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LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

EQUIPMENT : LOAD COMMUTATED INVERTER (VFD)

DOCUMENT : COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS/ALARMS

DOCUMENT NO. : 441/COMPEND/LCI REV.054 DTD.30/0812/0607

When referring to a solution for a problem, the particular category of


Fault /Alarm is to be seen. Further please also read General checks,
Checks for ground fault, Load Commutation Failure, Load PLL Fault and
SEM Earthing document at the end of this document.

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REVISION HISTORY SHEET

REV.NO./ DATE PREPARED BY CHECKED BY APPROVED BY


NATURE OF CHANGE
FIRST ISSUE 00 /25.03.04

UPDATED UPTO 09.06.04 01 /09.06.04

UPDATED UPTO 10.03.05 02 /10.03.05

UPDATED UPTO 30.08.05 03 /30.08.05

UPDATED UPTO 30.08.06 04 /30.08.06

UPDATED UPTO 30.12.07 05 /30.12.07

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Small crack observed in base of 1 no. CT in Load The primary connections on the CTs are such that load of
Break Switch Panel. the Cu bars is coming on the CTs. Therefore necessary to
provide flexible connection on one side of the CT.

Failure of CTs. Customer opined that failure may be due to thermal


stresses.
This point was taken care of when replacement of Load
Break Switch with Contactor was done.
MISC 2. Gaskets on doors have gaps at many places resulting Customer opined that replacement of gaskets necessary.
in air being sucked through these gaps also. Gaskets replaced at places wherever required.

MMI FOR VFD 3. MMI remains out of service due to “Communication Defective line driver replaced by a new one.
Link failure”. Demultiplexer channels at control room were not working.
Same repaired.
One wire of RS232 port was found disconnected, same
rectified.
One reed relay card to be replaced (failed during
troubleshooting). MMI system put on-line bypassing Drive
status and Reset command from PC.
Replaced reed relay card. Problem solved.

MMI s/w hanging problem. Corrected version of software installed. Became OK.
MISC 4. 6A Ch-2 tripped on electrical fault. 1. “LMARG” changed from 25° to 30°. No change
Current hunting was observed in Ch-1 and tripped on observed.
R phase Overcurrent. 2. “FLALEN” and “FLASEN” changed to TRUE. No
When Ch-2 of ID Fan 6A trips, current/voltage change observed.
hunting is observed in the Ch-1 and it also trips. 3. Changed parameters “CRGAIN, FRGAIN, FRTC,
Motor foundation vibration found higher compared PLLTOL, LIMARG”. No change observed.
to other motors. 4. Finally by changing PLLMODE from 60 to 25, problem

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was solved.

SHORTED 5. 6A Ch-2 trips with message “Shorted motor NLCB card in Ch-2 found defective. Card replaced and
MOTOR winding.” Ch–1 stopped after current hunting problem solved.
WINDING observed.
However, current drawn continues to be higher than
other fans due to poor p.f.
MISC 6. Tripping of channels due to Loose connections of Proposal for installing Anti-vibration pads on blower
cards on SEM rack. support in panel. Concurrence given by BHEL for the
same.
Anti-vibration pads put and SEM lock bars installed.
Problem solved.
MISC 7. Frequent failure of NPPB card. Heat dissipated by Proposal by customer to install bleeder resistor outside
bleeder res. is high. Bleeder resistor installed on PSFF module.
PSFF just behind mother board NPPB. Customer asked to check VFD room temperature and clean
the mesh filter on C&EXE panel. Bleeder resistor can be
mounted outside only if above remedies do not work.
Temperature in VFD Room rectified. Problem solved.
MISC 8. Self Test halts at No.23 even though channel is BHEL requested customer to furnish a print-out of self
healthy. test program to study the problem.
Customer asked to adjust offset zero on NLIB load card
FAB, FBC & FCA with BAL1 and BAL2 pots on NLCB
Allowed tolerance is 30mV. Problem solved.
MISC 9. UPS supply tripping on trf. inrush current. Spec. for trf. given by EDN to TEC with msg. to procure
120/120VAC, 1ph, trf. with 2P & 2S windings, 1 sec. trf. locally. Screen to be provided between primary and
Winding found defective. Sec. of trf. and Screen to be earthed to panel frame.
Changed transformer. Problem solved.
MISC 10. 6A Ch-1 tripped , Ch-2 not responding to speed Parameter SRCLSC changed to 1.0 as in scheme.
lower command from CRT. Current and speed of ID 4-20mA speed signal is not being recd. by Ch-1 or Ch-2.
fan stuck. 6A taken out of service manually and 6B Problem in I&C system solved. 6A taken into service.
taken into service. SRCLSC found to be 0.7 instead
of 1.0 in other channels.

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MISC 11. Erosion of cooling tubes at the tip of the Customer proposed to replace all cooling tubes (1980
tubeshoot at O/B side of ID Fan motors. Resulted tubes). Asked for advise.
in passing of external air into motor body. Motor is Referred to contact BHEL/EMRP-Mumbai for further
CACA cooled. action.
MISC 12. ID 6A Ch1 – oscillating and load currents on Told to change HPTF card in LTM1 or LTM4.
contactor not balanced. 1 phase current missing. Pulse was missing in LTM4. Changed HPTF card. Problem
Source currents balanced. 0IA load NLIB solved.
negative humps missing.
MISC 13. Repeated faults in drive due to loose connection on Recommended to install lock bars to secure control cards
SEM Rack. in the racks. SEM Lock bar installed. Problem solved.
MMI FOR VFD 14. MMI getting hung frequently. Line drivers OK. If power goes OFF, sometimes MMI PC hangs as told by
After PC rebooting the MMI PC, communication customer. EDN suggested to put the MMI PC on UPS so
gets re-established. that this will not occur. MMI put on UPS. Problem solved.

MISC 15. ID Fan 6A taking high current (400A), current of Higher current is due to higher LMARG and LIMARG as
both channels hunts in the range 320-400A. motor p.f is lower. Adjusted SRGAIN such that hunting of
speed and current stops. Problem solved.

LOAD PLL FAULT 16. 6C1 tripping on “Load PLL fault”. Gate test OK. Self HRDA, HROA, NLCB replaced. NLIB Source & Load
test OK upto 40. Channel goes back to service replaced.
every time after tripping. Tripping freq. increased.
Additional to Load PLL fault, MP alarm also coming. EDN Suggested
IMOK of HMPG and NLCB missing. Missing Leds 1. To install lock bar of SEM. HMPG/DMPB may be loose
come on after reset. in its slot.
6C1 started as slave channel after swapping HMPG 2. Clean HMPG/DMPB and pins on mother board by air
with 6C2. Load current does not come immediately blowing.
but hunts a lot. Also LED ‘0’ on HRDA card (for Load current hunting may be due to MTRFMIN and FLUXS
MAMS) flickers. Firing of load thyristors also values being slightly different than actual requirement.
flickers. Flickering stops after sometime and Suggested to lower the values of MTRFMIN and FLUXS in
channel becomes OK. Channel trips after few days. steps of 0.01 and if not sufficient again in steps of 0.05.
Problem may be due to slight drift of NLIB load side flux
calibration over the years of service.
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Also asked to check SEM earthing as per SEM Earthing


document. Problem solved by adjusting offset zero to less
than 30mV on NLIB using source volts and also earthing
SEM as per document.

LOAD PLL FAULT 17. 6C1- Trips on Load PLL Fault on load. Increased LMARG from 20° to 25°.
Problem solved.
SOURCE 18. After starting the channel, as soon as current and Firing cards on all thyristor legs of Source and Load side
OVERCURRENT & voltage started building up, channel tripped on were checked. Found that jack plug on one of the source
LOAD Source Overcurrent, Load Overcurrent and side cards was not fixed properly. Same rectified and
OVERCURRENT Microprocessor Alarm. plugs of all cards were thoroughly checked.

On taking trial, current and speed developed OK. All cards removed and cleaned and checked for any
On reaching 90-100rpm, channel tripped again on abnormal marks or heating on the cards. Found OK. Dust
Microprocessor alarm. LBS O/C relay operated, accumulation was completely removed. Channel trial taken
Lock out of Source breaker operated and tripped and found OK. Changeover trials taken for both the
the breaker. IMOK LEDs of HMPG and NLCB not channels and found OK. Fan taken into service.
glowing.
MISC 19. Severe hunting of currents in Master and Slave ID Fan functions normally during service when unit is
channels when speed is brought to near minimum generating full load. Also all the waveforms of voltages and
REV.04 speed. currents in both channels found OK. Found that rubber
blocks in the coupling had deteriorated. Rubber blocks
changed. Problem solved.
SOURCE 20. Current hunting over a certain speed. At this time, Shorted LBKRS TBs on IOMA (Source breaker input).
UNDERVOLTAGE INVLIM sets to 384 (256+128). 256=STOP, Problem persisted. Checked Earthing of SEM and panel.
128=SOURCE UNDERVOLTAGE. Boiler under Found OK. Since boiler was under shutdown, channel run
R05, 0207, VI shutdown. independently. Found that the hunting problem was related
to current and not to voltage.
Changed HLCB, NLIB Source, NSFC source. Problem still
persisted. All waveforms of current, flux, voltages found
OK. CT phasing on Source side OK. Found that NLIB
Source and NLIB load were interchanged. As the
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compensation resistance for reactances are different in


DLIB Source and Load, this was giving rise to wrong
position of interrupts on HLCB during higher currents.
Wrong interrupt position was causing very high current for
extremely short duration, giving rise to Source
undervoltage. Swapped the Source and Load DLIB cards.
Channel taken into service. Problem solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


LOAD 1. Channel trips on Load Commutation failure 1. HPTF card in LTM3 found faulty when doing crowbar
COMMUTATION test. HTPF card replaced. Problem solved.
FAILURE 2. BHEL has suggested to maintain control room
temperature at 25°C.
MISC 2. 1 no. motor burnt out. Lead from stator was found melted out. Connections were
Replaced by spare motor available at site. All tests wrongly crimped. Connections Brazed and motor ready.
while taking new motor into service done by Kept ready for service.
customer with telephone support from BHEL-EDN.
LOAD 3. Channel tripping once a week with message “Load Suggested to
OVERCURRENT Overcurrent”. 2 out of 3 flags in VFD Overcurrent 1. Operate Overcurrent relay manually and check for
Relay have operated. Channel starts after resetting same message print-out on printer.
and starting. 2. Short the relay contact which is in series with load
contactor aux. contact going to IOMA.
3. Change Load NSFC card.

NSFC load card was changed and problem solved.

LOAD 4. Channel tripping with fault message “Load Suggested to


COMMUTATION Commutation failure” and “Shorted motor winding” 1. Change NSFC load card
FAILURE & 2. Checking of all connectors and RC filter circuits on
SHORTED load side.
MOTOR WINDING 3. Check power bridge on load side.

Firing pulse LED on one card in source bridge HTPF card on source side changed and problem solved.
(HPTF) was not steady and was flickering.

GROUND FAULT 5. Ground fault in both channels of 4B. In one channel one load side capacitor was faulty. In the
other channel, the neutral grounding of R-C circuit was
not OK. Problem in both channels solved.

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MISC 6. Chattering of MAMS relay in slave channel. Adjusted offset zero in NLIB Load FAB,FBC,FCA by back
charging from Master. Problem solved.
MISC 7. HMPGDMPB in 4B1 giving Bushog after few hours HMPG/DMPB card replaced.
in service. Problem solved.
GROUND FAULT 8. VFD Ground Fault problem in slave channel. See text on ground fault at the end of this document.
Cable insulation was found faulty on cable from contactor
to motor during hi-pot test to earth. Problem solved.
MISC 9. Master and Slave both start and run individually. At Back-charged slave with source breaker open and load
minimum speed, slave does not take load when Contactor closed. Adjusted FAB, FBC, FCA on NLIB-load
paralleled with Master channel. on slave with that of Master.
Slave channel paralleled. OK. Problem solved.
MISC 10. Ch-1 tripped but no annunciation on the door Initially suspected that "Stop" command was being issued
mounted printer or at remote C&I. from C&I system, but found this was not true. Channel
selector switch and Local/Remote switch on IOMA were
bypassed but trippings continued. Trippings were reported
at regular intervals.
Laptop PC was then connected to HMPG. Found that
Microprocessor was getting reset every time the drive
tripped. This was evident from the Laptop display.
This could happen only if LVSH from PSFF goes "High".
PSFF supply was cleaned by blowing air. Channel put into
service and no trippings observed.
PSFF changed as per customer requirement. No further
trippings observed.

MISC 11. 1. After overhauling, when ID Fan-B was started, it Problem is that Ch-2 is not going to LMODE=3. The
became ON & OFF many times on its own. When fan reason is that the flux levels in the machine is lesser than
speed was increased, it became normal. Again when the values set for FLUXS and MTRFMIN.
the channel was started after station tripping, same Following suggested:
problem occurred. 2. When Ch-2 was started, During the next shutdown, backcharge Ch-2 and adjust
Drive received ON command and took load also, but NLIB Load Flux values to the same as in Ch-1. Also please

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OFF status did not go from the desk, while RUN check the FLUXS, MTRFMIN and FRSTART values in Ch-2
indication was appearing on the VFD panel. Then, are the same as in Ch-1.
Ch-1 was started first and Ch-2 started Start motor from Ch-2 and please check motor goes to
thereafter. Now drive started normally. LMODE=3.
SPD and SPM pots on NLCB do not matter for proper
starting of the drive.
SHORTED MOTOR 12. Ch-1 tripped on Shorted Motor Winding. Ch-2 made Master and Ch-1 Slave. Adjusted Load flux in
WINDING NLIB Load in Ch-1 same as in Ch-2. Channel taken into
service. Problem solved.
LOAD 13. Channel trips on Load Commutation failure as soon Invoked Gate test and found that 1 no. LED on HPTF Load
COMMUTATION as it is paralleled. side Pulse transformer card was not glowing. Replaced card
FAILURE and re-checked under Gate test mode. LED glowing OK.
R05, 0807, PH Channel taken into service. OK.
LOAD 14. Master channel is running. When Slave is paralleled When currents are steady in both Master and Slave,
COMMUTATION to Master, current in Slave is not same as in Master. CRSTART values were checked with Laptop PC and found
FAILURE Further Slave channel sometimes trips on Load to be different. Further in Master Channel, other channel
Commutation failure. running signal IOMA TB5/09,10 was TRUE. Also, the
R05, 1007, PH current reference from Master channel IOMA TB7/10,11
was positive which is OK for motoring. Therefore, fault
was in Slave (Ch-2). Changed NLCB card as this is the first
card in the signal path for current reference. Paralleled
Slave Ch-2 to Master. Problem solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. During Start-up operation, ID Fan has tripped on 1. Conducted all tests-found OK. Run in Local mode and
“Source Overcurrent” on channel Ch-1 and Load motor in uncoupled condition. OK.
Overcurrent” on channel Ch-2. Overcurrent relays Motor coupled back and started drive with slightly
operated on load breaker switch. higher CRSTART & FRSTART. Motor start and run was
Restarted the drive but again tripped on the same OK from both channels. Normalised CRSTART &
fault. LMODE on HHT not changed from ‘0’. FRSTART to original values.
This phenomenon happens after long shut down, when
oil film under fan bearing not built-up or inlet damper,
inlet and outlet gates not properly closed during start.
Customer has been asked to check these points.

MISC 2. Channel tripping several times due to various faults. Customer feels that mother board is not giving proper
contact to SEM modules which causes frequent trips. Has
requested to change all mother boards or provide
alternative modified female connectors in mother board.
BHEL-EDN sent SEM lock bars to customer and the same
was installed on all SEM modules. Problem solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. ID Fan 6A suddenly got unloaded even though motor 220 VDC supply from distribution board failed and
contactors are ON. ID Fan 6A currents suddenly therefore contactor did not trip. Further STOP command
dropped to zero. was issued from I&C to both channels as 220V DC supply
FD Fan 6A did not trip on interlock ID Fan 6A had failed.
Speed<Min. Further customer asked to check in I&C system whether
Both fans were hand tripped, restarted. MAMS has been taken for MFT1, MFT2, MFT3 in FSSS
ID Fan 6A hand tripped and FD Fan 6A tripped on for ID Fan OFF. Customer confirmed that same has been
“ID Fan Speed <Min”. done.

PLL FAULT 2. Channel tripping frequently on “PLL Fault”. After SEM not earthed properly. SEM earthing done as per SEM
manual reset, channel comes into service. Earthing document. Problem solved.
GROUND FAULT 3. Slave channel tripped on Ground Fault. Flex leads at motor terminal box had got melted and
neutral point on bushing was burnt out. Motor stopped,
rectification done by putting HT Insulation tape.
MISC 4. Fan started from standstill and did not start. Fan Suspected No flux build up possibly because of melting of
did not pick up speed and was rotating very slowly in field lead connections inside motor rotor exciter.
the wrong direction.. STIM, FRSTART, CRSTART increased. Motor Started.
Parameters changed to old values and start trials taken
were successful. Old parameters retained.
Reason- High breakaway torque. Subsequent starts were
OK because oil film was formed between bearing metal &
shaft, causing lower breakaway torque.
LOAD 5. 5A2 channel tripped on ”Load Commutation failure Found thyristor in leg module LTM3 defective. Both
COMMUTATION thyristors were shorted out. Replaced leg module. Problem
FAILURE solved.
FAILURE TO 6. 6A Ch-1 started, LMODE did not increase from ‘1’ Found that snubber in STM6 was faulty. Capacitor was
START many times in spite of changing parameters like shorted. Replaced snubber. Problem solved.
MTRFMIN, FLUXS, STIM, CRSTART, FRSTART Customer asked to check bearing alignment on Fan bearing
etc. Suspected motor winding may be faulty. in next shutdown.

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Connected Ch-2 winding of motor to Ch-1 of LCI.


Problem persists.

LOAD 7. Channel tripping on “Load Commutation Failure” in HPTF cards changed in both channels after doing crowbar.
COMMUTATION 5B1 and “PLL Fault” in 6A1. SEM earthing done as per SEM Earthing document.
FAILURE Problem solved.
MISC 8. There was a heavy jerk on grid and due to that Changed Slave to Master and vice versa. Problem persists.
almost all 210MW units tripped out. When starting This confirmed no problem in VFD. Found problem was in
and taking ID Fans on load, found that Fan B was not Inlet damper to ID Fan. Damper was almost in closed
taking load, but Fan A was getting loaded. Currents condition and would not open. Corrected damper problem.
and voltages in both channels equal in Fan B. This Problem solved. OK.
phenomenon was present even when Fan B was run at
700 rpm.
MISC 9. When Ch-2 is individually started, Load contactor FLDCN (Field Contactor close) was not true in Ch-2 when
closes, Field contactor closes but no current in running alone. Aux. contact of Field contactor was not OK.
motor. But Ch-2 (Slave) can be paralleled with Ch- Rectified. Problem solved.
1(Master) and is OK. If Ch-1 is tripped, then Ch-2
does not take the load and its current stays at zero.

MISC 10. Top mounted blower (one of the two) on the Load was reduced to 150MW by lowering the speed and
synchronous motor was giving lot of sound and also the channel currents. The temperature of windings
needed replacement. dropped by 10 deg.C. Blower replaced and then vent load
raised. No rise in temperature of windings during change
of blowers. Problem solved.
Caution: It was advised to keep monitoring the winding
temperatures during the change and trip the motor if
winding temperature exceeded 120 deg.C. It must be
noted that there is no part load rating of the motor with
one blower of the two out of service. This is due to the
inherent construction of the heat exchanger and mounting
of blowers in the heat exchanger.

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MISC 11. Drive end bearing problem. Excessive vibration. Decision taken to change motor. Motor replaced and
following tests conducted on both channels:
R05, 1006, PH a. Exciter test Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
b. Uncoupled run
c. Coupled run
The readings compared with those recorded during
commissioning/annual overhaul, especially observing the
readings of exciter voltage and exciter current for Sl.b
and c. All readings found in order. Fan taken into service
with new motor.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. 1. Channel B2 tripped on “Motor Isolator not 1. Breaker closing link was not latching and breaker was
closed.” tripping immediately after closing (Mechanical
problem). Breaker truck replaced and channel started.
Found that latching mechanism was faulty. Faulty part
replaced and CB truck tested and kept ready for
service. Problem solved.
2. Second time tripped. 2. Fault resetted and started.
LOAD 2. Channel B1 tripped on “Load Commutation Failure” 1. Checked load bridge capacitances for charging
COMMUTATION currents with megger – OK..
FAILURE 2. Checked MOVs of load bridge for Insulation
resistance.- OK.
3. Checked gate pulses on HPTK card in gate test mode.
One HPTK card pulse not OK. Replaced card. Problem
solved.

MISC 3. “Bus hog “ error on HMPG card. Inserted HMPG card properly.
Put lock bars on SEM rack.
Also checked whether EPROMS are inserted properly on
HMPG/DMPB. Problem solved.
SOURCE 4. Tripping on “Source Undervoltage when BFP started It was observed that source voltage dips below u/v set
UNDERVOLTAGE and during fast bus changeover from unit to station. value whenever MDBFP starts. This is because of very high
Source Undervoltage alarm appears immediately but Inrush current in MDBFP. Changed source u/v setting to a
“Source Low line” fault appears after sometime. lower value as per site requirement. Problem solved.

MISC 5. Abnormal sound of blower in panel. Due to damaged bearing of fan.


Bearing changed and fan replaced. Problem solved.
MISC 6. 2 nos. temp. scanners are malfunctioning. Hence BHEL agreed to repair the faulty scanners. Scanners sent
tripping removed. However, winding temp. and to BHEL-EDN for repair.
bearing temp. tripping from I/C panel is in service.

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MISC 7. Speed indicating at VFD panel and actual speed are BHEL has requested to adjust the mA reading as per
matching. Speed at PMS not matching. procedure given in VFD O&M manual, Vol1-Book1-Chapter
Clause 6.15.4 & 5.
EDN reply-The speed signal o/p from VFD to Plant C&I is
only for Indication Purpose & not for regulation/control.
Speed feedback on all channels adjusted. Speed reading on
PMS and actual speed are matching.
COOLING 8. Alarm “Cooling blower loss on Ch-1 and tripped on Fault resetted and drive started.
BLOWER LOSS “Loss of cooling fan”. But blowers running normal. Cooling blower contactor dropped. 415V UV has occurred
for a time greater than normal leading to this trip.

MISC 9. Fan tripped without any indication. MCB of PSFF had tripped. MCB reset and made ‘ON’. PSFF
Tripped due to failure of SEM supply. was malfunctioning in this channel.
Site concerned about momentary malfunctioning of
electronic cards since on next starts, card behaves normal.
Sometimes, no alarm is annunciated.
EDN replies that tripping of VFD channel & becoming OK
after MP reset could be due to:
a. Dust accumulation on PCBs
b. Loose connection between card & backplane connector.
All cards, Power modules, Power supplies cleaned with
blower. Problem solved.

Fan tripped without any indication. Failure of HRIA card. Failure due to RUNX relay failure.
HRIA replaced and channel restarted.

Fan tripped without any indication. Processor found hanged. Control supply made ON/OFF.
Processor normalised and restarted.

GROUND FAULT 10. Channel tripped on ground fault. Fault resetted and channel started smoothly. Problem may
be due to :
a. Loose connection in load side connections (busbars,
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connector, earthing lug on HPTK, SEM Earthing.)


b. Loose connection on star point of load side filter
capacitor circuit.
c. Check voltage setting.
Site says all connections above have been found normal.
Suspected transient ground fault as there were no failures
of components to detect the same.
SOURCE 11. Tripped with following indication on printouts: 1. UPS voltage at panel checked and found OK.
COMMUTATION a. Source O/C b. Load Commutation failure c. Load 2. Source side thyristor STM4 found failed. Replaced
FAILURE O/C d. Source commutation failure. module STM4 and channel taken into service. OK.
b. Channel could not be restarted, tripping on same
faults and hunting in currents.
MISC 12. ID Fan B-1 speed was locked at in running condition. HMPG found hanged. HMPG resetted and fan started.
Could be due to loose connection of HMPG.
Site advised to put lock bars on SEM. Problem solved.

SHORTED MOTOR 13. Fan B1 tripped once on a) Load commutation failure 1. HPTK card found faulty after checking waveforms in
WINDING & LOAD b) Bridge filter fuse c) Shorted motor winding gate test mode. Replaced card.
COMMUTATION Second time on a) Load Commutation Failure 2. Y ph thyristor in field exciter module had failed.
FAILURE Third time on a) Load Commutation Failure b) Calibration of field current feedback was wrong. Same
Shorted motor winding corrected. (in A1)
I/O PROBLEM 14. Tripped on indications: Fault indications were false. Fault reset and drive
a) Motor Isolator not closed. b) RUNP missing c) restarted. Suspected UPS feeder supply problem.
Bridge filter fuse
I/O PROBLEM 15. C1 tripped on Fault resetted and channel restarted.
a. Source PLL Fault Suspected UPS feeder supply problem.
b. STARTP/RUNP missing.
MISC 16. Channel tripped. 11kV Source breaker tripped on Relay resetted and channel restarted.
IDMT O/C protection relay. No indication on VFD Malfunctioning of IDMT relay suspected.
before tripping.
MISC 17. HD of 5th harmonic of VFD system is 30%. To be 30% HD for 5th harmonic current is acceptable as it is in
confirmed. the case of all thyristor bridges. Voltage distortion is <5%
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on 11kV VFD bus due to VFD operation which satisfies


requirement as per IEEE 519.
MISC 18. Channel tripped on “Circuit Breaker protection” Investigation reveals all the thyristors in one power
indication. module failed. Cause of the failure was that stud got
sheared. Replaced studs in all power modules wherever
failure suspected. OK.
LOAD PLL FAULT 19. Channel tripped on “Load PLL Fault Balanced Voltages at NLIB(1D) by back charging from
master channel and made voltages at FAB,FBC and FCA
equal with offset zero below 30mV DC. Channel taken into
service. OK.

MISC 20. Channel tripped with Bushog Led on HMPG Same not Replaced HMPGDMPB. Checked that the 6 nos. of
resetting. EPROMs are installed correctly. Problem solved.
SHORTED MOTOR 21. Channel tripped on “Shorted Motor winding”. 1. Check thyristor healthiness.-OK.
WINDING 2. Reset and restarted - tripped.
3. Dry solder in voltage attenuator circuit on XPTN
card. Attended dry solder, Self test halted at 29 &
gate test also halted. LVSH on NPSJ card in PSFF
module was not present. NPSJ replaced and restarted.
Check to be done on Berg jumper position in XPTN during
card replacement. Channel taken into service. OK.
I/O PROBLEM 22. Channel tripping on blower loss. Blower selection contact “Bottom blower selected” not
wired to IOMA card. Same done. Problem solved.
MISC 23. HMPG card did not pass Self Test. Hangs midway. Replace HMPG Put EPROMs U22, U23, U24, U25, U02, U03
and EEPROMs U04,U05 from old card in respective slots
in the new card. Lock bar to be put in SEM Rack. Problem
solved.
GATING SUPPLY 24. Tripped on Gate supply u/v. 1. In gate test mode, HPTK card in LTM1, 1A fuse blown
UNDERVOLTAGE Replaced and started. OK.
2. MCB ‘CB2’ feeding electronic modules found tripped.
“NTRF” card in PS7 module found faulty. Replaced.
Problem solved.
Page 20 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


SOURCE 1. Speed not raising beyond 140rpm (Rated = 1. 1st channel –Current hunting due to improper voltage
OVERCURRENT & 700rpm). Current hunting in 2 channels. feedback from source bridge due to failure of
LOAD Channel tripped on “Source and Load Suppression attenuator in HPTF card. Replaced HPTF. Problem
OVERCURRENT Fault” solved.
2. 2nd channel – Wrong polarity of current feedbacks
Source side attenuation voltage feedback not from motor side CTs.
available. 3. Changed NLCB card. No change observed. Original
card put back in rack.
4. Checked ribbon cable from IOMA is properly seated
on the SEM header. 4-20mA not reaching SEM.
Pressed connector & became OK.
5. Conducted crowbar test. Crowbar test OK.

Motor with both channels taken into service. OK.


MISC 2. Self test not going through. Each time test failed in 0PAR signal was pulled down by defective NLIB cards.
different steps.(2 racks) Replaced NLIB cards in the 2 racks. Problem solved.

MISC 3. HMPG did not recognise status of running blowers HMPG found defective. Replaced the 6 EPROMs from the
even when blowers were run. Hence Source breaker defective card. Ensured that they are put in the correct
close permissive was not available. position with correct polarity. Channel started. OK.
GROUND FAULT 4. Tripping on ground fault whenever speed raised 1. Replaced HLCB card. No change observed. Original
beyond 500rpm and motor volts is 500V without card put back in SEM rack.
any fault in motor or cable. 2. 3 MOVs MOV1, MOV2 and MOV4 failed at a much
less voltage than designed.
Checked wiring in panel. Found wrong wiring. Corrected
the same. Drive taken into service. OK.
MISC 5. Cleared crowbar test. But motor not starting 1. Check whether CT feedback polarity is reversed on the
smoothly. Current going to inversion. load side. Corrected polarity of load side CT.
Page 21 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

2. One leg of load thyristor bridge conducting. Changed


HPTF. OK.
Drive taken into service.
MISC 6. During crowbar test, one thyristor cell found not One thyristor found not conducting. Gate resistance found
conducting. abnormally high. Replaced thyristor cell. OK.
LOAD 7. Unit tripped frequently on “Load Commutation 1. UPS voltage found low, changed transformer tap to
COMMUTATION failure causing Unit trip out. raise the input voltage.
FAILURE 2. Conducted crowbar test. OK. Drive taken into service.

LOAD PLL FAULT 8. Channel tripping on Load PLL Fault. 1. Conducted crowbar test. Test was not OK.
2. Shorted DC buses on load side with DC Link Reactor in
circuit. Conducted crowbar test. Test OK.
3. Changed NSFC load and conducted crowbar test. Test
not OK.
4. Checked all thyristors and snubbers on load side
bridge. All OK.
5. Checked pulses to gate of all load side thyristors, with
current probe. OK.
6. Removed individual thyristor module on load side. Found
that tightening studs on LTM1 was loose. Tightened
the same.
7. Conducted crowbar test after removing DC bus short
on load side. Crowbar test OK.
8. Channel taken into service. OK.

NOTE: When putting back power module, pulse ribbon


cable and attenuator connector must be put in the correct
direction.
MISC 9. Channel tripped without any ‘fault’ indication and Lock bar at SEM centre installed.
“Bushog” LED on HMPG came ON. Checked SEM fan direction of rotation. OK.
Channel taken into service.
MISC 10. Sparking on contactor MISOL. MISOL found Cleaned contact with sandpaper and CTC and drive taken
Page 22 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

damaged. into service. OK.

MISC 11. VFD trips on u/v condition of control supply. VFD trf. 110V/110V given for rectification sent to site.
Customer was told to check UPS feeder voltage. Changed
tap on trf. in VFD panel C & EXE cubicle feeding
electronics. OK.

MISC 12. Reference voltage keeps varying even with constant Replaced NLCB. Problem solved.
demand signal. Causes Drive hunting.
Motor speed and current changing at I&C, even Replaced NLCB. Problem solved.
though steady at panel.
SPD test point gives 14V even when speed is zero. Replaced DLCB. Problem solved.

Motor Speed and current indication at both local & Replaced NLCB Problem solved.
remote are erratic.
MISC 13. Printer works OK in test mode, but does not print Replaced Printer. Printer sent for repair to BHEL-EDN.
Status/Fault from SEM
I/O PROBLEM 14. HRDD does not give output LEDs and voltages Replaced HRDD. Problem solved. Card sent for repair to
corresponding to existing status. BHEL-EDN.
FAILURE TO 15. Motor crawling during starting and did not pick up Changed parameters FRSTART, MTRFMIN and CRSTART
START speed. to slightly higher values.
Inlet and outlet gates on ID Fan duct not closed properly.
OK.

MISC 16. Channels getting unloaded with all operating Suspected due to dust accumulation on firing cards.
conditions normal. Firing cards cleaned by air blowing. OK.

MISC 17. Drives could not go to current limit and increase the Investigation to be done by customer during shutdown at
fan speed due to clamp on speed reference from I&C system.
I&C system (Auto clamping).

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LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

LOAD 18. Channel tripping due to Load Commutation failure Loose connections in the CT feedback.
COMMUTATION Running normal after fault reset. Improper earthing of SEM Rack.
FAILURE SEM Rack earthed as per SEM Earthing document. Drive
taken into service. OK.

I/O PROBLEM 19. Channel tripping on Bridge Differential Pressure IOMA found faulty. Replaced IOMA.
fault when taken into service.
Channel started, after crossing min. speed, current HPTF card in source bridge found failed. Replaced and
started hunting and tripped on Load Commutation became OK.
failure. Crowbar test was done for power ckt. check,
one hump missing in current waveform.
Current hunting when channel taken into service. Load side cards not firing correctly or in sequence. One
HPTF card, both neons did not switch On/Off together.
HPTF card faulty. Replaced and Problem solved.

I/O PROBLEM 20. When RUN relay energised, BDIFSW (IOMA TB6- To be checked in test jig of repair cell at BHEL-EDN.
08) goes high, HMPG senses this as Bridge Energise RUN relay in IOMA. Check if TP8 in HRIA(2A)
Differential Pressure Fault & drive trips. goes high, JJ pin 22 on SEM header goes high, flicker of
LED I15 on HISA 1B.
IOMA checked in repair cell but no fault found. Replaced
the two mother boards on IOMA. Retested and
despatched to site. Suspected tracking problem on mother
board.
MISC 21. Slave channel and Master channel can individually Backcharge Slave with Master running and adjust FAB,
start and run. But Slave channel cannot be paralleled FBC, FCA on NLIB Load of Slave same as Master. Use the
with Master. If paralleling is done, current in slave same multimeter.
remains at zero. Found Slave adjustment was not OK. Adjusted. Problem
solved.
SOURCE 22. Source Undervoltage fault even though Source Asked to check voltage feedback circuit from HPTF
UNDERVOLTAGE voltage is OK. attenuator to NSFC and also line voltages on NSFC
backplane. Found Y phase Source attenuator not OK.
Replaced. Problem solved.
Page 24 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Site was also asked to check whether the ground pillar on


HPTF is not loose (dry solder) before sending HPTF card
for repair.

MISC 23. Ch-1 and Ch-2 speed meters not matching. Speed meter does not have pot.
Customer advised to adjust LCI door 10V DC speed meter
after seeing counts 1024=60Hz=900rpm. Told to adjust
SPM pot only.
Problem solved.
MISC 24. Channel trips without any fault or alarm message. All SEM voltages O.K.
RUN light is ON but channel gets unloaded Gate test not O.K. Self test done. Failed in test 06:
current=0. NSFC-2C. Replaced NSFC –2C. Problem solved.
MOTOR OVER 25. System trouble annunciation appeared and Motor Load on channel reduced to half for about an hour and
TEMPERATURE Overtemperature Alarm appeared on Local panel. normalised. Temperatures came down and alarm got
Temperature scanner displayed 89 to 91 deg.C. cleared.
Similar readings found in I&C CRTs leading to Cooling blower motor found to be rotating in the reverse
conclusion that there is an actual rise in Stator direction. Direction of rotation restored to normalcy.
winding temperature. Temperature of motor reached a max. of 74 deg.C.
LOAD 26. Slave channel trips on Load Commutation Failure as Back-charged Slave (Ch-2) with Ch-1 running. Found
COMMUTATION soon as it is paralleled with MASTER at minimum unbalance in voltage on NSFC load. Found that attenuator
FAILURE speed. This is the first time after annual shutdown. resistor LTM2 on HPTF open and 10 pin connector not
inserted properly. Changed HPTF card. Channel taken into
R05, 1206, PH service. Problem solved.

Page 25 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD – COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Channel starts but gives loss of speed reference Customer asked to check I&C reference. Must be 4mA
though 4mA reference is present. minimum.
FIELD 2. VFD Field Overcurrent problem. Adjusted Field current feedback at SEM card. Problem
OVERCURRENT solved.
LOAD PLL FAULT 3. During starting, VFD trips on “Load PLL Fault”. 1. Variable components on NLIB-1C and 1D not as per
Firing pulses not getting released in Gate Test scheme.
mode even though Self test passes. 2. Pin-72 of HAIA had got dislodged. Not making proper
contact on the backplane.
3. Rectified sl.no.1&2 above. Problem solved.
FIELD 4. Channel tripping on Field Overcurrent. Checked cable of AC Input Exciter, was getting heated.
OVERCURRENT Power termination inside the module found loose.
Tightened and became OK. Drive taken into service.
I/O PROBLEM 5. HROA found malfunctioning. MAMX and ALARMX HROA replaced. Drive taken into service. OK. Card sent
relays remain latched even if fan is in stopped for repair to BHEL-EDN.
condition & there is no alarm in the system.

I/O PROBLEM 6. Self test Crowbar test excitation power test done 1. 1 no. HROA card found defective in 3A1. Replaced.
in Channel 1 & 2 of 3A. 2. 1 no. NSFC card replaced in 3A2.
3. Drive taken into service.
4. Cards sent for repair to BHEL-EDN.
MISC 7. Channel taking more time to start and come to BHEL stated this may happen due to additional loading of
minimum speed. the fan during starting.
This behaviour was not observed during This happens if inlet damper at ID Fan is not closed
commissioning. properly.
MISC 8. FD Fan trips when MAMSX and ALAMX relays drop Suggested to introduce time delay (off delay) of 1.5secs.
due to momentary voltage dips or voltage jerk for FD Fan tripping when MAMSX drops. Problem solved.
condition.

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LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD – COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

MISC 9. Unbalanced field currents when channel is taken Due to irregular firing of thyristors in NHVL card.
into service. Replaced NHVL Problem solved.
MISC 10. When 220V DC fails, VFD motor contactor will not No harm to VFD system due to 220V DC supply failure.
trip even though power to motor is cut-off. I&C system will issue STOP to both channels. Load side
contactor will trip when 220V DC is re-established. Hence
no modification required.
MISC 11. ID fan tripping was provided through temp. Temp. scanners replaced. Temp. scanners used for Alarm
scanners in addition to direct C&I trippings. Any purpose only. Bearing and Winding temp. tripping is kept
malfunctioning of temp. scanner caused ID Fan through C&I only.
tripping.
MISC 12. Malfunctioning of Door interlock switches provided Door switch bypassed and ensured that door is always in
in ID Fan panel door (to trip the channel if door is locked condition during channel running. Interlock switch
opened during channel running.) causing channel will be replaced during next shutdown.
tripping.
MISC 13. When Ch-1 is running at 400A and Ch-2 is started, It seems that the flux in Ch-2 was much higher than in Ch-
Ch-2 current shot upto 600A for 1 minute and 1. Therefore Ch-2 which is the Slave channel tries to
slowly came down to 400A. correct the flux by increasing its armature current and
thus trying to de-magnetise the flux. Flux closed loop in
the slave is also in operation.
NLIB Load fluxes FAB, FBC, FCA in Ch-2 adjusted to the
same values as in Ch-1 by backcharging Ch-2. Tune up
values relating to flux in Ch-2 checked to be the same as
that of Ch-1. Problem solved.

LOAD 14. Master channel tripping on Load Commutation Found in Master channel that the ripple was very high in
COMMUTATION failure. Slave channel current remains at minimum 28Volts DC when compared to healthy channel. PSFF
FAILURE when working with Master, but OK when run replaced. Found Electrolytic capacitor in PSFF faulty in
independently. 28V DC circuit. Channel taken into service.
REV.04 Channel trips again on Load Commutation failure. Crowbar test conducted. Found one HPTK card on Load
side faulty. Changed. Master Channel taken into service.
OK. But Slave channel current goes to minimum when
Master is taken into service. Found Analog 0-10V current
Page 27 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD – COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

signal from Master not OK in Slave. Loose connection of


wire at IOMA TB. Rectified. Problem solved.
LOAD 14. Master channel tripping on Load Commutation Found in Master channel that the ripple was very high in
COMMUTATION failure. Slave channel current remains at minimum 28Volts DC when compared to healthy channel. PSFF
FAILURE when working with Master,but OK when running replaced. Found Electrolytic capacitor in PSFF faulty in
independently. 28V DC circuit. Channel taken into service.
R04 Channel trips again on Load Commutation failure. Crowbar test conducted. Found one HPTK card on Load
side faulty. Changed. Master Channel taken into service.
OK. But Slave channel current goes to minimum when
Master is taken into service. Found analog 0-10V signal
from Master not OK in Slave. Loose connection of wire at
IOMA TB. Rectified. Problem solved.
FIELD LOSS 15. Master channel trips on Field loss. ID Fan continues Connections on IOMA TBs removed as per list given in
to run on Slave channel. Due to grid conditions, ID Annexure-4 for Crowbar test. Incoming wires to
R05, 1206, PH Fan cannot be taken out of service. excitation contactor R,Y,B disconnected. Dummy load of
Halogen lamps connected. Conducted exciter test. Found no
current in one phase. Problem traced to bad connection to
one of the thyristor gate in Exciter box in 4 pin white
molex conector Rectified the same.
Conducted exciter test again and found current is
balanced. Normalised all connections and took MASTER
channel into service. Problem solved.
FIELD LOSS 16. Master Channel trips on Field loss. Due to Connections on MASTER channel IOMA TBs removed as
constraints, shutdown of fan not given. Exciter test given in Annexure for conducting Exciter test with other
R05, 0407, PH to be conducted on Master with Slave channel channel running. Removed cable at output of field exciter
running. R,Y,B and isolated the same. Connected dummy load at field
exciter output(halogen and incandescent lamps). Performed
field exciter test. Found that one phase current was very
low compared to other. On investigation, found that 4 pin
white Molex connector carrying firing pulses to one
thyristor pin was loose and not mating properly with
connector on NHVL board. Rectified the same. Conducted
Page 28 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD – COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Field exciter test. Currents balanced. OK. Restored R,Y,B


field of exciter connections and IOMA connections.
Channel taken into service. Problem solved.
NOTE: CARE TO BE TAKEN WHEN DOING THE
ABOVE. CONFIRM THAT R,Y,B POWER CABLES ARE
ISOLATED AND TAPED PROPERLY.

Page 29 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Tripping on undervoltage. 1. Changed C17 on DLIB to 0.47µF from 0.047µF. Did not
solve the problem.
2. LT supply to Control panel changed to Unit LT Bus
instead of Station LT bus.(voltage will not be steady
because external grid disturbances will get reflected
to this).
3. Found that timers in Control Panel were ON delay
instead of OFF delay. Changed timers to OFF delay
type.
4. Problem solved.
MISC 2. One no. thyristor module on load side failed in BFP Module replaced with healthy power module. Faulty module
10C. All 3 nos. series thyristors got shorted. sent to BHEL-EDN for repair.
MISC 3. System tripped without any annunciation. 1. Check if all EPROMs and EEPROMS on HMPG/DMPB
HMPG hanged and test led is glowing. are properly seated. Found OK.
2. Check SEM Lock bar is put and all card top and bottom
locks are firm. Found OK.
3. Check if SEM frame is locked to the panel using the L-
angle provided. Found OK.
4. Found out that even though SEM locking bar is put,
there is clearance between lock bar foam and card.
5. EDN sent lock bars with thicker foam for all SEM
modules so that bars are in contact with all the cards.
Problem solved.
MISC 4. Problem of crowbar test. Malfunctioning of HAIA card.

Channel current is found hunting for a load beyond 1. C1-Exciter output found abnormal. One thyristor of
350A. EVC was not conducting. Replaced & OK.
2. C2-NHVL card of EVC found defective. Replaced and

Page 30 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

No hunting observed.
3. Replace NLIB –Source card.
4. NHVL – only 2 lamps found glowing. Channel manually
tripped. HMPG thoroughly cleaned and restarted. No
hunting observed.
5 . FCLIM values increased. Speed meters for all 4
channels calibrated.
6. Speed regulator gain changed from 35 to 25.
EDN suggested checking of exciter feedbacks during
calibration.
FIELD LOSS 5. Feedback of NHVL card is not coming. Replaced NHVL card.

Only 2 Leds on NHVL card are glowing. HMPG, HLCB & NSFE replaced. Cards sent for repair to
BHEL-EDN.
MISC 6. Field current saturates above certain load. ID Fan was getting overloaded. Customer requested to
check whether the loading is as per the load points given in
Motor data sheet in O&M Manual. Also inlet damper
position to be checked. Problem solved.
SOURCE PLL 7. Channel tripped on Source PLL Fault. 1. Ribbon cables are tightened.
FAULT 2. If trips again, recommended to replace HLCB card.

MISC 8. Channel tripping frequently on SEM power supply BHEL recommended to decrease AC temperature in VFD
(PSFF) failure. Room for better cooling and provide internal fan for
channel. If not solved, Replace PSFF.
Recommended temperature in AC VFD room is 25°C.
Replaced MCB in PSFF. Problem solved.
MISC 9. Unequal field current in 10A & 10B. 10A taking 20A Load on 10A is more than 10B, at same speed. Hence
more current than 10B. higher stator current and also field current.
MISC 10. Motors not attaining full speed of 740rpm for 100% Motor does not have sufficient reserve torque to
demand. accelerate beyond a certain speed and excitation current
limit is being reached.
LOAD PLL FAULT 11. PLL Fault and Motor shorted winding Fault. Load side thyristor electrical connections tightened.
Page 31 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

& SHORTED Loose connection of Load attenuator wire from Local AC


MOTOR WINDING Busbar found. Problem solved.
FAILURE TO 12. Motor rotates in the correct direction very slowly, Motor was in service earlier from both channels. Individual
START when run either from Ch-1 or Ch-2. channel running was also proved. Therefore suspected
motor.
Found that DC cable in motor from output of exciter
diode bridge to main field had melted at lug point.
BHEL-BHOPAL representatives called to site. Changed
cable. Problem solved.

MISC 13. Output Contactor was not holding after close Adjusted cam that actuates the contacts for the coil
command was given. Contactor is M/s. control circuit on the contactor. Channel taken into
Telemachanique make Magnetic latch type service. OK. Problem solved.
CR1BL33M21. Magnet face OK.
LOAD 14. Slave channel of BFP trips on Load Commutation SEM grounding, panel grounding checked and found OK.
COMMUTATION failure randomly. Changed HLCB card. Problem solved.
FAILURE
SHORTED MOTOR 15. Master channel tripping on Shorted Motor Winding. Changed Slave to Master and vice versa. Backcharged
WINDING Slave from Master. Adjusted Slave NLIB load fluxes to
same as Master. Problem solved.
LOAD 16. Slave channel of Boiler Feed Pump trips Checked Earthing of SEM and all other connections
COMMUTATION intermittently on Load Commutation Failure. This is including panel Earth Bus earthing. Found pulse height in
FAILURE accompanied by failure of one thyristor device in gate test mode on one load side module not OK. Replaced
Load side bridge. HPTK card. Suspected track problem in NTDA on one
R05, 0107, VI thyristor during gate test mode. Replaced NTDA.
Added extra wraps to DCOM from NSFC and NSFE pin
37. Replaced NSFE card as this was not passing Selftest.
Pump taken into service with both channels.

Page 32 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Page 33 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Flickering of LEDs on HPTK cards both in Problem solved by changing HPTK cards.
rectifier and Inverter in Gate Test Mode.

BRIDGE 2. “Bridge Differential Pressure” message appearing 1. Check cable connection from AFM to IO module. OK.
DIFFERENTIAL in the printer in spite of blowers running. 2. Replaced Air Flow monitor. Problem solved.
PRESSURE
LOAD PLL FAULT 3. At rated speed, fluctuations observed in main power 1. Jumper setting in HPTK Voltage attenuator circuit
supply to motor, accompanied by unbalanced corrected.
excitation parameters. 2. Exciter phase sequence wrong.
Voltage sensed by VFD was higher. Problem solved.
Motor speed could not be increased beyond 400rpm
and VFD tripping on “LOAD PLL FAULT”. EDN insisted that VFD room should be maintained dust
free.
FAILURE TO 4. Channel tripped on Microprocessor alarm. Snubber bar assembly LTM2 and LTM5 were found open.
START Replaced Snubber Bar Assembly & started.

Hunting observed. Crowbar and EVC test found OK. Load current CT feedback cable(10 pin) on SEM header
CRSTART modified from 0.3 to 0.5 and started. found reversed. Inserted in correct direction. Problem
Hunting persists. solved.

MISC 5. Run light always ON. Backplane wire wrapping problem. Corrected. Problem
solved.

P105 6. Channel tripping due to P105 u/v. Changed DPSA card.


UNDERVOLTAGE Changed DPSA power supply.
Mounting of power supply found loose(no screw). Also, AC
input to the card has been reduced to 110V by adjusting
tap position to the input transformer. Problem solved.

Page 34 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

MISC 7. Self Test fails at 2001. EDN says problem is in Self test circuits only. Site asked
to go ahead with motor running. This circuit does not have
any function when drive is in service.
MISC 8. Could not go to Gate Test mode. Corrected offset zero on NLIB Load and NLIB Source
FAB, FBC & FCA with test oscillator ON by slightly
adjusting BAL1 and BAL2 potentiometers on NLCB Then
changed MTRFMIN and FLUXS to 0.2 and 0.1 respectively.
Problem solved.
MISC 9. “MAMS relay not getting reset even after VFD is HRDA card found faulty. Replaced. Problem solved.
stopped (Speed is zero).
MISC 10. Speed suddenly reached 500rpm and unit tripped on Due to sudden high set point from I&C 4-20mA signal.
furnace pressure very low. Corrected problem at I&C. Problem solved.
MISC 11. ID Fan Auto control is not working properly. Hunting Customer asked to change P & I values in PI furnace draft
in current when Furnace pressure controller is put in controller in I&C system. Problem solved.
Auto mode.
MISC 12. Controller very slow. May damage VFD/motor. Customer asked to time furnace draft PI controller at I&C
Clearance asked to make controller fast. system for optimum performance to suit system
requirement. Problem solved.
MISC 13. VFD did not stop with Stop command from DCS, Due to Bushog problem in HMPG Suspected loose
Filed stop PB. Finally stopped with Emergency Stop connection between HMPG and mother board on SEM rack.
PB from 6.6kV. HMPG cleaned and inserted in rack. Lock bar put. Problem
Speed does not vary with input signal and solved.
communication to HRDA card fails.
MISC 14. Drives reached rated currents at less than rated Current limit to be raised by raising the value of SRCLSC
speed. by 10% to increase the speed further. This can be done as
Current drawn at 705 rpm (max.) is exceeding there is margin in motor and VFD. Problem solved.
rated current in 3 motors.
MISC 15. HMPG IMOK Led was going OFF resulting in tripping Due to vibration of SEM Rack.
of 6.6kV breaker. Source of vibration-SEM Rack cooling fan. Fan replaced.
Problem temporarily removed after tightening of Problem solved.
SEM front bar plates. Problem persists & repeats
after 2 days.
Page 35 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

MISC 16. During starting, Stop command was being given by Due to higher time taken to achieve minimum speed of
C&I system. 145rpm from standstill. Timing in C&I increased from 30
secs to 60 secs. Problem solved.
MISC 17. One no. Neon lamp of XPTN card on load side Corresponding thyristor found failed. Replaced thyristor
thyristor module is not glowing. module and sent faulty thyristor module to BHEL-EDN for
repair.
MISC 18. Current and voltage at motor isolator switch is not There will be difference in indication upto 25Hz. Over this
matching with the corresponding values at control the indications will be nearly same. This is due to
and excitation panel. saturation in the metering core of CT at low frequency.
Indications in VFD panel to be taken as actual.
MISC 19. The maximum speed at 100% demand from control Since VFD is a current limited drive, speed can increase
room is below rated speed. i.e. 725rpm in all 3 only upto the current limit set. Customer asked to check
motors. inlet damper position and verify whether it is as per
Current drawn at 705rpm is exceeding the rated recommendation.
current of all 3 motors.
MISC 20. Microprocessor alarm appears. IMOK of HMPG and 1. Observe whether the fault appears under the conditions:
NLCB disappears and subsequent tripping of 6.6kV a. Only Auxiliaries ON, HT supply OFF to VFD
breaker occurs. b. With HT & auxiliaries ON, drive not running
c. With drive running.
Frequent tripping of Fan on various faults. 2. Check voltage levels of P5, P15, N15 & P28 supplies.
3. Check the status of Alarm Word.
4. Replace all 6 EPROMS (4 on HMPG & 2 on DMPB).
5. Check if SEM earthing is as per SEM Earthing
document.
6. Since sl.1 to 5 did not lead to any definite reason,
SEM rack was changed. The original cards were
returned. Lock bar of SEM put.
7. Problem was solved.
MISC 21. Fan tripped with Motor Overtemperature Alarm and 1. Could have been only due to fault in the circuit
Overtemperature Trip. Found MCBs CB1, CB2, CB4 connected to CB1 breaker. Checked all auxiliary
and CB13 in control panel tripped without actual circuits including 110V contactors connected to CB1
Page 36 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

temp. rise in motor. breaker for healthiness.

Subsequently motor did not start and “Rotor 2. Motor opened and inspected. Found exciter wiring had
position start alarm” was observed. soot covering at some spots.
Exciter stator winding round carbonised. Motor
needs to be repaired/replaced with new one. Motor
sent to Bhopal for rectification of exciter rotor.
Received back at site.

LOAD 22. Channel tripping intermittently on Load Commutation HMPG, 5 nos. of NTDA cards changed.
COMMUTATION failure.
FAILURE Channel tripped again after few hours. Load side bridge thyristors, snubber ckt., CT circuit,
gating circuits checked. All terminations on HPTK and
NTDA cards checked for loose connections and
soldered/tightened/replaced wherever required.

Self test conducted. Speed feedback circuit found DLCB replaced.


malfunctioning in NLCB/DLCB.

Crowbar test conducted. Current feedbacks O/C Firing pulses and load side HPTK cards, NSFC, related
protection circuits checked, adjusted and started. cables checked. 2 HPTK cards on load side, reference for
Channel tripped on “Load Commutation failure” again detection of UV of gating supply was 1.3VDC while in
after few hours. others it was 1.8VDC. This reference adjusted to 1.8V in all
HPTK cards.
Gating power supply voltage was low. Corrected this to
required level. Self test and Gate test passed. Channel
taken into service.
MISC 23. HMPG and NLCB IMOK going OFF. SEM cards to be thoroughly cleaned by blowing over SEM
with blower.
Check SEM lock bar is installed correctly and firmly. SEM
module is anchored properly. Drive taken into service.
GATING SUPPLY 24. UV chattering of relay in PS7 power supply. NTRF card in PS7 changed. Problem solved.
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LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

UNDERVOLTAGE Card sent for repair to BHEL-EDN.


FAULT
MISC 25. Drive tripping on Microprocessor Alarm and Stack This type of problem is due to spurious interrupts which is
fault. normally attributable to grounding.
Found that earth bus at rear of panel was sheared off at
panel end and also earthing bus was not continuous.
Incorporated jumper cables on earth bus and tightened
connections. Incorporated extra connections between
2A/34, 2B/34, 2C/34 to DCOM. Drive taken into service.

MISC 26. Channel LM100 Breaker from 110V UPS tripping PS70 output voltage was 84Volts DC on load. Voltage
because current taken is too high (14 Amps). When lowered to 80 Volts DC by adjustment of pot. on NTRF.
only SEM and IOMA are ON (drive stopped), the Current came down to 11 Amps. Breaker did not trip.
current is 4 Amps. When drive is started, then Problem solved.
current jumps to 14 Amps. Normally, it should be
about 11 Amps.

MISC 27. Source breaker trips on Microprocessor Alarm Found that P28 fuse on PSFF was not properly put in
through SWGR relay on IOMA even when drive not holder. Same tightened. NLIB Source changed and offset
REV.04 running. adjusted to zero on FABR, FBCR, FCAR with Source
breaker closed. Drive taken into service. Problem solved.

SOURCE 28. ID FAN is 6 pulse drive. Drive starts and goes to NLIB and NSFC load cards changed. Problem persisted.
UNDERVOLTAGE minimum speed but does not increase beyond this Found that wire had got cut in the lug and was giving loose
either in LOCAL or REMOTE reference. Source connection at IOMA TB input LBKRS. The same was re-
R05, 1206, PH Undervoltage alarm comes frequently and MAMS lugged and tightened. Problem solved.
relay chatters. Motor currents unbalanced.

Page 38 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Unbalance motor Currents upto 1.5A in blowers. Vendor has informed that unbalanced current of the motor
cannot cause any damage or reduce overall life expectancy
of blowers.
MISC 2. Failure of cards and intermittent failure of VFDs. Failure rate of cards could be high during commissioning
but extremely low after stabilisation.
Analysis-Most of the component failures attributed to
voltage mix-up and wrong cabling during pre-commissioning,
handling, dust accumulation during commissioning.
LOSS OF 3. Channels tripped on Blower loss. Due to tripping of blower supply to ID Fan because of
COLLING FAN flashover in ESP LT switchgear.
Customer requested to provide individual channel’s blower
AC supply from 2 separate sources.
Customer was advised that the same is not required, as
such problem has not occurred at any other site. Reason
for flashover in ESP switchgears to be analysed and
corrective action to be taken.
MISC 4. PSFF power supply MCB trips frequently even Replaced MCB of PSFF. Problem solved.
though load is normal.
MMI FOR VFD 5. 1 no. Line driver found defective. 1. Replaced. Defective line driver sent for repair to
On executing VFD MMI S/w, after 2 minutes, BHEL-EDN.
program came out of main exe. File. “Drive status 2. Check if Serial intelligent card & Reed relay card are
had also not got updated.” available.
3. Check 24V DC Jyothi Relay in C&EXE panel is getting
energised on program execution. If OK, Connect 25 pin
connector to door mounted printer. Check that
messages are printed on printer.
4. Check MMI system connections as per scheme.
If all connections/hardware are OK, Pink window –

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LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Drive Status should appear on MMI screen, else Blue


window – Link Failure appears on MMI screen.

MISC 6. Com Port of one Laptop supplied for VFD is not Repaired by BHEL-site through laptop vendor.
working.
1 computer of VFD-MMI not working. Mother board replaced by computer vendor at site.

LOAD 7. Channel tripping on Load Commutation Failure. SEM earthing found not proper. Same rectified.
COMMUTATION Channel tripping intermittently on faults “Load PLL
FAILURE & LOAD Fault Load Commutation Failure, Motor Winding 3 nos. HPTK modules and 1 no. PSFF changed.
PLL FAULT Shorted & Power Supply PSFF failure.”
MISC 8. 3 MOVs of 440V 1A,2A & 3A found burnt during Fuses feeding MOVs – No failure observed. Found MOVs
inspection and maintenance work. Found incorrect burnt. Found wrong connection in panel.
connections, Advised to change all 9 MOVs 1A to 1C, 2A to 2C, 3A to 3C.
MOVs changed. Problem solved.
LOAD 9. Slave Channel tripping on Load Commutation failure. Channel back-charged with Source breaker open and Load
COMMUTATION breaker closed. FAB, FBC, FCA in NLIB load found with
FAILURE large DC offset.
Changed NLIB card and adjusted DC offsets to less than
30mV and balanced AC voltages of FAB, FBC, FCA. Channel
taken into service. OK. Problem solved.

MISC 10. Both Master and Slave channel of one ID Fan Flashover in Source side of Master channel. Master
tripped out. In Master channel, Source and Load channel isolated and Slave channel taken into service.
breaker tripped. In Slave channel, only Load breaker Found source side AC and DC filter fuses blown and also
tripped. cable tapping from busbar to filter fuses burnt. MOVs on
Source side OK. Fuses and wires replaced. All clearances
are more than adequate. Cause of flashover not known.
Channel taken into service. OK.
MISC 11. Fan-B Ch-2 tripped. Following were noticed: 1. Crowbar test done – Found O.K.
Source breaker tripped. 2. FT1 indication observed Gate Test done - Found O.K.
at VFD end. 3. HMPG IMOK LED was not glowing. Self Test done – Found O.K.
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LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

4. There was huge current hunting only in this Primary injection tests in all 4 CTs done. Found O.K.
channel before tripping. Finally problem was traced to improper earthing in
electronic earth pit. Salt added. Drive started and found
O.K.
GATING SUPPLY 12. Channel trips on Gating Supply Undervoltage. Output voltage of 70Volts Power supply measured under
UNDERVOLTAGE Gate test mode. Showed OK 82 Volts DC. Checked voltage
of Power supply healthy signal from each of the HPTK
R05, 0207, PH cards going to XTFH diode circuits. All 12 voltages OK.
Changed XTFH card and Channel taken into service.
MISC 13. Channel tripped on Fault. Found that all LEDs on From the problem it was inferred that the problem could
HRDD are ON. FT1, FT2 and RST LEDs on NLCB be in IOMA module. Isolated by removing 28 Volts Power
R05, 0407, PH ON. 6 Amps 28V fuse on PSFF adjacent to circuit supply from PSFF connector feeding IOMA. Replaced
breaker blown. PSFF 6Amps fuse. Swithched ON PSFF. 28Volts fuse did
not blow. But all LEDs were glowing as before.
Switched OFF PSFF power supply. Removed all 4 cards in
IOMA module. Put back IOMA power supply connector on
PSFF. Switched ON PSFF. 28Volts fuse on PSFF did not
blow. Inserted one card after another in IOMA switching
OFF PSFF everytime. Found that 28Volts 6Amps fuse
blew when HRIA/2A card was inserted. Changed HRIA
card. Problem solved. Channel taken into service. OK.

Page 41 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Incoming MCCB to IOMA PSFF tripping due to Breaker setting adjusted according to site conditions.
inrush currents. Problem Solved.
MISC 2. Channel did not start smoothly. Found load C.T polarity reversed after examination of Load
current waveform w.r.t. load firing pulses. Corrected
polarity. Problem solved.
MISC 3. Hunting observed in current & speed. Parameter SRGAIN tuned.
Problem solved.
MISC 4. During exciter test on channel, resistors R70, R71 Feedback as required adjusted with potentiometer on
replaced from 56 Ohms to 46 Ohms to adjust NHVL.
burden of CT Problem solved.
MISC 5. Self test not passing because offset value was not DC offset on source & load NLIB FAB,FBC and FCA could
within the range. not be adjusted within 30mV with test oscillator ON by
adjusting BAL1, BAL2 pot’s on NLCB. NLCB replaced.
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LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Problem solved.

MISC 6. HMPG IMOK not coming. Replaced HMPG with EPROM sets of tested card (6
EPROMS). Card sent for repair.
MISC 7. Pulses not getting distributed to thyristor stack Card XTFX in source side found defective. Replaced.
individually in gate test mode. Problem solved.
MISC 8. ID Fan ‘ON’ check back derived from its speed Automatic initiation of shutdown sequence due to ID fan
being above a certain value ‘OFF’ status will be delayed. Introduced time delay OFF
(MAMS). During starting MAMS chatters as speed logic for MAMS input at I&C. Problem solved.
hunts slightly resulting in ID Fan ON/OFF toggle.
This gives auto start to shutdown sequence.

MISC 9. VFD demand goes to max. when both ID Fans are This command is removed in I&C system as it is not
OFF. This prevents reducing the VFD demand to necessary.
min, when taking the first ID Fan into service. Problem solved.
MISC 10. ID Fan VFD given a protection trip from Source Source breaker trip due to VFD OFF condition will be
Breaker OFF condition but also source breaker is removed and instead will be given a trip command on its
given trip on VFD OFF condition, thus creating a ‘Electrical protection acted’ input being true. This is
logical problem. implemented at I & C. Problem solved.
LOAD 11. Channel tripping on Load Commutation failure LMARG was changed from 25° to 30°.
COMMUTATION Found P28 was 21.5Volts. Site asked to change this to
FAILURE minimum 24V level during gate test mode. Problem solved.
Changed back to 25° after channel was normalized.
MISC 12. Any electrical supply system jerk causes drive to Presently UPS feeding VFD is not fully commissioned and
trip. UPS is running on By-pass. Problem will not occur if UPS is
commissioned.
MISC 13. Customer expressed that ‘Auto fault Reset’ facility EDN informed that facility will not be given. It is
is not available. required that the maintenance engineer has to come to the
VFD panel to find out the fault and take corrective action
before re-setting.
MISC 14. Coil for OEN make relay found burnt in IOMA Suspected quality problem. Relay changed. OK.

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LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Reason unknown.
MISC 15. NLCB gives IMOK indication but fails DLCB card components R1 & C1 not matching as per
during self test of NCLB card. scheme. Changed from other card. Problem solved.
MISC 16. NLIB gives IMOK indication but fails in Self Test. Daughter board components R22, R31, R40, R23, R32, R41,
R60, R68, R72 not matching as per scheme.
Changed the components as required and also adjusted the
gains of FAB, FBC, FCA as per commissioning procedure.
Problem solved.
SOURCE 17. Drive tripped on “Source Commutation Failure”. Advised to conduct EVC test and crow bar test. Also
COMMUTATION Drive restarted and motor tripped without picking inspection of output contactor contacts advised.
FAILURE & speed on “Source Backup Overcurrent Operated”
SOURCE tripping Source breaker also.
OVERCURRENT Gate test and Crowbar tests passed. Found that one of the thyristor cells in the load side
bridge had got shorted. Replaced thyristor module & sent
the faulty module for repair to BHEL-EDN.
Problem solved.
I/O PROBLEM 18. Both channels commissioned but not able to take HROA card replaced. Simultaneous operation possible.
both into service simultaneously because of a Problem solved.
missing feedback due to HROA card. HROA card sent for repair to BHEL-EDN.
Current hunting after that.
MISC 19. Current sharing problem between channels. Actual currents were balanced. Meter on LCI channel not
showing correctly. Meter adjusted OK with pot. IM on
NLIB.
FAILURE TO 20. VFD failed to start and Rotor failed to start (Bit 1 Problem in DC field and exciter on synchronous motor.
START of ALARM WORD) displayed on printer. Motor changed in presence of BHEL-Bhopal person and it
is running OK.
MISC 21. Laptop battery back up not working. Customer has asked to send 2 battery back ups.
EDN says that Laptop PC can be fed from UPS supply
available in VFD panel. As such battery back up is not
required in laptop PC for VFD maintenance.

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MISC 22. Unit tripped on received AUTO OFF commands. Site : Logic built in VFD such that a time-delayed timer 0-
WSPOSE relevant alarm display was “Auxiliary 35secs. (set to 3secs.) drops when either of 24V or
Supply failure” 220V DC supply fails. Contacts of this timer used for
Customer requires that 24V DC and 220V DC Source drive breaker Start Perm. and its inverted status
supply failure be separated. used for generating AUTO OFF commands to source
breaker cards simultaneously.
EDN does not recommend separate logics for 24V & 220V
DC monitoring, as both 24V DC and 220V DC failures
should trip the drive.
MISC 23. High vibration noticed in fans at speed above Resonance is being observed from foundation at
650rpm (Speed at unit F.L.condition is <600rpm) speed>650rpm. However, vibration is in good zone.
BHEL-Ranipet recommends that status of spring
compression can be checked during annual maintenance
shut down.
MISC 24. VFD trips when small system jerks occur. Time delay of 2 secs. already incorporated to tide over
the problem. Customer has been asked to look into the
source of the swing/jerk and take appropriate action.
LOAD 25. When Ch-2 is started with Ch-1 running normally, 28Volts DC of SEM power supply checked and found to be
COMMUTATION Load sharing is equal, but Ch-2 tripped after 5-10 atleast 24V. Also its waveform did not have any ripple.
FAILURE hrs LMARG increased by one degree. Problem solved.
MISC 26. Heavy hunting in Slave channel when paralleled with Shutdown of Master channel taken and isolated it from
Master. Also Master current hunting when running Slave by removing connections on IOMA TBs for Rotor
REV.04 alone, but oscillations are not of large magnitude as Position/other channel running and Torque reference input
in Slave. Slave runs OK when run alone. and Torque reference output.
Crowbar test conducted on Master with Slave in service.
Found LTM2 on Slave defective. Replaced card. Master
taken into service. Found OK. But heavy hunting in Slave
continued. Found that wires were loose on IOMA TB 12
pulse Input signal 2BF IOMA TB7/16,17. Wires on TB
tightened. Slave taken into service. Problem solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. When individually run, both channels run OK. When Problem seems to be due to 240V supply fed to electronics
both channels put on parallel for equal sharing of or malfunctioning of circuit breaker in PSFF module. EDN
current, it could not work. Current in Ch-2 became has asked site to carry our the following & give feedback.:
0. a. Put both channels in Gate Test mode at the same time
Ch-1 Tripped due to MP module power supply failure. by changing MTRFMIN to 0.2 and FLUXS to 0.1 &
Ch-2 tripped due to Stack failure. putting NLCB switch up. DO NOT SAVE. It may take
Only once, channels could run in parallel operation, about 5 minutes for pulses to be released.
but local stop PB did not respond, tripping could be b. Check input supply at sheet 1BB of scheme. Change tap
done by operating local/remote selector switch. of trf. to get 110V on sec. of T1.
Check 28, +5, +15, -15 volts on SEM rack OK.
Check 70V DC from gating power supply OK. Should be
atleast 75V DC during gate test.
c. Quit gate test by putting NLCB switch down and
resetting MP.
d. Check 220V DC supply to VCBs OK.
e. Run up Ch-1(master) to minimum speed. Check
LMODE=3.
f. Run Ch-2(slave). Check LMODE goes to 3 in slave. If it
does not, slightly lower MTRFMIN and FLUXS in Ch-2.
Page 46 of 95
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g. Power supply tripping problem in Ch-1 sorted out.

MISC 2. Following problems during parallel running of 2 a. Monitor 105V DC level on IOMA TB3-9,10 when RUN1
channels: & RUN2 relays in control panel drop. Check operation
a. Individual load breakers do not trip with remote of load breakers, independently by removing plug-in
trip command/local stop PB. Only Run relay type RUN relay in IOMA and simulate Load Breaker
drops & MP does not issue a trip command via operation. Source breakers must be OFF when doing
RUN relay. this test.
However process trip commands trip load side Mistake in wiring chart of Ch-2. This was the cause of
breakers at a time for both channels as Ch-2 not switching OFF when STOP command given
expected. from C&I. Problem solved.

b. During loading, fan speed rises upto 35% speed b. Observe INVLIM during normal running and when
ref. Command. And beyond that speed does not hunting happens by continuous display of INVLIM.
rise. Stator current hunts from min. to max., The value of INVLIM displayed will tell the type of
but speed does not rise. fault. Please do the following:
1. Increase LMARG to 0.3 from present 0.16. Run
drive and see if hunting persists. Hunting
persisted.
2. If it persists, Change LMARG back to 0.16. Change
resistor R60,R68, R76 in NLIB to 100K from 180K.
Run & see if hunting persists, Changed resistors.
Hunting persisted.
3. If it persists, change above resistors from 100K to
Page 47 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

56K. While changing resistors, NLIB to DLIB


Ribbon cable connection is to be removed.
Hunting remains.

Inadequate excitation caused dip in Armature voltage


leading to hunting of speed and armature current.
ALPHFLD was reaching 255. Exciter current was
reaching 63A LRMS-too high for the load. Reversed
exciter stator cable thereby changing the phase
sequence. Problem solved.

MISC 3. Motor current calibration on VFD C&EXE panel. Run both channels at min. speed. Check LMODE=3 in both
channels. Measure trf. sec. winding current with clip-on
meter. Since trf. current = motor current, adjust
NLIB/DLIB pot. IM so that panel meter reads correctly.
Note that at minimum speed current will be minimum &
steady.

MISC 4. Running VFD when ID Fan handles air instead of flue Since density of air is much higher than flue gas, it will not
gas. Speed does not go to Maximum. be possible to run the drive to 540rpm as current will
reach the limit values before this speed.

LOAD 5. Channel tripped giving Commutation failure. 1. Changed XL compensation resistors in NLIB load R60,
COMMUTATION Both channels tripped due to fan vibration very R68, R76 from 180K to 67K. Tripping continues.
FAILURE high-process trip. Resistors changed back to original value.
2. P70 Volts output changed to 80 Volts during gate test
mode. Problem solved.
3. Vibration problem attended by mechanical
maintenance group.

Page 48 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

MISC 6. Channel does not start. On excitation board, only 2 1. NHVL excitation board failed in Field Exciter.
LEDs glowing on Start command. Replaced. OK. Failed board sent for repair.
Power supply unit failed. 2. PSFF module replaced. OK. Failed PSFF sent for repair.
Printer not receiving data from the MP. 3. Printer replaced.

I/O PROBLEM 7. Motor decoupled smooth in both channels. While 11 nos. Modules found defective. Replaced.
starting the fan on Ch-1, ammeter reading does not Ch-1-Polarity of CT inside excitation board was changed as
go beyond 400A whereas in running it goes upto IFB waveform not found OK. During power-up, before
600A and comes back for any speed increase restarting, MAMX in picked-up condition though HROA-R2
command. LED not glowing. Load breaker closed without any
When fan started through ch1, fan did not start, command. Self test failed in 230D. HRDD, NLCB
rotor oscillating and stator current hunting. Ch-1 suspected defective, Replaced & power On. MAMX picking
stopped and ch-2 started. Ch-1 paralleled. Found up. HROA in 1B failed. Spark observed in K3 relay body.
OK. Ch-1 OK even ch-2 stopped. Ch-1 started FU-6 blown in HROA. In MAMX, suppressor block (R-C
independently before rotor came to rest. Ch-1 does net) changed as lugging was not OK. IOMA changed. HROA
not start from rest position. connector found burnt. HRDD found defective.
All replaced. Self test passed. Fan started.
4-20mA for remote indication was not there. NLCB
changed. OSP and SPM setting was done. Fan run and
paralleled.
Ch-1 fault and not starting. All LEDs on HRDD glowing.
HRDD replaced. Remote speed indication and local speed
indication became zero. NLCB changed and ID fan started.

Problem repeated again.


Problem maybe in exciter module or NSFF card. Check
waveform during field exciter test at TP IFBK in NSFE.
Compared with healthy channel. Also, checked exciter
pulses SIG1 to SIG6 at NSFE.
One of the thyristor pulses was missing, Pulse trf. on
NHVL exciter board failed.

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LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

When motor started through VFD Ch-2, did not start and
tripped on Source & load OverCurrent & ground faults.
During meggering on motor insulation , IR value found very
low. Problem related to Motor insulation, BHEL-Bhopal
contacted. Motor end covers opened & 1 conductor was
observed to have turned black. This was due to insulation
failure which resulted in high earth fault. Motor
replaced. Same problems observed. Also spurious
trippings/startings observed in Ch-1.
IOMA modules replaced in Ch-1 & 2. PSFF replaced in Ch-2.
Fan Run OK.
MISC 8. Ch-2 self test not passing. DC Offset not getting Additional earthing provided. NLIB card replaced. Offset
LOAD adjusted to zero volts. voltage made zero in NLIB Source & NLIB Load FAB, FBC,
COMMUTATION During trial run, Ch-1 “Commutation failure fault FCA by adjusting BAL1, BAL2 pot’s in NLCB. Self test
FAILURE & appeared. passed OK.
SOURCE NTDA card on thyristor modules resoldered wherever it
COMMUTATION was suspected dry solder present. Fans run OK.
FAILURE

I/O PROBLEM 9. Failure of IOMA modules. Seems to be a chance of voltage mix-up in P105 and IOMA
output contactor circuit. Mix-up could be from inside the
panel or from outside IOMA.
Found that there was no voltage mix-up in panel side.
IOMA modules suspected.
Sent to BHEL-EDN for repair. Found problem of open PCB
tracks on IOMA module backplane and also tracking
between PCB tracks. Backplane PCB’s on I/O module
changed. Vender de-listed. Quality problem. Problem
solved.
FAILURE TO 10. Ch-1 of ID fan-starting and running Found in Ch-2 that the load side CT polarity is reversed
START OK. after observing the waveforms of load side firing pulses
Page 50 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Ch-2 (slave) of ID fan- Does not start. But runs OK w.r.t. Load side CTs. Corrected CT polarity.
after paralleling with Ch-1. Problem solved.
Tune-up parameters are same in Ch-1 & Ch-2.
LOAD PLL FAULT 11. On starting, Load breaker trips. Load PLL Fault or Found that NSFC load card was loose and not properly
Load Overcurrent or Shorted Motor Winding inserted in rack.
message appears. SUPP Led not glowing. Inserted card in rack and put SEM lock bar. Drive started
and found OK.
GROUND FAULT 12. Ch-2 tripping on ground fault intermittently and Action taken:
thereafter as soon as channel was paralleled to Ch- Checked tightness of all power connections including earth
1. bus. Found OK.
Checked SEM earthing. Found OK.
Checked gate pulses and any loose connections etc. Found
OK. Backcharged Ch-2 and checked load fluxes on NLIB
load. Found OK.
Crowbar was conducted with all doors and backcovers
open with CRSTART=0.
Found sparking on one of the load side capacitors in Fan &
filter panel. It was seen that the discharge resistor
connected across capacitor terminals was very close to
capacitor body leading to the sparking and hence ground
fault.
Corrected position of resistor and its leads for adequate
clearance from capacitor body.
Problem solved.
I/O PROBLEM 13. Channel tripping on I/O address problem. HMPG HLCB and HAIA cards changed. Problem persisted and
Bushog LED comes ON. Bushog LED on HMPG coming ON after 2 minutes. HMPG
REV.04 card changed retaining old DMPB. Channel taken into
service. Problem solved.

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LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

LOAD PLL FAULT 14. Master channel trips on Load PLL Fault. Backcharged from Slave channel. Found that NLIB load Formatted Table
FBC AC voltage was oscillating. Changed NLIB Load card
R05, 1007, PH and set the values of FAB,FBC,FCA as in Schematic drg.
Sht. 1DA. Channel taken into service. OK. It is inferred
that OPAMPS in NLIB load may have drifting problem in
FBC circuit. Sent card to BHEL-EDN for repair.

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LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD – COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Door mounted printer not Found one wire wrap wire carrying printer signal was cut on
printing messages. SEM. Re-wrapped wire. Problem solved.

FAILURE TO 2. Drive not picking up speed. Runs at a speed below One load side thyristor module not firing properly.
START minimum speed continuously. Problem traced to loose connection on wire lug carrying
firing pulses. Re-crimped wire. Problem solved.
FIELD 3. Drive trips on Field Overcurrent or Field loss 415V auxiliary supply for VFD was fed from DG set. The
OVERCURRENT during start. main 11KV supply was fed from Electricity board feeder.
Since the Source Thyristor bridge and Excitation
Thyristor bridge work on the some PLL (Phase Locked
Loop), both bridges must be fed with electrical power
derived from the same power source.
Changed auxiliary power 415V source feeder. Problem
solved.

FAILURE TO 4. Motor not starting in uncoupled Found that parameters in software were parameters for
START condition. coupled condition. Changed to uncoupled condition
parameters. Motor Run. OK.
MISC 5. Motor starts and heavy vibration observed in Motor Found that no firing pulses to STM3. Also source 11kV
and fan. current unbalanced.
Changed HPTK card on STM3. Problem solved.

Page 53 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Channel tripped. Found that DMPB IMOK was not See DMPB IMOKP15, N15 at PSFF. IMOK LED of DMPB lit
‘ON’. LVSH from PSFF power supply was giving ‘high’. up. Channel taken into service. OK. Problem solved.
Also HMPG was not communicating properly with
Laptop PC.

MISC 2. Frequent tripping of VFD transformers on process EDN did not recommend introduction of any extra
trippings. breaker/contactor/switch giving the following explanation:
1. LCI decides to open the Load or Source breaker or
both depending on the type of fault.
2. Emergency stop conditions are rare as this represents
emergency conditions.
3. Once unit starts generating, the no. of operations of
the source breaker becomes extremely low.
4. Similar interlocks for source breaker existing in
earlier drives already supplied and in service. No
transformer failures encountered to date.
MMI FOR VFD 3. VFD MMI: Check all cabling is as per document.
1. While carrying additional tests for Line drivers 1. Check that cable connection that has been made
mounted in C&EXE panel, R+ and T+ led are glowing between the VT100 terminal and the line drivers is a
but key pressed in not getting printed on VT100 one-to-one connection, i.e. Connect the wires to the
screen. respective as follows: 2-2, 3-3, 7-7 (and connect 7
to ground) , check that individual line drivers are OK
and then conduct Loop-Back test.
2. Link fail is coming in window during Integrated 2. Check if the software is reading the MPCC card and
test for MMI system. the Reed-relay card. For this, take out the above
cards from their respective slots inside the PC. Run
the MMI.exe file. The following should happen:
a. A message will be printed out: MPCC/Reed-relay
card not in place.
Page 54 of 95
LCI CHANNELS FOR VFD - COMPENDIUM OF FAULTS

b. The MMI window will not appear.


If the message dos not appear and MMI window
appears-contact BHEL-EDN.
If the above is OK, put back the 2 cards and re-
execute the MMI.exe file and then perform the
Integrated test. While conducting the test, start
with conducting it only on a single C&EXE panel i.e.
switch off all the other line-drivers in the O&M panel
and the other C&EXE panels. Switch on only the line-
driver in one C&EXE panel and the line driver
corresponding to this channel in the O&M panel. It is
very important that the other line-drivers be
switched off since the open connection at the D-
connectors can give rise to link failure.
3. Error no. 13 is also appearing in editor mode. 3. After the above tests have passed, check whether
this error message still appears.
4. In O&M panel, while switching on ‘PON’ and ‘TL’ 4. Do this test first on the O&M panel Line-driver:
both LEDs glow, whereas in C&EXE panel, ‘R+’ While switching on this line driver, switch off &
and ‘PON’ LEDs glow and when wire is looped by remove the connection between the C&EXE panel line
shorting T+ to R+ and T- to R- then ‘TL’ LED driver & the O&M panel. i.e. do this check with this
glows. line driver totally isolated. Remove the shorting
between T+ & R+,T- & R- if present. The TL Led
should not glow. Then short T+ & R+,T- & R-. Now the
TL Led should glow.
Perform the same test on C&EXE panel line driver and
check that the same is OK. Of problem persists, swap
the line drivers and check. If the above is not
happening, the individual Line Driver buffer may have
got spoilt and the same needs to be replaced.
RS232 interface adaptor found defective. Replaced.
Problem solved.

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MISC 4. Current hunting problem during loading of drive Phase sequence at motor exciter terminal box changed.
motor accompanied by voltage collapse. Problem solved.

MISC 5. Loading of RPM meter and current meter. BHEL-EDN suggested to put a resistance of 200 Ohms
across the respective IOMA TBs after disconnecting
external cables. EDN to revert back after receiving the
reading on the door module meters and the mA current
through the 200 Ohms resistance.
Problem traced to higher loading in C&I. Problem at C&I
sorted out. OK.
LOAD 6. Ch-2 tripped on “Load Commutation Failure”. NSFC Load card found defective. Replaced. Problem
COMMUTATION solved.
FAILURE
GATING SUPPLY 7. 1. Ch-2 tripping on “Gating Supply dip”. 1. HPTK card of STM3 found defective. Card replaced.
DIP 2. After 12 hours running, irregular firing and no OK.
LED indication on leg STM3 reported by 2. One HPTK card of STM3 & one NSFC card found
customer. Machine did not start after stopping. defective. Replaced and Machine started.
3. During starting current going to 580A then
coming to zero and then going to 500Amps, then
stabilizes around 100-150 Amps.
BRIDGE 8. Channel Tripping on Bridge Differential Pressure. Lowered the differential pressure setting in Air Flow
DIFFERENTIAL monitor. Problem solved.
PRESSURE

SOURCE 9. Channel tripped on “Source Commutation failure” One no. SCR in STM2, all three SCRs in LTM1 and 2 SCRs
COMMUTATION when running on no-load. in LTM3 showing zero resistance. Problem cause is the
FAILURE loose connection of T2 control trf. in LCI panel.
Connection tightened. Problem solved.

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MISC 10. Current hunting problem in channels. One no. thyristor leg found defective. Replaced and
problem solved.

LOAD 11. Channel tripped on “Load Commutation Failure”. Following tests were carried out:
COMMUTATION 1. Resistance across all the thyristors checked. Found
FAILURE satisfactory.
2. Fuses in all HPTK cards checked. Found OK.
3. Self test failed in 2901 during testing of HRDA(1A),
HISA(1B) & I/O module.
Replaced HRIA (I/O 2A), HROA (I/O 2B), HISA (1B).
Fuse & 105V supply checked. Continuity of ribbon cables
from I/O module to SEM checked.
Problem persists.
Dust ingress on SEM Electronic rack cards & HPTK
thyristor pulse trf. card found to be the problem. Dust
removed by air blowing.
Problem solved. Channel taken into service.
GATING SUPPLY 12. Problem of Gating supply dip & LED not glowing in One thyristor of STM3 found short. Replaced. Gating
DIP STM3 NTDA card. supply UV problem persists.

MISC 13. Failure of as many as six thyristor legs in one unit Customer asked for an expert thorough analysis at site.
and 2 thyristors in another unit. Dust level on the cards in the electronic rack & in the
thyristor power modules found high. This found to be the
possible cause of failure after thyristor failure analysis
done at BHEL-EDN.
LOAD 14. 1. “Load commutation failure” leading to tripping Excitation circuit thoroughly checked up. Found
COMMUTATION of the fan. terminations in ‘C’ phase and the current feedback CTs
FAILURE, 2. “Source Overcurrent” fault were loose. Terminations tightened and ‘EVC Power test’
SOURCE leading to tripping of the fan. conducted.
OVERCURRENT & 3. “Field loss” fault on start-up and unable to start Problem solved.
FIELD LOSS the fan.
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MISC 15. 2x500MW plant not able to generate more than Damper position increased to 85% as per BHEL-Trichy
480MW when only 3 channels of ID Fan are recommendation. Problem solved.
available.

MISC 16. Motor currents in 2 channels of ID FAN A suddenly BHEL-EDN rep. Has explained to customer that this
shot-up from 476.95A/466.8A to problem is related to reference from I&C. Not a VFD
741.02A/749.22A, whereas speed varied from problem.
462.89/488.89 to 470.95/504.64 rpm. Sudden
increase in speed and current lasted only for a few
seconds and the values came back to their original
level.
MISC 17. Ch-2 not taking over when ch-1 tripped due to any Problem traced to failure of fuse in HROA-1B card. Same
fault. Ch-2 not starting individually. replaced.
Ch-2 started individually and in dual mode and operation
found normal.
Changeover and taking over of either channel in case the
other trips has also been found in order.
MMI FOR VFD 18. MMI of ch-2 not working. Circuits of door mounted printer port of VFD, line drivers
(VFD), line drivers (O&M), Multiplexer, Demultiplexer,
Junction base, MPCC card checked and found in order.
Data transfer and communication from SEM suspected.
Door mounted printer of VFD replaced. Problem solved.
FIELD LOSS 19. Tripping of ID Fan on field loss. Excitation system thoroughly checked. Found that in ch-2
the exciter output current was less due to non-conduction
of one thyristor. NHVL card changed. Channel cleared for
service after EVC power test and calibration.
Self test failed. One of the zener diode in IOMA Mother Board had
failed. Replaced and self test was passed.

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MISC 20. Vibration of motor current on ID Fan (sometimes in Output feedback CTs were found loose at the mounting.
the order of 80A). Output voltage waveform was Same tightened. NHVL card replaced.
found distorted. Motor current vibrations still present.
Adjustment of speed regulator gain did not reduce the
variations. SFE of ch-1 to be replaced when shutdown
available.
Ch-2 configured as Master and ch-1 as Slave and Fan put
into service. Variations not observed.
Defective card brought to BHEL-EDN for repair.
MISC 21. Unbalance of 50A in the motor current between the Ch-1 current indication at the remote(UCB) was showing
two channels of VFD. less where as in the local, the current was showing
balanced because of problem with the V/I converter in
NLCB card. Same replaced.
Problem solved. Current for both channels were balanced
at the remote. Defective card brought to BHEL-EDN for
repair.
GROUND FAULT 22. When ID Fan started after cleaning for annual During cleaning of the panels, customer has broken
maintenance, Ch-1 & ch-2 tripping on Ground fault at connection at the lug points of the HV cables connecting to
a motor voltage of about 800VAC (300rpm). This the load side filter ckts. Cables recrimped. Problem solved.
was observed on trials in single channel operation or
in dual channel mode.
LOAD 23. Channel tripped on Load Commutation Failure. 1. Check SEM earthing as per SEM Earthing document.
COMMUTATION 2. Change X(reactance) compensation resistors in
FAILURE NLIB(1D) i.e. change R60, R68, R76 from 180K to
100K Ohms & check the 3 flux reconstructed
waveforms on NLIB(1D). Change resistors to lower
values (upto 33K Ohms) till the reconstructed
waveforms are sinusoidal.
3. Change LIMARG.
All the above done but problem not solved.
Intermittent tripping of channel between period of 4 hrs
to 48hrs observed.
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1. The load side thyristors, snubber ckt, CT ckt, gating


ckts thoroughly checked. All terminations on HPTK
and NTDA cards checked for loose connections and
soldered/tightened/replaced wherever required.
2. Self test & gate test conducted. Speed feedback
ckt found malfunctioning in NLCB /DLCB. DLCB
changed. Speed fdbk ckt calibrated.
3. Gating power supply changed from 89V to 91V.
4. Crowbar test s conducted. Current feedbacks O/C
protection ckt checked and adjusted wherever
required.
5. Channel put into service, Voltage and checked
waveforms checked and found normal.
Channel tripped again on “Load Commutation Failure”.
1. Firing pulses and the associated ckts of HPTK , XTFU
and the related ribbon cables checked.
2. In 2 of the HPTK cards on the load side, the
reference for detection of ‘undervoltage of gating
supply’ was 1.3V DC while in others it was 1.8V DC.
Reference adjusted to 1.8V DC in all HPTK cards.
Self test and gating tests conducted and all
parameters found normal.
Problem solved.
MISC 24. Ch-2 tripped. SEM Power supply PSFF found OFF. PSFF replaced.
Problem solved.

MISC 25. Ch-2 tripped. HMPG not getting reset. HMPG Bushog problem. HMPG replaced. Problem solved.

BRIDGE 26. Ch-1 tripped on ‘Bridge Differential Pressure’. Dry solder problem in Tag board. Soldering done properly.
DIFFERENTIAL ‘RSFM’ resistance found dry soldered. And Problem solved.
PRESSURE disconnected from ‘Tag board resistance card’.

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MISC 27. Ch-2 Current suddenly reduced to 220A. Berg Jumper J2 on DMPB defective. Replaced. OK.

GATING SUPPLY 28. Ch-2 tripped on “gating supply dip, load commutation HPTK card of LTM4 burnt. HPTK card replaced.
DIP & LOAD failure, gating power supply loss”. HLCB card found failed. Replaced.
COMMUTATION Problem solved.
FAILURE

SOURCE PLL 29. Ch-2 tripped on ‘Source PLL Fault ’ Loose attenuation card connection in STM1.
FAULT

LOAD 30. Ch-2 tripped on ‘Load Commutation failure’. Dry solder problem in NTDA card. Card replaced.
COMMUTATION 2 nos. HPTK card changed. HMPG found failed. HMPG
FAILURE replaced. Problem solved.

GATING SUPPLY 31. Ch-1 alarm ‘Gating supply undervoltage’. NTRF card changed & channel started and channel tripped
UNDERVOLTAGE on ‘Field loss’ problem.
Field exciter board NHVL changed. Problem solved.
Channel taken into service.

GATING SUPPLY 32. Ch-2 tripped on ‘Gating supply dip’. NTRF card failure on 70V power supply. NTRF changed.
DIP Problem solved.

LOAD 33. Ch-2 tripped on “Load Commutation Failure”. 24V DC in PSFF found dipped. HROA(1B) having Motor
COMMUTATION above minimum speed changed. Problem solved.
FAILURE
MISC 34. Source Breaker trips but no Alarm or Fault lamp or Advised to change HROA relay card in IOMA module
any message on printer. Channel taken into service which energises SWGR relay. This module will have
after taking out the wires on IOMA Elmex TB SWGRX relay on it.
connecting to SWGR relay aux. contact.

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MISC 35. Gating tests and Exciter Power tests not passing in HMPG card found to be the problem. U10 IC on the HMPG
Fan-B Ch-1. cards found of Harris make.
HMPG cards replaced and Problem solved.
LOAD 36. Ch-2 randomly tripping on Load Commutation Failure. SEM Rack cleaned by blowing air. Channel taken into
COMMUTATION service. OK.
FAILURE
GROUND FAULT, 37. Channel tripping on Ground Fault and Load Channel Tripping on Ground Fault. Observed that neon Formatted Table
LOAD Commutation failure. lamps across Load Bridge Thyristors also glow when Source
COMMUTATION breaker is switched ON. Found ground fault in cable
FAILURE connecting transformer secondary and Source bridge. This
was done after isolating cable at both ends using HV
REV.04 megger and Hi-pot. Cable changed and Channel taken into
service.
Thereafter Channel tripping on Load Commutation failure
intermittently. Since all waveforms were OK, it was
inferred that the problem can be attributed to spurious
malfunction in electronic cards. NLIB(load) ,HLCB, HAIA
and Pulse distribution card XTFH changed. Problem
persisted. Grounding system of entire channel thoroughly
checked and re-inforced with additional cables from panel
earth strip to station earthing mat. Channel taken into
service. Problem solved.
MISC 38. Field Contactor chatters when Ch-1 (Master) is Since field contactor closes after Load Breaker closes,
paralleled to Ch-2 (Slave), with motor running aux. contact problem in Load breaker was suspected i.e.
R05, 1107, PH through Ch-2. No Fault or Alarm annunciation. MISOL input in IOMA changing from True to False to true
to false, even though breaker is closed.
Found contact resistance in aux. contact of Output Ckt.
Breaker not OK. Shifted wires to another contact.
Problem solved.

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LOAD 39. Slave (Ch-2) trips immediately after paralleling to Back-charged Ch-2. Found that voltages on NSFC Load
COMMUTATION Ch-1. Unbalanced. Further found that one attenuator resistor in
FAILURE R Phase load XTFH was open. Changed card. Ch-2 taken
into service. Problem solved.
R05, 1107, PH

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Ch-1 had problem of not starting. Gate pulses for Source and Load were checked and found
OK.
SEM cards were removed, cleaned and inserted in its
position.
2 lug connections at HPTK card were found to be loose and
were corrected.
Customer requested BHEL-EDN to supply spare lugs and
snubber mounting screws for fixing.
Trial run of Ch-1 was taken from Local control and
starting of fan was smooth. This was checked again for
repeatability and found OK.
MISC 2. Ch-2 not taking load when paralleled with Ch-1. Checked 12P11P and 12P11N connections on sheet 2BF.
Found OK.
Changed NLCB in Ch-2.
Paralleled OK and took load.
Cleaned original NLCB and replaced. Load taken.
Problem was due to dust on NLCB/DLCB.
MISC 3. Drive speed dipped below minimum and came to Changed SRGAIN in steps of 0.1 upwards and multiple
MODE 2 when speed is lowered to minimum speed. trials taken till satisfactory performance was observed.
Problem solved.

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LOAD PLL FAULT 4. Ch-1 tripped on “Load PLL Fault”. Surge protective 1. Fan & Filter panel thoroughly cleaned.
arrestors of CT1,CT3,CT4 and CT6 which are 2. Blowing done at C&EXE, Bridge panels.
connected at TB3-01&02 got burnt and damaged the 3. Wiring checked at C&EXE, Bridge,Fan & Filter panels.
CT wiring of CT1 & CT3. 4. CT circuit checked for tightness.
5. Surge arrestors SD1, SD3, SD4, SD6 replaced. After
replacement, CT circuit checked for continuity and
links closing. Self test done and passed. Problem
solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Some sounds and vibrations observed in the DC XLPE Power Cable screen not earthed. Screen earthed.
reactor link between Converter and Inverter and Problem solved.
hunting in speed found. Tripping of Fan-B Ch-2
when voltage reached above 500 Volts.

GROUND FAULT 2. Ground fault in both channels of Fan-B. Load side capacitors found faulty and neutral grounding of
R-C circuit was not O.K. Problem resolved.

GROUND FAULT 3. Ground Fault problem in Ch-2. Cable from contactor to motor was found faulty during hi-
pot test to earth. Faulty part of cable removed and joint
put. Problem resolved.
MISC 4. With Ch-1 tripped, Ch-2 not responding to speed Parameter SRCLSC found to be 0.7 instead of 1.0.
Raise command. Current and speed of ID Fan not SRCLSC changed to 1.0. Problem solved.
responding.

LOAD 5. Channel tripping with fault message “Load NSFC card changed and checking of all connectors and RC Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.13 cm,
Right: -0.13 cm
COMMUTATION Commutation Failure and Shorted Motor Winding.” Filters carried out. Power bridge on load side checked.
FAILURE/SHORTED Firing pulse LED on one card in Source bridge HPTF card on load side changed. Problem solved.
MOTOR WINDING missing.
LOAD 6. Load Commutation Failure message received on Voltage on the P70 module was measured and found to be
COMMUTATION channel and thyristors produced hissing sound 73 volts instead of 80 volts by adjusting the
FAILURE during dry firing. corresponding pot. Problem solved.

SOURCE 7. Source Overcurrent message received on channel. Earthing of XLPE cable not found either on bridge end or
OVERCURRENT Sparking found at the gland end of R phase at the the transformer end. Earthing done on the transformer
back side of the bridge panel. end. Problem solved.

GROUND FAULT 8. Ground Fault message received on channel. Voltage at NTL port of NLCB card was measured and Formatted Table
found to be 0.51V instead of 0V. The cause was found to
be unbalance of current in the three phases. On
performing the megger and hi-pot test, it was found that

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the ‘Y’ phase insulation had failed. The cable for ‘Y” phase
was replaced. Problem solved.

LOAD 9. Slave channel trips during running, on Load Crowbar test conducted and found OK. Therefore Ground
COMMUTATION Commutation failure and Ground Fault. fault suspected on load side. MOV and PT on Load
FAILURE, breaker checked, found OK. With Output breaker drawn
GROUND FAULT out, Motor AC voltage measured with respect to earth by
Motwane multimeter in High voltage range. Great care was
REV.04 taken when doing this. Voltage unbalance found. Motor
stopped. Cable fault found between Motor and Output
breaker after Hi-pot test. Note that Megger value of
failed cable was OK. Fresh joint made. Channel taken into
service. Problem solved.

SOURCE 10. Source Commutation failure occurs when channel is Crowbar test conducted, but channel tripped on Source
COMMUTATION taken into service. Commutation failure. AC side line filter capacitor checked
FAILURE and found OK. Attenuated voltages on Source NSFC and
FAB,FBC,FCA on Source NLIB found OK. HLCB changed.
REV.04 Problem persisted.
Cable connections from transformer secondary to panel
removed. Meggered transformer and found OK. Meggered
cable and found OK. Finally, XLPE HT cable earthing braid
from transformer to panel was found loose. Connection
tightened. Problem solved.
LOAD PLL FAULT 11. Drive trips on Load PLL Fault once in a while but Found that panel was not earthed. Earthed the panel from
period of tripping is regular. ground bus at rear at both ends. Completely cleaned the
R05, 1106, VI panel by air blowing. Checked all connections in Load side
filter RC circuit and MOV. Some of the bleeder resistors
across filter Capacitor leads were very close to the
capacitor case. Made these resistors lead vertical.
Channel taken into service. Problem solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Source breaker getting tripped immediately after Overvoltage setting in NLIB card changed as per scheme.
closing. Overvoltage lamp on NLIB card found Problem solved.
glowing.

MISC 2. Speed and voltage not increasing at 35 Hz and DC Offset voltages at NLIB FAB, FBA & FCA was
current swinging. Pump not attaining full speed. 1.0Volts DC, when no voltage was present on Source
INVLIM getting set at 2304 & 288. bridge or Load Bridge. Adjusted NLIB (L) Offsets to
zero. Problem solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Cannot parallel Slave channel with Master at min. Master channel run at minimum speed. Back-charged slave
speed. Current in slave does not rise. Tune-up channel and adjusted offset zero on Load NLIB FABR,
R05, 0906, PH parameters in both channels OK. Running of motors FBCR, FCAR. Also adjusted values of FAB, FBC,FCA on
in individual channels OK. Load NLIB same as in Master, taking master as reference.
Put slave channel into service. Problem solved.
MISC 2. Channel-1 Master running. But when Slave channel is 12PII (Torque Reference) +/-10 Volts analog from IOMA
paralleled with Master and speed is raised, Slave Ch-1 to IOMA Ch-2 not connected correctly. It should be
R05, 0207, PH channel current remains at minimum. noted that this connection is polarity sensitive.
Wires connected correctly.Channel taken into service. OK.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Communication with Laptop PC stops. Originally OK. Changed HMPG card. Problem remained. Changed HLCB
card. Problem solved.
R05, 1206, PH

GROUND FAULT 2. Motor starts and runs upto minimum speed. As soon Other channel was not available to check this fault by
as it reaches LMODE=3, channel trips on Ground backcharging.
R05, 1206, PH Fault. Motor voltage at this instance approx. 400V. Connected a 415V Source to Inverter Output. Found Line
to Neutral voltages unbalanced. Isolated Load side RC and
MOV circuits. Found Line to Neutral voltages balanced. On
further investigation, it was found that brazing on one of
the load side RC filter resistor had opened. Resistor
replaced. 415V applied. All line to neutral voltages found
balanced. Channel taken into service. No ground fault trip
observed. Problem solved.
GROUND FAULT 3. Channel trips on Ground Fault when speed reaches Fed 415V 3ph 50Hz from Auto-transformer to Load side
over minimum speed. Other channel not busbars R,Y,B in channel, with output VCB in OFF
R05, 0507, PH commissioned. Therefore, back-charging not condition. Found unbalance in FAB, FBC, FCA in NLIB-
possible. Load. Removed cable from DC Reactor to Load side
negative and also P1-P2 jumper busbar connecting Load
and Source side bridges. Unbalance on FAB,FBC,FCA
remains. Isolated Load side MOVs. Unbalance remains.
Found that connection to Y ph R-C circuit resistor
terminal wire cut-off. Replaced the wire wound resistor.
Problem solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. All 4 channels of the 2 ID Fans give problems during During crowbar in all channels, high overshoot was
starting. Starting not smooth. Heavy oscillations of observed in IFB source current. There was no change in
R05, 1006, VI current/source and load overcurrent during overshoot by changing CRALPH1 & CRALPH2. Peak of
starting. overshoot was reduced if SMARG was increased.
By Load NSFC SIG waveform it was ascertained that the
Load thyristor module gave the overshoot. Corresponding
module swapped from Source bridge. Conducted crowbar
test. No overshoot observed. Trials were taken and
starting was found to be smooth. Problem solved.
LOAD PLL FAULT 2. Slave channel current oscillates at higher load and Found that NLIB Source and Load cards were
this happens whenever the current demand is interchanged. This was done after all the checks referred
R05, 0207, VI greater than 50%. Sometimes the channel trips on as given in Annexure for this fault.
Load PLL fault. INVLIM sets to 4096 sometimes Interchanged the cards. Problem solved.
during the period when current oscillations occur.
During this time the Master channel current is
steady.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


LOAD 1. Slave channel FanB Ch-2 trips on Load Commutation Observed that below tripping speed Load side feedback
COMMUTATION Failure after certain speed. 0IA was missing. Found that links on CT shorting
FAILURE terminals were loose on CATDM4 TBs. Tightened the
same. Problem solved.
R05, 1106, VI
MISC 2. After certain speed, slave channel current oscillates Found Load side CT phasing of 0IC is not OK. Corrected
but master channel current remains steady. the same by reversing the Secondary terminal
R05, 1106, VI INVLIM does not set during this time in slave connections. Problem solved.
channel.
I/O ADDRESSING 3. Channel running normally. Trips sometimes on I/O Changed all ’H’ cards in SEM HAIA, HLCB, HRDA one by
PROBLEM Addressing problem. With this, other IOMA Input one. No change observed. Changed HMPG but retained
faults like Fan Compartment door open are also DMPB. Problem solved.
R05, 0407, PH displayed. BUSHOG LED on HMPG does not come
ON.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


GROUND FAULT 1. Slave channel trips on Ground Fault when paralleled Backcharged Ch-2(Slave). Found that one load side
with Master. feedback voltage at Load NSFC 2B was not OK. Found
R05, 0207, PH one resistor of the attenuator resistor network was open
in LTM2 HPTK. Changed HPTK. Problem solved.
MISC 2. During exciter test current is unbalanced. But when The Stator resistance of the exciter (each phase) was
exciter output is connected to a dummy load, the equal. But when measuring the inductance of each stator
R05, 0707, PH R,Y,B currents are balanced. phase of exciter, the values were different. Found that
the start and end of one phase of exciter rotor star
winding was connected wrongly. Changed the connection.
Conducted exciter test. Currents balanced. Problem
solved.
It is inferred that during exciter test, if the shaft of the
motor was moved to different positions, the exciter
current imbalance would have shifted from one phase to
another.
MISC 3. Source breaker trips without any alarm or fault Changed HRDA and HROA. But problem persisted.
annunciation. Trip is from IOMA SWGR relay. Trips Observed that in HRIA inputs low level DC voltages are
R05, 1107, PH occur spuriously. No pattern i.e random. present even though input contacts to HRIA open –
Suspected backplane board problem. Complete IOMA
module changed. Channel taken into service. Problem
solved.
MISC 4. Output circuit breaker trips without any alarm or Checked the auxiliary contact of Load side circuit
fault being annunciated. Trip is from IOMA RUN breaker. Operation and change of MISOL input is OK.
R05, 1107, PH relay. Trips occur spuriously. No pattern i.e random. Observed that in HRIA inputs low level DC voltages are
present, even though input contacts to HRIA open.
Suspected backplane board problem. Complete IOMA
module changed. Channel taken into service. Problem
solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Channel was in service and running OK. After Gate test mode OK. Crowbar test OK. Back-charged over
shutdown while starting, Fan speed reaches minimum minimum speed. Load FAB, FBC, FCA values were same as
R05, 0907, PH speed but LMODE remains at 1. Also does not other channel.
parallel with other channel over minimum speed. MTRFMIN and FLUXS Lowered by 0.1. LMODE=1
changed to LMODE=3. Problem solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


LOAD 1. When channel is run individually, speed does not During current hunting INVLIM was being set to 1.
COMMUTATION raise. Current hunting is observed and channel trips (Source-load differential). Found CT phasing on Load side
FAILURE on Load commutation failure. was not OK. Corrected the same.
Drive started and found that IFB Source and IFB Load
R05, 0107, PH DC Volts on NLIB Source and Load not equal. Adjusted
XTFX CT burden resistor potentiometers to make CT
burden on load side equal to that of the source. Channel
started and resumed trials. Problem solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. Motor takes very longtime to start. During starting period, it was observed that firing pulses
to STM1 were not present as LED on HPTK STM1 not
R05, 0307, VI glowing. Replaced HPTK on STM1. Problem solved.

MISC 2. When START command is given from Remote, Checked whether RUN command from Common Control
Output CB closes but opens after 3 to 4 seconds. panel was ON. Found OK. Put clip on 220V Jyothi relay in
R05, 1007, PH VCB. No change. Suspected HRIA card RUNX relay 1BH49
not working. Swapped HRIA card 2A & 2B. Problem solved.
MISC 3. Master and Slave do not share equal current when Found that in IOMA TB07/10,11, the polarity of current
paralleled. When speed is raised, heavy oscillations reference going to Slave (Ch-2) was negative instead of
R05, 0607, VI occur in Slave (Ch-2). positive (Motoring condition). Changed NLCB card in
Master. Problem solved.
LOAD 4. When drive runs on single channel and higher speed All tests as given in Annexure of Compendium already
COMMUTATION and load, Load commutation failure occurs after done, but problem persists. The 180K resistors on NLIB
FAILURE three hours approximately. load R60, R68, R76 for XL compensation of motor
changed from 180K to 100K. Channel taken into service.
R05, 1107, VI Problem solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


MISC 1. When channel is run individually, current hunting Since INVLIM does not set to any value, it was inferred
takes place. INVLIM does not set to any value and that the problem would be in the excitation circuit. Did
R05, 0707, PH remains at zero continuously. There was light exciter test. Excitation currents balanced. Motor was
hammering sound in the motor. thoroughly inspected. Condition found OK. It was thought
that the sound in the motor could be due to sudden
change in the magnetic centre during running. Excitation
IFB waveform on NSFE checked when running. Found
that sometimes the waveform was getting disturbed.
Changed NSFE card slot 2E. Problem solved.
GROUND FAULT 2. Channel gives Ground fault during crowbar. But, Checked MOV, RC circuits on Load & Source side and also
when back-charged from other channel, ground fault DC Link Source/Load. All found OK. All earthing checked
R05, 1207, PH does not occur. Channel is 2.3kV LCI. and found OK.
Crowbar was performed with 415Volts (earthed supply) on
Load & Source bridge separately, by swapping NSFC
connectors on Source/load and current feedback ribbon
cables on SEM header, when during Load side crowbar,
only 3 resistors in XPTN put in circuit. Ground fault
occurred in both instances of Source & Load crowbar.
While doing this test with isolated 415Volts supply,
Ground fault did not occur. It was suspected that the
problem could be only on Source side circuit between
Transformer and Source bridge. When cables were hi-
potted, Y phase cable gave fault w.r.t ground after 2.5kV
AC. Examined cable and found at one location insulation
was slightly damaged. Cable changed to new. Conducted
crowbar test. OK. Channel taken into service. Problem
solved.

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Category Sl.no. Problem Solution


GROUND FAULT 1. Channel gives Ground Fault during Crowbar test. No It was inferred from the 415V back-charging that the
ground fault when back-charged with 415V 3ph from ground fault will be on the source side. Checked RC circuit
R05, 1207, PH Load side and with only 3 resistors shorted on load and MOV circuit on Source side. Found that star point of
and source HPTF. Channel is 1.2kV LCI. Other Source MOV was earthed, instead of the earth being
channels not available for back-charging. done from the fourth MOV. Changed the connection as
per scheme. Crowbar performed OK. Problem solved.

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GENERAL CHECKS:

1. Check thyristor gate pulses in Gate test mode.


2. Check thyristor and snubber healthiness.
3. Check healthiness of load, source and DC circuit capacitors, MOVs.
4. Check passing of Self test .
5. Conduct crowbar test and get OK results. During crowbar the voltmeter on C&EXE panel should show zero volts and must be
steady at that value. Also Source phase currents must be clean without any spikes.
6. Conduct Megger test on complete power circuits from transformer upto motor.
7. Remove motor inspection cover. Check healthiness of windings w.r.t. earth, between windings.
8. Check CT /PT feedback circuits.
9. Ensure proper earthing of SEM Rack by removing paint at various points.
10. All connections including busbars, connectors, wires, crimped terminals are to be checked for tightness.
Ensure SEM Lock bar is firmly in place.
11. All electronic cards, thyristor power modules, air filters are to be blown with clean air to remove dust.

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CHECKS FOR GROUND FAULT , LOAD COMMUTATION FAILURE, LOAD PLL FAULT :

1. Check SEM earthing OK.


2. Back charge Ch-1 from Ch-2 by tripping Ch-1 source breaker and locking it out. Then close output contactor by shorting IOMA
TB8 after removing RUN relay from IOMA plug-in base. Check the waveform of attenuated voltages at NSFC Load and Flux
waveforms at NLIB-load. Check the waveform at NTL on NLCB . Ground fault occurs if NTL > 0.55V DC.
3. Check capacitors on load side by meggering with 1000V or 500V megger across its terminals & also w.r.t ground. Discharge
capacitors by using the 20M, 2W resistor on the DC capacitors or any suitable rheostat. Check capacitance values of Load side
capacitors by LCR bridge.
4. Remove end covers on the panels and check that the earth bus is continuous from C & EXE. Panel to ACOP panel. If earth bus is
broken in between the panels, bridge this connection with 25sq.mm Cu cable. Also check the JL solder stud on XTFL-Load is firmly
soldered and the wire from this point firmly connected to the earth bus running on the rear of the panels. Ensure that SEM
ground gives proper continuity with this stud.
5. Hi-pot to earth cables from motor to Output Contactor /Breaker after removing both ends of cable. Hi–pot voltage can be
restricted to the voltage, at which ground fault occurs.
6. Check load connection in load side MOV and load side RC filter circuit. Check healthiness of fuses on this circuit.
7. Check values of variable components in SEM cards as per Schematic diagram. Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

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Annexure-1: EARTHING FOR SEM RACK

S S S N
S

CARD N Aluminium
SLOTS Extrusion
Aluminium
N Extrusion Z
CARDS GND
SLOTS N

SEM FRONT Y
VIEW Cu. Braid

Remove only one Nut/Bolt at a time. Check Spring/Plate washer present


1.Remove paint on both sides of Nut/Bolts marked ‘N’.
2.Remove paint on Nut side of ‘S’ and lacquer on PCB board track(if lacquered) on Head side of ‘S’.
Test with mulimeter if in doubt. Generally this mother board will not be lacquered.
3.GND is tinned copper ground bus in C & Exe Panel (Regulation panel in high current rectifier) .
Make connection ‘Y’ at site(if not already present) with 25-sq. mm. Aluminium or copper cable with lugs on
both sides. Check if ‘Z’ cable copper/PVC already exists. If not make connection ‘Z’. Cable ‘Z’ is 16 sq.mm.
Copper braid/PVC cable, connection may already done at BHEL/EDN in Panel.

A B
C C
A B
Front Back Front Back
C C
A B C C
CCC

SEM SIDE SEM SIDE SEM BACK


VIEW VIEW COVER

4.Scrape paint on both sides on plate of nut/bolt ‘A’ and ‘B’. Exercise caution as the motherboard
pins may get bent accidentally when doing this.
5 Scrape paint on back cover on head side of screws’C’.
6.The objective of these points 1 to 5 is to ensure that PCB(mother board) ground track mentioned in
point 2 is perfectly connected to tinned copper earth bus in C & Exe, panel(Regulation
Panel in high current rectifier).
7. All Nut Bolts to have spring and plate washers. Only plated washers to be in contact with paint
scraped surfaces only. Replace if biting/toothed washers are present. Replace one at a time.
8. Check that the PCB motherboard pins have not been bent.
9. Re-check all points 1 to 8 above have been done. Check for continuity between ‘S’ and ground
copper flat.
10.Install SEM back cover carefully.

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Annexure-2: DETAILS OF FT1 AND FT2 INDICATION ON LED BAR


IN NLCB CARD

FT1

UNLATCH
STALL ISTLINHB RD FT1
RESET INHIBIT
OR

SUPP(S)

OSFT1

FT2
10SP FT2

SUPP(L) RD

OVA(L) OR

FLT(SWRE)

FT1 AND FT2 are the first two LED’s seen from the top on the BAR LED of NLCB with
inscriptions of FT1 and FT2 respectively.

1. Description of FT1:-

The logic for the LED FT1 being ON is as given in the diagram above.
When the FT1 LED turns ON it also closes the SWGR relay in the IOMA to trip the source
breaker, if it is closed or if the source breaker is closed the permissive to close is lost.
FT1 is turned ON in case of major faults. They are the Hardware Source over-current,
Microprocessor stall (µP stall) and System Fault (Not(NSFLT)) as detailed below.

a) Hardware Source over-current (SUPP(S)) :- The currents from the 3-phase of the
source side obtained through CT’s are rectified in the analog boards to obtain a DC
current feedback IFB which is compared in the source NLIB board with the SUPP
settings to initiate source over current after 25ms.A source over current has occurred
and it persists for a period of more than 25ms. The message in case of this condition
is “Source back up over current fault”.
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b) Microprocessor stall (µP stall): To detect software malfunctioning and Software code
runaway a hardware circuit is built consisting of a tickle timer in Monoshot mode. In
the event the software does not regularly reset this timer as the software has run away
or in the case of malfunction this timer generates a stall signal.

c) System Fault (Not (NSFLT)): - Please see the Ladder logic in sheet 1FE of the LCI
scheme. This is declared under any of the following conditions: -
a. Source current imbalance. (Series 12 pulse only)
b. Source over-current.
c. Loss of cooling fan.

2. Description of FT2: -

The logic for FT2 led to turn ON is as given in the diagram in previous page. When the FT2
turns ON the fault relay IOMA also closes. Thus a fault is annunciated.
FT1 is turned ON in case of Over-speed (1OSP), Load Over current (SUPP (L)), Load over
voltage (OVA (L)) and Channel fault (NOT (NCFLT)) as detailed below.

a) Over speed (1OSP):- The speed feedback is obtained by the hardware circuit on the
NLCB from the voltage waveform of the load side. When this speed signal exceeds
the setting of OSP on the NLCB then this is actuated.

b) Load Over current (SUPP (L)): (Load backup over current fault) The currents from
the 3phases of the load side obtained from CT’s are rectified in the analog boards to
obtain a DC current feedback LIFB which is compared with the SUPP setting on the
load NLIB board to initiate load over current after 25ms. The message in this
condition is the “Load backup over current fault”.

c) Load over voltage (OVA (L))( Load AC over voltage): - The 3∅ voltages of the load
side are attenuated and available at the input of the load NLIB boards. The analog
board has a rectifier circuit converting these AC voltages to DC. This DC voltage is
compared with the OVR setting of the load NLIB board and when greater initiates a
load over voltage fault.

d) Channel fault (NOT (NCFLT)): -The NCFLT is as per ladder logic on sheet 1FE of
LCI schematic diagram. The Channel fault is declared when a hardware or software
fault occurs in the drive as per the logic in sheet 1FE.

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Annexure-3: Details of Fault and Alarm Messages in the LCI Drive

FAULT MESSAGES: -
1. LOSS OF COOLING FAN : -
Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = NOT (NBLF)

2. SOURCE LOW LINE


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = SUVFLT

3. FIELD LOSS
Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = FLD_LOSS_FLT

4. SOURCE BACKUP OVERCURRENT FAULT


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = SRC_SUPP
INPUT = PORT 900C BIT 2

5.LOAD BACKUP OVERCURRENT FAULT


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = LD_SUPP
INPUT = PORT 900C BIT 5

6.SOURCE OVERVOLTAGE FAULT


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = SRC_OV
INPUT = PORT 900C BIT 0

7.GATING SUPPLY UNDERVOLTAGE FAULT


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = GSUV

8.P105 SUPPLY UNDERVOLTAGE


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = NOT (NPSUV)

9.LOAD OVERVOLTAGE FAULT


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = LD_OV
INPUT = PORT 900C BIT 4

10. OVERSPEED
Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = OS
INPUT = PORT 900C BIT 7

11.GROUND FAULT
Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = GNDF

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INPUT = PORT 8010 BIT 0

12. FAN COMPARTMENT DOOR OPEN


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = NOT(BFNDR)

13 .BRIDGE DIFF PRESSURE


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = BFDIFSW

14. FIELD CURRENT IMBALANCE: - FLTWD BIT 0

Field current imbalance check is for AC exciter only.


If a field current imbalance is detected by the NSFE card and persists for more than 0.5 sec then a fault is declared.

15. FIELD OVERCURRENT :- FLTWD BIT 1

If field current exceeds “FCLIM” for the no of attempts given by “ FCFTIME” then the fault is declared. A penalty
function is implemented such that 6 good firings following a failure will cancel a fault firing. This allows recovery from
non repetitive faults.

16. SHORTED MOTOR WINDING :- FLTWD BIT 2

During a start up from standstill, when the motor speed has exceeded the value set by “TRSPD” and the Load PLL is
locked. Then the peak flux reading taken at every 60 deg electrical from the machine (obtained from integration of load
voltages from NLIB Load card) exceeds its previous value set by “SWINDTOL”(approx 10%). Then a Shorted Motor
Winding Fault is declared. The shorted phase can be obtained from the variable Shorted winding in ENGG mode.

17.SOURCE OVERCURRENT: - FLTWD BIT 3

If source current exceeds “LKLIMS” for the no of attempts set by “LKOCTIM” then the fault is declared. A penalty
function is implemented such that 6 good firings following a failure will cancel a fault firing. This allows recovery from
non-repetitive faults.

18.LOAD OVERCURRENT : - FLTWD BIT 4

If source current exceeds the limit set by “LKLIML” for the no of attempts given by “LKOCTIM” then the fault is
declared. A penalty function is implemented such that 6 good firings following a failure will cancel a fault firing. This
allows recovery from non-repetitive faults.

19. SOURCE COMMUTATION FAILURE : - FLTWD BIT 5

During normal running of the drive, if the difference between the source and load current (read in synchronous with load
frequency cycle) exceeds the limit set by “LKLIMD” for the no of times set by “STHRUTIM” then a fault is declared.
A penalty function is implemented such that 6 good firings following a failure will cancel a fault firing. This allows
recovery from non-repetitive faults.

20.LOAD COMMUTATION FAILURE :- FLTWD BIT 6

During normal running of the drive, if the difference between the source and load current (read in synchronous with
Source frequency cycle) exceeds the limit set by “LKLIMD” for the no of times set by “STHRUTIM” then a fault is
declared. A penalty function is implemented such that 6 good firings following a failure will cancel a fault firing. This
allows recovery from non-repetitive faults.

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21.SOURCE PLL FAULT:- FLTWD BIT 8


The Source voltages are attenuated thro attenuator boards , conditioned in the firing card NSFC and then integrated in the
NLIB boards. These integrated signals are used for synchronization to fire the source bridge thyristors.
Software/Hardware Phase Locked Loop (PLL) does the synchronization.
If this synchronization is lost and remains as such for a period set by “SPLLTIM” then a fault is declared.

22.LOAD PLL FAULT:- FLTWD BIT 9

The Load voltages are attenuated thro attenuator boards , conditioned in the firing card NSFC and then integrated in the
NLIB boards. These integrated signals are used for synchronization to fire the source bridge thyristors.
Software/Hardware Phase Locked Loop (PLL) does the synchronization.
If this synchronization is lost and remains as such for a period set by “LPLLTIM” then a fault is declared.

26. FIELD OVERVOLTAGE FAULT:- FLTWD BIT 10

In Case The Exciter is DC. The field DC voltage is obtained through attenuators and the NSFF circuit. The NSFF circuit
has a over voltage detector (OOV) with fixed set point. When the field DC Voltage exceeds the limit the OOV sends a
signal and the Fault is annunciated.

23. STACK FAULT :- FLTWD BIT 11

The processor because of extraneous reasons may run away and may do unintended tasks very frequently In such cases
the STACK builds up. It is necessary to declare a fault in such cases.

24. FAILURE TO START :- FLTWD BIT 12

During start the speed regulator is open looped and the current command is fixed. The current command is ramped from
minimum current to a value required until motion is detected. Current reference ramps until the drive position has
changed 120 electrical degrees to maximum value of CUR_REG_REG_STRT_E. Motion is detected by looking for a
two cell pair change in the load side firings. If motion is not detected even after 5 secs then a fault is declared.

25. EEPROM TRANSFER FAILURE:- FLTWD BIT 13

The tunes up constants are stored in the EPROM of HMPG the Processor Board, during running of the drive these
constants are loaded in to the EEPROM for operation. If there is a problem in this operation during initialization then this
fault is declared.

26. MOTOR ISOLATOR NOT CLOSED


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = MISOL_STATUS_FLT

27. TACH FEEDBACK OR HTCA PROBLEM

This fault is only in Drives using Tacho feedback with HTCA card. When the HTCA card or the tacho malfunctions then
this fault is declared.

28.SOURCE MASTER/SLAVE CURRENT UNBALANCE


29. SLAVE HARDWARE OVERCURRENT

The above two faults are declared in case of series 12 Pulse.

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ALARM MESSAGES: -
1.MOTOR OVERTEMPERATURE
Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = NOT(MOVTEMP)

2.TRANSFORMER ALARM
Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = NOT(TTRBLE)

3.LINK REACTOR OVERTEMPERATURE


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = NOT(LTRBLE)

4.PCR OVERTEMPERATURE
Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = NOT(PCROT)

5.USER DEFINED ALARM


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = NOT(USERA)

6.COOLING BLOWER LOSS


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = NOT(NBLA)

7.BRIDGE FILTER FUSE BLOWN


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = NOT(BFILF)

8.RUN PERM OR START PERM MISSING


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FK
LOGIC = RUNPM, STRTPM

9.GATING SUPPLY DIP


Please refer ladder logic sheet no 1FE
LOGIC = GSUV_ALM

10.FIELD EXCITER VOLTAGE LOSS:- ALA BIT 0 01H

During start when the field is energized and the field voltage is built and present but its value is lower than required then
this alarm is declared.

11.ROTOR POSITION START ALARM ALA BIT 1 02H

During run If the motor fails to start within 1 sec from start, then this alarm is declared. The rotor position is determined
from relative flux amplitudes.

12.I/O ADDRESSING PROBLEM ALA BIT 2 04H

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The Processor is sending and receiving data from various boards within the SEM Rack. If the response of the Board
exceeds a given time then this alarm is activated.

13.MICROPROCESSOR ALARM ALA BIT 3,4, 5,6,7.8.9.10

The Processor switches tasks by means of interrupts. This alarm is activated when the processor receives unintended
interrupts.

14.SOURCE UNDERVOLTS ALA BIT 12 02H

If the Source breaker is energized, and the source NLIB indicates a Source under voltage condition then this alarm is
declared.

15.FIELD THERMAL OVERLOAD ALA BIT 13 02H

The field thermal model when enabled, checks the field current with time and declares an alarm if the current has
exceeded its time limit.

16.LOSS OF SPEED REFERENCE ALA BIT 14 02H

The drive remote reference will have value between 4 to 20 mA. If the reference falls below a value of 4 mA then this
alarm is activated.

17.LOSS OF SPEED CONTROL

During the drive operation in Self-commutation mode, if the difference between the Speed reference and the Speed
feedback to the Speed regulator exceeds the set parameter “SRETOL” for a time settable by “SQTMR5” then an alarm is
declared.

18.FIELD GROUND ALARM DC Exciter only.

A ground fault detector circuit is part of the NSFF Card on the SEM rack. This circuit detects grounds, which may occur
at the output of the Excitation module. This alarm is annunciated whenever this circuit is activated.

19. TACH FEEDBACK/HTCA PROBLEM


This Alarm is only in Drives using Tacho-feedback with HTCA card. When the HTCA card or the tacho malfunctions
then this alarm is declared.

STATUS MESSAGES: -
To accommodate drives which run multiple motors of different ratings a tune up variable “MOTSEL” is
available. (a set of drive constants for every motor is stored separately ).

1. MOTOR TABLE 0 SELECTED


This Message is annunciated when the first motor is selected.

2. MOTOR TABLE 1 SELECTED


This Message is annunciated when the Second motor is selected.

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Rev.04
Annexure-4: Procedure for conducting Crowbar test with other channel in
service in 12 Pulse drives

Crowbar test can be conducted on either Master or Slave channel with the other channel running.

On the channel on which crowbar test is to be done remove the following wires:

a. IOMA TB5/09 Other channel running


IOMA TB5/10 Sht 1BD/2BD grid 61

b. IOMA TB7/10 Current reference to other channel


IOMA TB7/11 Sht 1BF/2BF grid 55

c. IOMA TB2/15 This channel running/RTPOS


IOMA TB2/02 16 Sht 1BG/2BG grid 5161

d. IOMA TB7/16 Current reference into this channel


IOMA TB7/17 Sht 1BF/2BF grid 67

e. Remove and put insulation tape on wires. Connect wires back in the same TB after
finishing Crowbar test.

f. Ensure Load side Breaker/Contactor does not close by switching OFF supply in
Breaker/Contactor. Short MISOL input at IOMA TB4/05 and TB4/06 Sht 1BD/2BD
grid 21. Remove this short after Crowbar test.

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Rev.04

Annexure-5: Procedure for Backcharging of one channel in 12 Pulse drives with


the other channel of the same motor in service

a) Rack out the Source 6.6kV/11kV breaker for the channel which is to be back-charged.

b) Remove RUN relay from its base on IOMA module.

c) Short IOMA TB8/05 & TB8/06 Sht 1BJ/2BJ grid 23 momentarily. The load side
Breaker/Contactor closes and stays closed.

d) Motor voltage feedback is now available on NSFC load and Motor flux on NLIB Load.

e) Trip Output Breaker/Contactor by momentarily shorting IOMA TB8/07 and TB8/08 Sht
1BJ/2BJ grid 29.
The load side Breaker/Contactor opens.

f) Put RUN relay back on its base in IOMA module.

g) Rack in Source breaker 6.6/11kV.

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R05
Annexure-6: Procedure for Conducting Exciter test on one channel in 12 Pulse
drives with the other channel in service

Exciter Test can be conducted on either MASTER or SLAVE channel with the other channel
running by connecting a dummy load consisting of Lamps and Resistors at the output of Exciter
bridge.

In the channel on which Exciter test is to be done, remove the following wires:

a. IOMA TB5/09 Other channel running Formatted: Indent: First line: 0 cm,
Outline numbered + Level: 2 +
IOMA TB5/10 Sht 1BD/2BD grid 61 Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start at:
1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.27
cm + Tab after: 1.9 cm + Indent at:
1.9 cm
b. IOMA TB7/10 Current reference to other channel
Formatted: Indent: First line: 0 cm,
IOMA TB7/11 Sht 1BF/2BF grid 55 Outline numbered + Level: 2 +
Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start at:
1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.27
cm + Tab after: 1.9 cm + Indent at:
c. IOMA TB2/01 This channel running 1.9 cm
IOMA TB2/02 Sht 1BG/2BG grid 51 Formatted: Indent: First line: 0 cm,
Outline numbered + Level: 2 +
Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start at:
1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.27
d. IOMA TB7/16 Current reference into this channel cm + Tab after: 1.9 cm + Indent at:
IOMA TB7/17 Sht 1BF/2BF grid 67 1.9 cm
Formatted: Indent: First line: 0 cm,
Outline numbered + Level: 2 +
e. Remove and put insulation tape on cables R,Y,B at the output of field exciter Numbering Style: a, b, c, … + Start at:
and also in wires (a) to (d) above. 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 1.27
cm + Tab after: 1.9 cm + Indent at:
1.9 cm
Connect the dummy load to Exciter bridge output. Perform Exciter test.

Connect the cables on the Exciter and wires on the IOMA TBs back in the same positions
before removal. Extreme care to be exercised while doing this test. Switch OFF circuit breakers and
power supplies whenever required.

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