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# Elasticity and Plasticity

Statically indeterminate
members, rod in torsion,
members in bending

## Department of Structural Mechanics

Faculty of Civil Engineering, VSB - Technical University Ostrava

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Statically indeterminate structures

Condition of solution:
elastic (linear) behaviour of strain-stress diagram of material

## number of > number of equilibrium

unknown variables equations

Solution:

## number of number of number of

unknown = equilibrium + deformation
variables equations conditions
Statically determined and indetermined examples 2 / 28

2. Rods

## 3. Nehomogenized bar (steel pipe filled in by concret).

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Example 1: Fixed supported column on both ends

Condition of solution:
Rb
elastic (linear) behaviour of strain-stress
diagram of material
b
Unknown variables in example:
l2
Ra (= − N1 ), Rb (= N 2 )

F Equilibrium equation:
l
R = 0: Ra + Rb − F = 0
z
l1 − N1 + N2 − F = 0
Deformation equation:
∆l = 0 :
a
N1l1 N 2l2
∆l1 + ∆l2 = + =0
Ra E1. A1 E2 . A2

## Statically determined and indetermined examples 4 / 28

Example 1
Determine normal stress in both parts, cross sections I140 and I180, F=650kN.

## Rb 1) 1x statically indetermined in the axial task

Rb
2) Equilibrium equations (just axial task):
N1
+
I 140
F l1=1,5m ∑F i ,vertical =0 Ra + Rb − F = 0
3) Deformation condition:
∆l = 0 ⇒ ∆l = ∆l1 + ∆l 2 = 0
N2 - I 180 l2=2,5m
From the diagram ohf normal forces :
N 1 = Rb N 2 = Rb − F
-Ra By substituting into the deformation condition:
Ra
N1l1 N 2l2 R l ( Rb − F )l2
We can determine the unknows just from + =0 ≡ b1 + =0
EA1 EA2 EA1 EA2
the one equation – deformation condition.

Rb = F l 2 A1 N1 = Rb
l 2 A1 + l 1 A2 N 2 = Rb - F (= - Ra)

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Example 1
Determine normal stress in both parts, cross sections I140 and I180, F=650kN.

Rb
Rb N1 = Rb = 338,58kN
N1
I 140
l1=1,5m
N 2 = 311,42kN
+ F
Normal stress in the bar:

N2 I 180 N1
- l2=2,5m
σ x1 = = 186,03MPa
A1
N2
-Ra Ra σ x2 = = −111,62MPa
A2

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Example 2
The bar is loaded by forces see the picture.
A1 = 3cm2, A2 = 10cm2 , E1 = E2, F1 = 20kN, F2 = 45kN.
• Guess the direction of the reactions and diagram of normal forces
• Divide the bar on parts, where there will be different value of stresses and
calculate them.

a x

1
0,6m
Results.:
N1=1,875kN
N2=-18,125kN F1
0,8m
N3=26,85kN
F2 2
Ra=26,85kN ↓
Rb=1,875kN ↑ 0,4m

σ1= 6,25MPa b
σ2= -18,125MPa
σ3= 26,875MPa

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Example 2
Determine normal stress in the bar U100, which is under the temperature
change ∆T=90°C. l=6m, E=2,1.105MPa,

[C ]
1) 1x statically indetermined in the axial task
−5 o −1
αT = 1,2 ⋅10 2) Equilibrium equations (just axial task):

∑F i ,x =0

ΔT
Ra − Rb = 0 ⇒ Ra = Rb ⇒ N
Ra Rb
3) Deformation condition:

N ∆l = 0 ⇒ ∆l =
Nl
+ α T ∆T ⋅ l = 0
EA

## 4) Normal stress in the bar: ⇒ N = −αT ∆T ⋅ EA = −255,15kN

N We can determine the unknows just from the
σ x = = −206,8MPa one equation – deformation condition.
A
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Example 3

The bar of the lenght l = 1 m is between two stiff walls, the hole is 0,2
mm. What value of normal stress is in the rod, if the temperature change
is +50°C? α = 17 · 10-6 °C-1, E = 1,1 · 105 MPa
T

1) Deformation equation:
0,2 mm
∆l = 0,2 ⋅10−3 m
l = 1000 mm

Nl
+ αT∆T ⋅ l = 0,2 ⋅10−3
EA

2) Result:

σ x = −71,5MPa
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Example 4

## Conditions of solution: elastic behaviour of the rods, ideally stiff slab

b c

l = 12 m
1 2

a g = 120 kNm-1

a=3m b=4m
L=7m

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Example 4
Determine stress in the rods, if both are from I 140.

## Conditions of solution: elastic behaviour of the rods, stiff behaviour of the

beam. 1) 1x statically indetermined

2) Equilibrium equations :
Rb Rc
∑F ix =0
b ∑F = 0
iz

l = 12 m
1 2
g
∑M = 0 ia
Rax a
3) Deformation condition:

a=3m b=4m
Raz L=7m

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Example 4

## Determine stress in the rods, if both are from I 140.

3) Deformation condition:
b c
∆l1 ∆l2

l = 12 m
=
1 2 a a+b
a N1 g N2 N1l 1 N 2l 1
⇒ =
EA a EA (a + b )
a b
(2 unknowns forces N1, N2, choose an
∆l1 equation from Equilibrium equations,
which includes just N1 a N2)
∆l2
(Equilibrium equations):
∑F ix =0 ∑F
iz =0 ∑M ia =0 ⇒ N1 ⋅ 3 + N 2 ⋅ 7 − q ⋅ 7 ⋅ 3,5 = 0
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Example 5

a b c

l=1m
1 2 3

a a 2a

F= 4200 kN

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Example 5

## Determine normal forces in the rods. Cross sections are I 450.

1) 1x statically indetermined in the axial task
2) Equilibrium conditions:
Ra Rb Rc

a b c
∑F ix =0
N1 N2 N3
∑F =0

l=1m
iz
1 2 3

N1 N2 N3
∑M ia =0

a a 2a
R a = N 1, R b = N 2, R c = N 3

F= 4200 kN

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Example 5
Determine normal forces in the rods. Cross sections are I 450.

Deformation of construction:

a b c

l=1m
1 2 3

a a ∆l2 2a ∆l3
∆l1
F= 4200 kN

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Example 5
Determine normal forces in the rods. Cross sections are I 450.

3) Deformation condition:

## ∆l1 − ∆l3 ∆l2 − ∆l3

a b c =
4a 2a

l=1m
1 2 3
(3 unknowns forces N1,
N2, N3, choose 2
equations from
Equilibrium equations)
a a ∆l2 2a ∆l3
∆l1
Chosen equations:

∑F ∑M
(coordinate system)
iz =0 ia =0
y x
z
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Example 5

## Solution: Deform. condition:

y x
∆l1 − ∆l3 ∆l2 − ∆l3
z =
4a 2a
⇒ 2∆l2 = ∆l1 + ∆l3 ⇒

l=1m
a b c
2N2l/EA=N1l/EA+N3l/EA
1 2 3
a Equilibrium equations:
N1 N2 N3

∑F iz =0
-N1 - N2 - N3 + Fd =0
a a 2a

F= 4200 kN
∑M = ∑M ia ia´ =0
2.a.N2 +4.a.N3 – a.Fd = 0
results:
N1 = 2450kN, N2 = 1400kN, N3 = 350kN
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Example 6
Nehomogenized bar (steel pipe filled in by concret). Determine normal stress in
steel and concret. d1 = 80 mm (external diameter), d2 = 70 mm (internal
diameter). E = 210GPa, Ecm = 24GPa.
Conditions of solution: - elastic behaviour of materials,
- F affects uniformly to the section
F= 112 kN 1) 1x internally statically indetermined

l = 0,5 m

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Example 6

N = No + NB 2) Deformation equation:
∆lS = ∆lC ⇒ N sl
=
N cl
N F Es As Ec Ac
(2 unknowns, we take one equation from equilibrium
equations) 3) Equilibrium equations:

NB NO ∑F i,vertical =0

l = 0,5 m
F-R=0
- -
R = F = -N = - NS - NC
(F –R =0)→ F + NS + NC = 0

3) Stresses:
NS NC
σS = , σ2 =
R AS AC
results:
NS= -81,65kN, NC= -30,35kN, σS=-69,231MPa, σC=-7,91MPa 19 / 28
Example 7: Reinforced concrete column

Condition of solution:
Elastic (linear) behaviour of strain-stress diagram of material and uniform
affect of load to cross-section area

F steel
Unknown variables in example:

Ns , Nc

Equilibrium equation:
F = N s + Nc

Deformation equation:
∆ls = ∆lc N s .l N c .l
=
Es . As Ec . Ac
concrete
Statically determined and indetermined examples 20 / 28
Statically indeterminate problems in torsion
Both fixed ended shaft
Condition of solution: linear
l
elastic behaviour of material
l1 l2

M x,a M x ,c M x ,b
M x,a T
+
c b −
a M x ,b

Unknowns: M x ,a (M x ,1 ), M x ,b (M x , 2 )

Equilibrium equations: ∑M x ,i = 0: − M x ,a − M x , b + M x ,c = 0
2
Ti .li
Deformation condition: ∑ϕ i = 0: ∑
i =1 G . I
=0
i t ,i

## Statically indeterminate problems 21 / 28

Statically indeterminate problems in bending
Methods of computing of statically indeterminate bendings beams:
a) Fourth-order integration of the function of load
b) Force method
c) Methods based on energetic principles (Elasticity and plasticity II.)

## Fourth-Order Integration of differential equation (from the function of load)

Schwedlers relations
E.I y .wIV = q( x ) Solution:
w( x ) = ?
E.I y .w′′′ = ∫ q( x ) + C1 = −Vz 4 unknowns
ϕ y = w′
E.I y .w′′ = ∫∫ q( x ) + C1.x + C2 = − M y C1 , C2 , C3 , C4
M y = − E.I y .w′′ ↓
x2 4 boundary
E.J y .w′ = ∫∫∫ q( x ) + C1. + C2 .x + C3
Vz = − E.I y .w′′′ 2 conditions

x3 x2
q z = E.I y .w IV
E.I y .w = ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ q( x ) + C1. + C2 . + C3 .x + C4
6 2
Statically indeterminate problems in bending – Fourth-order Integration 22 / 28
Statical and deformation boundary conditions

Deformation
Type of the end Statical Boundary
Boundary
(boundary) Condition
Condition

a w≠0 M = 0 → w′′ = 0
ϕ ≠0 V = 0 → w′′′ = 0
Free end

a w=0 M = 0 → w′′ = 0
ϕ ≠0 V ≠ 0 → w′′′ ≠ 0
Simply supported end

w=0 M ≠ 0 → w′′ ≠ 0
a
ϕ =0 V ≠ 0 → w′′′ ≠ 0
Fixed end

## Statically indeterminate problems in bending – Fourth-order Integration 23 / 28

Fourth-Order Integration of differential equation

Example 1
Determine the diagrams of internal forces (V, M) at statically
indeterminate beam. Use differential relations.

a b

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Fourth-Order Integration of differential equation

Boundary conditions:

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Fourth-Order Integration of differential equation

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Fourth-Order Integration of differential equation

Example 2
Determine the internal forces (V, M) at statically indeterminate beam by
the Fourth-order integration of differential equation.

q
a
b
l

## Equations the same as Example 1, boundary conditions different

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Force method
Principle of the Force method: Deformation conditions:
q( x ) ϕ b = 0 → ϕ b = ϕ b ,q + ϕ b ,M = 0
qz
Superposition
b • Designate one of the reactions as
a redundant and eliminate it
• The redundant reaction is then
treated as an unknown load that
ϕ b ,q ≠ 0
=

## together with other loads must

q( x ) qz produce deformations that are
•compatible with the original supports
The deflection or angular rotation at
a b
the point where the support has been
eliminated is obtained by computing
separately - the deformations caused
+

## Superposition by the given loads and by the

a b redundant reaction

Results will be obtained by
ϕ b,M ≠ 0 M by
superposition

## Statically indeterminate problems in bending – Force method 28 / 28

Example 1 – Force method
Determine the diagrams of internal forces (V, M) at statically
indeterminate beam. Use the Force method (method of superposition).
q
Deformation condition:
a b
wa,q + wa,Ra = 0
l

a
b
l

Ra

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Example 1 – Force method
Deformation condition:
q.l 4
wa,q + wa,Ra = 0 wa ,q =
8.EI
− Ra .l/ 3
wa ,Ra =
3.EI

## Determine other reactions from equilibrium conditions and construct

the diagrams of internal forces.

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Example 2 – Force method
Determine the internal forces (V, M) at statically indeterminate beam by
the Force method. (redundant reaction is Ma)

q
Deformation condition:
a
b
ϕb,q + ϕb,M = 0
ϕb = 0
ϕb,M Mb
q

ϕb,q

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Example 2 – Force method

q
− q.l 3
ϕ b ,q =
24.EI
ϕb,q
Mb.l
ϕb,M ϕ b ,M =
3.EI
M
Deformation condition:

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