
IA.
m• : 42 43
fltr '" Operation Section Operation Section
IA-* Operating the Engine Operating the Engine
if'

After the vehicle is stationary, the idle shutdown timer begins. The engine
Operating the Engine can be operating at low idle or at an idle rpm selected by the PTO
governor. The CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC (YELLOW) lamp will flash
rapidly 90 seconds prior to shutdown. Movement of the vehicle
automatically resets the idle shutdown timer to the programmed setting.
Proper operation, driving techniques and maintenance are key factors in
obtaining the maximum service life and economy of Caterpillar engines. To override the idle shutdown timer:
Following the recommendations in this manual will lower operation costs.
For more information, ask your Caterpillar dealer for LEDT2254, CAT 1. Program the ALLOW IDLE SHUTDOWN OVERRIDE to YES.
Answers Your Questions About Truck Performance. 2. The CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC (YELLOW) lamp will flash rapidly
90 seconds prior to shutdown. Depress the service brake or the clutch
pedal during the 90 seconds when the YELLOW lamp flashes.

Idle speed is adjustable on Caterpillar electronic engines. Consult your After an idle shutdown, the engine can be restarted without turning the
Caterpillar dealer for information. The idle speed preset to 700 rpm. ignition key switch to the OFF position.

Avoid excess idling. If the vehicle is parked for more than five minutes, The override capability is disabled If the ALLOW IDLE SHUTDOWN
STOP the engine. An engine can burn from 2.8 to 5.7 L (.7 to 1.5 US OVERRIDE is programmed to NO.
gal) of fuel per hour while idling. Excessive idling can cause excessive
carbon buildup and/or slobber, which is harmful to the engine. Cold Mode Operation
If extended idle time is required, control the engine speed to 1000 rpm or Cold mode is initiated if the sum of the coolant temperature and the air
greater and take steps to ensure that the coolant temperature exceeds inlet temperature is less than 35°C (95°F). In cold mode, the low idle is
82°C (180°F). Consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance. increased to 1000 rpm and the engine power is limited. The cold mode
strategy provides reduced smoke emission and faster warm-up time.
Fast idle can be programmed within the range of 700 to 1600 rpm. Fast
idle requires an ON/OFF switch on the dashboard. Consult your Cold mode is deactivated when the temperature condition is met, or when
Caterpillar dealer for assistance. • the engine has been operating for 12 minutes.
After cold mode is completed, the engine should be operated at low rpm
Idle Shutdown Timer and low load until normal operating temperature is reached. The engine
The idle shutdown timer can be programmed to shut the engine down will reach normal operating temperature faster when the engine is
after a specific time period of engine idling. The idle time can be operated at low rpm and low power demand than when then engine is
programmed from 3 minutes to 1440 minutes (24 hours). If the idle idled with no load.
shutdown timer is set to 0 minutes, the idle shutdown feature is disabled.
If the timer setting is unknown, allow the engine to idle and observe how
much time elapses before the engine shuts down. The following NOTICE
conditions must be met in order to activate the idle shutdown timer. The vehicle should not be moved until the engine is out of cold mode.
Power may be noticeably reduced if the vehicle is operated while the
« The idle shutdown feature must be selected engine is in cold mode. At a speed above eight km/h (five mph), the low
• No vehicle speed is detected by ECM idle speed will be reduced to the customer programmed low idle speed,
• The engine is not under load and power will still be reduced.
• The engine is at operating temperature (NOT in Cold Mode)
44 45
Operation Section Operation Section
Operating the Engine Operating the Engine

Cold mode is disabled if the throttle, the service brake, or the clutch (if If the vehicle can be operated in a higher gear after the desired vehicle
equipped) is depressed. The cold mode operation rpm drops to the speed is reached, select the highest gear available that will pull the load.
programmed low idle speed in order to allow the transmission to be put By following this recommendation, fuel economy can be obtained. The
into gear. engine will be operating at the lowest rpm required to pull the load.

Getting Started Vehicle Efficiency


Caterpillar electronic engines do not require long warm-up periods that An efficient vehicle performs the desired amount of work while
needlessly waste fuel. Typically, the engine should be at normal operating minimizing the power demand on the engine. The following factors are
temperature by the time the vehicle reaches the open road. Begin major contributors to power demand.
operating the engine at low load. After normal oil pressure is reached and
the temperature gauges begin to rise, the engine may be operated at full ® aerodynamic drag (wind resistance)
load. • rolling resistance of the tires
• gross weight of the vehicle
To get the vehicle in motion, use a gear that will result in a smooth, easy • losses in the drive train and the load from the engine driven accessories
start in order to move the load without increasing the engine speed above For more information about vehicle efficiency, refer to LEDT2254, CAT
low idle or slipping the clutch. Engage the clutch smoothly. Interrupted
Answers Your Questions About Truck Performance.
clutch slipping and abrupt clutch engagement put stress on the drive train
and waste fuel.
Fuel Economy
Use progressive shifting techniques. Progressive shifting is using only
the rpm required to make an upshift into the next gear. Progressive Fuel is the largest single operating cost of today's on-highway vehicle
shifting improves fuel economy. engines. Improved fuel economy can have a substantial impact on
operating profit. The most significant factors that influence vehicle fuel
• Keep the engine rpm to a minimum. Use a low to mid range rpm (1400 economy are:
to 2000 rpm)
• Use only enough rpm to pick up the next gear # • Driver techniques
• Vehicle efficiency
Progressive shifting also reduces acceleration time. Top gear is reached • Operating conditions
sooner because it takes less time to synchronize gears during shifting • Engine efficiency
and the engine is operating at its highest torque range.
A No.1 grade of fuel contains less energy per volume and will increase
The amount of rpm required to make an upshift increases as the vehicle fuel consumption because a greater volume of fuel must be injected in
speed increases, unless upshifts are made on upgrades. Experience with order to yield the same amount of work as a No.2 grade of fuel. The
the vehicle will show you how much rpm is required to make upshifts difference in fuel economy between a No.1 grade of fuel and a No.2
under various conditions. grade of fuel can be as great as 0.2 to 0.3 km/L (.5 to .7 mpg).
NOTE: These engines may be programmed to encourage progressive For more information about fuel economy, refer to LEDT2254, CAT
shifting. If acceleration rates slow dramatically when certain speeds (rpm) Answers Your Questions About Truck Performance.
are reached while driving in the lower gears, shift parameters have been
programmed into the ECM. Shift parameters will limit rpm while driving in
higher gears. These parameters are protected by customer passwords.
i
.Ills
mil
mm'-
46
Operation Section
Operating the Engine
Operation Section
Operating the Engine
47

i Rolling hills provide great opportunity to reduce fuel consumption. Avoid


downshifting on small hills. Even if the engine must be lugged to speeds To set the Cruise Control:
below peak torque rpm, the vehicle should not be downshifted. When 1. After you accelerate to the desired speed, turn the Cruise Control
going down a hill, use gravity instead of the engine's power to regain
ON/OFF switch ON.
vehicle speed.
2. Press the SET/RESUME switch to the SET position.
it On grades that require more than one downshift, let the engine lug to The ECM will control the vehicle speed until the clutch pedal or the
peak torque rpm. If road speed stabilizes with the engine running at or service brake is depressed or the Cruise Control ON/OFF switch is turned
above peak torque rpm, remain in that gear.
OFF.
Long steep down grades should be anticipated. Vehicle speed should NOTE: You can also accelerate to desired speed and set the cruise
be reduced before cresting the top of a hill and proceeding down a long control speed by pressing the SET/RESUME switch to the ACCEL
steep grade. Minimize the amount of braking that is used to maintain a
position.
safe speed in order to maximum fuel efficiency.
To resume speed after an after an interruption:
The engine's ability to hold the vehicle back increases with engine speed.
A gear should be selected that runs the engine near the high engine rpm
I limit for long steep hills when braking is required.
• Press RESUME and the vehicle will return to the "set" speed.

1 Speed reductions and future stops should be anticipated. Downshifts


Momentarily pressing or "bumping" the SET/RESUME switch to the
ACCEL position will increase vehicle speed by one mph. Press the switch
should be avoided and the amount of braking minimized in order to to the DECEL position to decrease speed by one mph. The operating
improve fuel consumption. By coasting to a stop, a considerable distance range of the cruise control has been programmed into the ECM.
can be traveled without consuming any fuel.
SoftCruise Control
Cruising
The Cruise Control can be programmed to operate in one of two modes,
The faster a vehicle is driven, the more fuel it will consume. Increasing SoftCruise = YES or SoftCruise = NO.
cruising speed from 88 to 104 km/h (55 to 65 mph) will increase fuel
SoftCruise provides an eight km/h (five mph) operating range around the
consumption of a typical Class 8 vehicle approximately 0.4 km/L (1 mpg).
cruise control setting. Engines are shipped from Caterpillar programmed
Driving faster to increase stop time makes those stops very expensive.
to operate in SoftCruise = YES. SoftCruise allows the vehicle to
Cruising time provides the greatest opportunity to benefit from operation
in the most efficient rpm range of the engine (1400 to 2000 rpm). accelerate slightly, under power, going down hills and get a "run" at the
next hill. Improved fuel economy can be gained in this mode.

Cruise Control When SoftCruise = NO is programmed, the SET speed is maintained.


Consult your Caterpillar dealer for more information.
Depending upon the vehicle manufacturer, the Cruise Control switch may
be programmed to operate in one of two modes:
• The SET position may operate as SET/ACCEL or SET/DECEL
• The RESUME position may operate as RESUME/ACCEL or
RESUME/DECEL
Refer to the markings on the Cruise Control switch or refer to your Truck
Owners Manual.

.*___
48 49
•lilR* Operation Section
Operation Section
Operating the Engine Operating the Engine

Sdle/PTO Governor Mode Uphill Operation


The cruise control function of the electronic engine works as an engine For optimum performance, allow the engine to lug down to peak torque
speed governor when the vehicle is stationary or when operated at a speed (1440 to 1550 rpm) before downshifting. Continue to downshift in
vehicle speed below the Idle/PTO Vehicle Speed Limit. Activation and this manner until you reach a gear that maintains the desired speed.
deactivation of the engine speed governor is the same as for the cruise Continue to operate at a low (1440 to 1550) rpm if the vehicle will make it
control. to the top without a downshift. Begin upshifting as the grade of the hill
decreases and the engine begins to accelerate above 2000 rpm. Driving
The engine speed governor will operate at any engine rpm from low idle this way will provide optimum fuel economy and performance.
to the maximum Idle RPM Limit (which is usually less than rated engine
rpm). The maximum Idle/PTO governor speed is a Customer Specified NOTE: Allowing the engine to lug below peak torque is permissible if the
Parameter. vehicle is cresting the top of a hill. However, extended operation at engine
speeds below peak torque (usually 1400 rpm) will raise the exhaust
To Activate Idle/PTO Governor Mode:
•t temperature and the cylinder pressure. This can lead to reduced engine
service life.
1. Set the cruise control ON/OFF switch to the ON position. The.throttle
can then be used to determine the desired engine rpm.
Downhill Operation
2. When the desired engine rpm is reached, place the SET/RESUME
switch to the SET position and release the switch. The engine rpm will be
maintained at this speed. NOTICE
DO NOT allow the engine rpm to exceed 2900 rpm, engine damage can
NOTE: If the SET/RESUME switch is held for more than one second in result.
the ACCEL position, the ECM will increase the engine rpm until the
SET/RESUME switch is released. The ECM will increase the engine rpm
up to the Idle/PTO Engine rpm Limit, if programmed, or to Top Enqine On a downgrade, do not coast with the clutch pedal depressed or with
the transmission in NEUTRAL. If you do not want to use power,
Limit (TEL). disengage the Cruise Control.
To Disengage the Idle/PTO Governor Mode: Select the correct gear that does not allow the engine speed (rpm) to
exceed 2900 rpm and use the service brakes to control the speed of the
• Move the Cruise/ldle/PTO ON/OFF switch to the OFF position, or vehicle. A basic rule is to select the same gear that would be required to
• depress the clutch pedal, or go up the grade. Refer to the rated (full load) rpm on the engine
• depress the service brake pedal Information Film.

To Resume the Idle/PTO Governor Mode:


1. Ensure that the Cruise/ldle/PTO ON/OFF switch is in the ON position.
2. Move the SET/RESUME switch momentarily to the RESUME position.
NOTE: If the SET/RESUME switch is held for more than one second in
the DECEL position, the ECM will decrease the engine rpm until the
switch is released. A new set rpm is established when the switch is
released.
50 51
Operation Section Operation Section
Auxiliary Engine Brakes Auxiliary Engine Brakes

Auxiliary Engine Brakes On long downhill grades, an operator should establish a "control speed"
The "control speed" is the speed at which the force that pushes the
vehicle is equal to the retarding force that slows the vehicle, with little or
no use of the service brake.

^WARNING To maximize the benefit of the engine retarder, the engine retarder should
be used anytime that the operator wants to slow the vehicle. The engine
retarder should be left in the ON position during all normal operating
If your vehicle is equipped with an auxiliary brake, follow the instruc- conditions.
tions provided in the auxiliary brake owner's manual. Failure to
follow the instructions during wet or slippery conditions could re- The operation of any vehicle under slippery conditions requires caution.
duce vehicle control and result in personal injury or death, This is also true when operating a vehicle engine retarder. As a general
rule, start with the engine retarder OFF and ensure that the vehicle
maintains control through natural retardation. Then activate the engine
retarder at the lowest power setting and increase the power setting as the
NOTICE conditions allow.
Auxiliary brakes should not be used as a primary or service brake. The
vehicle's service brake must be used in order to bring the vehicle to a
complete stop. Operating the Engine Retarder
The engine retarder is controlled by a switch on the dashboard. Before
starting the engine, ensure that the switch is in the OFF position.
Certain auxiliary engine braking devices are approved for use on these
engines. Refer to the Truck Engine Application and Installation Guide or After the engine is started, turn the switch ON. The switch may stay ON
see your Caterpillar dealer for more information. For information on the during engine operation. The engine retarder will only activate when no
specific auxiliary engine brakes on your vehicle, refer to the information fuel is supplied to the engine. The engine retarder will help to slow the
that is provided by the OEM of the vehicle. vehicle when no pressure is applied to the throttle pedal or clutch pedal.

NOTE: The antilock braking system (ABS) of this vehicle may interrupt The engine retarder may be programmed to one of three modes.
the operation of the engine retarder (auxiliary engine brake) during the • COAST
ABS actuation. The engine retarder is a compression brake, also referred • LATCH
to as an exhaust brake. For information on the operation of the ABS, refer • MANUAL
to the literature that is provided by the OEM of the vehicle.
The COAST mode and the LATCH mode require the Cruise Control
The engine retarder provides auxiliary braking in order to slow the vehicle switch to be in the ON position. The COAST mode and the LATCH mode
and control speed on grades, curves, or at any time when the reduction do not require the Cruise Control to be active. In the COAST mode or the
of speed is necessary but a long application of the service brake is not LATCH mode, the engine retarder is activated by the service brake. Use
desired. Controlling the slowing or downhill speed of a vehicle by using of the service brake deactivates the Cruise Control, but does not turn the
the engine retarder results in reduced wear on brake linings and brake Cruise Control OFF.
drums. It helps save the service brakes for emergency stopping
requirements. In the MANUAL mode, it is not necessary to depress the service brake in
order to activate the engine retarder.
An engine retarder generates the maximum retarding power at the
engine's maximum rated rpm. As the engine rpm decreases, so does the If the Cruise Control ON/OFF switch is OFF, the engine retarder will
engine retarder performance. For maximum available retarding, the activate regardless of the service brake.
operator should select a gear which will provide the desired road speed at
the highest allowable engine rpm.
52 53
Operation Section Operation Section
Auxiliary Engine Brakes Cold Weather Operation

COAST Mode
Cold Weather Operation
If the engine retarder is programmed to COAST and the Cruise Control
switch is ON, the engine retarder will activate when the service brake is
depressed. In the COAST mode, the braking power is provided by both
the service brake and the engine retarder. Caterpillar Diesel Engines can operate effectively in cold weather.
However, engine starting and operation in cold weather is dependent on
The engine retarder will deactivate when the service brake is released. the type of fuel used, the oil viscosity, and other optional starting aids
and warm-up aids. The purpose of this section is to:
LATCH Mode
• Explain potential problems that are caused by cold weather operation
If the engine retarder is programmed to LATCH and the Cruise Control
switch is ON, the engine retarder will activate when the service brake is • Suggest steps which can be taken in order to minimize starting
depressed. problems and operation problems when the ambient air temperature is
colder than 0°C (32°F) down to -55°C (-67°F)
The engine retarder remains active (latched) when the service brake is
released. The engine retarder remains active until the throttle pedal or the NOTE: Frequent maintenance checks (more than those specified in the
clutch pedal is depressed, or the engine speed drops below 900 rpm. Maintenance Schedule) will be necessary when operating under freezing
cold conditions.
MANUAL Mode
A discussion of all of the factors that affect the operation and
If the engine retarder is programmed to MANUAL, the engine retarder will maintenance of an engine in cold weather is difficult to outline in one
activate regardless of the service brake or the Cruise Control switch publication. This is because of the differences in weather conditions,
position. The engine retarder will activate when no pressure is applied to engine applications, and the supplies that are available in different areas.
the throttle pedal or clutch pedal. These factors, along with recommendations from your Caterpillar dealer
and past proven practices should be combined with the information in
this section to provide guidelines for cold weather operation.

Cold Weather Hints


• If the engine is started for any reason, operate the engine until a
minimum operating temperature of 71 °C (160°F) is achieved. This will
help to prevent the valves from sticking due to unburned fuel.
• The cooling system and the lubrication system of the engine do not lose
heat immediately upon shutdown of the engine. This means that an
engine can be shut down for a few hours and still start readily. If the
engine is shut down for at least eight hours, the engine should be
considered cooled to the outside temperature.
® Utilize the correct lubricant or fluid for each engine compartment before
cold weather begins.
• Inspect all of the rubber parts (hoses, fan belts, etc) weekly.
.• Inspect all of the electrical wiring and connections for any frays or
damaged insulation. Keep all of the batteries fully charged and warm.

JA...
I 54
Operation Section
55
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation Cold Weather Operation

• To prevent condensation on exposed fuel tank walls, fill the fuel tank There are three major differences between No.1 and No.2 diesel fuel.
when the engine will be shut off for eight hours or more. Keep the fuel No.1 diesel fuel has a lower cloud point, a lower pour point and has a
tank as full as possible. lower kJ (Btu) (heat content) rating than No.2 diesel fuel. The kj (Btu)
•Inspect the air cleaners and the air inlet daily, or as necessary, when rating indicates power, therefore No.1 grade fuel will provide less power
working in snow. and fuel economy, but is less likely to plug the fuel filters and flows better
through the fuel system. Keep in mind that No.1 grade fuel or fuel blends
will not provide as much power as No.2 grade fuel. A difference may be
A WARNING noticed.

Be aware of these fuel grades when purchasing your diesel fuel. Plan fuel
Do not store alcohol or starting fluids in the operator's compartment. purchases for cases of driving from warm climates into cold climates.
They are highly flammable and toxic. Vehicles that are fueled in one climate may not operate satisfactorily when
driven to another climate. Before troubleshooting for low power or poor
performance in winter months, check the type of fuel or blend of fuel that
is being used.
A WARNING
No.2 diesel may be blended with No.1 or kerosene in the following
DO NOT USE ETHER (starting fluids) unless specifically instructed to proportions to achieve lower temperature flow capabilities.
do so. This diesel engine is equipped with an electric air inlet heater
system to aid cold weather starting and reduce white smoke. Do not
Summer Grade No.2 Fuel Modification
spray ether into the air inlet. It will contact the heater elements. Use
starting fluid ONLY if the vehicle is equipped with the optional auto- No.2 No.1 Diesel Fuel1
Ambient Temperature Diesel Fuel1 or Kerosene
matic ether injection system or immediate engine damage and per-
sonal injury may result. Above 10°C(-14°F) 90% 10%
-10to-20°C(14to-4°F) 70% 30%
Below -20°C (-4°F) 50% 50%
• Inject starting fluid only when the engine is cranking. 1
DO NOT blend this fuel with gasoline under any circumstances.
• Air system dryers may be effective in reducing condensation and ice
formation in air systems.
• Alcohol injection may prevent moisture from freezing the air compressor
Fuel Related Components
regulator and other components of the air system. Fuel Heaters
• For jump starting with cables in cold weather, refer to the topic in this
manual. When the use of unblended No.2 diesel in the winter cannot be avoided,
a thermostatically controlled or self regulating fuel heater can be installed.
Fuel heaters are not effective for cold starts unless they are powered by
Fuel Recommendations for Cold Weather an external source (i.e. AC current). Select a fuel heater that is
mechanically simple, yet adequate for the application. Choose a fuel
The three types of diesel fuel available for your vehicle engine are
heater with as large a heating surface as practical. Small fuel heaters can
typically grades No.1, No.2 or a blend of No.1 and No.2.
be too hot for their limited surface area.

NOTE: Heat exchanger type fuel heaters should have a bypass provision
to prevent excessive heating of the fuel in warm weather operation. The
excessive heating of the fuel will cause a loss of engine power. Consult
your Caterpillar dealer for information on the fuel heaters that are available
for your engine.
56
57
Operation Section
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation Cold Weather Operation

Disconnect or deactivate the fuel heater in warm weather in order to Jacket Water Heater
prevent excessive heating of fuel and possible engine power loss. A
gradual loss of engine power occurs as the temperature of the fuel A jacket water heater can improve the startability and reduce warm up
increases. Electronic engines will correct for higher fuel temperatures to a time by heating the coolant that surrounds the combustion chambers. An
limit. Consult your Caterpillar engine dealer for information. electric jacket water heater can be activated as soon as the engine is
stopped. Use of a jacket water heater reduces the temperature at which
ether is required. An effective jacket water heater is typically a 1250/1500
Fuel Filters W unit. Consult your vehicle dealer for more information.
A primary fuel filter and/or water separator is installed between the fuel
tank and the engine mounted fuel filter. The location of the primary fuel Cold Weather Starting Recommendations
filter is important in cold weather operation. The primary fuel filter and the
fuel supply line are commonly affected by cold fuel. The best location for Batteries
the primary fuel filter is in the engine compartment, where the primary
fuel filter will benefit from the radiant heat of the engine. A primary fuel Batteries must provide sufficient amperage needed to start and operate
filter that is mounted outside the frame rails, or in any location that is the engine at the coldest expected temperatures.
exposed to wind, can be a persistent problem in cold weather. Maintain the proper battery electrolyte level. Keep all batteries fully
charged (to a corrected specific gravity of 1.250 or above). Keep the
Engine Lubrication Oil Viscosity batteries warm. The temperature of the battery has a considerable effect
on the available power. If the battery is too cold, the battery will not have
Proper engine oil viscosity is essential to ensure engine starting at cold enough power to crank and start the engine, even if the engine is warm.
ambient temperatures. Refer to the Lubricant Viscosity chart for Batteries typically have only fifty percent of the capability at -10°C (14°F)
recommended oil viscosities to use at various operating temperature versus 27°C (80°F). At -35°C (-31 °F), only ten percent of the original
ranges. power is available. To maximize the battery power, heat the battery
compartment or store the battery in a warm location.
Oil Pan Heater
Oil pan heaters are useful devices to assist in reducing the cranking Inlet Air Heater/Ether Start System
amperage that is needed to start the engine. Oil pan heaters improve the As temperatures drop below 0°C (32°F), starting a cold engine requires
flow of oil at start-up and reduce the time that is needed to warm the assistance in the form of ether starting aids or inlet air heaters. An
engine up. Oil pan heaters also increase the service life of bearings. Oil automatic metered ether injection system is preferred over a manual
pan heaters can reduce the normal minimum ambient temperatures system. An automatic ether injection system reduces the risk of engine
-20°C (-5°F) at which multi-grade API CG-4 oil can be used. Consult damage by minimizing the operator's responsibility to correctly determine
your vehicle dealer for more information. how much ether is required. Excessive ether will damage the engine and
void the manufacturer's warranty.
Coolant Recommendations An alternative to ether is an inlet air heater. The preheated inlet air
Engine coolant should offer the correct mixture of glycol and water for the considerably improves the engine's cold starting ability at very low
lowest minimum ambient temperature expected. Refer to the Coolant temperatures and ensures smooth engine operation within a shorter
Specifications. period of time.

Check the coolant frequently in cold weather for glycol concentration in


order to ensure adequate freeze protection.
58 59
Operation Section Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation Cold Weather Operation

Engine Idling For this reason, any time the engine is started, run the engine until the
coolant temperature is 71 °C (160°F) minimum. This will keep carbon
When idling after startup in cold weather, increase the engine speed to deposits on the valve stems at a minimum and maintain free operation of
1000 to 1200 rpm in order to warm up the engine more quickly. Do not the valves and valve components.
race the engine to speed the warm-up.
In addition, operating the engine until the engine is thoroughly warm will
When idling, the application of a light (parasitic) load will assist in keep the other engine parts in better condition and generally extend the
maintaining the minimum operating temperature of 71 °C (160°F). The service life of the engine. Lubrication will be improved, with less acid and
installation of a hand throttle will make it easier to maintain an elevated sludge in the oil. This will provide longer service life for the engine
low idle speed for extended periods. An idle speed of 1000 rpm is bearings, piston rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary idle
preferred for all engines. time to ten minutes. Engine wear is greatest at low idle and unnecessary
idling wastes fuel.
Exhaust Restrictor
Exhaust restrictors apply a load to the engine in order to reduce warm-up On/Off Fan Clutch
time and white smoke at start-up. When extended idling periods are For better control of fan operation, an ON/OFF fan clutch may be used.
unavoidable, the exhaust restrictor can help maintain acceptable coolant ON/OFF fan clutches can help prevent excessive cooling in cold weather.
temperatures above 71 °C (160°F). Exhaust restrictors for the engines can Viscous fans often rotate continuously in cold weather. Fan clutches that
also be obtained from other companies. keep the fan stationary in the OFF position reduce unnecessary air
movement in order to help maintain adequate engine operating
Coolant Warm Up temperatures.

Recommended Options
Purge Valve/Insulated Heater Lines
If a vehicle has been parked long enough for some of the systems to cool
To help prevent excessive cooling of the engine during lightly loaded
much below normal operating temperatures, the systems should be
periods of operation, the coolant must be made to bypass the radiator.
warmed up before returning the engine to full operation. Damage to
Coolant passing through the radiator must be minimized in order to
engine valve components during operation in very cold temperature
maintain the engine operating temperature in cold weather.
conditions can result from engine operation for short intervals. This can
happen if the engine is started and stopped many times, but does not run Valves that allow air flow but prevent coolant flow (often called "jiggle"
long enough to become completely warm. valves) can help prevent excessive cooling. These valves prevent
unnecessary coolant flow which may divert around the water temperature
During the interval of time that the engine operates at temperatures below regulator to the radiator.
normal, fuel and oil are not completely burned in the combustion
chambers. This fuel and oil causes soft carbon deposits on the valve Insulated cab heater lines for very cold climates are also beneficial.
stems. Generally, these deposits do not cause problems because they Insulated cab heater lines provide more available heat from the coolant to
are burned off during operation at normal engine temperatures. the cab with less heat lost to the outside air.
When the engine is started and stopped frequently (short interval trips)
and the engine operating temperature is seldom or never up to normal, Air Inlet and Cab Insulation
the carbon deposits become thicker. This will prevent free operation of
When temperatures below -18°C (0°F) will be frequently encountered, an
the valves and can stick valves, bend push rods or result in other
under-the-hood air cleaner inlet may be specified. This is sometimes
damage to valve train components.
referred to as a "Snow Valve". An under-the-hood air cleaner inlet may
also minimize the packing of snow into the air cleaner. Heat rejected by
the engine through convection can warm the inlet air.
•i
ill.' 60 61
Operation Section Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation Cold Weather Operation

Additional heat can be retained around the engine by specifying The following charts were designed to assist dealers and customers
additional insulation for the cab and the hood when the vehicle is ordered equip and operate their Caterpillar diesel engine effectively in frigid
This will improve the comfort level of the operator, particularly while idlinq weather. Starting aids should be selected that allow the engine to start at
overnight. the various temperature ranges without the need for extended cranking
periods. If extended idling periods are unavoidable, some or all of the idle
Winter Front/Shutters temperature and coolant warmup devices should be considered based
on the maximum temperatures expected. The goal is to maintain a
With the introduction of air-to-air aftercooling, the use of winter fronts or minimum engine coolant temperature of 160°F (71 °C).
shutters for normal operating conditions above freezing requires caution
in order to avoid high inlet and exhaust temperatures. The restriction in air
flow can cause higher exhaust temperatures, power loss, excessive fan Cold Weather Recommendation Charts
usage, and a reduction in fuel economy.
Cold Weather Operation Recommendations
Caterpillar Medium Duty Vehicle Engines
However, winter fronts or shutters are useful in maintaining minimum
engine coolant temperatures when the outside air temperatures drop Starting Aids
below freezing. If the engine coolant temperature is above the minimum Expected
of 160°F (71 °C), a winter front is not needed no matter how cold the Coldest Ether 1 Block Larger Inlet 1
Temperature Aid Heater Alt/Battery Air Heater
ambient temperature. The water (coolant) temperature should be
monitored with the dash gauges so the engine does not overheat when Above 20°F Available Available Available Standard
the winter front is used. (-7°C)
20 to 0°F Available Available Available Standard
The following guidelines apply if a winter front or shutter is used. (-7to-18°C)
0 to -20°F Recom'd Required Recom'd Standard
(-18to-28°C)
NOTICE -20 to -40°F Recom'd Required Required Standard
Failure to open the winter fronts with the engine under load could cause (-28 to -40°C)
engine damage and/or loss of fuel economy. Below -40°F 2 Required Required Required Standard
(-40°C)
1
Use ONLY the automatic ether injection system if the engine is equipped with an inlet
• 1 °C (34°F) or higher - Open or remove the winter front air heater.
2
Consult the factory.
• -18 to 0°C (0 to 32°F) - Use a winter front with circular or diamond
shaped opening directly in line with the fan hub. Use a minimum
opening of 385 cm2 (60 inch2).
• -292 to -18°C2 (-20 to 0°F) - Use a winter front with an openinq a
of 192 5
cm (30 inch ).
• -34 to -29°C (-30 to -20°F) - Use a winter front with opening of 102
cm2 (16 inch2). Position the opening directly in line with the fan hub
• Below -34°C (-30°F) - Completely close the winter front.
• Overnight Idling - Completely close the winter front.
Winter fronts are generally less expensive than radiator shutters. If radiator
shutters are installed, the shutter thermostat (if automatic) should open the
shutters at a temperature that is 6°C (10°F) lower than the opening
temperature of the engine thermostat.
62 63
Operation Section Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation Stopping the Engine

Cold Weather Operation Recommendations


Caterpillar Medium Duty Vehicle Engines Stopping the Engine
Assistance for Idl e Temperature and Coolant Warm-up
Expected (Mech Eng) Winter 3
Coldest Hand Front/ Snow i On/Off = Exhaust
Temperature Throttle Shutters Valve Fan Drive 2 NOTICE
Restrictor
Above 20°F Available Available Available Available Available
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been working under load
(-7°C) can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine
20 to 0°F Available Recom'd Recom'd Recom'd Available
components.
(-7to-18°C) Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and
0 to -20°F Recom'd Required Recom'd Recom'd bearing service life.
Recom'd
(-18 to-28°C)
-20 to -40°F Required Required Recom'd Required Recom'd
(-28 to -40°C)
4
Prior to stopping an engine that is being operated at low loads, operate
Below -40°F Required Required Recom'd the engine at low idle for 30 seconds before stopping. If the engine has
Required Required
(-40°C)
1
been operating at highway speeds and/or high loads, operate at low idle
The snow Valve jlllows inlet air t 1
2
for at least three minutes to reduce and stabilize internal engine
Not available from the factory. Consult your Caterpillar dealer temperature before stopping the engine.
' I O W - ^ F T - S ^ C T f r ° n t / S h U t t e r t0f>ic - W i n t e r f r o n t a n d / P r s h u t t e r s are required be-
4
Consult the OEM of the vehicle. Ensure that the engine stopping (shutoff) procedure is understood. To
5
Or low speed viscous fan clutch. Required below -20°F (-29°C). stop the engine, use the method that applies to the shutoff system on the
vehicle or refer to the instructions that are provided by the OEM of the
vehicle.
Cold Weath sr Operation Recommeiidations
Caterpillar Medium Duty Vehicle E ngines ®To stop the engine, turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position.
In Bus Applications
As sistance for Idl B Temperature and Coolant Warm-up
After Stopping the Engine
Expected (Mech Eng) Winter 3
Coldest Hand Front/ Snow 1
On/Off 5 If freezing temperatures are expected, allow the engine jacket water
Exhaust
Temperature Throttle Shutters Valve Fan Drive 2
Restrictor system to cool, then check the coolant for proper antifreeze protection.
Above 20°F Available Available Available
(-7=C)
Available Available The engine must be protected against freezing to the lowest expected
outside temperature. Add the proper antifreeze/water mixture when
20 to 0°F Required Recom'd Recom'd Required Recom'd required.
(-7to-18°C)
0 to -2Q°F Required Required Recom'd Required Recom'd
Fill the fuel tank at the end of each day of operation to drive out moist air
(-18to-28°C) and to prevent condensation. Do not fill the fuel tank to the top. Fuel
-20 to -40°F Required Required Recom'd Required expands as it gets warm and may overflow.
Required
(-28 to -40°C)
4
Below -40°F Required Required Recom'd Required Required
(-40°C)

- —• — «.._*.»_. M u n i u i I U C I I l U U U .
2
Not available from the factory. Consult your Caterpillar dealer
' b e t o w - 2 0 / ° F t f - 2 9 ° n t / S h U t t e r t 0 P i C '" t h i S " " ^ ^ W ' n t e r f r o n t / s h u t t e r s are
required
4
Consult your Caterpillar dealer.
5
Or low speed viscous fan clutch. Required below -20°F (-29°C).
64 65
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Torque Specifications Torque Specifications

Torque Specifications Torque for Constant Torque Hose Clamps

NOTE. For additional torque specifications, refer to SENR3130 Toraue


Specifications, available from your Caterpillar dealer. '

Standard Torque for Hose Clamps-Worm Drive Band Type


The following chart lists the torque values for initial installation of worm
drive band type hose clamps on new hose and for reassembly or The constant hose torque clamp is installed properly when screw tip (1)
tightening of hose clamps on existing hose. extends 6.35 mm (.250 in) (dimension X) beyond the housing and the
belleville washer stacks are collapsed nearly flat after screw (2) is
Initial Installation tightened to a torque of 11 ± 1 N»m (98 ± 9 lb in).
Torque on New Hose
Clamp Width N'm 1 lb in
16 mm (.625 in) 7.5 ± 0.5 65 ± 5
13.5 mm (.531 in) 4.5 ± 0.5 40 ± 5
8 mm (.312 in) 0.9 ± 0.2 8±2
Reassembly or
Retightening Torque
Clamp Width N«m1 lb in
16 mm (.625 in) 4.5 ± 0.5 40 ± 5
13.5 mm (.531 in) 3.0 ± 0.5 25 ± 5
8 mm (.312 in) 0.7 ± 0.2 6±2
1
1 Newton meter (N«m) is approximately the same as 0.1 mkg
66 67
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Lubricant Specifications 3 Lubricant Specifications

Lubricant Specifications Current


Oil Classification Status
Obsolete
CG-4, CF-4 CE
1
CF-2 CD-21
General Lubricant Information CC, CD
CF
API Licensed Oils ''CF^ and CD-2 are oil categories for two cycle diesel engines. Caterpillar does not sell
engines that utilize CF-2 and CD-2 category oils.
NOTICE
Use Only CG-4 or CF-4 lube oil in 3100 Engines. Do NOT use any other NOTE: CF is NOT the same as CF-4. API CF oils are only recommended
API oil classification. for Caterpillar engines with precombustion chamber (PC) fuel systems.
In previous lubricant specifications, Caterpillar referred to US Military oil
Caterpillar recognizes and supports the American Petroleum Institute (API) specifications (MIL) and to European Comite des Constructeurs
"Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System" for engine oils. The API d'Automobile Marche Commun (CCMC) diesel engine oil specifications.
publication No. 1509, 13th edition, contains the detailed information Those specifications do not provide identical performance to API CF, CF-4
concerning this system. Engine oils bearing the API symbol are licensed or API CG-4 engine oils. Therefore, Caterpillar will not make reference to
by the API. MIL or to CCMC specifications in this publication.

Terminology
Some abbreviations follow the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
J754 nomenclature. Some classifications follow the SAE J183
abbreviations. The definitions other than Caterpillar's will be of assistance
in selecting lubricants.
"A
II
Grease
The National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) classifies grease, based
on the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) D217-68 Worked
E00999
Penetration characteristics. Grease characteristics are given a defined
consistency number.

Examples of the API symbol. Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oil (DEO)


Diesel engine oil classifications CD, CD-2, and CE are obsolete API Caterpillar Oils have been developed, tested, and approved by Caterpillar
categories Caterpillar will only reference those categories that are to provide the performance and service life that has been designed and
currently licensed by the API. The following chart summarizes the status built into Caterpillar diesel engines. Caterpillar oils are used for engine
of the categories. development and factory fill. These oils are offered by Caterpillar dealers.
69
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Section
Lubricant Specifications X Lubricant Specifications

Due to significant variations in the quality and in the performance of API CG-4 oils are preferred for Caterpillar on-highway diesel engines
commercially available oils, Caterpillar recommends: because the oils provide improved deposit control and additional soot
dispersancy. Also, API CG-4 is the only oil category that evaluates oils
Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oil (DEO) 15W40- with engine tests utilizing 0.05 percent sulfur diesel fuel. Since October 1,
Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oil (DEO) 10W30 1993, all USA on-highway vehicle diesel fuel has been regulated to a
maximum of 0.05 percent sulfur.
Caterpillar recommends the use of multigrade oils in all on-highway
vehicle engines. Caterpillar multigrade DEO is formulated with detergents, The following explanations of these API categories can be used to make
dispersants, and sufficient alkalinity to provide superior performance in the proper choice of a commercial oil.
Caterpillar Diesel Engines. Multigrade DEO is blended in two viscosity
grades: SAE 10W30 and SAE 15W40. Refer to the Lubricant Viscosities CG-4: CG-4 is the newest heavy duty diesel oil category. CG-4 oils can
For Ambient Temperatures chart to choose the correct viscosity grade be used in all Caterpillar on-highway diesel engines where CF-4 oils are
based on ambient temperatures. Multigrade oils provide the correct recommended. Compared to CF-4 oils, CG-4 oils provide improved piston
viscosity for a broad range of operating temperatures and for cold engine cleanliness, improved viscosity control, and improved crankcase
starts. Multigrade oils are also effective in maintaining low oil consumption cleanliness, especially in applications where oil soot is a problem.
and low levels of piston deposits. Although CG-4 oils were primarily developed for diesel engines operating
on 0.05 percent sulfur diesel fuel, CG-4 oils can be used with higher
Caterpillar multigrade DEO is also qualified for use in other diesel engines sulfur fuels. The new oil Total Base Number (TBN) determines the
and in gasoline engines. Refer to the engine manufacturer's guide for the maximum fuel sulfur level for CG-4 and CF-4 oils. Refer to the TBN and
recommended specifications. Compare the recommendations to the Fuel Sulfur topics in this publication.
specifications of Caterpillar multigrade DEO. The current Caterpillar
multigrade DEO industry specifications are listed on the product labels CG-4 oils are the first oils to pass industry tests for foam control and
and on the product data sheets. viscosity shear loss. CG-4 oils must also pass recently developed tests for
metals corrosion and wear.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for part numbers and available container
CF-4 oils service a wide variety of modern diesel engines. This oil
sizes.
classification was developed with 0.40 percent sulfur diesel fuel. The fuel
used in the CF-4 category represents the type of diesel fuels commonly
Commercial Diesel Engine Oils available world wide. CF-4 oils provide improved piston deposit control
and improved oil control when compared to the other category oils.
The performance of commercial diesel engine oils is based on API
categories. API categories are developed to provide commercial
lubricants for a wide variety of diesel engines that operate in various NOTICE
conditions. Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause shortened engine
If Caterpillar multigrade DEO is not used, the following commercial oils are service life due to deposits and/or excessive wear.
recommended.
• Preferred API CG-4 (multigrade)
• Acceptable API CF-4 (multigrade) NOTICE
Single grade oils must not be used in Caterpillar on-highway diesel
engines, regardless of the API specification.
71
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Lubricant Specifications Lubricant Specifications

Synthetic Base Stock Oils Arctic Lubricants


Synthetic base stock oils are acceptable for use in Caterpillar engines if For starting and operating engines in ambient temperatures below -20°C
these oils meet the performance requirements specified by Caterpillar. (-4°F), use a multigrade oil with a OW or 5W low temperature viscosity
grade.
Synthetic base stock oils generally outperform nonsynthetic oils in two
areas: For starting and operating engines with ambient temperatures below
• Improved low temperature viscosity characteristics, especially in Arctic -30°C (-22°F), use a synthetic base stock multigrade oil with a OW or
conditions 5W low temperature viscosity grade and a pour point of -50°C (-58°F) or
• Improved oxidation stability, especially at high operating temperatures lower.

Some synthetic base stock oils have performance characteristics that Because the number of lubricants acceptable for use in Arctic conditions
enhance the useful service life of the oil. However, Caterpillar does NOT is limited, Caterpillar has special recommendations for these situations.
recommend the "automatic" extension of oil change intervals for any oil, Caterpillar recommends the following engine oils, in order of preference,
including synthetic base stock oils. For Caterpillar diesel engines, oil for use in Arctic conditions:
change intervals can only be adjusted through an oil analysis program
that contains the following elements: oil condition and wear metals • First Choice: API CG-4 or CF-4 oils with an SAE 0W20, 0W30, 5W30, or
(Caterpillar's S*0«S Oil Analysis preferred), trend analysis, fuel 5W40 viscosity grade
consumption, and oil consumption.
• Second Choice: Oils with a CG-4 or CF-4 type additive package and an
SAE 0W20, 0W30, 5W30, or 5W40 viscosity grade
Re-Refined Base Stock Oils
Re-refined base stock oils are acceptable for use in Caterpillar engines if NOTICE
these oils meet the performance requirements specified by Caterpillar. Shortened engine service life could result if second choice oils are used.
Re-refined oils can be used exclusively in a finished oil or in combination
with new base stocks. The US Military and other heavy equipment
manufacturers have also accepted the use of re-refined base stock oils After-Market Oil Additives
with the same criteria.
Caterpillar does NOT recommend the use of after-market oil additives.
The re-refining process should be adequate to remove all wear metals After-market oil additives are not necessary to achieve service life
and oil additives that were present in the used oil. This type of re-refining predictions or to achieve rated performance. Fully formulated finished oils
is generally accomplished by vacuum distillation and hydrotreating the are made up of base stocks and commercial additive packages. The
used oil. Filtering alone is inadequate for producing a high quality re- additive packages are blended into the base stocks at precise
refined base stock from used oil. percentages to produce finished oils with performance characteristics that
meet lubricant industry standards.

Lubricant industry standard tests do not exist to evaluate the


performance of after-market oil additives. There are no lubricant industry
standard tests to evaluate the compatibility of after-market additives in a
finished oil. After-market additives could be incompatible with the finished
oil additive package, reducing the performance of the finished oil. The
after-market additives could fail to mix with the finished oil, producing a
sludge in the crankcase. Caterpillar discourages the use of after-market
additives in finished oils.
73
72
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Section
Lubricant Specifications Lubricant Specifications

Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur Levels For NOTICE
Caterpillar Dl Diesel Engines Operating with fuel sulfur levels over 1.0 percent may require shortened
oil change intervals in order to maintain adequate wear protection.
Most diesel fuel contains some sulfur. Byproducts of sulfur include
corrosive sulfurous and sulfuric acids. Additives in the lubricating oil
contain alkaline compounds which are formulated to neutralize the acids.
The measure of this alkalinity in an oil is known as TBN. Lubricant Viscosity

The TBN required in a new oil depends on the sulfur level of the fuel The proper SAE viscosity grade oil is determined by the minimum outside
used For direct injection engines running on distillate diesel fuel the temperature at cold engine start-up, and the maximum outside
minimum new oil TBN (by ASTM D2896) should be 10 times he fuel temperature during engine operation. Use the minimum temperature
sulfur level, and the minimum TBN is 5 regardless of a low fuel sulfur column on the chart to determine the oil viscosity required for starting a
"cold soaked" engine. Use the maximum temperature column on the chart
level- refer to the following graph. to select the viscosity for operation at the highest temperature anticipated.
In general, use the highest viscosity oil available that still meets the start-
up temperature requirements.

Engine Oil Viscosity Protection

Caterpillar DEO Ambient Temperature


API CG-4 & CF-4
Viscosity Grade Minimum Maximum
SAE 0W20 -40°C (-40°F) 10°C(50°F)
SAE 5W30 -30°C (-22°F) 30°C (86°F)
SAE5W40 -30°C (-22°F) 40°C(104°F)
SAE 10W30 -20°C (-4°F) 40°C(104°F)
SAE 15W40 -15°C(5°F) 50°C(122°F)

(Y) Oil TBN shown by ASTM D2896.


(X) Percent of fuel sulfur by weight. Engine Lubricant Recommendations Summary
(1) New oil TBN.
(2) TBN limit of used oil. . To achieve all the performance that was built into a Caterpillar engine,
Change the oil when the TBN limit of used oil (2) is follow these guidelines:
reached.
• Select the proper Caterpillar oil or commercial oil that meets the API
In areas where the fuel sulfur exceeds 1.5 percent, choose an oil with the specifications
highest TBN that is within the API CF-4 or CG-4 categories, and shorten • Select the proper oil viscosity based on the applicable Lubricant
the oil change interval based on oil analysis. The oil analysis should Viscosities chart
evaluate oil Condition and wear metals. High TBNoils that are not within • Replace the engine oil and oil filter(s) at the intervals specified in the
the API CF-4 or CG-4 categories can produce excessive piston deposits, Operation and Maintenance Manual
leading to a loss of oil control and bore polishing. • Perform maintenance according to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual
74 75
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Lubricant Specifications Lubricant Specifications

Lubricating Grease MPGM is recommended for heavily loaded pin joints, journal bearings,
heavy duty automotive, agricultural, industrial, steel mill, mining, and off
Caterpillar provides grease for a variety of applications and extreme road equipment. MPGM meets NLGI GC-LB certification. Normal ambient
temperature conditions. The descriptions of these products follow. temperatures for this product are from -28 to 149°C (-18 to 300°F) for
the NLGI No.O and from -18 to 149°C (0 to 300°F) for the MPGM NLGI
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for part numbers and available container No.2.
sizes.'
NOTE: If MPGM is not available, use a multipurpose type grease that
NOTE: One grease may be incompatible with another grease. When contains three to five percent molybdenum.
using commercial grease, make sure the grease is compatible with the
grease used in your system, or make sure to purge the system. Consult
your supplier regarding grease compatibility questions. Special Purpose Grease
Bearing Lubricant
Multipurpose Grease Bearing Lubricant is a NLGI No.2 lubricating grease with a polyurea
Multipurpose Lithium Complex Grease (MPG) thickener. Bearing Lubricant is recommended for high temperature
antifriction bearings in applications such as electric motors, alternators,
MPG is a general purpose lithium complex grease for light to medium fan drives, starting motors, and generators. Bearing Lubricant has an
duty applications. MPG has good high temperature characteristics, with a effective operating range from -29 to 177°C (-20 to 350°F).
minimum dropping point of 260°C (500°F). MPG contains unleaded
extreme pressure additives and antiwear and corrosion inhibitors to Water and Temperature Resistant Grease (WTR)
provide extra protection in a variety of construction, agricultural and
automotive applications. WTR grease is designed for applications where water washout, sever
corrosion, or higher operating temperatures are a concern. WTR is an
MPG meets the requirements for extended service intervals of automotive environmentally friendly grease that provides extreme pressure, antiwear,
chassis points and wheel bearings with disc brakes, particularly in oxidation and corrosion protection without using barium, zinc, antimony,
passenger cars, vans, light trucks and taxi fleets. MPG meets NLGI GC- phosphorous, lead, or sulfur additives. WTR is very shear stable and
LB certification. MPG is available in NLGI No.2. Normal operating resists breakdown in the presence of water.
temperatures range from -28 to 149°C (-18 to 300°F). MPG is also
available as a white lithium complex grease. WTR grease performs extremely well in marine, automotive, agricultural,
and industrial applications, in construction equipment, and in washer
Multipurpose Lithium Complex Grease With Molybdenum (MPGM) equipment bearings. WTR meets NLGI GC-LB certification. WTR normal
operating temperatures range from -40 to 204°C (-40 to 400°F).
MPGM is a general purpose lithium complex grease for light to medium
duty applications. MPGM is fortified with molybdenum disulfide and
polymer for extra lubricity and protection. MPGM contains unleaded
additives and antiwear and oxidation/corrosion inhibitors for protection
and lubrication in many environments. MPGM is formulated with a high
viscosity base fluid and contains polymer additive to help protect against
water washout, enhance retention, and withstand heavy loads.
77
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Section .
Fuel Specifications
Lubricant Specifications

Caterpillar Premium Grease Fuel Specifications


Desert Gold
np^ert Gold is a heavy duty premium synthetic extreme pressure
Eb S t f n f g ease developedfor the most harsh operating environments. Distillate Diesel Fuel
Desert Sid 9 is formulated with a high viscosity synthetic base fluid
Diesel fuels that meet the specifications in the following chart will provide
nolvmors and molybdenum disulfide. Desert Gold has a high viscosity
n ^ a n d a high d o p i n g point. D e s e r t < M % « ^ ^ ^ rated engine performance and full component service life. In North
stability characteristics, and provides longer protection than other America, diesel fuel identified as No.1-D and No.2-D in ASTM D975
qreases Ssert Gold is an environmentally friendly grease which does generally meet these specifications. This chart is for diesel fuels that are
^ c o n t a i n antimony, sulfur, barium, zinc, lead, or phosphorous. distilled from crude oil. Diesel fuels from other sources could exhibit
detrimental properties that are not defined or controlled by this
Desert Gold will lubricate and protect equipment against heavv-shock specification.
S a n d corrosion in extremely hot moist or dusty^conditions^ serf There are many other diesel fuel specifications published by governments
rniri nneratina temperatures range from - 6 to 230 C (20 to 40U rj and technical societies. Those diesel fuel specifications usually do not
De e r t S c9a opiate at higher temperatures for short time periods contain all of the parameters addressed by Caterpillar in this specification.
and has additional extreme pressure protection for heavily loaded pm To assure optimum engine performance, a complete fuel analysis should
joints. be obtained prior to engine operation. The fuel analysis should include all
of the properties listed in the Caterpillar Distillate Fuel Specifications
Arctic Platinum chart. If a particular fuel does not meet the minimum Caterpillar
Arctic Platinum is a super premium extreme pressure synthetic lubricating requirements, the engine could exhibit excessive fuel system wear, fuel
a e a L S l o p e d for lubrication in subzero to moderate operating system failure, or excessive engine wear caused by deposits or corrosion.
temperatures Arctic Platinum has a high drop point and contains five
peTcent molybdenum disulfide for protection against extra heavy loads.
S c Platinum provides excellent protection against corrosion and 0.05 Percent Sulfur Diesel Fuel
S t i o n Arctic Platinum is an environmentally friendly grease which Since October 1, 1993, all USA on-highway diesel fuel has been regulated
d o S f S contain antimony, sulfur, barium, zinc, or phosphorous. to a maximum of 0.05 percent sulfur. This low sulfur fuel was mandated
as a means of directly reducing particulate emissions from diesel engines.
Arctic Platinum is designed for lubrication of horizontal pivot and lower This low sulfur fuel will also be used in Caterpillar on-highway diesel
" "bealSgs'steering'cylinders, king ^ . ^ b c ^ ^ . ^ ^ engines where low emissions are required and where supply sources
link bearinqs and ejector carrier roller bearings. Arctic Platinum is extra provide this type of fuel. Caterpillar has not seen any detrimental effects
acky fo retention on excavator carbody bearings and has additonal with 0.05 percent sulfur fuel in Caterpillar on-highway diesel engines.

pumpability in central lubricating sys.ems iri a yaneg_of ambient NOTICE


temperatures, ranging from -60 to 18°C (-76 to 65 F). Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Residual fuels, or Blended fuels must NOT be used
in Caterpillar 3100 Diesel Engines. Severe component wear and compo-
nent failures will result if HFO type fuels are used.
79
78 Maintenance Section
Coolant Specifications
Maintenance Section %*
Fuel Specifications

Caterpillar Distillate Diesel Fuel Specifications Coolant Specifications


——-— i ' _
Requirements
Specifications (ASTM Test)
Aromatics(D1319) 35% Maximum

Ash (D482)
0.02% Weight Maximum General Coolant Information
1.05% Weight Maximum
Carbon Residue Many engine failures are related to the cooling system. Problems such as
On 10% Bottoms (D524) overheating, water pump leaking, plugged radiators, and cylinder liner
35 Minimum (PC Engines)
Cetane Number (D613)
40 Minimum (Dl Engines) pitting can be avoided with proper cooling system maintenance. Cooling
system maintenance is as important as fuel and lubricating system
Maximum Not Above Lowest
Cloud Point (D97) Expected Ambient Temperature maintenance. Coolant quality is as important as the quality of fuel and
lubricating oil.
Copper Strip Corrosion
No. 3 Maximum
(D130) Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
10% At 282°C (540°F) Maximum
Distillation (D86) 90% At 360°C (680°F) Maximum • Water
Flash Point (D93)
Legal Minimum • Additives
30 Minimum/45 Maximum • Glycol
AP! Gravity (D287)
6°C (10°F) Minimum
Pour Point (D97) Below Ambient Temperature
Water
Sulfur1 (D3605 or D1552) 3% Maximum
1.4 cSt Minimum NOTICE
Viscosity2 (D445)
Kinematic at 40°C(104°F) 20.0 cSt Maximum Never use water alone without Supplemental Coolant Additives (SCA) or
0.1% Maximum without inhibited coolant. Water alone is corrosive at engine operating
Water and Sediment (D1796)
0.1 % Maximum temperatures. Water alone does not provide adequate freeze or boil
Water (D1744) protection.
0.05% Weight Maximum
Sediment (D473)
10 mg/100 ml Maximum
Gums & Resins (D381)
(5.8 grains/US gal) Maximum
Distilled or deionized water is recommended for use in engine cooling
1 caterpillar fuel systems and engine components can operate or, higtJ su'to fuels
systems. DO NOT use hard tap water or salt softened tap water in engine
Howeve", fuel sulfur .evels effect exhaust part.ou^e^missions On J994 and newer
cooling systems. If distilled or deionized water is not available, use water
that meets the minimum acceptable requirements listed in the following
chart.

additional information.
81
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Section
Coolant Specifications
Coolant Specifications

Ethylene glycol is used in most conventional heavy duty (HD)


Caterpillar Water Quality Limits
coolant/antifreezes. However, propylene glycol may also be used. Both
mg/L (grains/US gal)
Water Property (ASTM Test) ethylene glycol and propylene glycol have similar fluid properties in a
40 (2.4) Maximum 50/50 glycol/water mixture. Both ethylene glycol and propylene glycol
Chloride (D512b or D512d or D4327)
Sulfate (D516bor D516d)
100 (5.9) Maximum provide similar heat transfer, freeze protection, corrosion control, and seal
170 (10) Maximum compatibility. The following charts define the temperature protection
Total Hardness (D1126) provided by the two types of glycol.
340 (20) Maximum
Total Solids (D1888a)
5.5 to 9.0
pH (D1293) Ethylene Glycol
NOTE: Consult your Caterpillar dealer, your local water department, agricultural agent,
Protection Against
or an independent laboratory for water analysis.
Concentration
% Glycol/% Water Freezing Boiling
Additives 50/50 -36°C (-33°F) 106°C(223°F)
Additives must be added to all coolant mixtures. Additives help prevent 60/40 -51°C(-60°F) 108°C(226°F)
the formation of rust, scale, and mineral deposits. Additives protect
metals from corrosion, prevent liner cavitation, and contain antifoaming
a'qents. Additives deplete during engine operation and need to be
replenished. This can be done by treating conventional coolants with NOTICE
Supplemental Coolant Additives (SCA) or by treating Extended Life Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent
Coolant (ELC) with Extender. glycol because of propylene glycol's reduced heat transfer capability.
Additives must be added at the proper concentration. Overconcentration Use ethylene glycol in conditions that require additional boil or freeze
of additives can cause the inhibitors to drop out of the solution and form protection.
a ael in the radiator. An overconcentration of additives produces
excessive deposits on water pump seals that can cause the water pump
Propylene Glycol
seal to leak. Underconcentration of additives can produce pitting,
cavitation, erosion, rust, scale, and foaming. Protection Against
Concentration
% Glycol/% Water Freezing Boiling
Glycol 50/50 -29°C (-20°F) 106°C(222°F)
Glycol in the coolant provides boil and freeze protection, prevents water
numn cavitation and reduces cylinder liner pitting. For optimum
performance Caterpillar recommends a 50/50 glycol/water coolant
Caterpillar recommends the use of a refractometer for checking the glycol
mixture. concentration. Use the 1U-7298 Coolant Tester (°C) or use the 1U-7297
NOTE- All Caterpillar engines equipped with air-to-air aftercooling Coolant Tester (°F). The testers give immediate, accurate readings and
(ATAAC) require a MINIMUM of 30 percent glycol to prevent water pump can be used with ethylene or propylene glycol.
cavitation.
83
82 Maintenance Section
Maintenance Section Coolant Specifications
Coolant Specifications % * •

Coolant Service Life


Coolant Recommendations Coolant Type Service Life
Caterpillar ELC 966 000 km (600,000 mi)
NOTICE or Six Years
DO NOT use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that ONLY'meets; the
Caterpillar DEAC 322 000 km (200,000 mi)
ASTM D3306 or D4656 specification. This type of coolant/antifreeze is or Two Years
made for light duty automotive applications. ^ Commercial heavy duty 322 000 km (200,000 mi)
coolant/antifreeze meeting or Two Years
ASTM D5345 or TMC RP329
There are two primary coolant types used in Caterpillar on-highway diesel Commercial heavy duty 241 500 km (150,000 mi)
coolant/antifreeze meeting or One Year
engines: ASTM D4985
• Preferred - Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC), or...
a commercial ELC meeting the Caterpillar EC-1 specification Extended Life Coolant (ELC)
. Acceptable - Caterpillar Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC), or... Caterpillar provides Extended Life Coolant (ELC) for use in heavy duty
diesel engines, natural gas engines, and automotive engines. The
a commercial heavy duty (HD) coolant/antifreeze meeting the TMC Caterpillar ELC anticorrosion package is totally different from conventional
RP329 specification, or... coolants. Caterpillar ELC is an ethylene glycol based coolant which
a commercial HD coolant/antifreeze meeting the ASTM D5345 or contains organic acid corrosion inhibitors and antifoaming agents.
Caterpillar ELC has fewer nitrites than other coolants. Caterpillar ELC has
D4985 specification been formulated with the correct levels of additives to provide superior
Caterpillar ELC will provide the best coolant service life, corrosion corrosion protection for all metals in diesel engine cooling systems.
protection, water pump seal service life, and radiator service life.
Caterpillar ELC extends coolant service life to 966 000 km (600,000 mi) or
Caterpillar recommends a 50/50 glycol/water mixture for optimum Six Years. Caterpillar ELC does not require frequent additions of SCA. A
coolant/antifreeze performance. "one time only" coolant Extender is the only maintenance addition
required. The Extender should be added to the cooling system at 483 000
NOTE- Caterpillar DEAC and commercial heavy duty (HD) km (300,000 mi), or one half of the ELC service life.
cSlant/antifeezes meeting the TMC RP329 specification do not require
i S S S E L i t at initial .Uncommercial H D ^ ^ ^ ^ S L Caterpillar ELC is available Premixed with distilled water in a 50/50
the ASTM D5345 or D4985 specification DO REQUIRE SCA treatment at concentration. The Premixed ELC provides freeze protection to -36°C
(-33°F). The Premixed ELC is recommended for initial fill and for topping
initial fill.
off the cooling system. ELC Concentrate is available to lower the freezing
point to -51 °C (-60°F) for Arctic conditions. ELC Concentrate should be
used to adjust the coolant freeze point as required where Caterpillar ELC
Premixed freeze protection is not acceptable.
84
Maintenance Section 85
Coolant Specifications Maintenance Section
Coolant Specifications

Consult your Caterpillar dealer for part numbers and available container ELC Cooling System Cleaning
sizes.
N0TE
- C L f A N W A T E R i s t h e on|V s V s t e m cleaning/flushing aqent
NOTE: The Caterpillar EC-1 Specification is an industry standard required when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
developed by Caterpillar. The EC-1 specification defines all of the
performance requirements that an engine coolant must meet in order to ELC can be recycled. The drained coolant mixture can be "distilled" to
be sold as an extended life coolant for Caterpillar engines. Caterpillar ELC remove the ethylene glycol and water for reuse. Consult your Caferp l l
can be used in most OEM diesel, gasoline, and natural gas engines. dealer for more information. ^cuw.p.ndr
Caterpillar ELC meets the industry performance requirements of ASTM
D4985 and D5345 for heavy duty low silicate coolant/antifreezes. TlJ'l?9 a n d r e f i " i n g t h e C 0 0 l i n 9 s y s t e m - °P e r a t e the engine with the
Caterpillar ELC also meets the industry performance requirements of radiator filler cap removed until the coolant reaches normal operating
ASTM D3306 and D4656 for automotive applications. temperature and the coolant level stabilizes. Add ELC mixture as
necessary to fill the system to the proper level.

1 ll ELC Cooling System Maintenance Changing to Caterpillar ELC


t jl Caterpillar ELC Extender
CatemSr Conventional HD
Wk'lk Caterpillar ELC Extender is added to the cooling system halfway through caterpillar ^ELC,
2 perform
? ^ the following
^ steps: coolant/antifreeze to

I the ELC service life. The cooling system should be treated with Extender
at 483 000 km (300,000 miles) or one half of the ELC service life. Use the
1. Drain the cooling system.
chart below to determine the proper amount of Caterpillar Extender 2. Flush the system with clean water to remove any debris.
required.
3. Clean the cooling system with Caterpillar Cooling System Cleaner
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for part numbers and available container Follow the instructions on the label. ^'^ner.
sizes.
4. Flush the cooling system with clean water. It is very important to
remove all of the cleaning agent.
Caterpillar ELC Extender Additions
By Cooling System Capacity 5. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Operate the engine until the
Cooling System Capacity Extender Addition cooling system temperature is 49 to 66°C (120 to 150°F).
22 to 30 L (6 to 8 US gal) 0.57 L (20 fl oz)
6. Drain the cooling system. Flush the cooling system with clean water.
31 to 38 L(9 to 10 US gal) 0.71 L (24 fl oz)
39 to 49 L (11 to 13 US gal) 0.95 L (32 fl oz) L R e p e t ? f Bpf 5 a n d 6 ' C o n t i n u e t 0 f l u s h ^ e cooling system with clean
50 to 64 L(14 to 17 US gal) 1.18L(40floz) water until the draining water is also clean.
65 to 83 L (18 to 22 US gal) 1.60 L (54 fl oz) 8. Fill the cooling system with Caterpillar ELC.
84 to 114 L (23 to 30 US gal) 2.15L(72floz)
115 to 163 L(31 to 43 US gal) 3.00L(100floz) 9. Attach a label to the cooling system to indicate the system has been
ueen
mm switched over to Caterpillar ELC.
164 to 242 L (44 to 64 US gal) 4.40L(148floz)

mm
87
86 Maintenance Section
Maintenance Section
Coolant Specifications
Coolant Specifications

Caterpillar DEAC is available premixed with distilled water in a 50/50


ELC Cooling System Contamination
concentration. If DEAC concentrate is used, Caterpillar recommends
NOTICE mixing the concentrate with distilled or deionized water. If distilled or
Mixinq ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC deionized water is not available, use water that has the properties listed in
and shortens the ELC service life. Use only Caterpillar produrtscjr the Caterpillar Water Quality Limits chart.
commercial products that have passed the Caterpillar EC-1i specif .cat.on
for premixed or concentrate coolants. Use only Caterpillar Extends, w. h Caterpillar Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA)
Caterpillar ELC. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in
Caterpillar Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) is effective in preventing
shortened cooling system component life. ^
corrosion on all metals. Caterpillar SCA also prevents the formation of
mineral deposits, prevents liner cavitation, and eliminates coolant
foaming.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination of up to ten percent of
conventional HD coolant/antifreeze. If the contamination exceeds ten Caterpillar DEAC is formulated with the correct level of Caterpillar SCA.
percent of the total system capacity, perform either one of the following Additional SCA is NOT needed when the cooling system is initially filled
with DEAC.
two procedures:
. Drain the cooling system. Flush the system with clean water. Refill the Consult your Caterpillar dealer for part numbers and available container
system with ELC. sizes.

. Maintain the cooling system as if the system is filled with conventional


Commercial Heawy Duty (HD) Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA
HD coolant/antifreeze.
•A If Caterpillar DEAC is not used, select a low silicate commercial HD
If Commercial ELC coolant/antifreeze that meets TMC RP329 or ASTM D5345 or D4985
specifications.
If Caterpillar extended life coolant is not used, select a commercial
extended life coolant that meets the Caterpillar EC-1 specification. Do not When a commercial HD coolant/antifreeze is used, the cooling system
use a product that is labeled as an extended life coolant but does not should be treated with three to six percent Caterpillar SCA by volume.
meet the Caterpillar EC-1 specification. Follow the coolant maintenance Refer to the Caterpillar SCA Requirements for Heavy Duty
guidelines of the commercial ELC supplier. In all cases, use distilled or Coolant/Antifreeze chart. If Caterpillar SCA is not used, select a
deionized water or use water that has the properties listed in the commercial SCA. The commercial SCA must provide a minimum of 1200
Caterpillar Water Quality Limits chart and follow the Caterpillar mg/L or 1200 ppm (70 grains/US gal) nitrites in the final coolant mixture.
recommendations for the coolant change interval. Follow the coolant maintenance guidelines of the commercial SCA
supplier. In all cases, use distilled or deionized water or use water that has
the properties listed in the Caterpillar Water Quality Limits chart.
Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC)
Caterpillar recommends the use of Caterpillar Diesel Engine HD coolant/antifreezes that meet ASTM D5345 or D4985 specifications
Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC) in conventional HD cooling systems DEAC is DO require SCA treatment at initial fill, and on a maintenance basis.
an S f n e type, single phase, ethylene glycol based antifreeze/coo ant. HD coolant/antifreezes that meet TMC RP329 specifications DO NOT
DEAC contains inorganic corrosion inhibitors and antifoaming agents. require SCA treatment at initial fill, but SCA treatment is required on a
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for part numbers and available container maintenance basis.
sizes.
88 89
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Section Coolant Specifications
Coo!ant Specifications

Heavy Duty Coolant/Antifreeze Cooling System Maintenance Caterpillar SCA Requirements


For Heavy Duty Coolant/Antifreeze
NOTICE Liquid SCA At Liquid SCA Spin-on
Initial Fill 1 SCA At Element
Never operate an engine without water temperature regulators in the For 24150 km At 250 Hours
cooling system. Water temperature regulators maintain the engine cool- ASTM D5345 (15,000 mi) For Ail
ant at the proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can Cooling System ASTM D4985 For All HD Coolants3
develop without water temperature regulators. Capacity HD Coolants HD Coolants2 Part No. [Qty]
22 to 30 L 0.95 L (32 oz) 0.24 L (8 oz) 111-2370 [1]
(6 to 8 US gal)
Check the coolant/antifreeze solution (glycol content) frequently to ensure 31 to 38 L 1.18L(40oz) 0.36L(12oz) 111-2370 [1]
(9 to 10 US gal)
adequate boil and freeze protection. Caterpillar recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration. Use the 1U-729S 39 to 49 L 1.42 L (48 oz) 0.36L(12oz) 111-2369 [1]
(11 to 13 US gal)
Coolant Tester (°C) or use the 1U-7297 Coolant Tester (°F). The testers
give immediate, accurate readings and can be used with ethylene or 50 to 64 L 1.90L(64oz) 0.47 L(16 oz) 9N-3368 [1]
(14 to 17 US gal)
propylene glycol.
65 to 83 L 2.37 L (80 oz) 0.60 L (20 oz) 111-2371 [1]
Caterpillar on-highway diesel engine cooling systems should have the (18 to 22 US gal)
SCA concentration tested every 24 150 km (15,000 miles). Your 84 to 114 L 3.32L(112oz) 0.95 L (32oz ) 9N-3718[1]
Caterpillar dealer has test kits to evaluate SCA concentration. Test the (23 to 30 US gal)
SCA concentration or submit a coolant sample to your Caterpillar dealer 115 to 163 L 4.75 L (160 oz) 1.18L(40oz) 111-2371 [2]
(refer to the S»0«S Coolant Analysis topic). (31 to 43 US gal)
164 to 242 L 7.60 L (256 oz) 1.90 L(64oz) 9N-3718[2]
SCA additions are based on the test results or based on the coolant (44 to 64 US gal)
analysis results. Liquid SCA or a SCA maintenance element (if equipped) 1
SCA is NOT required for Caterpillar DEAC at initial fill.
may be needed every 24 150 km (15,000 miles). 2
Do not exceed the six percent maximum concentration. Check the SCA concentra-
tion with an SCA test kit.
The following chart lists the amount of Caterpillar SCA needed at initial fill 3
Do not use both the SCA maintenance element and SCA liquid at the same time.
to treat commercial HD coolant/antifreezes meeting ASTM D5345 or
D4985 specifications.
The chart also lists SCA additions for liquid SCA and for SCA
maintenance elements at 24 150 km (15,000 miles). The additions apply
to ali types of HD coolant/antifreezes.
90 91
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Coolant Specifications S-O-S Oil Analysis

The foiiowing chart lists part numbers and quantities for Caterpillar SCA.
S-O-S Oil Analysis
Caterpillar Liquid SCA
Part Number Quantity
Caterpillar's S»0«S Oil Analysis is the best indicator for determining what
6V-3542 .24 L (8 oz) is happening inside your engine.
111-2372 .36 L(12oz)
.47L(16oz) S«0*S Oil Analysis is a diagnostic tool used to determine oil performance
8T-1589
and component wear rates. S»0»S Oil Analysis uses a series of tests
3P-2044 .94 L (32 oz)
designed to identify and measure contamination such as:
5P-2907 208 L (55 US gal) • soot, sulfur, etc.
• degradation such as the presence of fuel, water and antifreeze in a
sample of oil
NOTE: Due to specific engine applications, maintenance practices may • the amount of wear metals present in the oil sample
need periodic evaluation in order to properly maintain the engine's cooling
system. Wear metals present in the oil sample are compared to established
Caterpillar norms to determine acceptability. S»0»S Oil Analysis must be
Heavy Duty Coolant/Antifreeze Cooling System Cleaning performed on a continuing basis to be effective as an indicator.
Intermittent sampling does not allow wear rate trend lines to be
Caterpillar Cooling System Cleaners are designed to clean the cooling established.
system of harmful scale and corrosion. Caterpillar cleaners dissolve
mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil contamination, and sludge.
S-O'S Interval Chart
Clean the cooling system: Compartment Interval
• after draining used coolant and before filling the cooling system with Engine Crankcase Every 250 Service Hours
new coolant
• whenever the coolant is dirty or foaming
Obtain An Oil Sample Every 250 Service Hours.
Obtain S»0»S oil samples at regularly scheduled intervals to monitor the
condition and maintenance requirements of your engine. Each oil sample
should be taken when the oil is warm and well mixed to ensure that the
sample is representative of the oil in the engine crankcase.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for complete information and assistance in
establishing an S«0»S analysis program for your engine(s).
S»0«S Oil Analysis is composed of three basic tests:
llplf
ti • Wear Analysis
• Chemical and Physical Tests
• Oil Condition Analysis
92 93
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
S»OS Oil Analysis % S°0«S Coolant Analysis

Wear analysis is performed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer


to monitor component wear by identifying and measuring concentrations, S*0*S Coolant Analysis
in parts per million, of wear elements present in the oil. Based on known
normal concentration data, maximum limits of wear elements are
established. Impending failures can be identified when test results deviate Coolant is essential to control engine operating temperatures and make
from concentration levels established as acceptable, based on normal components last longer. Poorly maintained coolant can actually shorten
wear. component life by causing a chain reaction of heat problems. Excessive
Chemical and physical tests detect the presence of water, fuel and heat can cause:
glycol (antifreeze) in the oil and determine whether or not their • Hot spots that crack steel, notably in cylinder heads
concentrations exceed established maximum limits. • Bubble pockets that form on cylinder surfaces and result in liner pitting
Oil condition is evaluated with infrared analysis. This test determines the • Oil to degrade, leading to component damage
presence and measures the amount of contaminants such as soot, sulfur • Lacquer and shellac build up on precision hydraulic parts
products, oxidation, and nitration products in the oil. Infrared analysis can • Oil additives to break down and transmission clutches to slip
also assist in customizing (reducing, maintaining or extending) oil change S»0»S Coolant Analysis is the best way to monitor the condition of your
intervals for particular conditions and applications. coolant and your cooling system. The two level program, based on
Infrared analysis should always be accompanied by wear element samples you submit, shows the condition of coolant and the cooling
analysis and chemical and physical tests to assure accurate diagnosis. system.

NOTE: Infrared analysis must be used to determine oil change intervals. Level I: Basic Coolant Maintenance Check
S'0»S Oil Analysis must include Infrared (IR) in the analysis.
Checks for correct chemical balance for proper heat and corrosion
The test results of the oil samples will then be used as a basis for control. Tests for:
determining the oil change interval for your engine, giving you the ultimate
time between oil changes without the risk of engine damage. • glycol
• SCA concentrations
Refer to PEDP1129, Listen To Your Oil, for information and benefits of ®pH
S«0*S Oil Analysis. • conductivity
S»0»S Coolant Analysis reports results and makes recommendations,
usually within 24 hours.
The concentration of SCA should be checked regularly for
overconcentration or underconcentration. This should be done with test
kits, or S»0»S Coolant Analysis (Level I) Every 250 Service Hours.
Further coolant analysis is recommended at twice a year or Every 1000
Service Hours.
For example, suppose considerable deposits are found in the water jacket
areas on the external cooling system, yet coolant additive concentrations
were carefully maintained. Chances are that the coolant water had
minerals which deposited on the engine over time.
94 95
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
S»0«S Coolant Analysis Terminology
A,.

One way to verify the water condition, or to be sure of new water at fill
time, is to have a coolant analysis conducted. Full water analysis can Terminology
sometimes be obtained locally from your local water utility company or an
agricultural agent. Private laboratories are also available.
Caterpillar recommends S°0*S Level II Coolant Analysis. Adjust - to conform and correspond to specifications.
Check - to observe for satisfactory conditions, accuracy, safety or
performance.
Level II: Comprehensive Cooling System Analysis Inspect - to examine closely, in critical appraisal, while testing or
evaluating components or systems.
Completely analyzes coolant and coolant effects on the cooling system.
Inspect/Rebuild or Exchange - to examine closely; then making the
Level I! Analysis provides: decision on repair option (Rebuild or Exchange).
• full Level I analysis Lubricate - to apply a lubricant (oil, grease, etc) as specified for reducing
• visual properties inspection friction, heat and wear between solid surfaces.
• metal corrosion and contaminant identification Rebuild - to trade or repair a worn or failing component with new parts,
• identification of built up impurities that point to corrosion and scaling components and/or for a remanufactured or rebuilt component.
problems BEFORE they lead to costly repairs. Replace - to install something new, remanufactured or rebuilt in place of
an existing worn or failing component.
Level 11 Analysis provides a simple, clear report of results, and makes Service Hours (Electrical) - the time that the engine is actually operating.
recommendations for the lowest cost corrective options. Service hours do not reflect variations in speed, load, etc.
For more information on coolant analysis and how it can help you
manage your equipment, see your Caterpillar dealer. Consult your Maintenance Intervals
Caterpillar dealer for complete information and assistance in establishing
The Maintenance Schedule requires all previous interval maintenance
an S°0«S analysis program for your engine(s). items to be performed first. For example, if the PM Level 1 maintenance is
being done, then the Daily maintenance items must be completed
BEFORE performing PM Level 1 maintenance.
Engines may be equipped with various optional components. The
maintenance charts may recommend maintenance for items not installed
on your engine. Simply disregard reference to any unrelated items. If
unsure of any item, consult your Caterpillar dealer.

Overhaul Interval
Overhaul is defined as the interval at which the major wear items in the
engine should be replaced. The Overhaul interval represents the planned
replacement of work components with new or rebuilt components. In
other words, the engine is being rebuilt with certain new parts replacing
worn parts such as piston rings, engine rod and main bearings, valves
and valve seats, etc.
NOTE: The Maintenance Schedules follow in this manual. Ensure that the
recommendations are adhered to.
96 97
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Maintenance Schedule Recommendations
Refill Capacities A...

Refill Capacities Maintenance Schedule


Recommendations
Lubrication System Capacity For scheduling maintenance, use fuel consumption, distance (odometer),
service hours, or calendar time, whichever occurs first. Caterpillar
3116 And 3126 HEUI Engine Lubrication System Capacity (Approximate) recognizes that distance is most commonly used to schedule
System Capacity maintenance for on-highway vehicles. However, experience has shown
Refill With Oil Rebuilt Engines that maintenance intervals are most accurately scheduled on the basis of
System and Filter Change Initial Fill Only fuel consumption.
Shallow Oil Sump1 18L(19qt) 21 L (22 qt)
1 31 L (33 qt)
Deep Oil Sump 27 L (29 qt) Reduced Maintenance Intervals
Approximate crankcase sump capacity including standard factory installed oil filters.
Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Engines that operate in adverse operating conditions may require more
LUBERFINER® 500-C - Add 9.5 L (10 qt). frequent maintenance. Under severe or dusty conditions and where the
LUBERFINER® 750-C - Add 13.25 L (14 qt). average operating speed of the vehicle is less than 32 km/h (20 mph),
reduce the maintenance interval by one-half of the distance interval.
Some examples are garbage compactors, delivery vehicles, and drill rigs.
For more information, refer to the Severe Service topic.
Engines that consume fuel with a sulfur content of five percent or more
require reduced oil change intervals. For more information, refer to "Oil
Change Intervals" under the "Engine Oil and Oil Filter - Change" topic in
the Maintenance Section.

Extended Oil Change Intervals


Caterpillar recommends an S*0*S Oil Analysis Program to be used as a
basis for extending oil change intervals. However, oil change intervals
may also be adjusted according to the lubrication oil capacity of the
engine and the amount of sulfur in the fuel that is consumed. For more
(1) Shallow oil sump. information, refer to "Oil Change Intervals" under the "Engine Oil and Oil
(2) Deep oil sump. Filter - Change" topic in the Maintenance Section.

Cooling System Capacity Engine Attachments


Cooling System Capacity (Approximate) Several components that are listed in the Maintenance Schedule are
Compartment or System Liters Quarts installed by the OEM of the vehicle. The attachments may include the
Total Cooling System
following components: air compressor, alternator, belts, engine air
cleaner, fuel system primary fuel filter, hoses and clamps, radiator,
The Total Cooling System capacity will vary, depending on the radiator size provided
by the vehicle manufacturer. The chart is left blank and should be filled in by the cus- starting motor, and water separator. Refer to the service information for
tomer for maintenance of the cooling system. the type or model of the component that is installed on the engine and
follow the manufacturer's recommendations.
98 99
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Schedule - Engines with a Shallow Oil Sump y i Maintenance Schedule - Engines with a Shallow Oil Sump

PM Level 2 - Every 161 000 km (100,000 miles) Or 56 850 L


Maintenance Schedule - Engines with (15,000 US gal) Of Fuel Or 2000 Service Hours Or Two Years
a Shallow Oil Sump Air Compressor - Inspect 103
Alternator - Inspect 106
Read and understand the warnings and instructions contained in the Belt Tensioner - Inspect 110
Safety Section of this manual before performing any operation or Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect 120
maintenance procedures. Engine - Clean 122
Engine Air Cleaner - Replace (Annually) 122
Daily Engine Mounts - Inspect 126
Engine Valve Lash - Check/Adjust 133
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check 117 Starting Motor - Inspect 143
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect 123 Turbocharger - Inspect 143
Engine Oil Level - Check 126 Water Pump - Inspect 147
Walk-Around Inspection 145 Water Pump Pulley Bearing - Inspect 147
Water Separator - Drain 148 Water Temperature Regulator - Inspect/Replace 149

'initial 9660 km (6000 miles) Or 3800 L (1000 US gal) Of Fuel Every Two Years Or 322 000 km (200,000 Miles)
Or 250 Service Hours Or Six Months
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change 111
Engine Valve Lash - Check/Adjust (At the first oil change) 133
Every 483 000 km (300,000 Miles)
PH Level 1 - Every 9660 km (6000 miles) Or 3800 L (1000 US
gaS) Of Fuel Or 250 Service Hours Or Six Months Cooling System Coolant (ELC) Extender- Add 116

Air Compressor Air Filter (If Equipped) - Replace 103 Every Six Years Or 966 000 km (600,000 Miles)
Air-To-Air-Aftercooler - Inspect 105
Battery - Clean/Check 106 Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change 114
Belts - Inspect 107
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) Supplemental Coolant Additive
Every 113 000 L (30,000 US gal) of Fuel
(SCA) - Test/Add 118
Cylinder Head Ground Stud - Inspect 121 Overhaul - Evaluate 140
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean 125
Engine Oil and Oil Filter - Change 127
Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate/Inspect 134
Fuel System Primary Filter (If Equipped) - Clean 135
Fuel System Secondary Fuel Filter - Replace 135
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain 139
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect 139
Radiator - Inspect 141
S'0*S Oil Analysis (Recommended) - Obtain 142
100 101
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Maintenance Schedule - Engines with a Deep Oil Sump Maintenance Schedule - Engines with a Deep Oil Sump
.i#^

§ Maintenance Schedule - Engines with Maintenance Schedule - Engines with


a Deep Oil Sump
HI a Deep Oil Sump
Read and understand the warnings and instructions contained in the PM Level 2 - Every 161 000 km (100,000 miles) Or 56 850 L
Safety Section of this manual before performing any operation or (15,000 US gal) Of Fuel Or 2000 Service Hours Or Two Years
maintenance procedures. Air Compressor - Inspect 103
Alternator - Inspect 106
Daily Belt Tensioner - Inspect 110
Crankshaft Vibration Damper- Inspect 120
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check 117 Engine - Clean 122
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect 123 Engine Air Cleaner - Replace (Annually) 122
Engine Oil Level - Check 126 Engine Mounts - Inspect 126
Walk-Around Inspection "145 Engine Valve Lash - Check/Adjust 133
Water Separator - Drain 148 Starting Motor - Inspect 143
Turbocharger - Inspect 143
Initial 16 100 km (10,00 miles) Or 5700 L (1500 US gal) Of Water Pump - Inspect 147
Fuel Or 250 Service Hours Or Six Months Water Pump Pulley Bearing - Inspect 147
Water Temperature Regulator- Inspect/Replace 149
Engine Valve Lash - Check/Adjust (At the first oil change) 133
Every Two Years Or 322 000 km (200,000 Miles)
PH lewei 1 - Every 16 100 km (10,00 miles) Or 5700 L (1500
US gai) Of Fuel Or 250 Service Hours Or Six Months Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change 111

Air Compressor Air Filter (If Equipped) - Replace 103


Air-To-Air-Aftercooler - Inspect 105 Every 483 000 km (300,000 Miles)
Battery - Clean/Check 106 Cooling System Coolant (ELC) Extender-Add 116
Belts - Inspect 1° 7
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add 118 Every Six Years Or 966 000 km (600,000 Miles)
Cylinder Head Ground Stud - Inspect 121 Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change 114
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean 125
Engine Oil and Oil Filter - Change 127
Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate/Inspect 134 Every 113 000 L (30,000 US gal) of Fuel
Fuel System Primary Filter (If Equipped) - Clean 135
Fuel System Secondary Fuel Filter- Replace 135 Overhaul - Evaluate 140
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain 139
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect 139
Radiator - Inspect 141
S'0»S Oil Analysis (Recommended) - Obtain 142
102 103
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Notes Air Compressor

Notes Air Compressor


^WARNING

Do not disconnect the air line from the air compressor governor
without purging the air brake and auxiliary air systems. Failure to
purge the air brake and auxiliary air systems before removing the air
compressor and/or air lines couid cause personal injury.

Air compressor pressure relief valve.

^WARNING

If the air compressor pressure relief valve is bypassing compressed


air, there is a malfunction in the air system, possibly ice blockage.
Under these conditions, the vehicle may have insufficient air for
normal brake operation.
Do not operate the vehicle until the reason for the air bypass is
identified and corrected. Failure to heed this warning could lead to
property damage, personal injury, or death to the operator or
bystanders.
105
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Air Compressor Air-To-Air Aftercooler

I
it The function of the air compressor pressure relief valve is to bypass air Air-To-Air Aftercooler
when there is a malfunction in the air compressor system. The pressure
relief valve releases air pressure at 1723 kPa (250 psi). It is very important Inspect
that all personnel stand clear of the pressure relief valve when
Depending on your findings and operating environment, the maintenance
compressed air is released. All personnel should also stand clear of the
interval for cleaning the air-to-air aftercooler may be more frequent.
general vicinity of the air compressor when the engine is operating and
the hood is raised.
NOTICE
Air Compressor Air Filter - Clean/Replace A hose failure or significant system leak will cause a large drop in boost
pressure and power. The engine can be operated at this power level long
One of the single most important aspects of air compressor preventative enough to reach a stop area. Sustained operation under this condition
maintenance is the induction of clean air. The type of maintenance that is should be avoided as loss of boost pressure raises exhaust temperature
required for the air compressor and the maintenance interval depends and dirt can enter the air stream.
upon the type of air induction system that is used. More frequent
maintenance will be required for operation in dusty or dirty environments.
Refer to the Service Manual for the type of air compressor that is installed A reduction in power or response, or an increase in exhaust temperature,
on your engine. Follow the maintenance recommendations that are may indicate an air leak in the charge air cooler core, a gasket failure, a
provided by the OEM of the air compressor. duct failure, or a leak in the piping.
• Check the front of the aftercooler for insects, dirt and other debris.
Inspect the Air Compressor Clean the front of the aftercooler when required with a stainless steel
brush and soapy water. Clean dirt and debris from between the
Refer to the Service Manual for the type of air compressor that is installed aftercooler and radiator.
on your engine. Visually check for fluid leaks and listen for air leaks. • Inspect all of the air ducting and the gasket connections at each oil
Inspect the air compressor as instructed by the literature provided by the change. Constant torque hose clamps should be used to secure the
OEM of the air compressor. For more information on how to check the air
ducting.
compressor, refer to the Service Manual. Consult your Caterpillar dealer
• Check all of the welds for cracks. Check the mounting brackets to
for assistance. ensure the mounting brackets are secure and in good condition.
• Examine fins for external damage, dirt, debris, salt corrosion, etc. Use a
firm stainless steel brush to remove dirt, debris, salt, etc.
• Use compressed air to clean core blockage due to dirt and debris.
NOTE: Whenever air-to-air aftercooler parts are repaired and/or replaced,
a leak test is highly recommended. Refer to SEHS8622, Using the
FT-1984 Air-To-Air Aftercooler Leak Test Group, or consult your Caterpillar
dealer for assistance.
107
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Alternator - Inspect zy^
Belts

1. Remove the fill caps. Maintain the electrolyte level to the bottom of the
Alternator - Inspect fill cap openings.
Inspect the alternator for loose connections and proper battery charging. If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled water. If distilled water is
Inspect the ammeter gauge during engine operation to ensure the not available use clean water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
batteries and/or electrical system is performing correctly. Make repairs as softened water.
necessary. Refer to the Service Manual.
At the proper charging rate, the batteries should not require more than 30
Check the alternator and battery charger for proper operation. If the cc (1 oz) of water per cell per week.
batteries are properly charged, ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The batteries should be kept 2. Keep the batteries clean.
warm because temperature affects the cranking power. If the battery is
too cold, it will not crank the engine, even if the engine is warm. When 3. Remove the cable terminals from the battery.
the engine is not run for long periods of time or run for short periods, the
batteries may not fully recharge. Ensure the alternator performs properly 4. Clean the battery terminals and the cable terminals.
to charge the battery and to help prevent the battery from freezing. 5. Attach the cable terminals to the battery terminals. Tighten the cable
terminals.
Battery 6. Coat the cable terminals and the battery terminals with petroleum jelly
or MPGM.
& WARNING
Belts - Inspect
Battery electrolyte contains acid and can cause injury. Avoid contact
with the skin and eyes. Always wear protective glasses when work- Inspect the belts when the engine is stopped.
ing with batteries. Wash hands after touching batteries and connec-
tors. Use of gloves is recommended. Batteries give off flammable Inspect the condition and the adjustment of the alternator belt and the
fumes which can explode. Ensure there is proper ventilation for accessory drive belt. Examine the belts for wear. Replace the belts if the
batteries which are located in an enclosure. Do not smoke when belts show any signs of wear. Loose or worn pulley grooves cause belt
servicing the batteries. slippage and low accessory drive speed. If belts are too loose, the belts
vibrate enough to cause unnecessary wear on the belts and pulleys and
possibly slip enough to cause overheating.
Clean/Check Electrolyte Level If belts are too tight, unnecessary stresses are placed upon the pulley
bearings and on the belts which might shorten the service life of both.
Battery Electrolyte Chart
Battery Interval If one belt in a set requires replacement, always install a new matched set
125 Hour of belts. Never replace just the worn belt. If only the worn belt is replaced,
Conventional
250 Hours
the new belt will carry all the load, as it will not be stretched as much as
Low Maintenance the older belts. All the belts will fail in rapid succession.
Maintenance Free None Required

ill.
109
/laintenance Section Maintenance Section
Salts Belts

Alternator Belt Adjustment

D48389
Beit tensioner.

• If the engine is equipped with a freon compressor (air conditioner), the (1) Adjusting bolt. (2) Mounting bolt.
belt for the fan drive, the alternator, and the accessories will have an
automatic belt tensioner. 1 . Slightly loosen mounting bolts (2) and adjusting bolt (1).

• If the engine is NOT equipped with a freon compressor, the alternator is 2 . Move the pulley to adjust the belt tension.
used to adjust the belt tension. 3. Tighten adjusting bolt (1). Tighten mounting bolts (2).
Remove the belt guard. Inspect the condition and adjustment of alternator 4. Install the belt guard.
belts and accessory drive belts (if equipped).
If a new belt is installed, check the belt adjustment again after 30 minutes
To check the belt tension, apply 110 Newton (25 lb) of force, of engine operation at rated speed.
perpendicular to the belt, midway between the pulleys. Measure the belt
deflection. Correctly adjusted belts will deflect 9 to 15 mm (% to % inch).

If the belt does not require replacement or adjustment, install the belt
guard. If the belt requires adjustment or replacement, perform the
following procedure to adjust the belt tension.
111
/laintenance Section Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change
Jelt Tensioner - Inspect

Vater Pump Belt Adjustment Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change


NOTE: Before performing this maintenance, determine the type of
coolant that is being used. This maintenance applies ONLY to cooling
systems that are filled with conventional heavy duty coolant/antifreeze
such as Caterpillar Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC).
Clean the cooling system before the recommended maintenance interval
if:
• Coolant is heavily contaminated
• The engine overheats frequently
• Foaming is observed in the radiator
• The oil cooler has failed, allowing oil to contaminate the coolant
• Fuel has entered the cooling system and contaminated the coolant

Exploded view of a water pump belt drive assembly: (1)


Mounting bolt. (2) Square hole. (3) Adjusting bolt. NOTICE
If using a commercial HD coolant/antifreeze which meets ASTMD4985:
1. Slightly loosen mounting bolt (1) and adjusting bolt (3). drain, clean, and refill the cooling system Every Year or 241 500 km
2. Adjust the belt tension with a square drive in the square hole (2). (150,000 miles), whichever occurs first.
Use of commercially available cooling system cleaners may cause dam-
3. Tighten adjusting bolt (3). Tighten mounting bolt (1). age to cooling system components. Use only cooling system cleaners
that are approved for Caterpillar engines that have aluminum cooling
4. Install the belt guard. system and engine components.
If a new belt is installed, check the belt adjustment again after 30 minutes DO NOT use a cooling system cleaner that contains tri-sodium phos-
of engine operation at rated speed. phate. Tri-sodium phosphate will damage the aluminum components in
the engine.

Belt Tensioner - Inspect


Inspect the belt tensioner for unusual noise, excessive looseness and/or NOTE: A good time to inspect the water pump, replace the water
temperature regulator, and replace hoses is when your engine's cooling
wobbling of the bearings. system has been drained.
If the belt tensioner should require disassembly, refer to the Service
Manual for the procedure.
113
112 Maintenance Section
Maintenance Section Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change

4. Start and run the engine for a minimum of 30 minutes with the coolant
Drain the Coolant temperature at a minimum of 82°C (180°F). Stop the engine and allow the
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. Loosen the radiator filler engine to cool.
c^p slowly to relieve any pressure. Remove the radiator filler cap. 5. Loosen the radiator filler cap slowly to relieve any pressure. Remove
2 Remove the cooling system drain plug(s) or open the drain valva the radiator filler cap. Remove the cooling system drain plug(s) or open
OnenThe cab heater valve to drain coolant from the cab heater. Remove the drain valve(s). Allow the cleaning solution to drain. Flush the cooling
fhe draki plug from the bottom of the water pump housing. Remov.the system with clean water until the draining water is clear. Clean and install
drain Slue, from the bottom of the radiator. Allow the coolant to dram. all drain plugs and/or close the drain valve(s).

Cooling Systems with Heavy Deposits or Plugging


NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant properly or recycle. Various'methods NOTE: For the following procedure to be effective, there must be some
tave been proposed to reclaim used coolant for reuse ini engine coding active flow through the radiator and the other cooling system
systems The full distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by components.
Catered to reclaim the used coolant. Consult your Caterpillar dealer Follow the same steps as outlined above, with the following modifications
S S regarding disposal and recycling of used coolant.
to steps 3 and 4:
3. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of clean water and Caterpillar
For information regarding disposal and recycling of used coolant, call: Fast Acting Cooling System Cleaner. Add .5 L (1 pt) of cleaner per 3.8 to
7.6 L (1 to 2 US gal) of cooling system capacity. Install the radiator filler
Caterpillar Service Technology Group: cap.
Outside Illinois: 1 -800-542-TOOL
Inside Illinois: 1-800-541-TOOL 4. Start and run the engine for a minimum of 90 minutes with the coolant
Canada: 1 -800-523-TOOL temperature at a minimum of 82°C (180°F). Stop the engine and allow the
engine to cool.
Clean the Cooling System
Fill the Cooling System
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water to remove any debris.
Refer to the Coolant Specifications for all information regarding
2. Clean and install all drain plugs and/or close the drain valve(s). coolant/antifreeze requirements. Refer to the Refill Capacities chart in this
publication for the capacity of your engine's cooling system.
NOTICE
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal) per minute to avo.d NOTICE
air locks. Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal) per minute to avoid
air locks.

3 Fill the cooling system with a mixture of clean water and Caterpillar
^ Acting Cooling System Cleaner. Add .5 L (1 pt) of cleaner per 15 L
(4 US S of cooling system capacity. Install the radiator filler cap.
115
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Section Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change

Drain the Coolant


1. Fill the cooling system with the recommended coolant/antifreeze
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. Loosen the radiator filler
mixture. cap slowly to relieve any pressure. Remove the radiator filler cap.
2 Start and run the engine with the radiator filler cap amoved Allow the
codant to warm, the water temperature regulator to open and he coolant 2. Remove the cooling system drain plug(s) or open the drain valve.
tevel to stabilize. Check the coolant level. Add coolant mirfure if Open the cab heater valve to drain coolant from the cab heater. Remove
necessary to bring the coolant to within 13 mm 04 inch) below the the drain plug from the bottom of the water pump housing. Remove the
bottom of the fill pipe or to the correct level on the sight glass (if drain plug from the bottom of the radiator. Allow the coolant to drain.
equipped).
3 Check the condition of the radiator filler cap. If the gaskets are NOTICE
t m a a e d replace the old radiator filler cap with a new radiator filler cap. Dispose of used the coolant properly or recycle the used coolant. Various
STe qaskete aTe n 0 t d a m a g e d , use a 9S-8140 Pressurized Pump Group methods have been proposed for reclaiming used coolant for reuse in
to oreSure test the radiator filler cap. The correct pressure is stamped on engine cooling systems. The full distillation procedure is the only method
the'face o?STradLtor filler cap. If the radiator filler cap does not hold the acceptable by Caterpillar for reclaiming the used coolant. Consult your
correct pressure, install a new radiator filler cap. Caterpillar dealer for information regarding the disposal and recycling of
used coolant.
4. Start the engine. Inspect for coolant leaks and proper operating
temperature.
For information regarding disposal and recycling of used coolant, call the
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change Caterpillar Service Technology Group:

NOTE: Before performing this maintenance, d ^ ^ * * " ! * Outside Illinois: 1-800-542-TOOL


coolant that is being used. This maintenance apples ONLY_to co<,ng Inside Illinois: 1-800-541-TOOL
systems that are filled with Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC). Canada: 1-800-523-TOOL

Only clean water is needed in order to clean and flush the cooling system
Flush the Cooling System
when ELC is drained and replaced.
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water to remove any debris.
2. Clean and install the drain plugs. Close the drain valve.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the radiator filler cap.
Operate the engine until the jacket water temperature reaches 49 to 66°C
(150to120°F).
4. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. Loosen the radiator filler
cap slowly to relieve any pressure. Remove the radiator filler cap. Remove
IlL the cooling system drain plugs. Open the drain valve. Allow the water to
drain. Flush the cooling system with clean water.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4.
I 116
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
117

Cooling System Coolant Extender - Add Cooling System Coolant Level - Check

Fill the Cooling System 2. It may be necessary to drain enough coolant from the cooling system
to allow for the addition of the Extender.
NOTICE
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal) per minute to avoid 3. Add Extender according to the requirements for your engine's cooling
air locks. system capacity. Refer to the Refill Capacities chart for the cooling
system capacity for your engine. Refer to the Coolant Specifications for
the Caterpillar ELC Extender Additions chart.
1. Install the drain plugs. Close the drain valve. Fill the cooling system 4. Install the radiator filler cap. Start the engine and inspect for coolant
with ELC. Refer to the Refill Capacities chart for the amount of ELC leaks. Stop the engine.
needed to refill the cooling system.
•If 2. Start and run the engine with the radiator filler cap removed. Allow the
5. Check the coolant level. Add coolant if necessary. Clean the radiator
filler cap. Inspect the radiator filler cap. If the gaskets are damaged,
ELC to warm, the water temperature regulator to open, and the coolant replace the old radiator filler cap with a new radiator filler cap. Install the
level to stabilize. Add ELC if necessary in order to bring the coolant to the radiator filler cap.
proper level.
3. Check the condition of the radiator filler cap. If the gaskets are Cooling System Coolant Lewel - Check
damaged, replace the old radiator filler cap with a new radiator filler cap.
If the gaskets are not damaged, pressure test the radiator filler cap with a Check the coolant level with the engine stopped and cool.
9S-8140 Pressurized Pump Group (available from your Caterpillar dealer).
The correct pressure is stamped on the face of the radiator filler cap. If 1. Remove the radiator filler cap slowly in order to relieve any pressure.
the radiator filler cap does not hold the correct pressure, install a new 2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm {Vz inch) below the bottom of
radiator filler cap. the fill pipe or to the proper level on the sight glass, if equipped.
4. Start the engine. Inspect for coolant leaks and proper operating
3. Clean up any coolant that has spilled or dripped. Install the radiator
temperature. filler cap.

CooSing System Coolant Extender - Add


NOTE: Before performing this maintenance, determine the type of
coolant that is being used. This maintenance applies ONLY to cooling
systems that are filled with Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant.
Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC) does not require the frequent
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) additions associated with the
present conventional coolants. Only a "one time" coolant Extender is
required.
Check the cooling system only when the engine is stopped and cool.

ill 1. Loosen the radiator filler cap slowly in order to relieve pressure.
Remove the radiator filler cap.
119
118
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) Cooling System Coolant (DEAC)
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add
1
It Use the 4C-9301 Test Kit or use the 8T-5296 Test Kit to check for SCA
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) Supplemental
pi Coolant Additiwe (SCA) - Test/Add
concentration. Add SCA if the concentration is too low. If the SCA
concentration is excessive, drain half the coolant, and replace with the
I NOTE- Before performing this maintenance, determine the type of
proper water/antifreeze mixture.
coolant that is being used. This maintenance applies ONLY to cooling NOTE: You may test your coolant SCA concentration OR have the SCA
systems that are filled with conventional heavy duty coolant/antifreeze concentration tested as part of a S«0«S Coolant Analysis (Level I).
such ad Caterpillar Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC).
Obtain Level I Analysis
Test for SCA Or Obtain Level I Analysis
S°0*S Coolant Analysis is an excellent way to monitor the condition of
your coolant and your cooling system.
^piiRNlNG
Level I: Basic Coolant Maintenance Check
Coolant additive contains alkali. To prevent personal injury, avoid Checks for correct chemical balance for proper heat and corrosion
contact with the skin and eyes. Do not drink coolant. control. Tests for:
• glycol
Check the cooling system only after the engine is stopped and cool. • SCA concentrations
Remove the filler cap slowly to relieve pressure. To prevent engine • pH
damage, never add cooling system products to an overheated engine. • conductivity
Allow the engine to cool first.
S-0*S Coolant Analysis results and recommendations are usually made
The use of Caterpillar SCA will prevent internal damage to the engine, within 24 hours. Consult with your Caterpillar dealer for more information.
such as liner or block pitting. If the SCA concentration is too low, pitting ot
the cylinder wall may occur, which can lead to costly engine damage. Add Liquid Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA)
If the SCA concentration is too high, sludge and mud-like deposits may
form in the cooling system. This adversely affects engine performance NOTICE
and can also lead to costly repairs of the engine and cooling system. ONLY add SCA if required by test results.

NOTICE 1. Loosen the radiator filler cap slowly in order to relieve any pressure.
The overconcentration of a supplemental coolant additive will result in Remove the radiator filler cap.
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the cooling system and
create a barrier that reduces the engine's heat transfer characteristics. 2. It may be necessary to drain enough coolant from the radiator to allow
fjif for the addition of the liquid SCA.
ten Reduced heat transfer could cause cracking of the cylinder head and
other high temperature components. Excessive concentrations of addi- 3. Add liquid SCA according to the requirements for your cooling system
tive could also accelerate water pump seal wear. Do not exceed the capacity. Refer to the Caterpillar SCA Requirements For Heavy Duty
recommended six percent SCA concentration. Coolant/Antifreeze chart in the Coolant Specifications.
121
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect Cylinder Head Ground Stud - Inspect

4. Install the radiator filler cap. Start the engine and inspect for coolant Cylinder Head Ground Stud - Inspect
leaks. Stop the engine.
5. Check the coolant level. Add coolant if necessary. Clean the radiator
filler cap. Inspect the radiator filler cap. If the gaskets are damaged,
replace the old radiator filler cap with a new radiator filler cap. Install the
HIS radiator filler cap.

Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect


Damage to, or failure of, the crankshaft vibration damper will increase
torsional vibrations and result in damage to the crankshaft and other
engine components. A deteriorating crankshaft vibration damper will
cause excessive gear train noise at variable points in the speed range.

p Visconic Damper Cylinder head ground stud location.


The visconic damper has a weight, located inside a fluid filled case. The Inspect the OEM/Vehicle wiring harness for good connection and
weight moves in the case to limit torsional vibration. Inspect the visconic condition.
damper for dents, cracks, and fluid leaks. Replace dented, cracked, or
leaking visconic dampers. The cylinder head ground stud must have a wire ground to the battery
negative (-) terminal. Tighten the cylinder head ground stud every oil
change. Ground wires/straps should be combined at ground studs
Removal and Replacement dedicated for ground use only. Inspect all of the engine grounds All of
Refer to the Service Manual for the procedures to remove and replace the the engine grounds should be tight and free of corrosion.
crankshaft vibration damper. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for
assistance. ' Perform the following procedures at least every other oil change and
more often as conditions require:

• Clean the cylinder head ground stud and strap terminals with a clean
cloth.

• If the connections are corroded, clean with a solution of bakinq soda


and water.

• Keep the cylinder head ground stud and the ground strap clean and
coated with petroleum jelly or MPGM.
122 123
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Engine - Clean Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect

Engine - Clean Your Caterpillar dealer has air cleaner filter elements to fit most popular
makes of vehicles.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Keep your Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
•ill engine clean. Remove debris and fluid spills each time a significant
This engine may be equipped with a service indicator, mounted between
quantity accumulates on the engine.
the air cleaner and the air inlet manifold. The engine may be equipped
with a different indicator.
Steam cleaning the engine provides for easy detection of fluid leaks. An air cleaner differential pressure gauge may be located in the on the
•p. Repairing an oil or coolant leak upon detection may save money by gauge panel. The air cleaner differential pressure gauge indicates the
avoiding major repairs that could result from low oil or coolant levels. difference of air pressure between the inlet (dirty) side and the engine
Steam cleaning the engine as recommended will also improve the (clean) side of the filter element. The pressure difference between the two
engine's heat transfer characteristics. sides increases as the filter element becomes plugged.

Engine Air Cleaner Filter Element - Replace


NOTICE
Always stop the engine to service the air cleaner. Never service the air
cleaner with the engine running since this will allow dirt to enter the
engine.

If your air cleaner filter element becomes plugged, the air can split the
element material. Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal engine
wear.
• Service the air cleaner when required by the air cleaner service
indicator. After servicing the air cleaner, reset the service indicator by
pushing on the piston plunger. Typical service indicator.
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) daily for accumulation of dirt and Observe the service indicator. A colored piston showing in the window
debris. Remove any dirt and debris as needed. indicates the need for servicing the air cleaner. Clean or replace the filter
• Operating conditions (dust, dirt and debris) may require more frequent element when the yellow diaphragm enters the red zone or the red piston
air cleaner element maintenance. locks in the visible position. If the service indicator shows red at any time,
Replace dirty paper elements with new ones. Keep spare filter elements clean the filter element or install a new filter element.
on hand for replacement. The element should be thoroughly checked for Inspect the service indicator daily for cracks, holes, or loose fittings. If any
rips or tears in the filter material. Check for air cleaner seal/gasket of these conditions are present, repair or replace the service indicator.
damage, and replace the filter element at least every year.
1 124
Maintenance Section 125
Maintenance Section
IP Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean
:f
Test Service Indicator
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean
Service indicators are inexpensive but important instruments.
Perform this maintenance at every other oil change interval (500
Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator should reset in less than Service Hours), or more often if needed.
three pushes.
If the service indicator does not reset easily, the service indicator should
be replaced. If the new service indicator will not reset, the indicator sensor NOTICE
hole may be plugged. If the crankcase breather is not maintained on a regular basis the
crankcase breather will become plugged. A plugged crankcase breather
Severely dusty environments may require frequent service indicator can cause excessive crankcase pressure that may cause leaks.
replacements. Replace the service indicator yearly, regardless of
operating conditions. Replace the service indicator at Overhaul, and
whenever major engine components are replaced.
NOTE: When you install a new service indicator, excessive force may
crack the top of the service indicator. Tighten the service indicator to a
torque of 2 N«m (18 lb in).

Serwice Air Cleaner

NOTICE
Always stop the engine to service the air cleaner. Never service the air
cleaner with the engine running since this will allow dirt to enter the
engine.
(1) Hose clamp. (2) Hose. (3) Bolt. (4) Breather.
If your filter element becomes plugged, the air can split the filter element 1. Loosen hose clamp (1). Slide hose (2) from breather (4).
material. Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal engine wear.
2. Loosen bolt (3). Remove breather (4) and O-ring seal.
• Service the air cleaner when required by the service indicator. After
servicing the air cleaner, reset the service indicator by pushing on the 3. Wash breather (4) in clean, nonflammable solvent. Allow the breather
piston plunger. to dry.
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) daily for accumulation of dirt and 4. Install a new O-ring seal.
debris. Remove any dirt and debris as needed.
• Operating conditions (dust, dirt and debris) may require more frequent 5. Install the breather in reverse order of removal. Tiqhten bolt (3) to 7 +
W
filter element maintenance. 2 N-m (62 ± 1 8 lb in).
Replace dirty paper elements with new ones. Keep spare filter elements 6. Slide hose (2) on to breather (4). Tighten hose clamp (1) Refer to the
on hand for replacement. The filter element should be thoroughly checked Torque Specifications.
for rips or tears in the filter material. Check for air cleaner seal/gasket
damage, and replace the filter element at least every year.
126 127
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Engine Mounts - Inspect Engine Oil and Oil Filter - Change

Engine Mounts - Inspect Engine Oil and Oil Filter - Change


Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and proper bolt torque.
Engine vibration may be caused by improper engine mounting and/or A WARNING
•ii engine mount deterioration. Any engine mount showing deterioration
should be replaced. Refer to the Torque Specifications for recommended
Hot oil and components can cause personal injury. Do not allow hot
bolt torque values. oil or components to contact the skin.

Engine Oil Le¥el - Check


The vehicle must be parked on a level surface in order to perform this NOTICE
maintenance procedure. Check the oil level with the engine stopped. DO The vehicle must be parked on a level surface for this maintenance
procedure.
NOT check the oil level while the engine is operating.


111
017664

(1) Oil filler. (2) Oil level gauge. (1) Shallow oil sump.
(2) Deep oil sump.
1. Observe the oil level on the ENGINE STOPPED side of the oil level
gauge. Maintain the oil level between the ADD and FULL marks on the The scheduled oil change interval depends on the size of the oil sump.
ENGINE STOPPED side of the oil level gauge. For the scheduled oil change interval, refer to "Maintenance Schedule -
Engines with Shallow Oil Sump" or refer to "Maintenance Schedule -
Engines with a Deep Oil Sump".
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the FULL mark could
cause your crankshaft to dip into the oil. The air bubbles created from the
crankshaft dipping into the oil reduce the lubricating characteristics of
the oil and could result in the loss of power.
Jii
IIP
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil if necessary. Do not fill the
crankcase above the FULL mark. Clean up any oil that has spilled or
IllPl
dripped, install the oil filler cap.
128 129
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Oil Filter - Change Engine Oil and Oil Filter - Change

Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As oil cools, suspended
waste particles settle on the bottom of the crankcase or oil pan. The
waste particles are not removed with the draining cold oil. Drain the
crankcase with the engine stopped and the oil warm. This allows for the
draining of the waste particles that are suspended in the oil.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure would result in these waste
particles being recirculated through your engine lubrication system with
the new oil.
After the engine has been operating at normal operating temperature,
stop the engine. Attach a DO NOT OPERATE or a similar warning tag to
the ignition key switch. Catch the oil in a suitable container. Have the
used oil recycled, or dispose of the used oil properly.
Element with debris.
1. Remove the oil drain plug. Allow the oil to drain.
Cut the oil filter case open with a 4C-5084 Oil Filter Cutter Inspect the
2. Clean the oil drain plug. Install the oil drain plug. Tighten the oil drain
plug to 25 ± 5 NTTI (18 ± 4 lb ft).
S S S l 0 1 ' ^ e l T n t S p r e a d t h e o i l f i l t e r e|ement pleats apart and
nspect the oil filter element for metal debris. Due to normal wear and
fnction ,t ,s not uncommon to find small amounts of debris in "he dl filter
Replace OiS Filter p . ? 6 " N ' f T f C e S S i V e a m o u n t o f d e b r i s i s P res ent consult your
Caterpillar dealer to arrange for further analysis.
NOTE: Change the oil filter at every oil change. Make sure to use the
correct Caterpillar oil filter for your engine arrangement.

NOTICE
Caterpillar oil filters are built to Caterpillar specifications. Use of an oil
filter not recommended by Caterpillar could result in severe damage to
your engine bearings, crankshaft, etc, as a result of the larger debris
particles from unfiltered oil entering your engine lubricating system.

1. Remove the oil filter with a 1U-8760 Chain Wrench.

Typical oil filter mounting base and gasket.

?n ? t a n t ! f S 6 f n ° S u r f a c e o f t h e oil f i l t e r
mounting base. Ensure that
all of +the old gasket is removed.
mmu&m0msmmmmm

132 133
Maintenance Section Maintenance Schedule
Engine Oil and Oil Filter Change Engine Valve Lash - Check/Adjust

Example: An oil capacity of 31 L (33 qt) was determined, along with fuel Engine Vaiwe Lash - Check/Adjust
with 0.5 percent sulfur. The oil change interval is approximately every
8855 km (5500 mi) or 220 Service Hours. The same engine, if using fuel Initial valve lash adjustment on new, rebuilt or remanufactured Caterpillar
with less than 0.5 percent sulfur, has an oil change interval at every engines is scheduled at the first oil change interval due to initial wear and
16 100 km (10,000 miles) or 420 Service Hours. seating of valve train components. Perform subsequent engine valve lash
check/adjustment at the PM Level 2 interval.
Oil Change Interval Graph This maintenance is recommended by Caterpillar as part of a preventive
maintenance schedule to provide maximum engine service life.

j ^ WARNING

Be sure the engine cannot be started while this maintenance is being


performed. To prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow additional time for
the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash.
The electronic unit injectors use high voltage. Disconnect the unit
injector enable circuit connector to prevent personal injury. Do not
come in contact with the injector terminals while the engine is
running.

NOTICE
Perform the procedures for engine valve lash according to the informa-
tion in the Service Manual.

(Y) Oi! sump and oil filters) capacity In liters (quarts).


(X) Distance, time, or fuel consumed between oil changes.
(1) CG-4 or CF-4 oils used with 0.5 to 1.0 percent fuel sulfur.
(2) CG-4/CF-4 oils used with fuel sulfur of less than 0.5 percent.
(3) Kilometers (miles) between oil changes.
(4) Service hours between oil changes.
(5) Liters (US gal) of fuel consumed between oil changes.
134 135
Maintenance Schedule Maintenance Section
Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate/Inspect Fuel System Primary Fuel Filter - Clean

Fan Driwe Bearing - Lubricate/Inspect Fuel System Primary Fuel Filter - Clean

A WARNING
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can
cause a fire. To prevent possible injury, turn the start switch OFF
when changing fuel filters or water separator elements. Clean up fuel
spills immediately.

NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly clean the area
around a fuel system component that will be disconnected. Fit a suitable
cover over any disconnected fuel system components.
(1) Grease fitting.
Lubricate grease fitting (1) with Bearing Lubricant.
For information on maintenance for the primary fuel filter, refer to the
literature that is provided by the OEM of the vehicle or the OEM of the
Inspect primary fuel filter.
Inspect the fan drive pulley assembly. It should be difficult to detect
movement of the shaft in the bearing. If the shaft is loose, an inspection Fuel System Secondary Fuel Filter - Replace
of the internal components should be made.
If the assembly should require disassembly, refer to the Service Manual A WARNING
for the procedure. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can
cause a fire. To prevent possible injury, turn the start switch OFF
when changing fuel filters or water separator elements. Clean up fuel
spills immediately.

NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly clean the area
around a fuel system component that will be disconnected. Fit a suitable
cover over any disconnected fuel system components.

1. Stop the engine. Turn the ignition/start switch OFF or disconnect the
m battery. Shut off the fuel supply valve (if equipped).
ft
It
It
136 137
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime Fuel System - Prime

2. Remove and discard the used fuel filter. Engines Equipped With A Fuel Priming Pump

3. Clean the gasket sealing surface of the fuel filter base. Make sure all NOTICE
IMF of the old gasket is removed. Do NOT loosen the fuel lines at the fuel manifold. The fittings may be
4. Apply clean diesel fuel to the new fuel filter gasket. damaged and/or a loss of priming pressure may occur when the fuel lines
are loosened.

NOTICE
Do NOT fill the fuel filters with fuel before installing them. The fuel would 1. Unlock and operate the priming pump until a resistance is felt. A
PIP not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated fuel will cause considerable number of pump strokes may be required.
jji accelerated wear to fuel system parts. 2. Push in and lock the priming pump.
llllll
5 Install the new fuel filter onto the fuel filter base until the gasket NOTICE
contacts the base. Tighten the fuel filter one full turn (360 degrees) more Do not crank the engine for more than 30 seconds. Allow the starter
by hand. Do not overtighten. motor to cool for two minutes before cranking again.
§. Open the fuel supply valve. Prime the fuel system. Start the engine
and inspect for fuel leaks.
3. Promptly start the engine. If the engine runs rough, continue to
•11 operate the engine at low idle until the engine operates smoothly.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than 30 seconds. Allow NOTE: If the engine will not start, or once started, continues to misfire or
smoke, further priming may be necessary.
the starting motor to cool for two minutes before cranking again.

Engines Not Equipped With A Fuel Priming Pump


NOTE- There should be enough residual fuel in the cylinder head to start
the engine If the engine starts and then stops, crank the engine for no NOTICE
more than 30 seconds, then allow the starting motor the cool for two Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly clean the area
minutes. Repeat this cranking and cooling cycle until the engine starts around a fuel system component that will be disconnected. Fit a suitable
Illlllll and operates. cover over any disconnected fuel system components.

Fyel System - Prime


Prime the fuel system in order to fill the fuel filter and purge trapped air.
The fuel system requires priming after:
• being run dry
• storage
Si • fuel filter replacement

j||
138
139
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain

Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain



Drain water and sediment from the bottom of the engine fuel tanks at
each oil change (more often in high humidity). Drain the water and
sediment from any fuel storage tank at the oil change interval and/or
before the fuel storage tank is refilled. This will help to prevent water
and/or sediment from being pumped from the fuel storage tank into the
lit engine fuel tank.

Hoses and Clamps - Inspect


•ii;.
Inspect all hoses for leaks due to cracking, softness and loose clamps
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft and tighten loose clamps.
(1) Plug. (2) Fuel filter.
If the engine is not equipped with a fuel priming pump, it may be NOTICE
Jm necessary to fill the fuel filter with CLEAN fuel. The following the Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not install bent or damaqed
111 procedure will allow only filtered fuel to enter the fuel system. lines, tubes or hoses. Repair any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines
tubes and hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes and
1. Remove plug (1) in order to fill fuel filter (2). Ensure that air is able to
hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque.
vent from the plug fitting while the fuel filter is being filled. Clean up any
___» spilled fuel immediately. Clean plug (1). Install plug (1).
Replace any hoses that show the following conditions.
NOTICE • End fittings damaged, leaking or displaced
Do not crank the engine for more than 30 seconds. Allow the starter • Outer covering chafed or cut and wire reinforcing exposed
motor to cool for two minutes before cranking again.

if 2. Start the engine and immediately increase the engine rpm to Vz of


• Outer covering ballooning locally
• Evidence of kinking or crushing of the flexible part of the hose
• Armoring embedded in the outer cover
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place of any standard hose
rated rpm. clamp. Ensure that the constant torque hose clamp is the same size as
3. Maintain the engine rpm until the engine operates smoothly. the standard clamp. Due to extremetemperaturechanges, hose will heat
set. Heat setting causes hose clamps to loosen. Loose hose clamps can
4. Reduce the engine rpm to low idle. result in leaks. A constant torque hose clamp will help prevent loose hose
clamps.

Each installation application can be different depending on the type of


hose fitting material and anticipated expansion or contraction of the hose
HI and fittings. Use a torque wrench proper installation of the constant
torque hose clamps. For instructions on proper installation of constant
ill*
hose torque clamps, refer to the Torque Specifications

ll§
140 141
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Overhaul - Evaluate Radiator - Inspect

Replace Overhaul is a planned maintenance interval at which the engine is


inspected and worn components are replaced with rebuilt parts or new
Perform this procedure with the engine stopped and cold. parts.
1. Loosen the radiator filler cap slowly in order to relieve any pressure. A top end overhaul is generally indicated by increased fuel consumption
Remove the radiator filler cap. and reduced power. This interval consists of completely reconditioning
2. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a level below the hose the cylinder head. The cylinder components are usually not worn enough
to need repair.
that is being replaced.
3. Remove the hose clamps. Disconnect the old hose. Install a new A major overhaul is the interval at which the major wear items in the
engine should be replaced. The major wear items include piston rings,
hose. engine rod and main bearings, valves, etc.
4. Install the hose clamps. Refer to the Torque Specifications.
5. Add the proper coolant mixture to the cooling system. Refer to the Overhaul Options
Coolant Specifications. Fill the cooling system to the proper level. Caterpillar Dealer - Consult your Caterpillar dealer to schedule a before
failure overhaul.
6. Clean the radiator filler cap. Install the radiator filler cap. Start the
engine and inspect for cooling system leaks.
Radiator - Inspect
Owerhaul - Evaluate
Evaluate the need for an overhaul after Every 113 000 liter (30,000
A WARNING
US gal) of fuel is consumed.
Always inspect/clean the radiator fins with the engine stopped. Fail-
Several factors are important in deciding when to perform an overhaul. | ! ure to do so could result in personal injury caused by moving fan
The following factors are included: JP blades. Refer to the Safety Section for information regarding pres-
• The conscientiousness of the performance of preventive maintenance sure air and water.
• The oil consumption to fuel consumption ratio
• Fuel consumption
• The quality of fuel that has been consumed NOTE: For service information on the radiator, refer to the information that
• The mileage of the vehicle is provided by the OEM of the vehicle.
• The conditions that the vehicle has operated in
• Inspect the radiator fins for debris. Clean the radiator fins with a solvent,
a S'O'S Oil Analysis results a brush and a cloth.
• The loss of engine power
• Compressed air or high pressure water may be used to clean debris
from the radiator fins. Direct the stream in line with the radiator fins from
behind the radiator core in order to force debris out.
• If necessary, use a light bulb behind the radiator fins to see if the
radiator fins are completely clean.
Refer to SEBD0518, Know Your Cooling System, for more detailed
information on cleaning the radiator fins.
142 143
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
S»0»S Oil Analysis (Recommended) - Obtain Starting Motor - Inspect

S*0*S Oil Analysis (Recommended) - Obtain Starting Motor - Inspect


The flywheel ring gear and the starter pinion must be in good condition in
^WARNING order for the engine to start and operate properly. The engine will not
start if the starter pinion does not engage. Ring gear teeth and starter
pinion teeth can be chipped because of irregular starter solenoid
Hot oil and components can cause personal injury. Do not allow hot operation.
oil or components to contact the skin.
Inspect the starting motor for proper operation. Check and clean all
electncal connections. Listen for a grinding sound when starting the
To compliment a good preventive maintenance program, Caterpillar engine. Inspect the flywheel ring gear and starter pinion for wear Check
recommends using S»0»S Oil Analysis at regular scheduled intervals to for wear patterns on the gear teeth. Check for broken and chipped teeth.
monitor the condition and maintenance requirements of your engine.
If damaged teeth are found, replace the ring gear and starter pinion The
Each oil sample should be taken when the oil is warm and well mixed to starter solenoid may also need to be replaced. Refer to the Service
ensure that the sample is representative of the oil in the crankcase. Manual or consult with your Caterpillar dealer if repair or replacement is
needed.
To obtain S«0®S oil samples:
• Use the oil sampling valve (if equipped) Turbocharger - Inspect
• Use a sampling gun inserted into the sump
• Use the drain stream when changing oil
NOTICE
Caterpillar recommends the use of an oil sampling valve (if equipped) in Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter
order to obtain samples. The quality and the consistency of the samples the air inlet and exhaust systems. Loss of engine lubricant can result in
is better when the oil sampling valve is used. If an oil sampling valve is serious engine damage.
not installed, the use of an oil sampling gun is preferred. If these methods
Minor leakage of a turbocharger housing under extended low idle opera-
are not feasible, then use the drain stream method. tion will not cause problems as long as a turbocharger bearings failure has
NOT occurred.
The drain stream method is the least preferred method because debris
from the bottom of the oil sump can contaminate the sample. When using When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied by a significant
the drain stream method to obtain the oil sample, do not sample from the n ^ M ^ 6 r f o r m a n c e l o s s (exhaust smoke or engine speed up at no load)
first or final draining. The oil at the beginning or end of the drain stream is DO NOT continue engine operation until the turbocharger is repaired or
not mixed well enough to be representative of the oil in the crankcase.
For more detailed information, refer to PEHP6001, How To Take A Good
Oil Sample. Consult with your Caterpillar dealer for complete information
and assistance in establishing an S*0»S program for your engine. An inspection/check of your turbocharger will minimize unscheduled
downtime and reduce the chance for potential damage to other enqine
a
parts.
144
Maintenance Section 145
Turbocharger - Inspect Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection
Removal and Installation
For removal and installation, or repair/replacement options of
Walk-Around Inspection
turbochargers, see your Caterpillar dealer. Refer to the Service Manual for Inspect Engine for Leaks and Loose Connections
this engine or consult your Caterpillar dealer for the procedure and
specifications. r n °™T i m r, S e r V i C e Hfe
°f your en
9ine' make a
thorough under-the-hood
inspection before starting the engine. Look for items such as oN or
1. Remove the exhaust outlet and air inlet piping from the turbocharger.
Visually check for oil leaks. , n , n l n K a k S ' 7 ? m f 3 n b e l t S ' l 0 0 s e connections and trash buSup
Inspect the radiator and the air-to-air aftercooler (ATAAC) Remove trash
buildup and perform corrective maintenance as needed
2. Turn the turbine and compressor wheel by hand. The assembly should
turn freely.
3. Inspect the turbine wheel and compressor wheel for contact with the NOTICE
turbocharger housing. There should NOT be any visible signs of contact For any type of leak (coolant, lubricant, or fuel) clean up the fluid If
between the turbine or compressor wheels and the turbocharger housing. leaking .s observed, find the source and correc the leak I f l L S is
suspected, check the fluid levels more often than recommended S h e
4. Check the compressor wheel for cleanliness. If only the blade side of M
the wheel is dirty, dirt and/or moisture is passing through the air filtering SarrlnS " ^ " *» S U S p i d 0 n ° f a teak
* P-edt t
system. If oil is found only on the back side of the wheel, it indicates a
possible turbocharger oil seal leak.
• Wipe all fittings, caps and plugs before performing maintenance in
The leak may be the result of extended engine operation at low idle or an
order to reduce the chance of system contamination.
inlet air line restriction (plugged air filters), which causes the engine to
"slobber". - Inspect the radiator and the ATAAC for leaks and trash buildup.
Maintain the compressor wheel/turbine housing by cleaning with standard • Check the front of the radiator and the ATAAC on a daily basis for
shop solvents and a soft bristle brush. insects, dirt and other debris.
5. Check the end play and bearing clearance on the turbine wheel and
shaft. If the measurements are not within specifications (see the Service • bSh fnd roap^hateradiat0r ^ *" A
™ C Wi
* ** * * * steel

Manual), the turbocharger must be repaired or replaced.


* £ M a ^ £ £ A T A A C air in,et system hoses and * - »
NOTICE
Ensure the wastegate boost line (if equipped) is connected properly. Do ' Samage" ^ ^ ** aCCeSS ry
° ^ belt for Cracks
' breaks
°r
NOT tamper with wastegate boost line. A loose boost line will raise heat
rejection, increase turbocharger speed and peak cylinder pressure, • Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
which will negatively affect engine performance.
NOTE: The water pump seal is lubricated by coolant It is normal for a
small amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools d ^ n and parts
6. When installing or replacing V-band clamps, position the gap contract. Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to repface the
(tightening screw) down if possible so any accumulation of moisture will frpt,?nrP HeaL l f t e x c e s s i v e l e a k a 9e occurs, check the coolntleve,
drain away.
s r e p a S " C° t0
^ ^ t h e C ° ° ' a n t l e v e l u n t i l t h e water pump
146 147
vlaintenance Section Maintenance Section
Illi
ifj
s/Valk-Around Inspection Water Pump - Inspect
ISL....
•litis. > Inspect the air inlet system hoses and elbows for cracks and loose Water Pump - Inspect
clamps. An air hose failure or an inlet air system leak will allow dirt and
debris to prematurely wear out the engine. Over concentration of coolant additive (Conditioner), mineral deposits
from hard water or cooling system contamination can accelerate the wear
»Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front and rear crankshaft on the water pump seal.
seals, the oil pan, the oil filter(s) and at the valve covers.
iiP > Inspect the fuel system for leaks, loose fuel line clamps and fittings and Replace the Water Pump Seal, if Necessary
111! loose or worn fuel lines.

it NOTICE
Do not overtighten the fuel line clamps. Overtightening causes the
Inspect the water pump for leaks. The water pump seal is lubricated by
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small amount of leakage
to occur as the engine cools down and parts contract.

clamps to deform, which results in low clamping force, fuel line vibration, Removal and Installation
and eventual failure.
Refer to the Service Manual for the procedure to remove and install the
water pump, or consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
• Inspect the engine wiring and the wiring harnesses for loose
connections and worn or frayed wires. Water Pump Pulley Bearing - Inspect
• Inspect the engine electrical ground for good connection and condition. Inspect the water pump pulley for unusual noise, excessive looseness
and/or wobbling of the bearings.
NOTE: Some vehicles may use a starting motor to battery ground strap.
If a starting motor change is made, consult an authorized Caterpillar Refer to the Service Manual for the procedure to remove and install the
dealer to make sure that the proper grounding procedures are followed water pump pulley, or consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
for that starting motor.
• All guards must be in place. Repair or replace any guard that is
damaged or missing.
• Check the condition of the battery and the level of electrolyte, unless
equipped with a maintenance free battery. Refer to the maintenance
information that is provided by the vehicle Owner's Manual or by the
OEM of the battery.

iii

•Ill
148
Maintenance Section
149
Maintenance Section
Water Separator
Water Temperature Regulator - inspect/Replace

Water Separator
NOTICE
Drain Water and Sediment The water separator is under suction during normal engine operation.
Ensure that the drain valve is tightened securely in order to prevent air
from entering the fuel system.
A WARNING

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can 2. Close drain valve (1).
cause a fire. To prevent possible injury, turn the start switch OFF
when changing fuel filters or water separator elements. Clean up fuel
spills immediately. Water Temperature Regulator -
Inspect/Replace
Remove the water temperature regulator according to the instructions that
NOTICE are in the Service Manual. Inspect the water temperature regulator for
The water separator is not a filter. The water separator separates water good condition. Ensure that the water temperature regulator operates
from the fuel. The engine should never be allowed to run with the water properly according to the test procedure that is in the Service Manual.
separator more than Vz full- engine damage may result.
Replacing the water temperature regulator prior to failure is a
recommended preventive maintenance practice because it reduces the
A water separator is recommended and should be installed between the chances for unscheduled downtime.
fuel tank and the engine fuel inlet. Drain the water and sediment from the
water separator on a daily basis. Depending on load, a water temperature regulator that fails in a partially
opened position will cause either an overheating or an overcooling
condition.

If the water temperature regulator fails in the closed position, it will cause
excessive overheating. Excessive overheating could result in cylinder
head cracking or piston seizure problems.

If the water temperature regulator fails in the open position, it will cause
the engine operating temperature to be too low during partial load
operation. Low engine operating temperatures during partial loads could
cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the cylinder. This excessive
carbon buildup could result in accelerated ring and liner wear.

D19661
(1) Drain valve.

1 . Open drain valve (1). Catch the draining water in a suitable container
and dispose of properly.
150 151
Maintenance Section Maintenance Section
Water Temperature Regulator - Inspect/Replace Severe Service Application

NOTICE Sewere Service Application


Failure to replace the water temperature regulator on a regularly sched-
uled basis could cause severe engine damage.
Caterpillar engines incorporate a shunt design cooling system and re- Maintenance and operation practices affect component service life
quire operating the engine with a water temperature regulator installed. when operating the engine in severe service applications.
If the water temperature regulator is installed wrong, the engine may The level of maintenance an engine receives is crucial to the engine's
overheat, causing cylinder head damage. Ensure that the new water service life. Other major factors affecting service life are operating speed
temperature regulator is installed in the original position. Ensure that the and loads.
water temperature regulator vent hole is open.
DO NOT use liquid gasket material on the gasket or cylinder head Reduce the maintenance intervals for engines that operate under severe
or dusty conditions, or where average operating speeds are less than 32
surface. km/h (20 mph). Examples of such operation are inner city garbage
compactors, delivery vehicles, and drill rigs.
Refer to the Service Manual for the temperature regulator replacement The following conditions can indicate severe service operation:
procedure, or consult with your Caterpillar dealer.
• Operating with more than 22 700 kg (50,000 lb) gross vehicle weight
NOTE: If replacing water temperature regulators ONLY, drain the coolant and other high load factor operation such as off-highway
from the cooling system to a level below the water temperature regulator • Frequent high altitude operation above 1525 meters (5000 ft)
housing. • Extended operation at low idle
• Arctic operation [regular cold starts at temperatures below -18°C (0°F)]
Refer to the Coolant Specifications in this publication for all information • Extending maintenance beyond the recommended maintenance
regarding acceptable water, coolant/antifreeze and SCA requirements, or intervals
consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance. • Frequent hot shutdowns (minimum three minute cool down periods after
high load factor operation)
152 153
laintenance Section Maintenance Section
laintenance Records Maintenance Log

llll laintenance Records Maintenance Log

Caterpillar recommends that accurate maintenance records be Engine Model _ Vehicle Make.
maintained. Accurate maintenance records can be used for determining Serial Number. Vehicle Serial No..
operating costs, establishing maintenance schedules for other engines
being operated in the same environment, and for a variety of other related
business decisions.
Miles Service Quantity
or km Hours Of Fuel By
Accurate maintenance records can also be used to show compliance Item Serviced Date Initials
with the required maintenance practices and intervals. Documents such
as dealer work orders, itemized bills, owner's repair orders, receipts and
owner's vehicle log are generally accepted as proof of maintenance or
repair for warranty. Documents must show the date of the maintenance
performed, kilometers (mileage), vehicle and/or engine serial number.

If the vehicle is sold within the warranty period, transfer the records with
the vehicle.

?i

Hi
I
154
Warranty Section
Federal Emission Control Warranty
155
Warranty Section
Federal Emission Control Warranty

Federal Emission Control Warranty Limitations & Responsibilities


The warranty is subject to the following:

Emissions Warranty Caterpillar Inc. Responsibilities


Caterpillar Inc. warrants to the initial owner and subsequent owner of a During the emission warranty period, if a defect in material or
diesel engine (powering an on-highway truck), that such engine is . . . workmanship of an emission related part or component is found
Caterpillar Inc. will provide:
1. Designed, built and equipped so as to conform, at the time of sale,
with all applicable regulations adopted by the United States Environmental • New, Remanufactured or repaired parts and/or components, approved
Protection Agency (EPA). pursuant to EPA Regulations, required to correct the defect.
2. Free from defects in materials and workmanship in specific emission NOTE. Items replaced under this warranty become the property
y
of
related parts for a period of 60 months, 161 000 km (100,000 miles) or Caterpillar Inc.
3000 hours of operation, whichever occurs first, after date of delivery to
the initial owner. •Reasonable and customary labor, during normal working hours required
to make the warranty repair. This includes labor to remove and install
If an emission related part fails during the warranty period, it will be the engine, if necessary.
repaired or replaced. Any such part repaired or replaced under warranty
is warranted for the remainder of the warranty period. Owner Responsibilities
During the term of this warranty, Caterpillar Inc. will provide through a During the emission warranty period, the owner is responsible for:
Caterpillar dealer or other establishment authorized by it, repair or
replacement of any warranted part at no charge to the truck engine • Premium or overtime labor costs, unless essential to prevent loss to
owner. perishable goods.
• Costs to investigate complaints which are not caused by a defect in
In an emergency, repairs may be performed at any service establishment, Caterpillar Inc. material or workmanship.
or by the owner, using any replacement part. • Providing timely notice of a warrantable failure and promptly makinq the
y
product available for repair.
Caterpillar Inc. will reimburse the owner for their expenses, including
diagnostic charges for such emergency repair. These expenses shall not
exceed Caterpillar Inc. suggested retail price for all warranted parts
replaced, and labor charges based on Caterpillar Inc. recommended time
allowance for the warranty repair and the geographically appropriate
hourly labor rate.
As a condition of reimbursement, replaced parts and receipted invoices
must be presented at a place of business of a Caterpillar dealer or other
establishment authorized by Caterpillar Inc.
156 157
Warranty Section Warranty Section
Federal Emission Control Warranty
California Emission Control Warranty Statement

Limitations
Caterpillar Inc. is not responsible for resultant damages to an emission
California Emission Control Warranty
related part or component resulting from: Statement
• Any application or installation Caterpillar Inc. deems improper. Owner Warranty Rights
• Attachments, accessory items or parts not sold nor approved by
Caterpillar Inc. and Obligations
• Improper truck engine maintenance, repair or abuse. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Caterpillar Inc. are
• Owner's unreasonable delay in making the product available after being pleased to explain the emission control system warranty on your 1995 or
notified of a potential product problem. later truck engine.
This warranty is in addition to Caterpillar Inc. standard warranty,
In California, new motor vehicle engines must be designed, built and
applicable to the truck engine product involved.
equipped to meet the state's stringent anti-smog standards. Caterpillar
Remedies under this warranty are limited to the provision of material and Inc. must warrant the emission control system on your truck engine for
services as specified herein. Caterpillar Inc. is not responsible for the duration of time listed below provided there has not been any abuse
incidental or consequential damages. neglect or improper maintenance of your truck engine.
Your emission control system may include parts such as the fuel injection
system and engine computer, if equipped. Also included may be hoses
connectors, clamps and other emission-related components.
Where a warrantable condition exists, Caterpillar Inc. will repair the truck
engine at no cost to the owner including diagnosis, parts and labor.

Manufacturer's Warranty Cowerage


• The emissions warranty period for new truck engines is a duration of 60
months, 161 000 km (100,000 miles), or 3000 hours of operation
whichever occurs first.

• If an emission related part or component on your truck engine is


defective, the part or component will be repaired or replaced by
Caterpillar Inc. This is your emission control system WARRANTY.
158 159
Warranty Section Warranty Section
California Emission Control Warranty Statement California Emission Control Warranty Statement

Owner's Warranty Responsibilities


Emissions Warranty
• As the truck engine owner, you are responsible for the performance of
the required maintenance listed in the truck engine owner's manual Caterpillar Inc. warrants to the initial owner and subsequent owner of a
(Operation and Maintenance Manual). Caterpillar Inc. recommends that diesel engine (powering an on-highway truck), that such engine is:
you retain all receipts and records covering the maintenance on your 1. Designed, built and equipped so as to conform, at the time of sale,
truck engine, but cannot deny warranty solely for the lack of receipts with all applicable regulations adopted by the California Air Resources
and records or for your failure to ensure the performance of all Board (CARB).
scheduled maintenance.
2. Free from defects in materials and workmanship in specific emission
• You are responsible for presenting your truck engine to a Caterpillar Inc. related parts for a period of 60 months, 161 000 km (100,000 miles) or
dealer as soon as a truck engine problem exists. The warranty repairs 3000 hours of operation, whichever occurs first, after date of delivery to
should be completed in a reasonable amount of time, not to exceed 30 the initial owner.
days.
If an emission related part fails during the warranty period, it will be
• As the truck engine owner, you should also be aware that Caterpillar Inc. repaired or replaced. Any such part repaired or replaced under warranty
may deny you warranty coverage if your truck engine or an emission is warranted for the remainder of the warranty period.
component or part has failed due to abuse, neglect, improper
maintenance or unapproved modifications. During the term of this warranty, Caterpillar Inc. will provide through a
Caterpillar dealer or other establishment authorized by it, repair or
If you have questions regarding your warranty rights and responsibilities, replacement of any warranted part at no charge to the truck engine
contact: owner.
Caterpillar Inc. In an emergency, where an authorized dealer is not reasonably available,
• Manager, Truck Engine Business repairs may be performed at any available service establishment, or by
P.O.Box 0600 the owner, using any replacement part. The manufacturer shall reimburse
Mossville, IL 61552 the owner for expenses (including diagnosis), not to exceed the
Phone (309) 578-6288 manufacturer's suggested retail price for all warranted parts replaced and
labor charges based on the manufacturer's recommended time allowance
OR for the warranty repair and the geographically appropriate hourly labor
California Air Resources Board (CARB) rate.
9528 Telstar Ave.
El Monte, CA 91731 A part not being available within 30 days or a repair not being complete
within 30 days constitutes an emergency.
As a condition of reimbursement, replaced parts and receipted invoices
must be presented at a place of business of a Caterpillar dealer or other
establishment authorized by Caterpillar Inc.
160 161
Warranty Section Warranty Section
California Emission Control Warranty Statement California Emission Control Warranty Statement
llll
"IP
This warranty covers the following emission related parts and
111 components.
Owner Responsibilities
During the emission warranty period, the owner is responsible for:
PIP
•lit • Exhaust Aftertreatment System (If Equipped)
• Fuel Injection System • The performance of all required maintenance. A warranty claim will not
• Inlet Manifold be denied because the scheduled maintenance was not performed.
• Turbocharger System However, if the lack of required maintenance was the reason for the
• Air/Fuel Ratio Control System repair, then the claim will be denied.
• Miscellaneous hoses, clamps, connectors and sealing devices used in • Premium or overtime labor costs, unless essential to prevent loss to
the above systems. perishable goods.

•ill Any replacement part may be used for maintenance or repairs. The owner
should ensure that such parts are equivalent in design and durability to
• Costs to investigate complaints which are not caused by a defect in
Caterpillar Inc. material or workmanship.
genuine Caterpillar parts. Use of non-genuine Caterpillar parts does not
invalidate the warranty. However, Caterpillar Inc. is not liable for parts • Providing timely notice of a warrantable failure and promptly making the
Hi which are not genuine Caterpillar parts. product available for repair.

m Limitations & Responsibilities

1!
Limitations
These warranties are subject to the following: Caterpillar Inc. is not responsible for resultant damages to an emission
related part or component resulting from:
Caterpillar Inc. Responsibilities • Any application or installation Caterpillar Inc. deems improper as
During the emission warranty period, if a defect in material or explained in the Operation and Maintenance Manual.
iii workmanship of a warranted part or component is found, Caterpillar Inc.
will provide:
• Attachments, accessory items or parts not authorized for use by
Caterpillar Inc.
•III • New, Remanufactured or repaired parts and/or components required to • Improper truck engine maintenance, repair or abuse.
correct the defect.
•111
if NOTE: Items replaced under this warranty become the property of
Caterpillar Inc.
• Owner's unreasonable delay in making the product available after being
notified of a potential product problem.
This warranty is in addition to Caterpillar Inc. standard warranty,
• Labor, during normal working hours, required to make the warranty applicable to the truck engine product involved.
repair. This includes diagnosis and labor to remove and install the
engine, if necessary. Remedies under this warranty are limited to the provision of material and
•It services as specified herein. Caterpillar Inc. is not responsible for
incidental or consequential damages such as downtime or loss-of-use of
truck.
lliitf
in
• H

•Iii
162 163
Warranty Section Warranty Section
Emissions Warranty Information Emissions Warranty Information

UNIT INJECTORS - Unit injectors are subject to tip wear as a result of


Emissions Warranty Information fuel contamination. This damage can cause an increase in fuel
consumption, the engine to emit black smoke, misfire or run rough.

n Maintenance Recommendations
Inspect, test and replace if necessary. Unit injectors can be tested by an
authorized Caterpillar truck engine dealer.
Iii Caterpillar Inc. truck engines are certified by the United States TURBOCHARGER - Check for any unusual sound or vibration in the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to comply with smoke and turbocharger. Inspect inlet and exhaust piping and connections. Check
.fin
•ill bearing condition and perform maintenance as described in the
gaseous emission standards prescribed by Federal laws at the time of
manufacture. Maintenance Schedule.
ill
V Efficiency of emission control and engine performance depends on AIR/FUEL RATIO CONTROL - This component is a device to control
I adherence to proper operation and maintenance recommendations AND
use of recommended fuels and lubricating oils. It is recommended that
the black smoke emission of an engine during its operation when low inlet
manifold pressure exists.
major adjustments and repair be made by your authorized Caterpillar Slow engine response and low power may indicate a need for adjustment
dealer. or repair. Your Caterpillar dealer is equipped with the necessary tools,

• Various chemical fuel additives which claim to reduce visible smoke are personnel and procedures to perform this service.
available commercially. Although additives have been used by individuals
Owner is encouraged to keep adequate maintenance records, but the
to solve some isolated smoke problems in the field, they are not
absence of such, in and of itself, will not invalidate the warranty.
recommended for general use. Federal smoke regulations require that
111
engines be certified without smoke depressants. The vehicle owner may perform routine maintenance, repairs and other
non warranty work or have it done at any repair facility. Such non
m The corrective steps taken immediately on discovery of worn parts, which
may affect emission levels, will help assure proper operation of emission
warranty work need not be performed at a designated warranty station in
order for the warranty to remain in force.
control systems. The use of genuine Caterpillar parts is recommended.
iiii. Suppliers of non-Caterpillar parts must assure the owner that the use of iP
such parts will not adversely affect emission levels.
Regular maintenance intervals, along with special emphasis on the
following items, are necessary to keep exhaust emissions within
acceptable limits for the useful life of the engine. Refer to the
Maintenance Section of this manual. If the engine is operating under
severe conditions, adjust the maintenance schedule accordingly. See
your authorized Caterpillar dealer to help analyze your specific
application, operating environment and maintenance schedule
adjustments.
The following is an explanation of maintenance for emission-related
components. See the Maintenance Schedule for the specific interval for
the following items.
164
Warranty Section 165
Emissions Warranty Information Warranty Section
Engine Protection Plans

Customer Assistance-Emission Control Systems Warranty


Caterpillar Inc. aims to ensure that the Emission Control Systems warranty
Engine Protection Plans
is properly administered. In the event that you do not receive the warranty
service to which you believe you are entitled under the Emission Control
Systems Warranty, call or write: Extended Warranties & Senrice Contracts
Caterpillar Inc. A wide variety of protection plans are available for Caterpillar On-Highway
Manager, Truck Engine Business Truck Engines. Consult your authorized Caterpillar Truck Engine Service
P.O.Box 0600 dealer for information on the plan below which is tailored to fit your needs.
Mossville, IL 61552
Ph. (309) 578-6288 • ESC-Extended Service Coverage
• OPT-Overhaul Protection for Trucks
Authorized dealers are recommended for major maintenance and repair • Remanufactured Extended Coverage
work as they are staffed with trained personnel, proper tools and are • TOPP-Truck Owner Protection Plan
aware of the latest maintenance methods and procedures. Owners and
others who desire to perform their own work should purchase a Service Consult your authorized Caterpillar Truck Engine Service dealer for more
Manual and obtain current service information from their Caterpillar detailed information on specific programs and coverage available and ask
dealer. for the Engine Protection Plan Sales Manager.

For information regarding an authorized service facility, refer to the TEPS


Directory or call toll free 1 (800) 447-4986.

• w
166
Reference Information Section
Customer Assistance
J Reference Informal
Customer
Customer Assistance Outside of the USA and of Canada

USA and Canada h e d e a l e r level c


Caterpillar office ' °nsult the ap

Australia and New Zealand


Caterpillar of Australia Ltd
C 1 Caterpillar Drive

SS_SSSE« »^^^ '


1. Discuss you, p r „ b t e m „ » h a m a n a g e r from fte d e a | e r s h . p
Private Mail Bag 4
Tullamarine, Victoria 3043
Australia
Phone: 03-9339-9333
Fax: 03-9335-3366
levwitat
w^lS'^^'M f IS l l s t e d b e l o w t o
~ Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay
Caterpillar Americas Co
Service Coordinator. talk with a Field
Birmann II
1-800-447-4986
Rua Aleandre Dumas, 1 711-9 0

SSSSSSS^0"are "om 8:00,0 «° "*«% *»# Friday Chac, Sto. Antonio


04717-004-Sao Paulo SP
Phone:55-11-5505-3388
Fax:55-11-5505-1647
Central America and Caribbean
Caterpillar, Inc Caterpillar Americas Co
Ts!S^ySm'^^™D™™ 15550 NW 59th Avenue
Miami Lakes, FL 33014
P.O. Box 600 USA
Peoria, IL 61552-0600 Phone: 305-816-3306
Fax:305-816-3307
China
Caterpillar China Ltd
1 Pacific Place
88 Queensway, Level 8
G.P.O. Box 3069
Hong Kong
Phone: 852-2848-0333
Fax: 852-2848-0440
169
Reference Information Section Reference Information Section
Customer Assistance Customer Assistance

Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, and Suriname Mexico


Caterpillar Americas Co. Grupo Financiero Caterpillar Mexico, S.A. de C.V.
15550 NW 59th Avenue Primer piso del Arco Oriente de Arco Bosques Corporativa,
Miami Lakes, FL 33014 Bosques del Alisos 45A
USA Bosques de Las Lomas
Phone: 305-816-3306 Mexico, D.F. 05120
Fax:305-816-3307 Phone (from within Mexico): 915-258-1515
Fax (from within Mexico): 915-258-1530
Europe, Africa, and Middle East Phone (from within USA): 011-525-258-1515
Caterpillar Overseas S.A. Fax (from within USA): 011-525-258-1530
76 Route de Frontenex
P.O. Box 6000 Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay
1211 Geneva 6 Caterpillar Americas Co.
Switzerland Edificio Centra Santa Maria
Phone: 22-849-4444 Av. Los Conquistadores 1700
Fax: 22-849-4544 Piso 14, Oficina A
Santiago, Chile
Far East Phone:011-562-231-0160
Caterpillar Asia Pte. Ltd. Fax:011-562-231-0159
7 Tractor Road
Jurong, Singapore 627968
Republic of Singapore
Phone: 65-662-8333
Fax: 65-662-8302

japan
Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd. z?w
3700, Tana, Sagamihara-shi
Kanagawa-ken, 229
Japan
Phone: Sagamihara 81-427-62-2112
Fax:81-427-62-8542
Japan
Caterpillar Power Systems, Inc.
Japan Branch Sanno Grand Bldg.
2-14-2 Nagatacho
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100
Japan
Phone:81-335-93-3237
Fax: 81-335-93-3238
•111
ill

warn:
170 171
Reference Information Section Reference Information Section
Ordering Replacement Parts Reference Materials

Ordering Replacement Parts Reference Materials

Quality Caterpillar replacement parts are available from Caterpillar dealers Caterpillar Reference Material
throughout the world. Their parts stocks are up to date and include all of
the parts that are normally required to protect your Caterpillar engine Lubricants
investment. PEHP5026, Data Sheet- Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oils (DEO) (CG4/CF-4)
• When ordering parts, the order should specify the part number, the part (North America and selected International)
name and the quantity of the parts that are needed. The order should PEHP1026, Data Sheet- Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oil (DEO) (CF-4)
specify the serial number, the arrangement number and the modification (International only)
number of the engine for which the parts are needed. If there is a doubt PEHP0003, Data Sheet- Multipurpose Lithium Complex Grease (MPG)
about the part number, please provide the dealer with a complete PEHP0002, Data Sheet- Multipurpose Lithium Complex Grease with
description of the item that is needed. Molybdenum (MPGM)
PEHP0017, Data Sheet- Special Purpose Grease (SPG) Bearing Lubricant
• When maintenance or repair is needed for a Caterpillar engine, be PECP4025, One Safe Source
prepared to give the dealer all of the information that is provided on the SEBD0640, Oil and Your Engine
engine's Information Film. SEBU5898, Cold Weather Recommendations
PEHP6001, How to Take a Good Oil Sample
• Discuss the problem with the dealer, such as when the problem occurs, PEDP1129, Listen To Your Oil
what happens, etc. This will help the dealer to troubleshoot and solve
the problem faster.
Fuels
SEBD0717, Diesel Fuels and Your Engine

Coolants
PEHP4036, Data Sheet- Caterpillar Coolant
PEHP5033, S'O'S Coolant Analysis
PECP4025, One Safe Source
SEBD0518, Know Your Cooling System
SEBD0970, Coolant and Your Engine

Special Instructions
The following Special Instructions pertain to the operation and
maintenance of your Caterpillar engine. Some of these publications
will be included with tool kits, others will be available from your
Caterpillar dealer.
SEHS8622, Using the FT-1984 Air-To-Air Aftercooler Test Group
SEHS9031, Storage Procedure for Caterpillar Products
SEHS7332, Tag - DO NOT OPERATE
172 173
Reference Information Section Reference Information Section
Reference Materials Reference Materials

Miscellaneous Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) information for lubrication oil


selection can be obtained from your local library, college or technoloqical
SENR6555, Service Manual society, or contact: a

LEXT7203, Programming Caterpillar Electronic Truck Engines


LEDT2254, CAT Answers Your Questions About Truck Performance. • Engine Manufacturers Association
Truck Engine Application and Installation Guide-See Your Caterpillar Lubricating Oils Data Book
dealer. 401 N. Michigan Ave. Ste. 2400
NEHS0526, Service Technology Group Application Guide Chicago, IL 60611
PEDP0026, Power Analysis Report
SEBF8029, Index to Guidelines for Reusable Parts and Salvage
Operations
SELF5052, Emission Related Components

Additional Reference Material


ASTM specifications can normally be obtained from your local
technological society, library or college or contacting:
• American Society for Testing and Materials
1916 Race St.
Philadelphia, PA 19103
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) specifications can be found in
your SAE handbook or can be obtained from your local library, college or
technological society, or contacting:
• Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
SAE International
400 Commonwealth Drive
Warrendale, PA USA 15096-0001
American Petroleum Institute (API) classification system and oil selection
for API Publication No. 1509 can be obtained from your local library,
college or technological society, or contact:
• American Petroleum Institute
1220 LSt.
Washington, DC 20005
174 175
Index Section Index Section
Index Index

Cold Weather Starting Recommendations 57


Index Commercial Diesel Engine Oils 68
Commercial ELC 86
Commercial Heavy Duty (HD) Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA 87
Coolant Recommendations 56, 82
Coolant Specifications 79
Coolant Warm Up 58
Additional Reference Material 172
Cooling System Capacity 96
After Stopping the Engine 63
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change 111
After-Market Oil Additives 71
Clean the Cooling System 112
Aftermarket Products and Caterpillar Engines 19
Drain the Coolant 112
Air Compressor 103
Fill the Cooling System 113
Air Compressor Air Filter - Clean/Replace 104
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change 114
Inspect the Air Compressor 104
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) Extender - Add 116
Air Inlet Heater 35
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check 117
Air-To-Air Aftercooler 105
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) Supplemental Coolant Additive
Inspect 105
(SCA) - Test/Add 118
Alternator - Inspect 106
Test for SCA Or Obtain Level I Analysis 118
Arctic Lubricants 71
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect 120
Auxiliary Engine Brakes 50
Cruise Control 46
Cruising 46
B Crushing or Cutting Prevention 12
Customer Assistance 166
Battery 106 Customer Assistance-Emission Control Systems Warranty 164
Clean/Check Electrolyte Level : 106 Customer Specified Parameters 34
Before Starting the Engine 12 Cylinder Head Ground Stud - Inspect 121
Belt Tensioner - Inspect 110
Belts - Inspect 107
Burn Prevention 10 D
Diagnostic Flash Code Retrieval 30
C Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC) 86
Distillate Diesel Fuel 77
California Emission Control Warranty Statement 157 Downhill Operation 49
Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oil (DEO) 67
Caterpillar Electronic Engines 15
Caterpillar Reference Material 171 E
Check Engine/Diagnostic Lamp 29
ELC Cooling System Maintenance 84
Cold Mode Operation 43
Electrical System 14
Cold Weather Hints 53
Cold Weather Operation 53 Emergency Vehicle Engine Features 25
Cold Weather Recommendation Charts 61
176 177
Index Section Index Section
Index Index

Emissions Warranty 154, 159 F


Limitations & Responsibilities 155, 160
Emissions Warranty Information 162 Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate/Inspect 134
Eng ne Air Cleaner Filter Element - Replace... 122 Inspect 134
,_. ne Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect 123 Federal Emission Control Warranty 154
Eng
Service Air Cleaner 124 Fire or Explosion Prevention 11
Eng ne Attachments 97 Foreword 3
Eng ne Crankcase Breather - Clean 125 Fuel Economy 45
Eng ne Derating 33 Fuel Recommendations for Cold Weather 54
Eng ne Diagnostics Fuel Related Components 55
29
Engine Idling 58 Fuel Specifications 77
Engine Information 17 Fuel System Primary Fuel Filter - Clean 135
Engine Lifting 26 Fuel System Secondary Fuel Filter - Replace 135
Engine Lifting and Storage 26 Fuel System - Prime 136
Engine Lubricant Recommendations Summary 73 Engines Equipped With A Fuel Priming Pump 137
Engine Lubrication Oil Viscosity 56 Engines Not Equipped With A Fuel Priming Pump 137
Engine Monitoring Package 33 Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain 139
Engine Mounts - Inspect 126
Engine Oil and Oil Filter - Change 127 G
Fill Crankcase 130
Oil Change Intervals 131 Gauges 27
Replace Oil Filter 128 General Coolant Information 79
Engine Oi! Level - Check 126 General Hazard Information 8
Engine Protection Plans 165 General Lubricant Information 66
Engine Starting 13 Getting Started 44
Engine Storage 26
Engine Valve Lash - Check/Adjust 133 H
Engine - Clean 122
Ether injection System 38 Harness/Wiring Problem 41
Extended Life Coolant (ELC) 83 Heavy Duty Coolant/Antifreeze Cooling System Maintenance 88
Extended Oil Change Intervals 97 Hoses and Clamps - Inspect 139
Extended Warranties & Service Contracts 165 Replace 140

i
Idle/PTO Governor Mode 48
Idling 42
Important Safety Information 5
Information Film 22
Information Section 1
178 179
Index Section Index Section
Index Index

L Overhaul - Evaluate -141


Overhaul Options 141
Level I: Basic Coolant Maintenance Check 93 Owner Warranty Rights and Obligations 157
Level II: Comprehensive Cooling System Analysis 94 Manufacturer's Warranty Coverage 157
Literature Information 3 Owner's Warranty Responsibilities 158
Lubricant Specifications 66
Lubricant Viscosity 73 P
Lubricating Grease • 74
Lubrication System Capacity 96 Product Identification 21
Product Information Section _..."..".. 16

R
ntenance 3
Maintenance Intervals 95 Radiator - Inspect -\^
Ma ntenance Log ••••• 153 Reduced Maintenance Intervals 97
Maintenance Recommendations 162 Re-Refined Base Stock Oils ............... 70
Maintenance Records 152 Reference Information Section 166
Mai ntenance Schedule - Engines with a Shallow Oil Sump 98 Reference Materials -\j-\
Mai ntenance Schedule - Engines with a Deep Oil Sump 100 Reference Numbers and Ordering Parts 23
Mai ntenance Schedule Recommendations 97
Refill Capacities ' 95
Mai ntenance Section 64
Ma ntenance Section 96
Model Views 16 S
Mounting and Dismounting 12 Safety 3 g
Safety Section '5
Self-Diagnostics "29
Serial Number Plate ]["[[[[['.'.".'.'.'.'. 21
Notes 102 Severe Service Application 15-1
Standard Torque for Hose Clamps-Worm Drive Band Type 64
Starting From An External Electrical Source 39
Starting Motor - Inspect ......143
Operating the Engine 42 Starting Problems " 39
Operation 3 Starting the Engine 35
Operation Section 27 Stopping the Engine 53
Operation With Active Diagnostic Codes 32 Synthetic Base Stock Oils 70
Operation With Intermittent Diagnostic Codes 32 S»0*S Coolant Analysis 93
Ordering Replacement Parts 170 S»0«S Oil Analysis (Recommended) - Obtain 142
Overhaul 4 S"0»S Oil Analysis g-|
180
Index Section
Index

95
Terminology RC.
Torque for Constant Torque Hose Clamps ®y
Torque Specifications .',;'""A',
Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur Levels For Caterpillar Dl
Diesel Engines •
14ci
Turbocharger - Inspect

U
Under-the-Hood Inspection 35
49
Uphill Operation

¥
45
Vehicle Efficiency

W
-MR
Walk-Around Inspection '"~
Inspect Engine for Leaks and Loose Connections 14b
Warning Signs and Labels -_°
Warranty Section XO
Water Pump Pulley Bearing - Inspect ™/
Water Pump - Inspect Yv
Replace the Water Pump Seal, If Necessary 14/
Water Separator Yo
Drain Water and Sediment ™B
Water Temperature Regulator - Inspect/Replace 149
Welding and Caterpillar Electronic Engines ^u
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