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– transfer of material from one homogeneous phase to another

– for mass transfer operations, the driving force is concentration difference

(concentration gradient)

Basic concepts:

Before attempting to describe the operations that comprise a chemical process, it is necessary to introduce

several basic concepts and basic laws that must be understood before a description is meaningful.

1. Equilibrium – a state where there is zero net interchange of properties (usually mass or energy in

chemical processing) for all combinations of phases

– a state of balance or quality between opposing forces

– equilibrium state gives the limit of an operation. It represents end points of any naturally occurring

processes which cannot be changed without making some change in the conditions governing the

system.

– For equilibrium to exist within any closed system where two phases co-exist, it is necessary that:

i. the two phases have the same temperature

ii. they have the same pressure, and

iii. any substance which is able to pass freely between the two phases have the same chemical

potential in each of the phases

2. Driving Force – the difference between the existing condition and the equilibrium condition.

3. Flow Patterns. In many of the operations for transferring energy or material from one phase to

another, it is necessary to bring two streams into contact to permit a change toward equilibrium of

energy or material, or both.

a. Co-current Flow – both streams flow in the same direction. The limit in amount of transfer that

can occur is firmly set by equilibrium conditions that will be reached between the two streams.

b. Counter-current Flow – the two streams being contacted are made to flow in opposite directions.

a. Continuous Process – the input and output streams are flows that move continuously through

the equipment

b. Batch Process – all mass is charged to the process and nothing is withdrawn until the operation

is complete

c. Steady State Process – the process conditions do not change with time and accumulation is zero

d. Unsteady-state Process – the process conditions are changing with time

BASIC LAWS

Much of the background needed for an understanding of unit operations is based on the

fundamental laws of physical sciences. Some of these relationships are as follows:

1. Law of Conservation of Mass – Matter can neither be created, nor destroyed. Thus the material

entering any system must either leave or accumulate within it. There can be no loss or gain during a

process taking place within the system. Under steady-state conditions, the law of conservation of mass

requires that the input must be equal to the output from the system.

2. Momentum Balances – In a system, through which a gas or liquid, momentum may enter or leave the

system by virtue of the overall fluid motion as well as the shear forces acting on the fluid elements.

3. Energy Balances – (Law of Conservation of Energy) Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but

can be transformed from one form to another. The total energy of any closed system remains constant.

4. Ideal Gas Law – Although the ideal-gas law does not apply precisely to any actual gas, where the

intermolecular attraction and the volume of the molecules themselves are not negligible, a great

majority of gases and vapors at ordinary temperatures and pressures obey the law sufficiently.

5. Avogadro’s Hypothesis – Equimolal quantities of all gases occupy the same volume at the same

conditions of temperature and pressure.

6. Perfect Gas Mixture – In a mixture of ideal gases, the molecules of each component gas behave

independently as though they alone are present in the container. The partial pressure of the component

gas present in a mixture of gases is the pressure that would be exerted by the component gas if it alone

were present in the same volume and the same temperature as the mixture.

𝑛𝐴 𝑅𝑇

𝜌𝐴 = where nA – number of moles of component A in mixture

𝑉

7. Dalton’s Law – The total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial

pressures of its components.

𝜌𝑇 = 𝜌𝐴 + 𝜌𝐵 + 𝜌𝐶 + ….

8. Amagat’s Law – The total volume occupied by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial

volumes of its components.

𝑉𝑇 = 𝑉𝐴 + 𝑉𝐵 + 𝑉𝐶 + ….

9. Ideal Solution – Volume is conserved when components that form an ideal solution are mixed. That

is, the volume of an ideal solution at a given temperature and pressure is equal to the sum of the

volumes of its pure constituents at the same temperature and pressure. Ideal solutions, in general,

assume no chemical interactions, similar molecular sizes and equal attractive forces between like and

unlike molecules.

𝑉 = ∑ 𝑛𝑖 𝑣𝑖 where vi – molal volume of pure component I at the temperature and pressure of

solution

10. Average Molecular Weight of a Gas Mixture – A mole of any pure substance is defined as that

quantity whose weight is numerically equal to its molecular weight. The average molecular weight of

a mixture of substances is given by

𝑀𝑚 = ∑ 𝑦𝑖 𝑀𝑖 where Mi – molecular weight of each component i

Mm – molecular weight of mixture

𝑊

𝜌𝑚 = ∑ 𝑉 𝑖 where W i – weight of each component i

𝑇

𝑊𝑖 𝑛𝑖

𝑥𝑖 = 𝑦𝑖 =

∑ 𝑊𝑖 ∑ 𝑛𝑖

Mass Transfer Separation Processes

Operation

1. Distillation Liquid Heat Liquid + Vapor Difference in

Volatility

2. Absorption Gas Non-volatile Solvent Liquid + Vapor Preferential

Solubility

3. Leaching Solids Solvent Liquid + Solid Preferential

Solubility

4. Extraction Liquid Immiscible Liquid Two Liquids Preferential

Solubility

5. Drying Moist Solids Heat Dry Solids and Evaporation of

Humid Air Moisture

6. Evaporation Liquid Heat Liquid + Vapor Difference in

Volatility

7. Crystallization Liquid and Centrifugal Force Liquid + Solids Density Difference

Solids

8. Floatation Mixed Added Surfactants Two Solids Tendency of

Powdered and Rising Bubbles Surfactants to

Solids Adsorb

Preferentially in

One Solid Space

1. Two or more phases must come in contact with each other

2. Materials should flow from one phase to the other or vise versa

3. A part of the total flow must be by molecular motion or molecular diffusion

There are many similarities between the various mass transfer operations. These are:

1. Phase equilibrium is reached after a sufficiently log period of contact. The resulting dissimilar

compositions of the equilibrium phases are the physical bases for separation processes utilizing

multi-stage equipment.

2. Rate of transfer is calculated by deviation from equilibrium concentration.

3. Equilibrium exists at phase interface or there is no resistance to mass transfer at the interface with

some exception.

4. Material transfer is due to combined effect of molecular diffusion and turbulence.

1. Number of components involved

2. Distribution of components between phases

3. Temperature

1. Method utilizing the concept of equilibrium stages

2. Method based on diffusion rate processes

PRINCIPLES OF MASS TRANSFER

Mass transfer is important in many areas of science and engineering. It occurs when a component

in a mixture migrates in the same phase or from phase to phase because of a difference in concentration

between two points. When mass is being transferred from one distinct phase to another or through a single

phase, the basic mechanisms are the same whether the phase is a gas, liquid or solid.

Examples: mass transfer through a gas: water in an open pail evaporates into still air

mass transfer through a liquid: a piece of sugar added to a cup of coffee diffuses to the

surrounding solution

mass transfer through a solid: A freshly cut green timer when exposed to the atmosphere

will dry partially when the water in the timber diffuses

through the wood, to the surface, and then to the

atmosphere

The three fundamental transport processes of momentum, heat, and mass are characterized by

the same general type of equation:

𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒

𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑒𝑟 =

𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒

Mass transfer can be treated in a manner somewhat similar to that used in heat transfer with

Fourier’s Law of conduction. However, an important difference is that in molecular mass transfer, one or

more of the components of the medium is moving while in heat transfer by conduction, the medium is

usually stationary.

PRINCIPLES OF DIFFUSION

Diffusion is the movement of the chemical species occurring in one phase, across the interface and

into another phase. The diffusional transfer of mass is a result of a concentration gradient.

In contrast to discrete equilibrium stage processes, continuous contact processes do not attain

equilibrium at any point within the system.

The exploitation of the concentration difference in the form of the rate of mass transfer equations

before the attainment of equilibrium between phases is central to the design calculation of mass transfer

separation process.

Additional Problems

1. A mixture of helium and nitrogen gas is contained in a pipe at 298 K and 1 atm total pressure which is

constant throughout. At one end of the pipe at point 1 the partial pressure P A1 of He is 0.60 atm and at

the other end 0.2 m, PA2 = 0.20 atm. Calculate the flux of He at steady state is DAB of the He-N2 mixtures

is 0.687 x 10-4 m2.

2. Ammonia gas (A) and nitrogen gas (B) are diffusing in counter-diffusion through a straight glass tube

2.0 ft long with an inside diameter of 0.080 ft at 298 K and 101.32 KPa. Both ends of the tube are

connected to large mixed chambers at 101.32 KPa. The partial pressure of NH 3 in one chamber is

constant at 20.0 KPa and 6.666 KPa in the other chamer. The diffusivity at 298 K and 101.32 KPa is

2.30 x 10-5 m2/s.

a. Calculate the diffusion of NH3 in lbmol/hr and kg/s

b. Calculate the diffusion flux of N2

c. Calculate the partial pressure at point 1.0 ft in the tube

3. Calculate the rate of diffusion of sugar through a stagnant film of coffee 0.10 cm thick when the

concentrations at 15% and 5%, respectively, on either side of the film. Assume the diffusivity of sugar

through coffee under the given conditions to be 0.70 x 10 -5 cm2/s and the density of a 10% solution is

1.0139 g/cc.

4. Calculate the time it will take to evaporate a 10-mm unknown liquid at 25 °C (density = 40 lb/ft3, MW=60)

in a 5-m diameter circular tank. The vapor pressure at 25 °C is 180 mmHg, pressure is atmospheric and

Dv = 0.0329 ft2/hr. Stagnant air film is 3mm.

5. A drop of liquid toluene is kept at uniform temperature of 25.9 °C and is suspended in air by a fine wire.

The initial radius is 2.0 mm. the vapor pressure of toluene at 25..9 v is 3.84 KPa and the density of liquid

toluene is 866 kg/m3.

a. Derive an equation to calculate the time for the drop to evaporate completely in a large volume of

still air

b. Calculate the time, in seconds, for complete evaporation

6. In an O2 – N2 gas mixture at 1.01325 bar and 20 °C, the concentration of O2 at two planes 0.002 m apart

are 20% and 10% volume respectively. (a) Calculate the rate of diffusion of O 2 expressed as kg moles

of Oxygen/m2 s for the case where N2 is non-diffusing. DO2-N2 = 0.181 x 10-4 m2/s assuming equimolal

counter diffusion.

7. A vertical glass tube of diameter 0.3 cm is filled with benzene at 20 °C to a depth of 2 cm from top end.

After 24 hours, the liquid level in the tube had fallen to 2.5 cm from the top end. Estimate the diffusivity

of benzene into air if the air above the liquid surface in the tube is stagnant. The vapour pressure and

density of benzene at 30 °C are 60 mmHg and 800 kg/m3 respectively.

8. A vertical glass tube 1 cm in diameter is filled with liquid acetone to a depth of 5 cm from the top open

end. After 4 hours of operation at 303 K and at a total pressure of 1 atm, the level dropped by 2 mm. the

density of the liquid is 790 kg/m 3 and its vapour pressure is at 288 mmHg under the given operating

conditions. Neglecting the counter diffusion of air to replace the liquid, calculate the diffusivity of acetone

in air.

9. A gas mixture containing 1/5 hydrogen and 4/5 methane by volume is prepared through which oxygen

is allowed to diffuse. The total pressure is 1 x 10 5 N/m2 and temperature is 2 °C. estimate the rate of

diffusion of O2 through the gas film of thickness 3 mm when concentration change across the film is 12%

to 7% by volume. Diffusivity data at 1 atm, 0 °C is

a. DO2-N2 = 7.1 x 10-5 m2/s

b. DO2-N2 = 1.88 x 10-5 m2/s

10. A vertical glass tube 3 mm in diameter is filled with toluene to a depth of 2 cm from the top open end.

After 275 hours of operation at 303 K and at a total pressure of 1 atm, the level dropped to 7.75 cm

from the top. The density of the liquid is 820 kg/m 3 and its vapour pressure is at 57 mmHg under the

given operating conditions. Neglecting the counter diffusion of air to replace the liquid, calculate the

diffusivity of toluene in air.

11. The diffusivity of CCl4 is determined by Winklemann method in which the level of liquid contained in a

narrow tube maintained at a constant temperature of 321 K is continuously measured. At the top of the

tube air is flowing and the partial pressure of the vapour at the top of the tube may be taken as zero at

any instant. Assuming molecular mass transport, estimate the diffusivity of CCl4 in air. Vapor pressure

of CCl4 is 282 mmHg ad density of CCl4 is 1540 kg/m3. The variation in liquid level with respect to time

is given below:

Liquid level (z-zo), cm 0 0.25 1.29 2.32 4.39 5.47

12. There are two bulbs connected by a straight tube 0.001 m in diameter and 0.12 m in length. Initially the

bulb at end 1 contains Nitrogen and the bulb at end 2 contains Hydrogen. The pressure and

temperature are maintained constant at 25 °C and 1 standard atm. At a certain time after allowing the

diffusion to occur between the two bulbs, the nitrogen content of the gas at end 1 of the tube is 80%

mole and at the other end is 25% mole. If the diffusion coefficient is 0.784 cm 2/s, determine the rates

and direction of transfer of Hydrogen and Nitrogen. It is a case of Equimolal counter diffusion as the

tube is perfectly sealed to two bulbs at the end and the pressure throughout is constant.

13. Estimate the diffusivity of Methanol in Carbon tetrachloride at 15 °C.

15. Benzene is stored in a tank of diameter 10 m and open at the top. A stagnant air film 10 mm thick is

covering the surface liquid beyond which benzene is absent. If the atmospheric temperature is 25 °C

and the corresponding vapour pressure is 150 mmHg, estimate the rate of loss of benzene. Diffusivity

of benzene is 0.02 m2/hr. total pressure is 1.0 atm, PT = 1 atm, T = 298 K, PA1 = 150 mmHg = 0.2 x 105

N/m2, PA2 = 0, DAB = 0.02 m2/hr.

16. Alcohol vapour is being absorbed from a mixture of alcohol-vapor and water vapor by means of a

nonvolatile solvent in which alcohol is soluble but water is not. The temperature is 97 °C and the total

pressure is 760 mmHg. The alcohol vapor can be considered to be diffusing through a film of alcohol-

water-vapor mixture 0.1 mm thick. The mole % of alcohol in the vapor at the outside of the film is 80%,

and that on the inside, next to the solvent is 10%. The diffusivity of alcohol-water vapor mixtures at 25

°C and 1 atm is 0.15 cm 2/s. Calculate the rate of diffusion of alcohol vapor in kg per hour if the area of

the film is 10 m2.

17. Ethanol vapor is being absorbed from a mixture of alcohol vapor and water vapor y means of a

nonvolatile solvent in which alcohol is soluble but water is not. The temperature is 97 °C, and the total

pressure is 760 mmHg. The alcohol vapor can be considered to be diffusing through a film of alcohol-

water vapor mixture 0.1 mm thick. The mole percent of the alcohol in the vapor at the outside of the

film is 80 percent, and that on the inside, next to the solvent is 10 percent. The volumetric diffusivity of

alcohol-water vapor mixtures at 25 °C and 1 atm is 0.15 cm2/s. Calculate the rate of diffusion of alcohol

vapor in kg per hour if the area of the film is 10 m.

18. An open circular tank 8m in diameter contains n-propanol at 25 °C exposed to the atmosphere in such

a manner that the liquid is covered with a stagnant air film estimated to be 5-mm thick. The

concentration of propanol beyond the stagnant film is negligible. The vapor of propanol at 25 °C is 20

mmHg. If propanol is worth $ 1.20 per liter, what is the value of the loss of propanol from this tank in

dollars per day? The specific gravity of propanol is 0.80.

19. A cylindrical tank of 4 m diameter was filled with acetone to a depth of 2.3 cm from the top for storage

and s exposed to ambient air of 18.8 °C.

a. Calculate the fall in level of acetone after an hour

b. Calculate the loss in peso if acetone is worth 30 per liter

c. Calculate the time required to completely vaporize acetone in a tank of depth 1 m

20. A glass tube 1mm bore was filled with acetone to within 2.3 cm of the top and maintained at a

temperature of 18.8 °C in a gentle current of air. The position of liquid surface was measured with

traveling microscope. After 80 minutes, the level has fallen by 0.148 cm. Calculate the diffusivity of

acetone in air. Vapor pressure of acetone at 18.8 °C is 170 mmHg. Barometric pressure is 765.5 mmHg.

21. An open cylindrical tank is filled to within 2 ft of the top with pure acetone. The tank is tapered as shown.

The air within the tank is stationary but circulation of air immediately above the tank is adequate to

assure negligible concentration of acetone at this point. The tank and air space are at 25 °C and 1 atm.

Derive the equation to calculate the rate of loss and determine the cost of acetone lost per day.

Assuming steady state of diffusion of acetone in air if the cost is $5/liter of liquid acetone.

22. Test tubes of tapered shape are sometimes used in the laboratories. Consider a 15 cm tall test tube

open at the top. Half of the tube (to a depth of 7.5 cm) is full of ethyl acetate (A) at 25 °C. The diameter

of the tube at the top is 20 min and that at the bottom is 12 mm. Calculate the rate of evaporation loss

of the ester at the beginning in g/cm2 s. And also calculate the time of fall of the level by 2 cm. The

ambient temperature is 25 °C and the pressure is 1.013 bar. The data for the ester are given as follows:

molecular weight = 88; density = 900 kg/m 3; vapour pressure at 25 °C = 0.1264 bar; diffusivity in air =

8.66 x 10-6 m2/s.

23. Methane diffuses at steady state through a tube containing helium. At point 1 the partial pressure of

methane is PA1 = 55 kPa and at point 2, 0.03 m apart PA2 = 15 KPa. The total pressure is 101.32 kPa,

and the temperature is 298 K. At this pressure and temperature, the value of diffusivity is 6.75 x 10 –5

m 2 /sec.

a. Calculate the flux of CH4 at steady state for equimolar counter diffusion.

b. Calculate the partial pressure at a point 0.02 m apart from point 1.

24. In a gas mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, steady state equimolar counter diffusion is occurring at a

total pressure of 100 kPa and temperature of 20 °C. If the partial pressures of oxygen at two planes

0.01 m apart, and perpendicular to the direction of diffusion are 15 kPa and 5 kPa, respectively and the

mass diffusion flux of oxygen in the mixture is 1.6 x 10–5 kmol/m 2.sec, calculate the molecular diffusivity

for the system.

25. Estimate the rate of mass transfer in the distillation of the system methanol (1)-ethanol (2) under the

following conditions:

Temperature = 70 °C

Pressure 101.325 KPa

The Fick diffusion coefficient = 9.1 x 10-6 m2/s

Composition in the vapor = 0.497

Film thickness = 1mm

24. Calculate the rate of diffusion of butanol at 20 °C under unidirectional steady state conditions through

a 0.1 cm thick film of water when the concentrations of butanol at the opposite sides of the film are 10%

and 4% butanol by weight, respectively. The diffusivity of butanol in water solution is 5.9x10 –6 cm2/sec.

The densities of 10% and 4% butanol solutions at 20 °C may be taken as 0.971 and 0.992 g/cc,

respectively. Molecular weight of butanol (C4H9OH) is 74, and that of water is 18.

25. In a liquid mixture of acetic acid and water, steady state equimolar counter diffusion is occurring at a

temperature of 20 °C. if the concentrations of acetic acid at two phases 0.01 m apart and perpendicular

to the direction of diffusion are 15 wt% and 5 wt%, respectively, and the mass diffusion flux of acetic

acid in the mixture is 0.956 x 10-9 m2/s, calculate the molecular diffusivity for the system. The densities

of water at the said concentrations are 1013 kg/m 3 and 1004 kg/m3, respectively.

Turbulent Diffusion Problems

1. Calculate the value of the mass transfer coefficient and the flux for a mass transfer from a sphere of

naphthalene to air at 45 °C and 1 atm abs flowing at a velocity of 0.305 m/s. the diameter of the sphere

is 25.4 mm. the diffusivity of naphthalene in air at 45 °C is 6.92 x 10-6 m2/s and the vapor pressure of

solid naphthalene is 0.555 mmHg.

2. Air at 40 °C and 2.0 atm is passed through a shallow bed of naphthalene spheres 12 mm in diameter at

a rate of 2 m/s, based on the empty cross section of the bed. The vapor pressure of naphthalene is 0.35

mmHg. How many kilograms per hour of naphthalene will evaporate from 1 m 3 of bed, assuming a bed

porosity of 40 %.

3. Estimate the mass transfer coefficient to be expected in the absorption of ammonia from air by sulfuric

acid in a wetted wall column under the following conditions: Air flow rate = 41.4 g/min; inside diameter

of the column = 1.46 cm; average gas temperature = 25 °C; total pressure = 760 mmHg.

(Dv @ 25 °C = 0.836 ft2/h)

ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS

1. The air in a room is at 37.8 °C and a total pressure of 101.3 KPa containing water vapor with partial

pressure of PA = 3.59 KPa. Calculate a.) Humidity, b.) Saturation Humidity and c.) % RH.

2. The air in a room has a humidity of 0.021 kg H2O per kg dry air (kg H2O/kg dry air) at 32.2 °C and 101.3

KPa. Calculate a.) % Ɣ and b.) % RH.

3. Air having a humidity of 0.0655 kg H2O/kg dry air is contacted in an adiabatic saturator with water. It

leaves at 80% saturation. Determine a.) final Ɣ and Tdb, b.) PA at 82.2 °C and at final T db, and c.) for

100% saturation, what would be the value of Ɣ , PA° and Tdb?

4. Air enters an adiabatic saturator having a Tdb = 76.7 °C and Tdew = 40.6 °C. It leaves the saturator 90%

saturated. What are the final values of Ɣ and T? Also, determine the PA at the initial and final

temperatures and the Q of the system.

5. In the design of a horizontal, countercurrent, spray humidifier for a certain plant 10,000 cfm of air at 80

°F and 75 °F absolute humidity is desired. Outside air at an average temperature of 32 °F and 50%

absolute humidity, normal barometer is to be used. If the water is recirculated and using data given,

calculate a) volume of outside air used per minute, b) the temperature to which the air should be pre-

heated at constant humidity before entering humidifier. Explain determination: c) amount of make up

water in kg/min, d) volume of spray chamber, e) the number of nozzles required, f) the volume of water

recirculated in m3/min, g) horsepower consumed in operating the spray nozzles.

DATA: The value of heat transfer coefficient for the above chamber is 1.55 BTU/ft3 min °F. at this value

of h, there are 3.93 ft3 of chamber volume per spray and the water rate per spray is 12.5 lbs/min per

nozzle. Vapor pressure of water at 0 °C is 4.58 mmHg.

6. An adiabatic saturator is going to treat air having a temperature of 40 °C and 20% RH and after which,

the treated air will be treated to 70 °C having a 60% RH. Find the entrance and exit absolute humidity

for the whole process and the kg of water absorbed in the saturation if given 100 kg/hr of entering dry

air.

7. Previously dehumidified air containing 0% moisture at 60 °C is let to be cooled in an adiabatic saturator

to 50 °C. Compute for the absolute humidity and relative humidity at the exit point. Assume Cs = 1

BTU/lbm °F and λ @ 35 °C = 2400 KJ/Kg.

8. 2000 ft3 per hour of air at 110 °F, saturated with vapor, is to be dehumidified. Part of the air is sent

through a unit where it is cooled and some water condensed. The air leaves the unit saturated at 60

°F. It is then remixed with air which by-passed the unit. The final air contains 0.02 lb H2O 0.02 lb H2O/lb

dry air. Determine a) the humidity of the original air, b) the amount of air condensed in lbm/hr, and c)

lbs dry air bypassed per lb of dry air sent to the dehumidifier.

9. 1000 gallon of water is to be cooled on a forced draft cooling tower from 105 °F to 85 °F. the cooling

air has the following data:

Entering air: Outgoing air:

Tdry bulb = 70 °F Tdry bulb = 97 °F

% RH = 65% % RH = 100%

PT = 29.7

The total volume of the tower is 2150 ft3

Determine the following:

a. ft3 of air entering per minute

b. ft3/min of water evaporated

c. determine the overall heat transfer coefficient

10. Water is to be cooled in a packed tower from 330 to 295 K by means of air flowing counter currently.

The liquid flows at the rate of 275 cm 3/m2 s and the air at 0.7 m3/m2 s. The entering air has a temperature

of 295 K and a humidity of 20%. Calculate the required height of the tower and the condition of the air

leaving at the top. The whole of the resistance to heat and mass transfer can be considered as being

within the gas phase and the production of the mass transfer coefficient and the transfer surface per

unit volume of column had may be taken as 0.2 s-1.

11. We must cool 2400 GPM of water from 120 °F to 80 °F. A cooling tower at 70 °F and 1 atm, is to be

designed to operate with entering air of 40% RH.

a. How many cfm of entering air must be supplied?

b. How many gpm of make-up water must be supplied if windage loss is 95% of the amount lost

by evaporation?

12. 400 lbs of dry air at a dry bulb temperature of 56 °F and wet bulb temperature OF 50 °F are mixed with

855 lbs dry air at dry bulb temperature of 82 °F and wet bulb temperature of 60 °F. Find the dry bulb

and wet bulb temperatures of the mixture.

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