2 H.L. GOLTERMAN
PHYSIOLOGICAL LIMNOLOGY
4 J.J. FRIED
GROUNDWATER POLLUTION
5 N. RAJARATNAM
TURBULENT JETS
6 D. STEPHENSON
PIPELINE DESIGN FOR WATER ENGINEERS
8 J.BALEK
HYDROLOGY A N D WATER RESOURCES I N TROPICAL AFRICA
10 G. KOVACS
SEEPAGE HYDRAULICS
14 D. STEPHENSON
STORMWATER HYDROLOGY A N D DRAINAGE
15 D. STEPHENSON
PlPLELlNE DESIGN FOR WATER ENGINEERS
(completely revised edition of Vol. 6 in the series)
ELSEVIER
PREFACE
CONTENTS PAGE
PREFACE
CHAPTER 1 HYDRAULICS AND HEAD LOSS EQUATIONS . . . . . . i
Basic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
FlowHead L o s s Re l a t i o n s h i p s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M i n o r Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Use o f H e a d L o s s C h a r t s f o r S o l u t i o n
of Simple P i p e Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
CHAPTER 2 ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF P I P E
NETWORK FLOW ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
T y p e s of P i p e f l o w P r o b l e m s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
M e t h o d s of S o l u t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Simple P i p e Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3
InterConnected Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4
Pseudo S t e a d y F l o w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Compound P i p e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6
Node Head C o r r e c t i o n M e t h o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8
Computer P r o g r a m B a s e d o n Node
Head C o r r e c t i o n M e t h o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 0
NewtonRaphson M e t h o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3
CHAPTER 3 LOOP FLOW CORRECTION METHOD OF
NETWORK ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
I nt roduct ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Method o f F l o w C o r r e c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Loop S e l e c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 7
Mu1 t i p l e R e s e r v o i r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8
Branch Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8
Pumps a n d P r e s s u r e R e d u c i n g V a l v e s . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9
P r a c t i c a l D e sign f o r Loop Flow
Correct i o n Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 0
Computer P r o g r a m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4
CHAPTER 4 LINEAR METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5
L i n e a r Method A p p l i e d to Loop Flows . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7
L i n e a r M e t h o d f o r Node H e a d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8
Computer P r o g r a m f o r L i n e a r M e t h o d . . . . . . . . . . . .49
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
CHAPTER 5 OPTIMUM DESIGN OF BRANCHED P I P E
NETWORKS BY L I N E A R PROGRAMMING . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
I nt r o d u c t io n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5
Simplex Method f o r T r u n k M a i n Diameters . . . . . . . . . .5 5
Network D e s i gn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Looped N e t w o r k s .L P O p t i m i z a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . .
.63 .
Linear Programming Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.6 3 .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9
VIII
CONTENTS ( c o n t ) . PAGE
CONTENTS ( c o nt ) . PAGE
CHAPTER 1 1 ( c o n t . )
C o m p u t a t i o n a l Technique f o r Column
Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
S i m p l i f i e d R i g i d Column A n a l y s i s 148
P r o g r a m f o r S i m u l a t i o n o f W a t e r Hammer i n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pump1 i n e s f o l l o w i n g P u m p t r i p 153
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
CHAPTER 12 WATER HAMMER AND FLOW ANALYSIS
I N COMPLEX P I P E SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
The P r o b l e m o f F l o w A n a l y s i s i n C o m p l e x
Pipe Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
. . . . . . . . .
C o n v e n t i o n a l Methods o f Network A n a l y s i s 162
. . . . . . . . . . . .
Method o f S o l u t i o n o f t h e E q u a t i o n s 164
Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Valve Stroking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
CHAPTER 13 GRAPHICAL WATER HAMMER ANALYSIS . * . . * * 175
. . . . . . . . . . . .
Reasons f o r G r a p h i c a l A p p r o a c h . 175
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B a s i c s of M e t h o d 175
. . . . . . . . . . .
M i d  P o i n t s and C h a n g e i n D i a m e t e r . 178
Pumping Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
CHAPTER 14 P I P E GRAPHICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Interactive Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Computer P r o g r a m f o r P i p e G r a p h i c s . . . . . . . . . . . 186
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
CHAPTER 15 COMPUTER PROGRAMMING I N BASIC . . . . . . . 192
Descri p t i o n ...................... 192
Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Logi ca I Operat o r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * . 193
Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
.......................
P r e c is i o n 194
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * 194
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spec i a I C h a r a c t e r s * 195
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B a s i c P r o g r a m m i n g Statements 195
Graphics Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
CHAPTER 1
AFx = P Q A V x (1.1 1
where F is the force, P is the fluid mass density, Q is the
volumetric flow rate, V i s velocity and subscript x r e f e r s to the ' x '
direct ion.
The b a s i c energy equation i s d e r i v e d b y e q u a t i n g the work done
on an element of fluid by gravitational and pressure forces to the
change in k i n e t i c energy. Mechanical and heat energy transfer are
excluded from the equation. In most systems there is a loss of
energy due to f r i c t i o n a n d turbulence and a term i s included i n the
equation to account f o r this. The r e s u l t i n g equation f o r steady flow
of incompressible fluids is termed the Bernoulli equation and is
conveniently w r i t t e n as:
v,2 + p1 + z, = v22 + P1 + z2 + he

29

Y

29

Y
(1.2)
where V = mean velocity at a section
V2/2g = velocity head ( u n i t s of length)
9 = g r a v i t a t i o n a l acceleration
P = pressure
p/Y = pressure head ( u n i t s of l e n g t h )
Y = u n i t weight of f l u i d
Z = elevation above an a r b i t r a r y datum
= head loss due to f r i c t i o n or turbulence between
he
sections 1 a n d 2.
The s u m of the velocity head p l u s pressure head p l u s e l e v a t i o n i s
termed the total head. S t r i c t l y the velocity head should be m u l t i p l i e d
by a coefficient to account for the v a r i a t i o n in v e l o c i t y across the
section of the conduit. The average value of the coefficient for
t u r b u l e n t flow i s 1.06 and f o r l a m i n a r flow i t i s 2.0. Flow through a
conduit i s termed e i t h e r uniform o r nonuniform depending on whether
or not there is a variation in the crosssectional velocity
d i s t r i b u t i o n a long the conduit.
For the Bernoulli equation to apply the flow should be steady,
i.e. there should be no change i n velocity at any point with time.
The flow is assumed to be onedimensional and irrotational. The
fluid should be incompressible, or else a term f o r s t r a i n energy has
to be introduced.
The respective heads are illustrated in Figure 1.1. For most
practical cases the velocity head is small compared w i t h the other
heads, and it may be neglected. In fact it i s often the case that
minor head losses due to bends, expansions, etc. can also be
neglected a n d f r i c t i o n need be the o n l y method whereby head i s lost.
ENTRANCE L O S S
FRICTON LOSS
CONTRACTION L O S S
F R I C T I O N LOSS
VELOCITY
"hP
H AD
PRESSURE H E A D
PI 6
E L E VAT!ON
v = KD~SY (1.3)
or s = K'Q"/D~ (1.4)
Hazen
Williams S=Kl(V/Cw) 1.85 /D 1.167 =6.84 K =3.03 (1.5)
1 1
1.33
Manning S = K 2 ( n V l 2/D K =6.32 K =2.86 (1.6)
 2 2
Chezy S=K3(V/cz)* /D K =13.13 K =4.00 (1.7)
3 3
Darcy S=XV2/2gD Dimensionless (1.8)
Except for the Darcy formula the above equations are not
universal and the 'constant' in the equation depends on the u n i t s .
I t should be borne in m i n d t h a t some o f t h e f o r m u l a e were i n t e n d e d
purely f o r standard water e n g i n e e r i n g p r a c t i c e a n d take no account
of variations in gravity, temperature or t y p e of liquid. The f r i c t i o n
coefficients vary with pipe diameter, surface configuration and age
of pipe.
The c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m u l a e a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y s i m p l e t o u s e a s t h e y
do not involve f l u i d viscosity. They may be solved directly a s they
4
(1.11)
(1.12)
(1.13)
Integrating w i t h t h e c o n s t a n t k f o u n d to b e 0.4 a n d c o n v e r t i n g to
= 5.75 Y
log  (1.14)
Y '
G77
where v is the velocity at a distance y from the b o u n d a r y . For a
hydrodynamical l y smooth b o u n d a r y there i s a l a m i n a r sublayer, and
Nikuradse found that y'av /m where y' is the boundary layer
thickness, so
(1.15)
Thus
V
 = 5.75 log $ + 8.5 (1.16)
rn
Rearranging equations 1.15 a n d 1.16 a n d e x p r e s s i n g v i n terms of
the average v e l o c i t y V b y means o f t h e e q u a t i o n Q =I vdA r e s u l t s i n
_ _ 2 l o g Re / T  0.8 (1.17)
n
(turbulent boundary layer, smooth b o u n d a r y ) a n d
 _ D
2 log  + 1.14 ( 1 .la)
k
Jx'
(turbulent boundary layer, rough boundary).
Notice that for a smooth boundary, is independent of the
relative roughness k/D and for a very rough boundary it is
i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r Re f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s .
Colebrook a n d White combined Equations 1.17 a n d 1.18 to p r o d u c e
an equation covering both smooth a n d rough boundaries as well as
the t r a n s i t i o n zone:
f 1i = 1.14  2 l o g ( 
k 9.35
+ ___ 1 (1.19)
D Rev"
7
o b t a i n a better value.
Unfortunately the Moody diagram is not very amenable to d i r e c t
solution for any variable for given values of the dependent
variables, and a trial and e r r o r a n a l y s i s may be necessary to get
the velocity for the Reynolds number if reasonable accuracy is
required. The Hydraulics Research Station at Wal l i n g f o r d (1969)
rearranged the variables in the Colebrook White equation to
produce simple explicit flow/head loss graphs. Thus equation 1 .I9
may b e a r r a n g e d i n the form
k 2.51~
v = 2 J2gDS' log (
+
1 (1.21)
3.70 D m
0.10
0 09
0.08
0.07
0.06
1.05
f

0
; 0.02
C
.0.
.
U
z
0.015
0.01
0.00:
0.001
(1.22)
w h e r e h i s t h e h e a d loss ( o r t h e e n e r g y loss p e r u n i t w e i g h t ) , X is
the DarcyWeisbach friction factor, L is the pipe length, D i s the
pipe diameter, g is the gravitational acceleration and V is the
average fluid velocity. I t may be noted t h a t in North America X is
replaced by f, whereas British practice i s to use another f'in the
equation
hf = f 'LV2/2gR (1.23)
we c a n a l s o r e w r i t e e q u a t i o n 1.22 a s
h f  8XQ2
(1.25)
L V'gD
1
 = _ _ _ Pn
0.8686 (
I
k + ___
2.51 , (1.26)
3.7D R e r
vfr
(1.28)
w h e r e in t h i s c a s e we h a v e f r o m e q u a t i o n 1.26
k + 
2.51~
g(x) = x + 0.8686 en (
3.7D Re ) (1.29)
and g ' ( x ) i s t h e d e r i v a t i v e o f g ( x ) . We t h e n o b t a i n
10
k + 2.51~
x + 0.8686 en(
3.7D
 Re
1
x+ = x  I 1 (1.30)
2.51 Re
+ o'8686 k + /2.5lX 1
(m Re1
where x+ is a successive a p p r o x i m a t i o n to the s o l u t i o n of g(x) = 0
u s i n g the p r i o r approximation x. Setting x = x+ a n d s o l v i n g f o r x
+
s e v e r a l times, t h e s o l u t i o n c a n be o b t a i n e d to a n y d e s i r e d a c c u r a c y .
T h i s e q u a t i o n converges r a p i d l y for almost any starting value of
x and can be e a s i l y solved on a computer or on a programmable
calculator. Using t h i s equation in c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h e q u a t i o n s (1.22)
a n d (1.27) one c a n s o l v e f o r h e a d loss.
hf2gD (1.31)
Note t h a t s i n c e A =
Lvz
Comparison of F r i c t i o n Forrnul ae
The D a r c y e q u a t i o n may be w r i t t e n as
v (1.35)
or v = cZ fi (1.36)
cZ =m (1.37)
12
FIG. 1.4
01
9
8
c
P
008
ow 1
009
OOOP
WOE
FIG.
1M)
1.5 FRICTION LOSS CHART FOR PIPES FLOWING FULL
ffor water at 15OC) 1 k = 0 . 0 6 mm I
80
Typical example<
60 Galvanised iron
Coated cast iron
40
Glazed vitrified clay
30
20
e 10
g 8
x
L
0
a 4
Y)
b ,
2
I 7

P
I
1
01
0:
0.:
WhCrU
0.:
0
w
FRICTION LOSS CHART FOR PIPES FLOWING FULL
n
FIG. 1.6
14
FIG. 1 . 7 FRICTION LOSS CHART FOR PIPES FLOWING FULL
15
16
The H a z e n  W i l l i a m s c o e f f i c i e n t C i s t h e r e f o r e a f u n c t i o n of X and
W
Re a n d v a l u e s may be p l o t t e d on a Moody d i a g r a m (see F i g u r e 1 . 2 ) .
It will be observed from Figure 1.2 that lines for constant
HazenWilliams c o e f f i c i e n t c o i n c i d e w i t h the ColebrookWhite I ines o n l y
in the transition zone. In the completely turbulent zone for
nonsmooth pipes the coefficient wi II actually r e d u c e the g r e a t e r t h e
Reynolds number, i .e. one c a n n o t associate a c e r t a i n HazenWi I I i a m s
coefficient w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r p i p e as i t v a r i e s w i t h the flow r a t e .
The Manning equation i s widely used f o r open c h a n n e l flow and
p a r t f u l l pipes. The e q u a t i o n i s
V = KnR 2 k sf (1.40)
Smooth g l a s s , p l a s t i c 0.010
C o n c r e t e , s t e e l ( b i tumen I i n e d ) , g a l v a n i z e d 0.01 1
Cast I r o n 0.012
S I imy o r g r e a s y s e w e r s 0.01 3
R i v e t t e d s t e e l , v i t r i f i e d , woodstave 0.01 5
Rough c o n c r e t e 0.017
MINOR LOSSES
Bends hB = KBV2/2g
Bend a n g l e Sharp r/D=l 2 6
Valves hv = KVVf/2g
Open I n g : 1/4 1/2 3/4 Ful I
b
Contract ions and expansions in cross section
Contract ions: Expansions:
hc = KcV22/2g hc = KcVl2/2g
A2/A 1 A 1 /*2
Wal I
angle 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
En t r a n c e a n d ex i t I osses: he= K e V 2 / 2 g
En t r a n c e Exit
Protruding 0.8 1 .o
Sharp 0.5 1 .o
Bevel I ed 0.25 0.5
Rounded 0.05 0.2
18
Thus h = hf + h (1.41)
r
(1.42)
(1.43)
L’ = (D/~)zK (1.44)
h = KLQn/Dm (1.45)
where K i s assumed constant f o r a l l pipes. I n many of t h e numerical
and iterative methods e x p l a i n e d later these simp1 i f i c a t i o n s are not
essential and friction factors varying with pipe and flow can be
accounted f o r . I f e q u i v a l e n t p i p e o r a n a l y t i c a l methods are employed
the simplifications are necessary, or at least the assumption that
f r i c t i o n factor i s independent of flow r a t e .
One method of accounting f o r simple pipes i n series o r in p a r a l l e l
i s the e q u i v a l e n t p i p e method. The diameter of an equivalent pipe to
replace a compound p i p e may be d e r i v e d a n a l y t i c a l l y (see Chapter 2 )
or more simply, if computations are to be performed by hand,
obtained from a h e a d loss c h a r t such as F i g u r e 1 . 5
Consider as an example a compound p i p e comprising a 300 mrn
bore 1000 m long p i p e i n series w i t h ( l e a d i n g i n t o ) a 400 mm bore
pipe 2000 m long. A simple r e l a t i o n s h i p between head loss and flow
rate is not possible unless the pipe is replaced by an equivalent
uniform bore pipe, say 3000 m long. A method of obtaining the
diameter of such a pipe i s to assume a reasonable flow rate (e.g.
100 e / s ) and read o f f the total head loss from F i g u r e 1 . 5 : h = 5.4 +
1 . 3 X 2 km = 8 rn, so that the mean head loss g r a d i e n t i s 8 / 3 = 2.67
m/km and the equivalent pipe diameter to discharge 100 e / s i s 345
mm.
As another example consider a 500 mm bore pipe, 3000 m long
l a i d p a r a l l e l to a 700 mm bore p i p e 4000 m long a n d both pipes a r e
connected at both ends. I n t h i s case a total head loss i s assumed,
say 10 m. The head g r a d i e n t along the 500 mm p i p e i s 3.33 m/km
and the flow r a t e from F i g u r e 1 . 5 i s 300. The head g r a d i e n t along
the 700 mm bore p i p e i s 2.5 m/km and the flow rate 620 P / s . An
equivalent pipe with a length of, say, 4000 m to discharge 920 e / s
a t a g r a d i e n t of 10 m/4 = 2.5 m/km would r e q u i r e a bore of 820 mm.
I t should be noted that F i g u r e 1 . 5 i s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r roughness and
20
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 2
METHODS OF SOLUTION
SIMPLE P I PE PROBLEMS
necessary to repeat the process with the new velocity more than
twice as the flow converges rapidly. If the procedure is to be
utilized i n a c o m p u t e r a Newton R a p h s o n c o n v e r g e n c e m e t h o d c o u l d b e
programmed (see Chapter 1). If the computations are performed
manually a head loss c h a r t based on the equations c a n be used to
simplify the calculations.
I NTERCONNECTED RESERVO I RS
Water l e v e l 30
I I / 1 I
Then u s i n g Q1 + Q2 = Q to e l i m i n a t e Q2 and H
3 3
(2.5)
h = H,  H2 = K Qn (2.7)
then
Q = (h/K)l/n (2.9)
For c o n t i n u i t y
(2.12)
Kl/n
I n t egra t i ng , 1 /n 
( hlt 1 1/ n ) =At (2.13)
( 1  l / n ) ( l / A 1 +1 /A2) 0
COMPOUND P I PES
(2.14)
(2.15)
Complex Pipes in P a r a l l e l
so ai = (Pe/ei)'/n(~i/~e)m/n~ (2.18)
(Dem/Pe)'/" = C ( D i m / P i ) 1/ n (2.20)
the solution.
(3) Calculate the flow in each pipe to any node with a variable
head u s i n g a formula of the form Q = (hDm/Kt)'/" or using a
f low/head loss c h a r t .
(4) Calculate the net inflow to the specific node and i f t h i s i s not
zero, correct the head b y a d d i n g the amount
AH = C Q (2.22)
m
This equation i s d e r i v e d as follows:
(2.23)
Since Q = (hDm/K@)'/"
dQ = Qdh/nh (2.24)
We r e q u i r e Z ( Q + dQ) = 0
Qdh
i.e. C Q + C 
nh
= o (2.25)
O n the other h a n d , data input is very simple for the node head
correction method. No loops have to be assumed and initial flows
need n o t be estimated. Heads c a n b e t a k e n a s g r o u n d l e v e l s f o r e a c h
node to start with so sometimes no initial heads have to be
estimated. It is easier to identify pipes b y the nodes they connect
rather than the loops they separate. It i s easier to interpret the
results. Final heads are given for each node instead of just line
head losses a s f o r the loop method. I f c h a n g e s a r e r e q u i r e d once a
preliminary analysis is done it is easy to add, subtract or alter
pipes with the node method. Many of these a d v a n t a g e s are retained
in the l i n e a r method described in Chapter 4 .
Program Input
i2=998.5m
500m 25
l\ 1
300m 25
f '
i
NEWTONRAPHSON METHOD
H=80 m
1OOOm x200m m
I
t
30 t / s
= L Q 2 / D 5 ( D i n m,
0.0325~10~ Q i n f / s , L in m )
. ’ .Q = 5547h’D5I2 / L 4
1
812 = 3.14 H12I
1
823 = 2.16 H232
1
834 = 4.96 H 3 4 I
33
1.57/(8055)'1.08/(5590):
1
= 9 0  2.16(5590)'4.96(90100)p = 87.0
H32 1
1.08/(5590)~2.48/(90100)'
1 1
Note (5590)' i s assumed to be (9055)? etc. to account f o r flow
direction. T h e new h e a d s c a n b e r e  s u b s t i t u t e d into the equations for
t h e n e x t i t e r a t i o n a n d so o n .
It will be observed that the r e s u l t i n g equations a r e i n effect the
same as those for the node head correction method. If the basic
equations were written i n terms of unknown flows instead of heads,
t h e r e s u l t i n g e q u a t i o n s w o u l d b e t h e same a s t h e loop f l o w c o r r e c t i o n
equation (see Ch. 3). The equations may, however, be solved
simultaneously for all new flows instead of for one loop a t a time
(Ch. 3 ) .
REFERENCES
H2M
397 p
9'7.4
994.8
5 e Gz9.8 ! 32 I F F T  S U N I T S 994 .e
68. D I S P "HPlPES..NHODES,NRESS,E~ 990 3
Rm.. DARCY f I TOPHm" i 998.3
78 I NPUT N 1 N2 > t.13, H 3 , F 2 H < 1 3 993.8
80 FOR J = l TO N 1 I F I X E D HEADS 991.1
NUMBEF'ED F I R S T
90 D I SP " NODE 1+ . NODE2 I Lnr I Dm I I N NETWORK NHME?
ITLH2,Q2m?./s"; TEST I?CIN
.
180 I NPClT K i; J L 1:. J 3 X < J > ,D < J ? ,H 2 NPIPES., NNClDES, NRESS ERRm, D A R C Y f .,
I
,42 TOF'Hm?
118 H < L C . J >j = H 2 e..7.3.. 1.. .815.. 1880
120 p ( L < J j ? = ~2 NODEl+.. NODE2, La, DNI: INITLH2..C!2m3
138 F < J > =F
148 NEXT 3
158 FOR Il=l TI2 50 ! M A X I T H S
168 U=B
170 FOR J = l TO N1
172 I F H < K < J ) ~ : ~ < > H ( L ( J > THEN
> 188
174 H<K<Jj>=H<L(J):>+ 01
188 I F H I K C . J j l > = H < L ( J l j THEN 228
190 lJ=L < J1
208 L < J > =K ( J >
218
228
238
S=N
F O R J = l TO N l
I F K ( J > < > I THEN 338
R=RQi;J,
S=S +Q ( J 1 i < H ( K < I. ?  H < L ( J ? ! ?
GOTO 368
I F L < . . J > O I THEN 368
)H<L (J?)?
I THEN 468
. ..
410 I F U < H 3 THEN 438
428 NEXT I 1
438 .P .R. I N
..T. 
Lb.
44u P R I N T " H+ N XIM) @ < M ? QM
3/5 H2M"
450 FOR J = l TO Nl
468 P R I N T U S I N G 478 ; K!:J?,L(J!..
X C J ) , D < . J j .,Q<.J> .H<L<..J>:>
470 1tlAGE DDD DDD, ~ @ @ C I @D@ , . DUD, I?
D.DDD>DDDDD.D
488 NEXT J
498 END
35
CHAPTER 3
I NTRODUCT I ON
Assuming h = KLQn/Dm
The total net head loss around any closed loop should be zero
and if it is not, the head losses are incorrect and should be
adjusted by dh:
Then Z(h+dh) = 0 (3.3
Ch + Cdh = 0 (3.4
Zh + Z(nh/Q)dQ = 0 (3.5
AQ = Lh (3.6)
nco
I f the DarcyWeisbach equation i s used f o r head losses, n=2 a n d
m=5, whereas the HazenWilliams equation would give n=1.85 and
m=4.85. Some degree of freedom i s a v a i l a b l e i n selecting n. I t may
also be noted that Q and h may be i n any units, e.g. P/s and m
respect i v e l y .
Barlow a n d M a r k l a n d (1969) showed how a second order a p p r o x i 
mation to the d i f f e r e n t i a l produced a more r a p i d convergence.
Steps in analysis may be set out as follows (lnstn. of Water
Engineers, 1969);
1. Draw the network p l a n to a c l e a r scale a n d set a l l d a t a such as
pipe lengths a n d diameters, r e s e r v o i r heads and drawoffs on the
plan. In fact it i s often convenient to set the c a l c u l a t i o n s out
on such a p l a n .
2. Number the closed loops consecutively and mark p o s i t i v e direc
tions, e.g. clockwise.
3. Starting with any pipe in any loop, assign an arbitrary but
sensible flow and flow direction to this pipe. Repeat for an
adjacent pipe taking care that the flow balances at the
intermediate node, i.e. net inflow to less drawoff from each node
must b e zero. Proceed thus through the network a l l o c a t i n g flows
to each pipe. The number of assumptions necessary will equal
the number of inner loops, i.e. a new flow will have to be
assumed at each new loop. The more accurate the initial
estimates of flows the speedier w i l l be the solution.
4. Calculate t h e head loss i n each p i p e u s i n g a formula o f the form
h = KLQn/Dm. Also calculate the term h/Q for each pipe
r e t a i n i n g the p o s i t i v e v a l u e of h and Q i n t h i s case.
37
A Q = Zh/nZ(h/Q). (3.6)
7. Repeat steps 5 a n d 6 f o r each loop.
8. Repeat steps 4 to 7 until the head losses around each loop
balance to a s a t i s f a c t o r y degree o r u n t i l the flow corrections a r e
negligible.
9. Calculate the head at each node by starting at a known head
point and going from pipe to pipe. Compare the heads at each
node w i t h ground levels to determine the r e s i d u a l pressure head.
It i s easier to estimate head losses from a head loss c h a r t than
to use an equatizn if the procedure i s done m a n u a l l y . The value of
n can also be set a t 2 f o r ease of manual computations.
If h ( a n d consequently Q) works out a t zero f o r any pipe d u r i n g
the computations, h/Q should be assumed to be zero in calculating
Zh/Q f o r the corresponding loop o r loops.
LOOP SELECT I ON
BRANCH PIPES
AL = KD/A (3.7)
C(h h )
or A Q = f P (3.13)
n C ( h /Q)C(al+2Qa2)
f
0
0
N 
0
0
W
r
88t
BLP
89P
8SP
BPC
Bet?
BZP
91t
BBP
86E
88E
BLE
09.2
BEE
BPE
BEE
0ZE
BIZ
B0E
862
08Z
BLZ
B9Z
BSZ
8tZ
96 I
08 I
BL I
89 I
0sI
8t I
Br" I
8.2 I
81 1
na I
B6
68
8L
89
8s
OP
rl
iJI
43
44
I ' fi H1=1000m
I
a 1 a s s u m e d f 1o w s
oop method (ch 3 )
08m3 / s
"
11 400i Q.3
ed l o o p s
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 4
LINEAR METHOD
I NTRODUCT I ON
H = constant
There are also i equations (one for each closed loop) of the
f o l l o w i n g form
I h = 0 (4.3)
h = KQn (4.4)
i = j + m  1 (4.5)
This holds for all networks with closed loops as well as open
treelike branches. There are j  1 continuity or fixed head
equations ( t h e a d d i t i o n a l one i s r e d u n d a n t ) and m loop equations,
thus g i v i n g a total of i equations f o r i unknowns i f flows a r e used
as the unknowns. The j f equations f o r known heads can be omitted
where j f i s the number of f i x e d head nodes.
47
h. = K.Q."
I I (4.6)
Pumps
CC..(Hi+h )q.
P J (4.19)
:.H.= IJ
J CC..
IJ
D e s c r i p t i o n of V a r i a b l e s in P r o g r a m
SD/FX
Sums H ( I ) f o r e a c h S.O.R. iteration
Sums AF
Pipe diameter ( i n m)
H o l d s t h e o l d v a l u e o f H ( I ) t o com
p u t e AH
Darcy f r i c t i o n factor F of p i p e K
Darcy f r i c t i o n factor f o r a l l pipks
Head a t j u n c t i o n
Node c o u n t e r
Number of nodes in system
Joint b e g i n n i n g number
Joint end number
Number o f f i x e d h e a d nodes (Number
ed first)
K Iteration counter
L Node c o u n t e r
M Pipe counter
NO Maximum number of m a i n i t e r a t i o n s
e.g. J+5
N1 M a x i m u m n u m b e r of S.O.R. iterations
w i t h i n e a c h m a i n i t e r a t i o n e.g. J+10
N2 Counts the number of m a i n i t e r a t i o n s
N3 Counts the total n u m b e r o f S.O.R.
iterations
51
Number o f p i p e s i n s y s t e m
F l o w i n p i p e m’/s
D r a w o f f i n m’/s
Drawoff from junction (+ve out of
junction)
gn2/8
CK..
‘J
Counts the number of H( 1 ) ’ s
CK. .H.
IJ J
H o l d s o l d Q ( K ) v a l u e f o r c a l c u l a t i o n of
average of o l d value a n d continuity value
TO Tolerance on head c a l c u l a t i o n in F e.g.
0.0001
T1 T o l e r a n c e o n S.O.R. loop i n metres o n
h e a d s e . g . 0.01
S.O.R. factor w e.g. 1.3m. Must be
between 1 a n d 2.
Pipe length (in m)
Data Required
G e n e r a l Comments
I NF'IUT ,, NO
01 SP
Y 4 "

N P I PE'?, NODES F I i:H DHF'C .
DISP L :
It4PCIT H i Li
NEXT L
53
TESTL I H
tJF'IPES> NODES, F I X H * OHRCY f
54
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 5
I NTRODUCT I ON
rl H:lOrn
RESERVOIR
LENGTH m
FLOW 11s
DIAMETER m m
UNKNOWN LENGTH m
250
X,
500
LO
2 00
X2
2 6 11s
f
2 00
x3
LOO
tr,
150
XL
14 11s
1w5m
OPTIMUM L E N G T H m 50 L 50 0 4 00
HEAD LOSS m a12 3.2 0 1.68 TOTAL 5.0
The head losses per 100 mm of pipe and costs per m for the
\
v a r i o u s pipes a r e i n d i c a t e d below:
250 0.25 5
200 0.71 0.1 4
150 0.42 3
Lengths = 5
x1 + x2
x3 +
x4 = 4
The c o m p u t a t i o n s p r o c e e d b y s e t t i n g a l l r e a l v a r i a b l e s t o zero, so
it is necessary to introduce artificial slack variables into each
equation to s a t i s f y the e q u a l i t y . The s l a c k variables are designated
a, b and c in Table 5.3(1), and t h e i r cost c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e s e t a t
very high values designated m. To initiate the solution, the slack
variables a, b and c are assigned the values 5, 4 and 5
respectively (see t h e t h i r d c o l u m n of T a b l e 5 . 3 ( 1 ) .
The n u m b e r s in a n y p a r t i c u l a r l i n e of the m a i n body of the t a b l e
indicate the amount of the program variable which would be
displaced by i n t r o d u c i n g o n e u n i t of the column variable. T h u s one
u n i t of X 1 w o u l d d i s p l a c e 1 u n i t o f a a n d 0.25 u n i t s of c.
To determine whether it i s worthwhile replacing any variable in
the program by any other variable, a number known as the
opportunity number i s calculated for each column. I f one u n i t o f X 1
was introduced, t h e n t h e cost w o u l d i n c r e a s e b y ( 5  ( 1 x m )  ( 0 +
m)  (0.25 + ,,m
)) which is designated the o p p o r t u n i t y value, i.e.
the o p p o r t u n i t y value for each column is calculated by multiplying
the entries in that column b y t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g cost coefficients of
the p r o g r a m v a r i a b l e i n t h e second c o l u m n a n d s u b t r a c t i n g t h e t o t a l
thus formed from the cost coefficient of the column variable. The
most p r o f i t a b l e v a r i a b l e to i n t r o d u c e w o u l d b e X2, s i n c e i t shows t h e
greatest cost reduction per u n i t (or negative opportunity v a l u e ) . The
X column i s now d e s i g n a t e d t h e k e y c o l u m n . The k e y c o l u m n i s t h a t
2
which shows the lowest opportunity value ( i n t h e cost minimization
case). O n l y one v a r i a b l e m a y b e i n t r o d u c e d a t a time.
To determine the maximum amount of the key column variable
which may be introduced, calculate the replacement r a t i o s f o r each
row as follows:
Divide the amount of the program variable for each row b y the
corresponding number in the key column. The lowest positive
replacement ratio is selected as that i s t h e m a x i m u m amount which
c o u l d b e i n t r o d u c e d w i t h o u t v i o l a t i n g a n y of the c o n s t r a i n t s . The r o w
with the lowest positive replacement r a t i o i s designated the key row
a n d the number a t the intersection of the key column a n d key row,
the k e y number.
After introducing a new variable, the matrix is rearranged
(Table 5.3(1l)) so that the replacement ratios remain correct. The
p r o g r a m v a r i a b l e a n d i t s cost c o e f f i c i e n t in t h e k e y r o w a r e r e p l a c e d
58
I Variable
Cost coef.
r 1
WPORTUN 1lY
VALUE : 51.2% 41.71rn 4l.lm 31.42m 0 0 0 *key
KEY C O L M row
a b c
x1 x2 x3 x4
5 4 4 3 m m r n
4 5 1 1 1
3
C
rn
rn
4
1.45 0.46
1
0.1
1
0.42 0.71
1
1
m
4
3.458
\
1+0.46m 0 4l.lm 31.4h 1.71rn4 0 0
Ill
a b c
x2 x3 x4
4 4 3 rn m m
2 4
rn
3
5
0.55
3.45
1
1.1
1 , l
1
0.76
0.24 1
1
1.69
1 69
2.38 0.5*&
2.38 
5
x4
1.1l.lm 0 3.280.76m 0 t.10.6% 3.388.2
IV
a b c
x1 x2 x3 x4
5 4 4 3 rn m r n
4 4.5 1 0.69 1 2.16
x2
5 0.5 1 0.69 1.52 2.16
x1
3 4 1 1
x4
0 0 0.31 0 rn m m
NETWORK DESIGN
x1 H=50m
P i p e b o r e , mm e 3 5 0
H e a d l o s s 2.5m/km 0
cost R1 O O / m
x2 Total length
@ 300 2000m
5.5m/km 100 e / s
R85/r (Sol992m)
x3
e 250
18m/km ( 100811
R70h 800m 2 0 t / s
x4
I
I
 H=20m
(0) ( 8001111
@ 300
X6 x7
3.8m/km
@ 200 Q 150
R85/m
2m/km 8m/km
x5 R50/m R40/m
e250
1O O O m 1
9m/ km
R70/m
Denote t h e u n k n o w n l e n g t h s o f i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s a s X.
61
0.0025X1+0.0055X2+0.018X3+0.0038X4+0.009X5(50
0.0025X1+0.0055X2+0.018X3+0.002X6+0.008X7~30
Lengths:
Xl+X2+X3 = 2000
x4+x5 = 1000
X6+X7 = 800
Objective f u n c t i o n :
Minimize 1OOX1+85X2+7OX3+85X4+7OX5+5OX6+4OX7
62
~ f i ~ 1 5 AFTEP
, 5 ITERATIONS A R T I F I C I A L 'JAPIABLES ARE ADDED
TO THE LEFT S I D E OF E Q U A L I T I E S
8 > = I N E Q U A L I T I E S TO GENERATE AN
'*!APIHBLE
SLACK 1 ';$LyiM I N I T I A L BASIC FEASIBLE SOLUTION
TABLEAU AFTEF'
9 98 8 . 88 H2 17.48 38 88 42 41
 81 .81 L1 1311 11 2008 88 4290 9
8 Bb'r 1.8B L2 B0 1088 8 0 2933 3
8 88 .81 L3 .98 880 08 2375 81
17.48
Symbols i n linear p r o g r a m m i n g o p t i m i z a t i o n p r o g r a m b y m i n i m i z a t i o n
N T o t a l no. o f v e W i a b l e s p l u s d u m m y s
N1 No. v a r i a b l e s
M Total columns
M1 No. o f < = c o n s t r a i n t s
M2 No. o f = constraints
M3 No. o f > = c o n s t r a i n t s
R(I) Rep I acemen t r a t i o
R2 Min replacement r a t i o
V(I) V a r i a b l e no. i n p r o g r a m
X(J, M a t r i x coefficient
X1 ( J M a t r i x coefficient
Z(I) M a g n i t u d e of v a r i a b l e i n p r o g r a m
Zl(l M a g n i t u d e of v a r i a b l e i n p r o g r a m
S U P PlY P i p e ( 1 1 400111
Reserv o i r A n s w e r Q=(280)e/s (2001
Node
F i g . 5.3
65
Constraints: node 2: 8 ,  Q2  Q 3 = 0
node 4 : Q4  Q
5
= o
node 3: = 200
2' + '6
node 5: Q3 + Q5  Q6 = 80
M in i m i z e E QL=4OOQ +300Q +500Q3+500Q4+450Q5+700Q6
1 2
.7 
2 R H S 4 '7
66
Second P r o b l e m : P i D e Sizina
80 e / s
500 m
Fig. 5.4
I N P U T COEFS I N CONSTFAINTS I N O R
DEH I,=..=,>=
COEFS IN CONSTRAINT 1
X l ?
.889
X 2 ?
.017
X 3 ?
.a4
x 4 ?
:.;7?
. 8:
COEFS 114 CONSTRAINT 3
X i ?
1
x 2 ?
1
x 3 ? L P OPTIP1Zt.I P I P E D I H S
1 'JAR I ABLE . MHGb4 I TLICIE s. COST COEF
x 4 '7
8
X S ?
68
L i n e a r programming program
10 550 EZ=@
=.
J 8 M FUR J = l T O N
zij 578 I F EcJ)>=E2 THEN 658
538 E 2 = E I J >
538 J2=J
600 NEXT J
618 I F E 2 > = 8 THEN 938
620 F O R 1 = 1 TO M
624 I F Z i I > > @ THEN 638
626 Z<Ij=.88081
630 I F X C J 2 , I ? ( > r 3 TFEN 658
G 48 X<J2,1)=.@@0OBBI
656 R<I>=Z<Ij/X(J2,,1>
668 NEXT I
676 R2=999999939999
G8El FOR 1=1 T @ M
698 I F R < I > < = 8 THEN 738
7 8 B I F R ( I > > = R 2 THEN 730
718 R 2 = R < I )
726 I 2 = I
738 NEXT I
748 FOR 1=1 TO M
758 Z l I I > = Z < I >
768 FOR J=l TO N
779 X l I J , I ) = X ( J , Ii
7B8 NEXT J
798 NEXT I
888 FOR 1=1 TO M
818 Z < I > = Z l ( I ~ ~  Z l < I 2 > * X 1 ~ .  II2> . ', X
1 ,:Jz. I.?)
8 2 0 FCIR J = l TO t.1
S30 Xi.!, I > = X l ' J . . I i  X l ~ ~ ~ J , I ~ i ~ : ~ i r . t
2 . Ij / X 1 :t J Z .. 12 )
8 4 0 NEXT J
858 NEXT I
868 Z I I ~ ) = Z ~ I I ~ ? I X ~ 1~ 2. ) J ~ ,

r
.:. 3 bj
328 878 FOR J=l TO N
8 8 8 X r J ? I ; ' j = X l C J , I 2 . > / X l * : J 2 . , 12)
348 8 9 8 NEXT J
3 5 t3 98 8 H 1: I 2 Z =B r; .J2 >
368 518 U C I Z > = J 2
378 928 GOTO 4 9 8
388 938 BZ=8
338 3 4 8 FOR 1=1 TO M
488 558 BE=B2+H I I> 1:zc I >
418 968 NEXT. I
428 378 P R I N T " L P O P T I M Z N " i N f
4.38 988 P R I N T " V A R I A B L E , MAGt.(ITUDE,
448 C@ST COEF"
998 FOR 1 = 1 TO M
458 FOR .J=l TO N l 1988 P R I N T U S I N G 1818 i V C I ? , Z < I
468 D I S P " O B J . C n E F j , A< I:I
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 6
cost .
We will also consider only three possible heads a t point C. The
n u m b e r o f p o s s i b l e h y d r a u l i c g r a d e l i n e s between B a n d C i s 3 x 3 =
9, but one of these is at an adverse gradient so may be
disregarded. I n T a b l e 6.1 ( I t ) a set of f i g u r e s i s presented f o r each
possible hydraulic grade l i n e between B a n d C. Thus i f HB = 13 a n d
HCE = 19 t h e n t h e h y d r a u l i c gradient f r o m C t o B i s 0.006 a n d the
diameter required for a flow of 110 e / s i s 310 mm ( f r o m F i g u r e 1 . 3 ) .
The cost of t h i s p i p e l i n e w o u l d b e 0.1 x 310 x 1 000 = $31 000. Now
to t h i s cost m u s t b e a d d e d t h e cost o f t h e p i p e between A a n d B, in
this case $60 000 (from Table 6.1(1)). For each possible head H
C
there is one minimum total cost of pipe between A and C, marked
with an asterisk. It is this cost and the corresponding diameters
only which need b e r e c a l l e d when proceeding to the next section of
pipe. I n t h i s example, the next s e c t i o n between C a n d D i s t h e l a s t
and there is only one possible head at D, namely the reservoir
level.
In Table 6.1 (I1I ) the hydraulic gradients and corresponding
diameters a n d costs f o r Section C  D a r e indicated. To t h e costs o f
pipe for this section are added the costs of the optimum pipe
arrangement up t o C. This i s d o n e f o r e a c h p o s s i b l e h e a d a t C, and
the least total c o s t s e l e c t e d f r o m T a b l e 6.1 ( I I I ) . Thus the minimum
possible total cost is $151 000 a n d t h e most economic diameters a r e
260, 310 and 340 mm for Sections A  8, B  C and C  D
73
I HEAD HYDR.
/AT B /GRAD. I_
DIA.
1
19 24 29 1
60000 60000 60000
9 1000": 87000 85000
I I I
.001
I
430
I
43000
I
.006
I
310 i
l
31000
I 1 50000 50000
Ill COST
$
19
24
I
.0035 340
62000
91000
153ooo
68000
83000
l?AtiEi*
29 .oo 1 430 86000
74
comuwu M N
REQUIREMENT 10 LIS 15 L I S
SOURCE A
YIEU) 12 LfS
F i g . 6.2 Leastcost a l l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
p r o g r a m m i n g example.
A 12 2
0 2
B 20 /7
p
EVALUATION NUMBER: 5 7 2
15 7
(11) 7 0
A 12 12
9 2
B 20 10 3
4 7 2
76
The data are set out in tabular form for solution in Table
6.2( I ) . Each row represents a source a n d each column a demand. The
u n i t cost of delivery along each r o u t e i s i n d i c a t e d i n the top r i g h t
corner of the corresponding block i n the table. The f i r s t step i s to
make an a r b i t r a r y i n i t i a l assignment of resources i n such a manner
that each yield a n d demand i s satisfied. Starting with the top left
block of the table, the maximum possible allocation is 10. This
satisfies the demand of column M and the amount is written i n the
bottom l e f t corner of block AM. Proceeding to the next column, since
the f i r s t column i s completed, the maximum possible a l l o c a t i o n i n the
first row i s 2, which s a t i s f i e s the y i e l d of row A. So the next block
to be considered i s i n row B, namely column N. Proceed through tke
table making the maximum possible assignment at each stage until
all resources a r e allocated (even i f to the slack column). Thus the
next a l l o c a t i o n i s the 13 in the second row, then the 7 in the t h i r d
co I umn .
Once an initial allocation is made the figures are rearranged
methodically until a leastcost distribution emerges. To decide which
would be the most profitable arrangement, assign a relative
e v a l u a t i o n number to each row a n d column as follows:
Assign the value 0 to row 1 a n d work out the other e v a l u a t i o n
numbers such t h a t the sum of the row e v a l u a t i o n number a n d column
evaluation number i s equal to the cost coefficient for any occupied
block. The v a l u e f o r column M i s 5, f o r column N i s 7, f o r row B is
2, a n d so on. Now w r i t e the sum of the row a n d column e v a l u a t i o n
numbers beneath the cost coefficient of each unoccupied block. If
this sum is bigger than the cost coefficient of the block, i t would
pay to introduce a resource a l l o c a t i o n into the block. This i s not
easy to see immediately, but stems from the method of determining
each evaluation sum from the cost coefficients of occupied blocks.
The biggest possible r a t e of improvement i s i n d i c a t e d b y the biggest
difference between the e v a l u a t i o n sum and the cost coefficient. The
biggest and in fact i n our case the o n l y , improvement would be to
introduce an amount i n t o Block BM. The maximum amount which can
be put in block BM i s determined by drawing a closed loop u s i n g
occupied blocks as corners (see the dotted c i r c u i t in Table 6 . 2 ( 1 ) ) .
77
O n account o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y of t h e o p t i m i z a t i o n t e c h n i q u e , use of
a computer i s essential. Alternative routes a l o n g which water could
be supplied to t h e node in q u e s t i o n a r e preselected manually. The
computer program is used to determine the optimum pipelines and
c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i a m e t e r s t o meet t h e s p e c i f i c demands.
An informal demonstration that the method yields an optimum
d e s i g n i s g i v e n w i t h t h e a i d of d i a g r a m s .
F i g . 6.3 R e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s c h a r g e a n d
cost of two p i p e s .
Similarly AC2 = YW c o s +
L
(2) Analyse the network using, say, the Hardy Cross method, to
determine flows in each pipe and heads at each node. Any
number of constant head r e s e r v o i r s a n d drawoffs i s permitted.
( ii i ) Nonl i n e a r programming
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 7
where i = 1 , 2  j
According to James (1978), the o r d e r l y procedure f o r constructing
simulation models i s :
Mass Ba I ances
t h e loss b y p u m p i n g o r d e p o s i t i o n .
Examples
The s i m p l e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e u s e of t h e mass b a l a n c e e q u a t i o n s
is f o r a steadystate system. Q i s f l o w r a t e i n P / s o r MP/d, C i s the
concentration in mg/P. Inflow of water and of salts per unit time
equals outflow rate:
= Q3 (7.2)
Q1 Q2
+
A completely m i x e d system c a n b e d e s c r i b e d b y d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a 
tions: Subscript i refers to inflow, e to exit, s to initial condi
tions.
Volume S
Conc. C
F i g . 7.2 M i x e d f l o w node
d(SC)
QiCi = QeC + 
dt
= Q C + SdC f o r c o n s t a n t S
dt
SdC
.’. dt =
QiCiQeC
t = S en QiCiQ C
(7.9)
 (QiCiQeC s ,
‘e
Q i C i  QiCi/Qe Cs
(7.10)
or C = 
Qet/S
‘e
e
94
e.g. at t = 0, C = C a n d at t =  , o r Qe =  o r S = 0,
5’
c = (ai/ae)ci
Observe that if Qi does not equal Be, there must be internal
g a i n s o r losses, e.g. due to evaporation.
The previous example could be studied n u m e r i c a l l y . Although t h i s
requires specific numbers, it is often the only practical way of
s o l v i n g more complex problems.
Assume S = 1000 m 3 , Qi = 1 m 3 / s = Qe, C s = 0, C i = 500 m g / t .
Choose At = 100 s. The choice of At can affect the speed of
solution, the accuracy of r e s u l t s and the numerical s t a b i l i t y of the
computations. It must be determined by trial, from experience o r
from theoret ica I cons i d e r a t ions.
c 2 c 1
NOWQ . C .  Q C = S  (7.11)
I I At
.. C2 = C1
At
+ S
Q.(C.C
l l l
) = C
1
+ 0.1(500C1) (7.12)
t cl 500C, ~ 0 . 1 c,
0 0 500 50 50
100 50 450 45 95
200 95 405 40 135
300 135 365 37 172
Systems A n a l y s i s
a. Plug flow
I CI
ti C
t
C. D i f f u s e system
(7.13)
)/' = dy = (7.15)
dt y+t
w i t h i n i t i a l conditions
Y(0) = 1 (7.16)
This is a linear time variant 1st order differential equation.
t
The a n a l y t i c a l solution to the problem, y = 2e t1 w i l l be used to
compare the numerical results of some of the methods and to
i l l u s t r a t e the e r r o r at a n y step.
97
Yn+,=Yn+hYn I + 0 ( h 2) e r r o r (7.17)
Y n+ 1= Y n + h . ( y n + t n ) (7.18)
etc.
98
I Analytical
Fig. 7.4 and the subsequent discussion suggest how the Euler
99
(7.24)
(7.25)
2
U s i n g h=0.02 and t h e i n i t i a l condi t i o n s : y o = l , t 0 =O
(7.27)
=1 . 0 2 0 4 (7.29)
y =1.0204+0.02(1.0204+0.02)+(1.0204+0.02(1.0204+0.02~+0~0~~
2
2
(7.30)
=l
.0416 (7.31)
O(h3) and O(hZ) respectively. The Modified Euler and the simple
E u l e r methods a r e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o a s second a n d f i r s t o r d e r meth
ods r e s p e c t i v e l y .
k2 = h f ( tn+ih,yn+ikl ) (7.34)
k3 = hf ( t n + $ h , y n + i k 2 ) (7.35)
k4 = hf ( t n + l ,yn+k3) (7.36)
k = h ( t n + ~ n)
=1 .11034 (7.42)
M u l t i s t e p Methods
100 e/s
Res. A = 100m2
\ = lOOm
H,
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 8
h = L
 dv
(8.1 )
g dt
where h is the difference in head between the two ends, L i s the
conduit length, v i s the flow velocity, g i s g r a v i t a t i o n a l accelera
tion and t i s time.
The equation is useful for calculating the head r i s e associated
with slow deceleration of a water column. It may be used for
calculating the water level variations in a surge shaft following
power trip or starting up in a pumping line, or power load
changes i n a hydroelectric installation fed b y a pressure p i p e l i n e .
The equation may be solved i n steps of A t b y computer, i n tabular
form or g r a p h i c a l l y .
107
Example 1
t Ah=0.5v h Av=  0 . 0 9 8 h V
Net b o d y f o r c e a l o n g p i p e l i n e = wAL s i n 0
= wA(h h ) (8.2)
2 1
F o r c e = mass x a c c e l e r a t i o n
w ( h h h ) A =  ( w / g ) A L d v / d t (8.3)
2 1 f
.*. ( h2h 1 ) = hf  ( L / g ) d v / d t (8.4)
dy
and s i n c e v =  d v  d 2 y
dt 'dt  dtz
I n t e g r a t i n g t w i c e w i t h r e s p e c t to t g i v e s y = cos( t m ,
'ma,
(8.6)
where the constants of integration are from at t=O, and
'='ma,
dy/dt = 0 w h e n t=O.
mean l e v e l s
Y
F i g . 8.2 Utube
109

AS

 
Surge shaft
0
sudden valve closure
... C s
A
d2Y (8.13)
g A t dt2' =
Then y = v
0
fi 9 As
sin (8.17)
110
D y n a m i c : Q2 = Q 1  ( g A t A t / L ) { ( h 2 + h , ) / 2 + hf} (8.18)
where he = K Q t l Q t l / ( 2 g A z i )
(8.19)
Continuity: h h =(Q2+Ql)At/2As
2 1 (8.20)
S o l v i n g f o r Q2 a n d h
2:
Q,  ( gAt A t / L ) { hl + ( Q1 A t/4AS)+KQ, I Q, 1 / ( 2 g A i 2 1
(8.21)
Q2  l+gAtA t2/4LAS
a n d h2 = hl+(Q2+Q1 ) A t / ( 2 A s ) (8.22)
SURGE TANKS
v A = v3A3=G2A2 = A 2 d y / d t (8.23)
1 1
where v i s velocity, A i s crosssectional area, y i s water depth, t
i s time, subscript 1 r e f e r s to t h e c o n d u i t a n d 2 to t h e open s u r g e
s h a f t a n d 3 to t h e i n l e t .
In the case of throttles, the head in the conduit could rise
higher than the water level in the surge shaft by the head loss
through the throttle. The loss through the restriction could be
r e p r e s e n t e d b y he = K . v31v31/2g where K . could v a r y depending
I /o I /o
on whether the flow is into or out of the opening. Generally the
throttle serves to reduce the water level fluctuations in the s u r g e
shaft and since the head loss is out of phase with the level
variations (see F i g u r e 8.5) it will not i n c r e a s e t h e maximum h e a d
i n t h e c o n d u i t i f n o t excessive.
Approximations to t h e damped s u r g e s c a n be o b t a i n e d b y a n a l y 
t i c a l methods ( P i c k f o r d , 1969).
Alternative methods of a n a l y s i s of surge shafts are g r a p h i c a l l y
( J a e g e r , 1956 a n d 1977) a n d w i t h t h e a i d o f c h a r t s ( R i c h , 1963).
113
Load rejection
Example 2
N u m e r i c a l A n a l y s i s of Penstock P r o t e c t e d w i t h an A i r C h a m b e r
40
t H = C A V=  .005H V A S=O.1 v S
 ~
Max H = 6 5 . 6  10 = 55.6m.
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 9
pd dx
2
Conservation of Momentum
pA  (p+*dx)A  W A A c x  W A d x s i n e=Adx
W dv (9.1 )
ax 2gd dt
dv
and since .  av av
  + v. (9.2)
clt at ax
116
t h e e q u a t i o n becomes
(9.3)
(9.4)
ah az w v av (9.5)
t h e n W =% + W
ax
+ 
g

ax
ax ax
az
where ax =sin 0 . (9.6)
(9.7)
Generally the term vav /ax i s small compared with av/at a n d can
be neglected, but i t can be accounted f o r i n numerical solutions if
n e c e s s a r y , e.g. i n flexible plastic piping.
Conservation of Mass
The r a t e of s t r e s s i n c r e a s e i n t h e p i p e w a l l i s ( d / 2 b ) d p/a t
The c o r r e s p o n d i n g r a t e o f s t r a i n i s (d/2bE)a p/a t
a n d t h e r a t e of increase in diameter i s (d2/2bE)ap/at
Now A = nd2/4 (9.10)

.. aA 
at
nd
2
ad
at
(9.11)
i17
_  nd d2 ap (9.12)
2 2bE at
The r a t e of i n c r e a s e i n v o l u m e o v e r a l e n g t h d x i s g i v e n b y
(9. 3 )
 n d 3 d x ap (9. 4 )
4bE at
(9.15)
E q u a t i n g i n f l o w m i n u s o u t f l o w to r a t e o f c h a n g e of s t o r a g e ,
(9.16)
VA  (V + av
dx)A
ax
= (
nd2dx
4K
+ 
nd3dx
4bE)
ap
' a V + ( L +  )d * = o
1.e. 
ax K bE a t (9.17)
Again, i f we p u t h = p / W a n d r e c a l l az/at = 0, we g e t
(9.18)
ah
+   c 2 av = o (9.20)
at g ax
O m i t t i n g t h e f r i c t i o n t e r m t h e e q u a t i o n s become

ah + 
ax
l av
gat = O
(9.21)
(9.22)
The g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n to these e q u a t i o n s i s
118
(9.23)
X
v = v
0
+ 2f
c 1
(t  )
c
+ 2f
c 2
(t + )
X
(9.24)
c =I/$ (9.25)
5
where k =   p f o r p i p e s u p p o r t e d a t one end o n l y
= 1  p 2 f o r b o t h ends f i x e d
= 1 f o r a p i p e w i t h expansion j o i n t s
p i s the Poisson r a t i o which f o r steel i s 0.3
E i s the e l a s t i c modulus, (210 000 N/mmZ f o r s t e e l ) ,
K i s the b u l k modulus of f l u i d , (2100 N/mm2 f o r w a t e r ) ,
P i s t h e f l u i d mass d e n s i t y , (1000 kg/m3 f o r w a t e r ) ,
d and b a r e the p i p e diameter a n d wall thickness respectively, h
is total head, x is distance along pipe, g is gravitational
acceleration (9.81 m / s 2 ) , t i s time, v i s flow velocity, and A i s the
DarcyWeisbach f r i c t i o n coefficient ( X in British practice and f in
U.S. practice). X is actually a function of the flow velocity as
indicated b y t h e ColebrookWhite e q u a t i o n o r a Moody diagram. It
is also affected b y unsteady motion but no q u a n t i t a t i v e assessment
of t h i s i s a v a i l a b l e
EFFECT O F A I R
m p( +  +  )
(9.26)
119
c = JgAh/f (9.29)
METHODS O F ANALYSIS
(9.30)
cX v I v l d t
for 
dx   c : dh  Z d v  = o (9.31)
dt 9 29d
Equs.(9.30) and (9.31) may be solved for h' and v ' at point p
P P
at time t + A t in terms of known h and v at two other points q
and r at time t. Thus for qp, dh=h'h dv=v'v and for rp,
P q' P q
dh=h'h
~r
dv=v'v
~r
and . The resulting equations, termed the
characteristic equations, are
h +hr + c v  v r + cdth v (v 1v I (9.32)
hl =L 9 ~
r r qlvq
P 2 9 2 29d 2
v +v g h h  hdt v , I v r ~ + v q l v q I~
v l = 9 +  q
r (9.33)
D 2 c 2 2d 2
121
TIME
0 0
F i g . 9.2 x  t G r i d f o r w a t e r hammer a n a l y s i s b y
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s method.
VALVES
Q = CdFAm (9.38)
where Q is the flow in the valve, H i s the head loss across the
valve a n d C d i s a discharge coefficient. F i s the f r a c t i o n a l opening
of the valve (0 i s closed and 1 is fully open). The discharge
coefficient i s often a f u n c t i o n of F unfortunately but t hi s w i l l be
accounted f o r here b y assuming the o n l y v a r i a b l e i s F.
The degree of v a l v e opening as a function of time i n the case of
uniform stem travel or proportional turns of a handwheel is
generally nonlinear. For most valves the hole closes more r a p i d l y
near the end of the travel of the gate. The following figure
illustrates the proportional area open for different valves as a
function of time assuming steady t u r n i n g of the handwheel o r actua
123
1 .o
A (lx)sin arcos ( 1 
Azi
0.8
s i n ( a r c o s x!l
/
. \
0.6 ' I
Gate valve
0.4
/  \
0.2
Spherical
0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
.o Butterfly
Proportional rotation o f handwheel
from open to closed
F = 1 (t/T)' (9.39)
Q = { l  ( t / T ) N I A p m (9.40)
dh + s v + X v l v l d x= 0 (9.30)
9 29d
124
J (9.41)
c . .AD
QZ
and h = + z (9.42)
(A [1(t/T)N])2/Ho
P
where Z is t h e downstream head, H i s t h e head above Z and h
i s the total head. Subscript 1 r e f e r s t o the upstream p o i n t
at the previous time interval, and p to the p i p e upstream of the
valve. t is time, T is the closure time of a v a l v e , t/T i s the
proportional operation of the handwheel assuming a constant r a t e of
operation and A i s the open area.

+
A
solution is solution is
stable unstabl e
Accuracy of Solution
decreases because of
numerical diffusion
t
0
(9.47)
Ax AX
b) 
At
shall be close to ()
At c r
to minimize d i f f u s i o n e r r o r s a n d
o b t a i n optimal accuracy.
c) The difference scheme s h a l l be convergent. T h i s could be ascer
tained by running the scheme w i t h different Ax's and At's and
comparing w i t h a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s in a simple case.
Determining (Ax/AtIcr
A5
At  dt
>dx (9.49)
(9.50)
130
t t
A \ I A, .
k
\y k
k1  k 1
. iI i ,i+l
W X  iI i i+l
* X
F i g . 9.6 Comparison o f n u m e r i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p a g a t i o n of
i n f o r m a t i o n in a c e n t r a l d i f f e r e n c e scheme
80 N 2 = N l t l
90 D I S P DRFtUOFF mA3
108 FOR J = l TO N2
110 P(J?=8
120 NEXT J
138 INPUT P ( M 1 )
1 4 0 D I S P "ELEVHTIONSm
1 5 8 F O R J = l T O N2
1 6 B INPUT Z C J
1 7 0 NEXT J
132
768 NEXT I
7 7 8 STOP
7 8 0 END
P I P E NRME?
SAMPLE RClN
133
.Be1 25.8
.
L
B 8 8 8 29.3
FLcl . M3"S HER@
4 1 132
t4 0 D E
1
.3.
.j
883
89.9
i 4 23.7
7
&* t.4 U0E
1 132

9
i
3
.882
4
HOUE
1 13'
2 080
3 . a 8 1 297.2
48 . 8 8 9 286.4
NCfUE FLO. M3^S H E A D
1 .12Q 1 8 B . 8
L

3
'7
. B e 2 288.9
.@@I1
4 E1.889
NODE FLO. M 3
1  824
NUDE FLO . M3^S HERO 2 888
7
1 .838 188.8 'I .091
'2L .El88 327 4 4 8 . B88
NODE FLU. M 3
1  .824
t4 U 0E F L U . N3"5 H E R D 975  ,
1  . @ 3 S lee.@  .891
.BY9 181.8 4 9.L398 2 1 1 . 6
 . 8 8 1 229.5 H0DE FLO. M3*S HERD
4 8.808 234.1 1 .825 1sa.e
tJODE F L O . M3"S HEQ@ 2 .0?5 199.7
1 .a48 1B0.9 3 .@?5 193.5
3 4
L .a89 181.9 0 . 8 0 8 286.7
L
7
.  . 1389 1 8 5 . 2
4 8.088 228.1
NODE FLO.M3^S HEAD
1 .049 188.8
 . El913 1883.7
.El87 1 8 2 . 2
~ ~~
4 8.688 20.3
t4ODE FLO . M 3 ^ S H E R D
1 .a48 188.8
2 .@I88 9 7 . 7
134
O.lm 3 / s
t
c = 1000m/s
L i s t of symbols i n g r a v i t y p i p e w a t e r hammer a n a l y s i s p r o g r a m
Symbols
A(J) Area o f p i p e
C Celerity
D(J) Diameter o f n e x t section
Dt Increment i n X
D2 Increment in T
F D a r c y f r i c t i o n f a c t o r i n H = FXV2/2GD
G G r a v i t a t i o n a l a c c e l e r a t i o n , 9.81
H(J) Head
H2 Dummy v a r i a b l e
H3 Dummy v a r i a b l e
H1 Head loss t h r o u g h valve/V’
I1 Number o f i t e r a t i o n s
I I t e r a t i o n number
J Node n u m b e r
J2 Counter
L Length
M3 M21
NS Name
N1 Number o f sections i n m a i n p i p e
N2 N1 + 1
M1 J a t w h i c h d r a w  o f f o c c u r s ( a n y node
2 to N1)
P(J Draw off
81 Drawoff f r o m m a i n p i p e e n d
Q(J Flow
43 Drawoff b r a n c h
R(J P a t p r e v i o u s time i n t e r v a l
S(J H a t p r e v i o u s time i n t e r v a l
s1 P2/D
T Time i n seconds t o c l o s e ‘ m p i n p i p e
l i n e downstream v a l v e
T1 Dummy v a r i a b l e
v1 Power i n v a l v e a r e a  c l o s u r e e q u a t i o n
X Length of pipe
Z(J) Elevation
135
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 10
DESCRIPTION
Conditional B o u n d a r y Conditions
Isolating valve
dh a. Spring l oa de d r e l e a s e
valve
b. Rupture disc
e A c c u m u l ator
c. Pneumatically loaded
re1 ease valve
Needle control
Non return
valve Piston seal
, valve
F i g . 10.1 R e l e a s e valves
140
S UR
HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE JAN DELIVERY
RE SER H)IR
NONRETURN V A L V E S
AIR VESSELS
A i r Vessel Equations
d S = (Q2Ql)dt (10.3)
(10.4)
COMPRESSOR
WATER
THROTTLED
INLET
F i g u r e 10.4 A i r Vessel
145
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 1 1
I NTRODUCT I ON
Spreading o f Cavity
ine
Figure 1 1 . 1 Shape of c a v i t y
M1
L
H M2
/
\ /
\ /
\ /
\
\ /
/
)c
\ /
\ /
\ /
\ /
\ /
\ /.
\ I
v = v
0
 ght/L (11.2)
x = v tghtz/2L (11.4)
S u b s t i t u t i n g f o r t a t v=O gives
X = v 'L/2gh (11.5)
max
Hence the maximum volume of c a v i t y i s Ax = ALvo2/2gh
max
(11.6)
Rising Mains
F i g u r e 1 1 .3 S i m p l i f i e d p i p e p r o f i l e f o r theoretical study
a aA
(av)
ax
+ 
at
= 0 (11.8)
152
(11.9)
(11 .lo)
P ( v +c )2 ( A  a ) + p g y l ( A  a ) = ( v +c )2AP+PgAhAtPgy2A (11.11)
1 s 2 s
Here P i s t h e mass d e n s i t y o f water and 7 i s t h e d e p t h to t h e
centroid of the cross section of water. The velocity v2 may be
expressed in terms of v l , cs, a and A with the aid of the
cont inui t y e q u a t i o n :
153
(vl+cs)(Aa) = ( v +c ) A (11.12)
2 s
Since (Aa) i s very n e a r l y equal to A, y (Aa) i s n e a r l y equal
1
to y A. S o l v i n g t h e l a s t two equations f o r c
2
c e am (11 .13)
=r 2 sine(t)
y i e l d v a l u e s of c
between 500 and 1000 m/s, i I l u s t r a t ing t h a t it i s of t h e same o r d e r o f
m g n i t u d e a s t h e Mave c e l e r i t y o f a f u l I p i p e . The v e l o c i t y change a t
t h e surge f r o n t m y b e expressed i n terms o f A h b y r e w r i t i n g (11.12) and
(11.13) a s f o l lows:
I
A[ ( V , + C ~ )  ( V ~ + C= ~gAhA/cS
)
:. ( v v
1 2
) = 9Ah
cs
Line 1: T h e name of t h e s y s t e m
L i n e 2: The number of sections
L i n e 3: The number of iterations (e.g. if the pipe is
divided into 4 intervals, 4 iterations represent the
travel time for the water hamrnmer wave up the
pipe)
L i n e 4: Length (m)
L i n e 5: Diameter (m)
L i n e 6: Wavespeed ( m / s )
L i n e 7: F l o w r a t e (m’/s)
L i n e 8: Friction head (m)
154
Line 9
on wards : Elevation of each successive p o i n t (all in m a n d s
units) .
The first and last elevations should represent the water level in
t h e suction sump a n d d e l i v e r y r e s e r v o i r ( b o t h assumed constant).
The program assumes the pump trips immediately the simulation
starts, and p r i n t s out heads a n d flows a t each p o i n t every inter
val.
Water column separation is accounted f o r in a simplistic way.
When the head drops to the e l e v a t i o n of the p i p e a t any p o i n t , o r
t r i e s to drop below the elevation, it i s set equal to e l e v a t i o n a n d
the flow r a t e b o t h before a n d a f t e r the point a r e recalculated for
the new head. Vapour pocket volume i s computed by summing the
difference between the two flows and when i t turns to zero (or a
negative value) the head reverts to that indicated by the finite
difference equations f o r a full pipe. The spreading o r longitudinal
movement of vapour pockets a r e neglected, a n d no reduction i n wave
speed i s made. D u e to t h i s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and the f a c t that vapour
pocket closure can only occur at the computational time, the
program can overestimate water hammer pressure due to pocket
collapse.
The maximum heads at each head along the line are plotted
above the p i p e p r o f i l e a t the end of the r u n .
K number o f iterations
L name
M number of p i p e i n t e r v a l s
M1 M + l
P maximum head
P1 h e a d term in p l o t
Q flow beyond point
82 flow term
R flow in f r o n t of p o i n t a t p r e v i o u s time i n t e r v a l
S flow beyond p o i n t a t p r e v i o u s time i n t e r v a l
T flow in f r o n t of p o i n t
T2 time increment
U head a t p r e v i o u s time i n t e r v a l
X length
x2 length interval
Y v a p o u r pocket volume
2 e Ie v a t i o n
output
4
5 288 . lee 208 .a31
F!4T YEADm FLOms 6 PNT HEAOm FLOns 15
i 38 6.8@@ 1 259 @ . e m
 97 
. P26 2
~ z57 .@el
3 i em ,834 3 250  . 8 0 3
4 97 I032 4 la8 .@38
5 286  e33 5 200 .031
PHT HEAQm FLOas 7 PNT HEROm FLOns 16
138 e . eee 1 254 @ . m e
141 .@(?2 2 257 .eel
I80 . e34 3 285 .ew
4 282  . # 3 1 4 198 ,038
5 288 
. e33 5 200 .828
PHT HERDm FLOms 8 PNT YEROm FLOlrs 17
1 143 8.088 1 254 e . 0 m
2 141  . B e 2 2 243 .832
3 195  . e x 3 205 .834
4 292  . a 3 1 4 287 .032
5 288 .e2Es 5 298 .828
PNT HERDm FtOns 3 PNT HERDs FLOms 18
1 143 e.eee
2 197  . 9 3 4
3 195  . 8 X 3 205 .@31
4 193  . 0 3 4 4 207 .a32
5 2013 .ECG
150
HE
I nput
159
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 12
(12.1)
(12.2)
TIME
fvlvl = F fv
b
Iv
b
I + (IF) f v ' ( v b l .
vt+?(hthlbpF f v b I vb 1 ) (12.4)
T h e n s o l v i n g (12.3) vb' =
I
1+( 1  F ) f g v b I/c
(12.5)
PUMP.
The p o s i t i o n i n g of control valves i n the p i p e network i s a l s o of
importance from the point of view of r a p i d a c c e s s i b i l i t y and closure
in times of emergency or for control purposes. Such valves can be
timed to close over a specified period in order to control water
hammer pressures. I n the case of automatic control valves they can
be installed to operate when pressures or flows exceed certain
limits. The program can accommodate the opening or closing of
valves at any point i n time a n d the combined opening and closing
of a valve in the same simulation can be made by i m a g i n i n g two
v a l v e s i n the same position.
An application of the program to steadystate flows is in the
analysis of flow in a reticulation system for various conditions.
Although pipes are normally designed on a reasonable load factor
with selected design flows to meet certain duties, there are often
abnormal situations to be considered. Where the water reticulation
system is to be used for firefighting then high peaks may be
required at specified points and at the same time specified m i n i 
mum pressures will have to be achieved. In such cases it can
be assumed that other loads w i l l be reduced o r eliminated i n order
to achieve the necessary peak flows.
168
300 mm d i a .
6 0 0 m 1 5 0 mm d i a .
250 mm dia.
(2) X
(4) H = 0
VALVE STROKING
Ho

B A
Fig. 1'2.3 Maximum head along pipe
Target HB
/
t T t
1st t r i a l closure
time
the flow velocities can reach very h i g h values. On the other hand
the heads at the end of the system a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y very low as
most of the head will be d i s s i p a t e d i n f r i c t i o n a n d t h r o u g h v a r i o u s
fittings i n the p i p e system. The f r i c t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e v e r y h i g h a n d
the damping effect of the friction may often result in the water
hammer pressure rising n o t much more t h a n that for valve closure
under normal o p e r a t i n g conditions. N e v e r t h e l e s s e a c h system s h o u l d
be a n a l y s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y b e f o r e s u c h c o n c l u s i o n s a r e made.
REFERENCES
PIPE
PIPE ... . ... . . , ..., ,.
  _H E R D
0
2
1
1
1
2
4
PIPE
3
e1 21
i , ,
AT2
.IVAL~~!EUPOI
2 4
1 3
FIFE
0 1
1 2
E J
1 3
FIFE
0 1
1 2
2
1
4
x JT I 14 E  I 1.0 Tfi
T E F: A T I0 H
'1.0
FIFE
0 1
1 2
2 4
1 3
FIFE
E l !
1 z
2 4
1 3
FIFE
a 1
1 2
2 4
1 3
FIFE
8 1
1 2
2 4
1 3
PIPE
0 1
1 2
2 4
1 3
2 4
1 3
PIPE
8 1
1 2
2 4 8
1 3 185
PIPE FLOW L.5
a 1 1 SE'
1 2  3
2 4 @
1 3 195
F I F E FLOW L'S
B 1 136
1 2 1
2 4 8
1 3 192
PIPE F'FLCI T 11 H X
B 1 196 17.00
1 2 16.58
2 4 8 .0 0
1 3 8 . 88
CHAPTER 13
BASICS O F METHOD
dx
for  = c ; AH = A V + xVIVIL/Pgd (13.3)
dt 9
176
Lc
C
H
(m
20
201
SpVALVE SHUT
R X t CHART S
PUMP I NG L I NES
R T S
H
Ho
0
F i g . 13.2 G r a p h i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n of w a t e r h a m m e r h e a d s a t m i d  l i n e
w i t h c h a n g e in p i p e d i a m e t e r
181
P R
;"Ii
neglect f r i c t i o n
Head H
(m)
300
RO 9
R1
R2 R3 ' R4 R5 R6
c/g=lOOs
Velocity
P1
HO
CHAPTER 14
P I PE GRAPH I CS
INTRODUCTION
I NTERACT I V E DRAW I NG
Program Description
TYPE
, 32 CmIFtCE
33 REDUCtWG
34 SOCKET WELO
35 WELD NECK
43 EXPANSION
46 LATERAL
87 LOCISHELD td;3
+&
VALVE
48 YOTOP CONTROL
VALVE
PLUGS
a BULL +c,
XAR
Line 1: Left hand limit, Right hand limit, Lower limit, Upper
limit of screen display (in metres or ft.), Angle of
v i e w i n g measured from x to y axis, A n g l e up o f v i e w 
i n g m e a s u r e d f r o m xz plane. Since t h e HP85 screen i s
4 x 3 , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the left and right hand
limits should be 4/3 times the difference between the
upper and lower limit for an undistorted scale. A
practical angle combination for isometric viewing is
30°, 15".
Example
Symbols in pipe g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m
xy plane.
cost of p i p e per u n i t length
total cost of pipes
dimension of device
0 = o r i g i n a l d a t a , 1 = amended p i p e data
length
distance a l o n g p i p e from s t a r t to device
p i p e counter
device counter
device type. 1 = flange, 2 = v a l v e , 3 = tank
x  coordinate
l e f t h a n d l i m i t on screen
s t a r t p o i n t i n screen xcoordinates
end point i n screen xcoordinates
xcoordinate of device i n p l a n e of screen
r i g h t h a n d l i m i t on screen
ycoord i na te
zcoord i na te
zcoordinate of device in p l a n e of screen
lower l i m i t on screen
s t a r t point i n screen zcoordinate
end p o i n t i n screen zcoordinates
zcoordinate of device i n p l a n e of screen
upper l i m i t on screen
s t a r t x of l i n e
end x of l i n e
x1
x2
xcoordinate of device
s t a r t y of l i n e
end y of l i n e
Yl
Y2
ycoord i na te of dev ice
s t a r t z of l i n e
end z of l i n e
21
22
zcoordinate of device.
191
, DATUM , 1.0 I
I I I
COVER LEVEL
COMPUTER GRAD I NG
REFERENCES
498
588
518
528
5.38 "fP
548
558
568
578
588
598
688
618
628
638
648
658
666
676
688
708
718
728
738
748
758
768
770
788
798
808
818
828
238
848
858
868
878
889
898
194
CHAPTER 15
DESCRIPTION
BASIC i s an e l e m e n t a r y c o m p u t e r l a n g u a g e o r i e n t a t e d to t e c h n i c a l
problem solving, and somewhat s i m i l a r to FORTRAN l a n g u a g e . BASIC
i s often used on microcomputers w h i c h a r e designed to streamline
the human input effort. Some o f the statements in the l a n g u a g e a r e
a c t u a l l y commands to t h e c o m p u t e r a s w e l l a s p r o g r a m s t e p s .
The programming may be classified into various types, e.g.
Statements, Functions, Operators and Commands. Statements are
program lines which have to be numbered in the correct order
although not necessarily sequentially, e.g.
10
20
21
50
200
Computer Commands
Some s t a t e m e n t s a c t i v a t e t h e c o m p u t e r , e.g.
AR I THMET I C
T h e f o l l o w i n g s y m b o l s a r e u s e d in a r i t h m e t i c s t a t e m e n t s
+ add
 subtract
'> multiply
divide
A r a i s e to the power.
The arithmetic functions have certain p r i o r i t i e s and t h e p r e c e 
D
dence i s A+,* and , + and , t h u s A+B*C"D i s A + { B * ( C ) } .
= equal to
less t h a n
> greater than
f not equal to
196
VARIABLES
PRECISION
FUNCT IONS
TAB(n) s k i p s to column n
TAN(x) tangent of x
VAL (S$) n u m e r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t o f s t r i n g S$
VAL$(x) s t r i n g e q u i v a l e n t of x
SPECIAL CHARACTERS
f o l l o w i n g a GOSUB s t a t e m e n t
SHORT v a r i a b l e [ ( s u b s c r i p t ) ] ... D e c l a r e s v a r i a b l e s short a n d
d i m e n s i o n s them
STOP T e r m i n a t e s e x e c u t i o n and r e t u r n s p o i n t e r to f i r s t
statement
STORE B I N "name". Stores the f i l e named on tape
TRACE Used t o f o l l o w s t a t e m e n t s e x e c u t e d . NORMAL w i l l
c a n c e l t h e TRACE o p e r a t i o n
GRAPH I CS STATEMENTS
The HP s e r i e s 80 m i c r o c o m p u t e r e n a b l e s g r a p h s to b e p l o t t e d o n t h e
s c r e e n and o n p a p e r u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t s .
INDEX
Acceleration, 1 13 D a n t z i g , G.B.,71, 86
A c c u r a c y , 97,124 D a r c y f r i c t i o n f a c t o r , 3,5,10,23
Advec t i o n , 92 27,30,49
A i r , 18,118,148 D a r c y h e a d loss e q u a t i o n ,
A i r v a l v e s , 119, 141 41,48
A i r vessels, 143 D a r c y  W e i s b a c h , 9,10,23,25,36,
A l b e r t s o n , M.L. 20 118,161,163
A l l i e v i , L , 175, 182 Deb, A.K. 85
A l l o c a t i o n , 72 Demand, 40
A n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n , 22 , 96 D e s i g n , 21
A r i t h m e t i c , 193 D i a m e t e r s , 56,66,71 ,178
Assumpt ions, 36 D i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s , 125
A v e r a g i n g , 45 D i f f u s i o n , 92, 126
D i s c h a r g e c o e f f i c i e n t , 122,
B a r l o w , J . F . , 44,45,54 176
BASIC, 192 D i s c h a r g e . t a n k s , 142
Basic equations, 1 D i s k i n , M.H,,20
Bend, 17 D i s t o r t i o n , 188
B e r g e r o n , L, 175, 182 D i s t r i b u t i o n system, 160
Bernoul t i equation, 1 , 2 D r a w i n g s , 28,183
B h a v e , P.R., 63, 69 D r a w o f f , 25,55
B o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s , 136, 167 Dummy p i p e s , 38
Boundary layer, 5 D y n a m i c e q u a t i o n , 23, 110
B o y l e s l a w , 113 D y n a m i c p r o g r a m m i n g , 71,161
B r a n c h p i p e , 38, 55, 161, 165
E l a s t i c i t y , 116
Cathode r a y t u b e , 186 Elevation, 2
C a v i t a t i o n , 137, 138 Empirical, 3
C e l e r i t y , 118, 129 E n e r g y , 1,2, 140
C h a r a c t e r s , 187, 195 E n t r a n c e loss, 17
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , 128, 144, 175 E q u i v a l e n t l e n g t h , 18
C h a u d h r y , M.H., 120, 135 E q u i v a I en t p i p e , 19,22,38,85
Chezy, 3, 10 E r r o r , 125
Closed loops, 70, 85 E u l e r , 97
Colebrook a n d W h i t e , 6 E v a p o r a t i o n , 94
Col ebrookW h i t e e q u a t i o n , 6,7,16,20, E x i t loss, 17
23, 32, 118 E x p l i c i t , 128,165
Command, 193
Compound p i p e s , 26 F e e d b a c k , 171
Computer p r o g r a m s , 30,41 ,49,63 F i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e , 124
68,102,131 ,153,186 F i r e h y d r a n t , 40,183
Computer s t o r a g e , 149 F l o w c o r r e c t i o n , 83
C o n s t r a i n t s , 63, 86 FORTRAN, 113
C o n t i n u i t y e q u a t i o n , 1, 109, 112 F o u r i e r methods, 102
Convergence, 26,29,45,51 F o u r t h o r d e r , 100
Cost, 188 F r i c t i o n , 1 17
Courant, F r i e d r i c h s & Lewy, Friction factors, 4
C o n d i t i o n , 129 F r i c t i o n loss c h a r t s , 1 1
Cross, H , 31,35,45,51, F u n c t i o n , 193
82,84,162
203
Gauss m e t h o d o f e l i m i n a t i o n , 45
M a n n i n g , 3, 16
47, 49
M a n u a l a n a l y s i s , 35, 110
G e r a l d , C.F., 100, 105
M a r k l a n d , E., 4 5 3 4
G l o b a l E r r o r , 97
M a r t i n , C.S., 147, 159
Grading, 192
Mass, c o n s e r v a t i o n , 115
G r a p h i c a l m e t h o d , 175
Mathemat i c a l opt imiza t ion tech 
G r a p h i c s , 183, 195
n i q u e s , 70, 82
G r a v i t y l i n e s , 131
M a x i m u m h e a d , 172
Grosman, D.D., 88, 105
Menu, 185
M i d p o i n t , 178
Hadlev  ,, G.. , 63., 69
M i n e , 161
H a z e n  W i l l i a m s , 3,4,10,16,23
M i n i m u m f l o w , 85
27.36
M i n i m u m p r e s s u r e , 4 0 , 167
Head loss, 1 ,3,16,35,40,71 ,122
M i n o r h e a d losses, 16
Houses, 35
M i x e d f l o w , 96
H y d r a u l i c g r a d e l i n e , 2, 72
M o d e l s , 90, 184
H y d r a u l i c r a d i u s , 16
Momentum, 1 , 115, 152
H y d r a u l i c s r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n , 7,20
Moody d i a g r a m , 7,8,16,20,23
118
I m p l i c i t , 165
M u l t i s t e p , 101
I n d u s t r i a l s y s t e m s , 183
I n e r t i a , 709
N e t w o r k s , 21,35,36,45,63,70,160
I n i t i a l f l o w s , 51
New tonRaphson, 9,24,32
I n i t i a l v a l u e s , 57
New t o n ' s I a w , 45,47,105,115
I n t e g r a t i o n , 110
Nikuradse, 7
I n t e r a c t i v e compu t i n g , 102
Node h e a d c o r r e c t i o n , 28
I n t e r a c t i v e d r a w i n g , 185
Nodes, 28,35,87
lrrotat ional, 2
Non c i r c u l a r s e c t i o n s , 16
I s a a c s , L.J., 45, 54
Non l i n e a r equations, 21, 89,
I t e r a t i v e methods, 10, 153
124
Non l i n e a r p r o g r a m m i n g , 84
J a e y e r , C . , 112, 114, 182
Non r e t u r n v a l v e , 131, 141
James, W . , 90, 105
N u m e r i c a l d i f f u s i o n , 126
J o u k o w s k y h e a d , 138
O b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n , 63
K a l l y , E., 85
One d i m e n s i o n a l , 2
K e y c o l u m n , 57
O r i f i c e , 88
Kinematic viscosity, 5, 23
O p e r a t i o n s r e s e a r c h , 70, 88
O p p o r t u n i t y v a l u e , 59
L a m i n a r f l o w , 5, 22
O p t i m i z a t i o n , 55, 70
L a m i t , L.G., 185
O p t i m u m l e n g t h , 85
L a y o u t , 63
O p t i m u m s o l u t i o n , 89
L i n e a r method, 45
O v e r p r e s s u r e s , 138,140,142,143
L i n e a r p r o g r a m m i n g , 63, 83
L i n e a r i z a t i o n , 22, 29
P a r a l l e l , 26
L i n k , 87
P a r r n a k i a n , J . , 182
L o a d r e j e c t i o n , 103
P a r t f u l l p i p e s , 16
L o c a l e r r o r , 97
P e n s t o c k , 106
L o g i c , 194
P e r i o d , 109
L o o p e d n e t w o r k s , 63, 81
P i c k f o r d , J., 112,114,182
L o o p f l o w c o r r e c t i o n method, 35
P l a n , 36
L o o p / n o d e c o r r e c t i o n , 81
P l u g f l o w , 96
L u p t o n , H.R., 120, 135
P o l y n o m i a l , 101
P o i s s e u i I le, 5
P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o , 117, 118
204
S c h l i c h t i n g , H., 5, 20 W a l l t h i c k n e s s , 21,79,115
S c h n y d e r , O., 175, 182 Water column s e p a r a t i o n , 110,
Screen, 183 138,
Series, 26 141,146,147,148,154,167,175,179
S h a m i r , U., 102, 105 Water hammer ,21,87,106,112,1
15,
Simplex method, 55 118,119,120,136,137,138,140,141,
Simultaneous s o l u t i o n , 22, 33, 176 142,143,147,148,151,153,160,175,
S t a b i l i t y , 124 182,183
S t a n d a r d d i a m e t e r , 74 Water hammer equations,22,117,
Statements, 196 124,126,128,129
Steady f l o w , 1 , 21 Water hammer p r o t e c t i o n , 140
Steepest p a t h method, 77 Water r e t i c u l a t i o n systems, 91
Stephenson, D . , 33,70,86,120 Water s u p p l y , 102
135 ,143,145 Watson, M.D., 20
S t e r l i n g , M.J.H., 102, 105 Wave, 118,126,175
Stream t u b e s , 1 Wetted p e r i m e t e r , 16
Streeter, V.L., 120,135,136,145, Wood, D . , 45,54
169,172
Stummel, F., 100, 105 Yields, 75
Successive o v e r r e l a x a t i o n , 49
Surge, 106
Surge t a n k s , 112, 137
Symbol, 185
Systems a n a l y s i s , 70, 88