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Application Note

Hysteresis Setting for Comparator

Contents:

1. Circuit configuration and operation

2. Calculation of threshold voltage (resistance division type)

3. Calculation of threshold voltage (reference voltage type)

4. Calculation of threshold voltage (simple type)

5. Comparator output voltage (common)

1. Circuit configuration and operation

Hysteresis comparator A hysteresis comparator is operated by applying a positive feedback* to the comparator. The potential difference between the

High and Low output voltages and the feedback resistor are adjusted to change the voltage that is taken as a comparison

reference to the input voltage for the +IN terminal. The width of variation in the reference voltage is the hysteresis width.

In this circuits the signal is input to the IN terminal ,the output is inverted.

Note: A comparator cannot be operated as a

hysteresis comparator when a negative feedback is

applied.

For open collector/ open drain type VD
R2
Pull-up voltage
プルアップ電圧
Vp
R3
R1
Rp
Vref
VCC
+
Output 出力

-
VEE
R4

Figure 1. Hysteresis comparator circuit

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Hysteresis Setting for Comparator

Application Note

• Operation without hysteresis

When the input signal and Vref (reference voltage) are nearly equal, exceeding the threshold value due to noise or other

causes will destabilize the output. (Chattering occurs)

Figure 2. is Response waveforms of non-hysteresis

comparator.

(1) When the input signal (-IN) is applied at a voltage

sufficiently higher than Vref(+IN), the output is varied

according to Vref as a threshold.

(2) When the input signal (-IN) is applied at a voltage

equivalent to Vref(+IN), the input signal may or may not

exceed the threshold at Vref due to noise or other

causes, resulting in an instability (chattering).

• Operation with hysteresis VCC
Vref(+IN)
Vin(-IN)
VEE(GND)
Input
VCC
Vp
Vref(+IN)
Vout(OUT)
VEE(GND)
Output
(1) Input
Output
(2)

Figure 2. Response waveforms of non-hysteresis

comparator

Since a margin is provided between the High-to-Low and Low-to-High thresholds, no chattering occurs in the output even

when a signal is input at a voltage near the threshold voltages.

Figure 3. is Response waveforms of hysteresis

comparator.

(3)

When the input signal (-IN) is applied at a voltage

sufficiently higher than VthH(+IN) and VthL(+IN), the

output is varied according to Vref as a threshold.

(4) When the input signal (-IN) is applied at a voltage

equivalent to VthH(+IN) or above, no chattering occurs

since the output will not respond unless the input falls

below the threshold at VthL(+IN). VCC
V
(+IN)
thH
(+IN)
V thL
Vin(-IN)
VEE(GND)
Input
VCC
Vp
(+IN)
V thH
(+IN)
V thL
VEE(GND) Output
(3) VCC
V
(+IN)
thH
(+IN)
V thL
Vin(-IN)
VEE(GND)
Input
VCC
Vp
(+IN)
V thH
(+IN)
V thL
VEE(GND) Output
(4)

(Vp: pull-up voltage)

Figure 3. Response waveforms of hysteresis comparator

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Hysteresis Setting for Comparator

Application Note

2. Calculation of threshold voltage (resistance division type) Derivation of threshold voltage for hysteresis comparator
VD
R2
Pull‐up voltage
プルアップ電圧
R3
Vp
Vref
R1
Rp
VCC

+
Output
Input
-
Vout
R4
VEE

Figure 4. Hysteresis comparator circuit using

resistance division In the circuit configuration shown here, the threshold voltages and
the hysteresis width are expressed as follows.
• Threshold voltages
R a
R a
2
V 
V
OL
D
R R
R R
1
3
1
3
V thH
V thL
1
R a
2
(
R
R
)
1
2
R
R
R
1 R
1
1
1
V  V
• Hysteresis width
 V
1
th
thH thL
a 
where
1
1
1
(
)
R
R
R
1
3
4

V OH

2

V D

1

(

R

1

R

2

R a

2

)

Point

The calculation of the threshold voltages is complicated since it

involves many parameters. We suggest inputting the equations in

calculation.

Calculation process

Form a current equation for Vref and VD

in Figure 4.

Solve equation (2) for Vout.

Solve equation (1) for Vref. V
V
V V
V
D
ref
ref
ref
(1)
R
R
R
3
1
4
V V
V
V
ref
out
(2)
R
R
1
2
R
R
2
2
V 
V
V
V
ref
out
R
R
1
1
R
R
2
2
V
 (
 1) 
V
V
(3)
out
ref
R
R
1
1
V
V
V
V
V
ref
ref
ref
D
R
R
R
R
R
3
3
1
1
4
1
1
1
V
V
D
(
) V
ref
R
R
R
R
R
1
3
4
3
1
1
V
1
V
V 
D
ref
1
1
1
R
1
1
1
R
(
)
3
(
)
1
R
R
R
R
R
R
1
3
4
1
3
4
a
a
1
V
V
a 
V ref
R
D
R
(4)
where
1
1
1
3
1
(
)
R
R
R
1
3
4

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Hysteresis Setting for Comparator

Application Note

Solving equations (3) and (4) for V allows

equation (5) to be obtained.

V

V

out

R a

2

R R

1

3

V

D

1

R

1

(

R

1

R

2

R a

2

R

1

)

(5)

V provides two threshold voltages for the hysteresis comparator: VthL is the voltage switching from Low to High and VthH is the

voltage switching from High to Low.

Vout is the output voltage of the comparator providing two values: VOH is the High output voltage and VOL is the Low output

voltage.

3. Calculation of threshold voltage (reference voltage type)

Calculation of threshold voltages for a hysteresis comparator when a reference voltage is provided from a power source or

other supplies. R2
Pull-up voltage
プルアップ電圧
Vp
R1
Rp
VCC

+
Output
Vref
Vout
-
VEE

Input 入力 Figure 5. Hysteresis comparator circuit using Vref

reference power source

Form a current equation for Vref and V.

V V

ref

V V

out

(1)

R

1

R

2

R

1

V

ref

R

2

R

1

R

V

2

V V

out

R

2

R

1

V V

ref

out

(1

R

2

R

1

)

V

(2) • Threshold voltages
R
1
 a
2
V
aV
a 
V thH
R
ref
OH
R
1
1 
2
R
R
1
R
OL
1
• Hysteresis width
V  V
 V
th
thH thL

V thL

2

a V aV

ref

Point

Since there are fewer variables involved in determining

the threshold compared with the calculation for the

resistance division type, the degree of freedom is

reduced for the voltage setting.

Substitute the coefficient of V with 1/a and solve equation (2) for V

a

1

1

R

2

R

1

V a

R

2

R

1

V

ref

aV

out

(3)

Since Vout takes two values, the high level output voltage VOH and the low level output voltage VOL, the threshold voltages

VthL and VthH can be expressed as in equation (3).

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Hysteresis Setting for Comparator

Application Note

4. Calculation of threshold voltage (simple type)

Calculation formula for the hysteresis of the simple type hysteresis comparator R3
Vref
Pull-up voltage
プルアップ電圧
R1
Vp
Rp
VCC

+
Output
Input
Vout
-
R2
VEE

Figure 6. Simple type hysteresis comparator

Form a current equation for V.

 V ref  V  V  V O  V  0 R 1 R 2 R 3 1 V  1 V  1 V  1 R 1 ref R 1 R 2 R 3 ( 1 R 1  1 R 2  1 R 3 ) V  1 R 1 V ref V  1 1 V ( 1  1  1 ) ( R 1 R 1 R 2 R 3

(1)

1

Vo V 0

R 3

1 Vo

R 3

1

R 3

ref

Vo )

Substitute the coefficient of V with 1/a and solve equation (2) for V.

a

1

1

(

1

1

)

R

1

R

3

R

4

V

a

R

1

V

ref

a

R

3

V

O

(2) • Threshold voltages
a
a
1
a
a
R
R
R
1
3
4
R
R 3
OL
1
• Hysteresis width
V  V
 V
th
thH thL

V thH

V ref

V

OH

a

R

1

R 3

(

1

1

1

)

V thL

V ref

V

Point

As there is no input resistance, the degree of

freedom is reduced for the setting width of the

threshold.

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Hysteresis Setting for Comparator

Application Note

5. Comparator output voltage (common)

For the output voltages, the same calculation can be used for the resistance division and reference voltage types and simple

type.

Pull-up voltage Vp
R2
Rp
V
thL
ＶＨＬ
IC inside
IC内部
Vsat
ON Output

VOL

Figure 7. Low voltage output

Pull-up voltage Vp
R2
Rp
VthH
ＶＬＨ

VOH
VOL
Output
Output
IC inside
IC内部
No current

flows

OFF

Figure Figure 8. High 8. voltage High 電圧出力 output

VOL depends on the current supplied to the IC.

It is estimated from the measurement data.

VOH can be calculated since it is determined by the

external resistors and the threshold voltage.

V V

p

OH

V V

OH

thH

R

p

R

2

(

1

R

2

1

R

p

)

V

OH

V

p

V

thH

R

p

R

2

V

OH

a

R

p

V p

a

R

2

V

thH

a

1

1

1

R

2 R

p

Point

When a circuit is configured with an approximate value of the hysteresis voltage,

VOH can be calculated and VOL can be directly measured.

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Notice

Notes 