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6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011

in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4 : Recovery from Disaster Study

TS 4-01

Sustainable Coral Reefs Conservation After


Tsunami with Mooring Buoy Installation in Weh
Island, Aceh
Arif Habibal Umam1, Sigit Dwi Maryanto1, Andri Frediansyah2, Maryam Shalihatunnisa1, Rona Izzati
Hulwani1, Yunriska Rona1, Marissa Tri Handayani1

1). Faculty of Biology UGM, Jalan Teknika Selatan Yogyakarta, 55281


2). Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta
Email : arifhabibalumam@yahoo.com

humans. For example are the sedimentation from the


Abstract: Coral reefs are complex ecosystems and has very high watershed, coral reefs collection, reef fish bombing, or
diversity found in shallow marine waters in the tropics. Coral because the activity of tourists who walk on the beach and
reefs are composed of biological activity that is deposit CaCO3 accidentally stepped on or moored his boat in the coral
which is produced by the Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa, and
the Order Scleractinia. The presence of coral reefs affected by
reefs.
environmental stresses such as natural disasters, sedimentation Therefore, the presence of coral reefs ecosystems must
from the watershed, collection of coral reefs, reef fish bombing, be maintained so that can take place in a sustainable
and the activities of the fishermen who moor their boats on the ecosystem, one is by reducing the influence of tourist
coral reefs. The tsunami that struck Aceh in 2004 has caused activity that uses a boat moored on the reef. Weh Island
most damage to coral reefs. Conservation is a way to prevent has many beaches which is a place for coral reefs
more severe damage to coral reefs. The purpose of this research ecosystem. For example in Iboih, Gapang, Krueng Raya,
is to conserve coral reefs with the installation of mooring buoys and Priya Laot. Coral reefs ecosystem habitats have about
in an effort to prevent damage to coral reefs from fishermen 5-10 meters in depth.
activity. The methods are carried out with the installation of
mooring buoys at some point using the ballast in the form of
Mooring buoy is placed in the bottom of waters, using a
concrete-filled cement ballast in the drum which is connected to rope connected to the buoy. The goal is to mark a certain
a buoy with a rope. The results are the number of mooring buoys point in the waters and is also used to moor ships, boats,
installed in Teupin Layeu beach as many as 10 points (2 concrete and boat for coral reefs visitors (tourist). Mooring buoy is
mooring / points) for fishing vessels and tourist ships, and the also as markers for the depth of the rapid
west coast of the Rubiah Island installed as much as 3 points (4 waters. Installation of mooring buoys in the vicinity of
concrete mooring / point) for large ships. Weh Island has been done by Team KKN - PPM UGM
124 in the year 2009.
Keywords: coral reefs, mooring buoy, tsunami, CaCO3. Coral Reefs environment is an ecosystem that involves
the interaction of many living creatures, including
I. INTRODUCTION humans. The areas of coral reefs contain many fishes for
human consumption, and also its beauty to be used as a
Coral reefs are complex ecosystems and has a very high tourist attraction. The beauty of coral reefs in Weh Island
diversity found in shallow marine waters. Coral reefs are has its own attraction as a tourist destination both locally
found in tropical regions. These ecosystems are very and worldwide. Tourist arrivals in the ecosystem if not
productive ecosystems in the world, as well as the addressed by the wise would damage coral reefs, such as
mangrove ecosystem. Coral reefs are biological structures broken as the anchor ship or boat which is moored at the
composed entirely of biological activity, its deposit of base. How do coral reefs conservation efforts through the
CaCO3 is produced by coral reefs (Phylum of Cnidaria, installation of a mooring buoys in Weh Island,
Class Anthozoa, and Order Scleractinia), coralline alga, Aceh? What are the constraints faced in these
and other organism which produces CaCO3 [1]. Coral reef conservation efforts?
ecosystems supporting fisheries productivity and provide The purpose of this study is to develop awareness of
essential protein for the community. community for the importance of sustainable coral reefs
The presence of coral reefs is strongly influenced by ecosystem and the use of mooring buoys as a place to
environmental stresses, including environmental stress by
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
moor the ship so that the ship does not need to lower the
anchor that would undermine the existence of coral Tools and Materials
reefs. Another aim is to mark the depth for boats in the Tools and materials used in this research are iron as a
area of diving spots. frame part in the concrete, drum as the framework of the
In order to maintain its presence would have done a outer, car tires to fasten the rope which is connected to a
variety of conservation action, the aim is to prevent and float (buoy), round-shaped
shaped buoys with a diameter of 80-10
80
reduce the actual degradation of coral reefs caused by man inches, the blade to cut the rope, tools such as hammers,
himself. bolt cutters, hoes, and chisels to open the drum lid,
cement, stone, sand, and gravel for concrete, rope for
tying buoys, and swivel to strengthen ties buoy.
II. METHOD
Also required is boat transportation such as pontoon
Location boats to transport mooring buoys to the mounting location.
The installation location of the mooring buoy has been
conducted at dives scattered points around Iboih Beach, How it Works
Weh Island, with a depth of 5-10
10 meters. Mooring buoy moored at a certain point by using a
concrete in the form of concrete-filled
concrete cement inside the
Survey drum, the ballast is connected to a float by using a rope. In
Locations for installation point are selected in the the making of mooring buoys, a factor that must be
consideration of the need for mooring buoys in an considered is the difference in height of the tidal sea water
area. This activity has been done by coordinating in and sea water currents. The length of rope used to adjust
advance with community leaders who know much about the tides. While the mass of concrete must adjust the flow
the condition of waters in the area. of sea water.

Implementing Activities Operational


This activity is a cooperation that has been made Stages to make a mooring buoy is 1). Created prototype
between institutions of the University of Toulouse, France buoy. 2). Drums filled with cement which is mixed with
with the Centre for Tourism Studies,
Studi Gadjah Mada gravel; the drum center that will be filled with cement
University (PUSPAR). Then PUSPAR in cooperation with molds made of wood so that there is a vertical hole to tie
the student team of KKN PPM UGM 2009, it is also ropes or by placing an iron that is bent into the
th concrete;
carried out together with the community, as well as the 2). Conducted trials to drum that have been casted using
City Government of Sabang. Mooring ing buoy installation pontoon boat, pulled by a boat and placed in the waters;
activities are also coordinated with the Department of 3). Mooring lowered slowly into the water; 4). Tied rope
Transportation in Sabang and community leaders as the to a mooring. The long of rope is measured in accordance
competent authorities, these activities
ivities involves local with the depth of tidal; 5). Buoys is attached at the end of
people for learning so that community empowerment can the rope.
be achieved.

Execution Time Cross section schematic of a site that installed mooring


Activities are implemented at the time of the KKN PPM buoys can be observed in the image below:
UGM thematic, and performed in several phases:

Stages Description Time


Preparation Survey
1. Installation
location 11 – 17
2. Tools and July 2009
materials
3. Manual procedure
Operation 1. Making concretes 15-17
July 2009
2. Installation of 20-27
Mooring Buoys July 2009
3. Socialization to 24-31
Society July 2009

Operation Periodical checking of the Once a Figure 1. Precision of mooring buoys on a coral reefs area
Mooring Buoys week, [2]
1 – 31
September
2009
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
Purchase Equipment, Supplies, and Materials Preparation
for Mooring Buoy.
When everything is ready, the next step is to prepare the
materials, equipment, and supplies in the procurement of
mooring buoys. In doing so, we buy the goods that we
need in the city of Sabang, Banda Aceh, even we order to
Medan. Because, the limitations of existing equipment on
Weh Island and Banda Aceh, so we ordered the item
(Buoy) to another province. Efforts procurement of goods
have also an obstacle, because of inadequate
transportation facilities, so we had to rent a car or truck, to
order and delivery of goods to the site of manufacture of
mooring buoys. And, the location of manufacture is
located in an area that is on the Teupin Sirkui beach, it is a
little isolated place those far from the boarding of team
KKN PPM UGM. Thus, the goods must be transported
using boats, which cost more expensive (twice the
freight). Activities at this stage took place on 10 to 18 July
2009, spent the past eight days. Tim KKN UGM should
go to the field, in terms of transporting the goods, because
only limited rent a boat, with no facility to decrease the
goods to the site of manufacture of mooring buoy.
Figure 2. Design of mooring buoy concrete (Agus Joko,
2009; personal communication.)
Making Concrete for Mooring Buoy
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION After all items which are need is available, we continue
this activity at the stage of manufacture. This activity took
Mooring buoys is an fastening tool for ship which is place on July 20 to 30, 2009, which spent the past ten
environment-friendly. The purpose of installation is to days. In the beginning at 10 am, until 4 o'clock in the
reduce the direct intervention of boat anchor on coral reefs afternoon, a day as much as 4 pieces of concrete mooring
[3]. Form of laying mooring buoys in the natural resource can be made. It means, it took over a half hour to make a
use and residential zones, has a double function as a concrete mooring. Making process carried out at the
boundary marker of zone and a place for fastening a boat Teupin Sirkui beach, in front of the location of
so that the anchor does not harm the existance of coral manufacture are Rubiah Tirta Divers dive shop. As many
reefs [4]. We try to install these in purpose to reduce the 25 students were involved in this process, helped by Mr.
coral reefs damage in weh Island, Aceh. Dodent (owner of Rubiah Tirta Divers) and the employee
of Rubiah Tirta Divers. A total of 42 pieces of concrete
Programs Socialization and Coordination with Stake has been succeed made in this program. The location is
Holders. quite far from the location of a student house, which is 5
Before doing this activity, we performed socialization KM making us difficult in the work process, because there
by involving community leaders, both formal and is no public transportation in this area. Thus forcing us to
informal. So that there is no missed understanding with rent a motorcycle every day.
the community. Socialization program, conducted on July The process of making concrete of mooring buoys are:
9, 2009 at 21.00 in meunasah (small mosque) of Iboih Unscrew the drum by using a chisel and hammer, to insert
Village, and attended by not less than 40 people. Then the stone, cement, steel, and automobile tires. Followed by
requested permission from the competent authority, making the dough with the composition of cement and
related to this program, among them: Sabang City sand, a sack of cement mixed with twelve sacks of
Tourism Office, the City Government of Sabang, the sands. Then the dough is mixed with fresh water using a
Natural Resources Conservation Board (BKSDA), and shovel. Then, we cut and bend cast iron which is used to
BAPPENAS. Then coordinate with related parties, so the hold the car tire so the tire can not be separated from the
program can run smoothly and beneficial to all drum. Next, we pour the cement, and stone mountain into
parties. Stakeholders are involved, either directly or the drum until half a drum, then we install cast iron and
indirectly, namely: panglima laot (leader of the sea in car tires into the drum, then we pour back the cement and
Aceh; sort handler), which gives information about the stone mountain to drum until it is pull, This stage requires
beaches on the Weh Island, fishing boats owner, fishing a very large force, so do not be surprised if our team feel
activities, etc. Dive shop owners and community leaders fatigue in the manufacture of concrete. Surely it would be
who are active in maritime activities on the Weh Island, difficult, because basically we are a student, and not a
they provide information on how to manufacture and construction worker who specializes in jobs like the
installation of mooring buoys, materials and equipment, manufacture of mooring.
especially scuba gear, and boats for installation. However, with the spirit and high sense of
responsibility, the making of concrete for mooring buoys
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
still be done and completed. Because this stage requires a installed. But in practice, we could not put a concrete of
lot of work, finally all of our team persons in two division mooring every day because the boat for installation can
groups participated in the manufacture of concrete for only be used when not transporting the divers to the
mooring buoys. location / place of diving. Because, in truth the boat has a
main task to carry the divers, not to transport our mooring
buoys. So with the installation schedule uncertainty,
makes us work harder. This is a dilemma for us, because it
is only boat of Rubiah Tirta Divers that can transport the
concrete, after we survey, there is no other boats on the
Weh Island that can transport the concrete.
The first step in the process of installation is concrete
that has been prepared moved with a large pontoon boat,
in a way tied to the side of the boat. Before it, concrete of
mooring taken to the beach. Then the concrete which is
mounted on the boat taken to a predetermined location to
seabed

Figure 3. The process of making mooring buoys concrete

Concrete form that is completed as shown below:

Figure 5. The process of dropping concrete on-site


installation of mooring buoys

The depth of the mooring buoys varied, average depth


for Teupin Layeu beach is 5 meters and for the west coast
of the Rubiah Island, the average depth is 12 meters (the
depth is calculated at the time of high tide). Concrete was
dropped in the area of coral reefs ecosystems, but in the
bottom waters which there are no reefs to prevent damage
to coral reefs.

Figure 4. Form of ready-made concrete for mooring buoys

Installation of Mooring Buoys.


Concrete of mooring that has been resolved, then in
pairs at locations that have been specified. In this
program, mooring buoys were installed in the Teupin
Layeu beach and on the west coast of Rubiah Island. The
numbers of Mooring buoys installed in Teupin Layeu
beach were 10 points / buoys for fishing boats and tourist
boats, with two concrete of mooring at each point. As for Figure 6. Concrete that has been dropped in the waters
the west coast of the Rubiah Island, it were attached as The next step is the binding process by using 18mm
much as 3 points / buoys, where each point contains 4 ropes, then it is connected to the buoy with swivel by
pieces of concrete, which is intended for large boats using 12mm ropes.
(usually coming from overseas shipping). This activity
took place on August 1 - 10, where supposedly in a single
day as many as four concrete mooring must be
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop

(A)
Figure 8. How to install a buoy on the concrete of
mooring

(B)
Figure 7. a). Rope binding process is associated with Figure 9. Fishing boats that use our mooring buoys
swivel b). The process of cutting the rope that was tied

With the help of Rubiah Tirta Divers Dive Shop, the Mooring buoys are built to last 3-4 years so that then
binding process takes 30 minutes to the west coast of require replacement [5]. Hence the need for continued
Rubiah Island, and 15 minutes to Teupin Layeu support from other parties, especially the City
beach. Swift currents and poor visibility due to sandy Government of Sabang and the Government of Aceh
waters are the barrier in the installation of mooring. Province. Obstacles that arise during the installation of
With the installation of mooring buoys carried out mooring buoys activities include the need for tools and
around the coast of Weh Island, Aceh, it is expected that materials are inadequate and lack of expertise, since
there is no fishermen or other public boat anchor conducting these are students who actually do not have
carelessly thrown because it can damage coral expertise in the field of carpentry and building. But thanks
reefs. These ships can be moored to a buoy that have been to the help of all interested groups and local communities,
installed so that the ecosystem of coral reefs in Weh the activities of the installation of mooring buoys can be
Island can keep awake. implemented according to the planned expectations.
Although the activities of the installation of a mooring
buoy seems simple, it turns out its existence has a positive IV. CONCLUSION
impact for the ecosystem of coral reefs and fish that life
around it. This is evident from the reduction in threats to Installation of mooring buoys was greeted with
coral reefs damage from anchor and the discovery of so enthusiasm by the people because almost all components
many species of reef fish around the location of mooring of society on the Weh Island involved. After installation
buoys are embedded in the base (the coast) sea of mooring buoys, the waters become more regular
[5]. Procurement of mooring buoys can maintain the because there are signs for zone marker. Constraints
existence of coral reefs so indirectly secure the existence during this activity is tools and materials and experts for
of Marine Natural Park of Weh Island and maintain making mooring buoys, but thanks to the help of all
fisheries resources in the vicinity. interested groups and local communities, these obstacles
can be overcome.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
V. REFERENCES

[1] G. Andre, “Coral Reef Geomorphology,” John Willey &


Sons.Chhichester, 1988.
[2] J. Pike, “Buoys”,
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/intro/buoys.htm, 2007.
[3] A. Mustafa, “Reef Check Karimunjawa as Shape Concern
Condition of Coral Reefs in Karimun,”
Http://www.fpik.undip.ac.id/kelautan/?p=190, 2009.
[4] Anonim1, “Tentang Pedoman Zonasi Taman nasional,”
http://www.dephut.go.id/files/L_P56_06.pdf, 2006.
[5] Anonim2, “Perlindungan Ekosistem Terumbu Karang oleh
Masyarakat bagi Keberlanjutan Sumber Daya Perikanan di Pulau
Weh/Sabang, Propinsi Nangroe Aceh Darussalam,”
http://www.wetlands.or.id/PDF/Profil%20Weh-Sabang.pdf, 2006.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4-02

The tsunami, Gender, Livelihoods and Coastal


Resources in Aceh
Griffin, Christina1 and David Ellis
1
Master of Natural Hazards and Disasters, School of Asia and Pacific Studies, Australian National University,
Canberra, Australia.
Email: christina.griffin@gmail.com
2
Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 Australia

Abstract: The following paper addresses two social and 6]. It is estimated that 90 % of mangroves within NAD
environmental impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in were destroyed; a resource that many rely on for shelter,
Aceh: physical change to the coastal zone and women’s access wood and food [7]. Erosion and destruction of the coastal
to livelihood opportunities and food security. To better environment seriously impacted the resilience of those
understand these impacts a time series of pre- and post-tsunami
Google Earth imagery were analysed and interviews with
relying on coastal resources and industries for survival.
residents of Aceh were conducted. The results reveal that Lhok In various post disaster reports erosion of the physical
Nga Bay, a high energy and undisturbed coastal system, offered environment was related to the presence of coral reefs,
a stronger line of coastal defence and recovered quickly mangroves, sea grass beds, casuarina forests and dunes [8,
following the tsunami. Conversely, Banda Aceh, a low energy 9, 10]. Unfortunately few of these observations were
and anthropogenic modified coast suffered permanent loss of supported by sufficient data and have since initiated a
land. Erosion of coastal resources, including aquaculture farms scientific debate about the usefulness of coastal
(tambak) and mangrove forests, destroyed livelihood environments and ecosystems for tsunami mitigation
opportunities and reduced the availability of resources such as purposes.
wood, food and shelter. Women have greater access to
livelihoods now than they did before the tsunami with factors
The tsunami differentially impacted women and men
including the end of the civil conflict, targeted work of non- with respect to mortality rates, health and safety and
governmental organisations (NGO) and rising cost of living access to resources such as political representation, food
contributing to this change. Gender is shown to influence how and livelihood opportunities. The tsunami opened Aceh to
coastal resources are utilised and what livelihood activities are the international community and acted as a catalyst for the
undertaken. signing of a peace agreement to end the decade’s long
conflict between the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) and the
Keywords: tsunami, Aceh, mangroves, tambak, livelihoods, Indonesian Government. The tsunami and these
gender, coastal environments. subsequent events dramatically influenced women’s
ability to secure food and participate in paid employment.
I. INTRODUCTION Physical change to the coastal zone and the differential
impact of the tsunami on women both influenced the long
On 26 December 2004 a large earthquake with a term recovery and rehabilitation of Aceh. The following
moment magnitude of 9.2 occurred along the Sunda paper will focus on these two issues and draw
subduction zone within 150 km of the Nanggroe Aceh relationships between them.
Darussalam (NAD) province of Indonesia [1]. This
earthquake created a tsunami that propagated in a west II. STUDY AREA
and eastward direction across the Indian Ocean.
The tsunami created various environmental and socio- Two sites were chosen to measure tsunami
economic impacts within Aceh. Vast areas of mangrove induced coastal erosion and environmental change. These
and coastal casuarina were destroyed and beaches lost are the western Banda Aceh coast, from Krueng Cangkoi
large amounts of sediment either temporarily or in some to Krueng Aceh, and Lhok Nga Bay. To understand the
cases permanently. Tsunami heights ranged from 1-30 m tsunami’s impact on livelihood opportunities and food
and inundated up to 5 km inland [2, 3]. The tsunami security, interviews were conducted at 4 locations within
destroyed villages, infrastructure, coastal ecosystems and Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar. These included Kampung
eroded landforms. It severely impacted coastal Pande, Banda Aceh; Lampisang, Aceh Besar; Leupung,
environments including beaches, dunes, tidal creeks, river Aceh Besar; and Lhok Serdu, Aceh Besar.
channels, coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds and
coastal forest [4].
The aquaculture and fishing industries were
significantly impacted with 9,000 ha of tambak
(aquaculture ponds) severely damaged or swept into the
sea as well as loss of boats, jetties and market facilities [5,
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
extent of inland inundation measured from the 2005
coastline position.

Method 2: Interviews with Residents


14 residents of Aceh were interviewed about
employment opportunities pre- and post-tsunami. The
respondents included men and women working in the
aquaculture industry at Kampung Pande, Banda Aceh;
women from Lampisang, Aceh Besar who sold traditional
cake along the road; men and women from Lhok Seudu
and Leupung, Aceh Besar who produced and sold salty
dried fish (ikan asin); and a professional woman working
in the formal sector in Banda Aceh. The interviews
discussed the impact destruction of coastal resources had
on women’s access to livelihood opportunities and food
security.

IV. RESULTS

Physical Coastal Change


The coastline of Aceh was severely eroded by the
2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The tsunami eroded
sediments from the beach and deposited them inland or
offshore and damaged coastal infrastructure. In some
locations such as Lampu Uk the beach was able to recover
and now exhibits a similar morphology to its state before
Fig. 1. The location of study sites used to understand the tsunami. Other areas such as the beach barrier at
coastal change and recovery and the location of interview Kampung Pande have not recovered and vast stretches of
respondents. once useable and inhabited land remain lost to the ocean.
Table 1 records erosion and post-tsunami
recovery along Lhok Nga Bay and the Banda Aceh west
III. METHODS coast. By 2010 the coastline along the Banda Aceh west
coast has not recovered to its pre-tsunami position. While
The study utilised two methodologies to assess Krueng Cangkoi beach appears to be slowly accreting it is
the impact of the tsunami on coastal environments and still far from reaching its pre-tsunami morphology.
women’s access to livelihood opportunities and food Engineering works have stabilised the remainder of the
security. coastline. The findings suggest that the coastline at study
site 1 is not in an equilibrium state. As a result, activities
Method 1: Physical Coastal Change once conducted in this area such as tambak farming, have
Measurements of coastal morphological change not re-established.
and recovery pre- and post-tsunami were conducted using The northern tip of Lhok Nga Bay (Lampu Uk
a time series of historic imagery sourced from Google Beach) was able to recover to, and accrete beyond, its pre-
Earth (spanning from 2003 to 2010). A mean high water tsunami shoreline while the middle stretch of Lhok Nga
mark (MHWM) line was digitised at a scale of 1:2 K Bay is undergoing longer term erosion. Recovery and
representing the wet - dry transition on the beach. Once accretion of Lampu Uk Beach has allowed the re-
digitised the MWHM for the different dates were overlain establishment of food stalls and maintained the use of this
and patterns of shoreline erosion and accretion at Lhok area for recreational activities. Coastal recovery means
Nga Bay and the Banda Aceh west coast examined. that vegetation, including casuarina, has been replanted.
Polygons representing the extent of pre- and This has contributed back to coastal recovery by
post-tsunami tambak ponds at Kampung Pande and stabilising and building the dune system. The results show
Krueng Cangkoi River were digitised. The polygons were that the coast at Lhok Nga Bay is able to recover from
then saved as kml files and imported into Quantum GIS high energy events and will provide a stronger line of
where calculations of change in tambak area pre- and coastal defence to future events than the Banda Aceh west
post-tsunami were made. coast.
Polygons representing mangrove forest area pre-
and post-tsunami were also digitised calculation of
vegetation loss and rehabilitation made for Kampung
Pande and Krueng Cangkoi River. To study whether
mangroves mitigated the impact of the tsunami, the extent
and position of these polygons were compared to the
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
that they did not have a substantial role in mitigating the
Table 1. Erosion and recovery following the tsunami. Extensive inundation and erosion landwards of
tsunami along Lhok Nga Bay and the Banda Aceh west the mangrove forests was observed, particularly of low-
coast. lying tambak ponds.
Location Max post- Max Comments
tsunami distance
erosion between
Women’s Access to Livelihood Opportunities and Food
2004 and Security
2010 The tsunami influenced women’s access to
coastlines employment opportunities in Aceh. All of the respondents
Banda 1 km - 630 m The tsunami caused commented that more women work outside the home now
Aceh - extensive erosion; however,
Krueng the beach barrier system is than they did before the tsunami. Respondents noted that
Cangkoi slowly rebuilding. women predominately work in shops and offices.
Banda 160 m - 65 m Artificial revetment works Economic hardship and the influence of the international
Aceh - have stabilised the coastline. aid community both contributed to the increase in women
Ulee
Lheue working outside the home. Some livelihoods, particularly
Banda 1.5 km - 60 m The beach was completely tambak farming and small businesses, were negatively
Aceh - eroded and has been replaced impacted by the tsunami as a result of the rising cost of
Krueng with a seawall. Tambaks goods. The impacts of the tsunami and how they
Aceh behind the beach were
destroyed. influenced women’s access to livelihood opportunities and
Lhok Nga 140 m + 70 m The beach recovered to and food security is summarised in table 3 below.
- Lampu accreted beyond its pre- Many women benefitted from the presence of the
Uk tsunami shoreline position. international aid community. Women with computer and
Lhok Nga 280 m - 52 m Morphology of the river
- Krueng mouth was altered.
English skills found work with NGO’s while others
Reba became recipients of business grants and training supplied
Lhok Nga 50 m - 50 m The beach has progressively the NGO’s. In Lampisang particularly, the women have
eroded from 2003 – 2010. received considerable support and are now running
Tambak farms were consistently inundated by the successful businesses.
tsunami (Table 2). At Krueng Cangkoi and Kampung
Pande, 242 ha of land was permanently eroded by the Table 3. Impacts of the tsunami that influenced women’s
tsunami and the tambak unable to be re-established. Using access to food security and livelihood opportunities.
[6] estimates (1-3 people employed per hectare of tambak) Impact Gender Impact on food Impact on
between 242 and 725 people lost their livelihoods as a of those security livelihood
result. affected opportunities
Mangrove forests in Aceh were extensively Increased F Some women Women with more
household are left with household
destroyed by the tsunami (Table 2). At Kampung Pande,
responsibilities more people to responsibilities have
the once vast expanse of tidal flats and tambak ponds were feed with fewer less time to find
vegetated by mangrove forests. These forests covered an resources. employment.
area of 68 ha. During the tsunami the mangroves were Loss of F/M Loss of free Industries relying on
completely destroyed and by 2010 30 ha of mangroves mangrove source of food mangrove products
had been rehabilitated. The extensive erosion witnessed in resources (dye, (shellfish, fish, no longer have this
food, wood) crabs). free resource.
the area and the total destruction of mangrove forests
Destruction of M (women Loss of income Estimated 242 – 725
during the event suggests they did not play a significant tambak farms impacted for tambak tambak farmers
role in dissipating the tsunami’s energy. indirectly)
families and from Kampung
fewer shrimp Pande and Krueng
Table 2. The area of tambak and mangroves destroyed by and milkfish Cangkoi lost their
the tsunami and its impact on livelihoods. available in source of income.
local markets.
Location Resource Area Area Loss No. of Lost
Before 2010 (%) Livelihoods Increased cost F/M Purchasing food Women need to
Tsunami (ha) of living for the family work to support the
(ha) unit is more family. Men
Kampung Mangroves 68 30 55 n.a. difficult. appreciate women’s
Pande Tambak 167 19 89 149 – 446 contribution to the
Krueng Mangroves 29 1 96 n.a. family income.
Cangkoi Tambak 96 3 93 93 – 279 Influx of the F/M The price of Educated people
international goods and with computer and
aid community commodities is English skills
Prior to the tsunami the entrance of the Krueng attributed to received jobs.
Cangkoi River was also vegetated with a dense mangrove this influx. Women received
forest. In 2004 mangroves in this area covered livelihood grants
approximately 29 ha of intertidal flats. During the tsunami and training from
all of these mangroves were uprooted and destroyed. By NGO’s.
2010 only 1 ha of mangroves had been successfully Destruction of mangrove forests has made
rehabilitated. Total destruction of the mangroves suggests securing food such as fish, shellfish and crabs difficult.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
Lost resources traditionally collected from mangrove inherently vulnerable to coastal hazards. Combined with
forests such as bark for natural dyes, leaves for cigarettes the high proportion of coastal populations involved in this
and wood for tambak construction have been lost. This industry, the status of tambaks following a disaster will
has put financial strain on families relying on these influence how the community is able to recover from the
resources for their livelihood activities. Destruction of event. They are thus strongly related to the resilience of a
tambak ponds during the tsunami destroyed the community and need to be sustainably managed.
livelihoods of many people in Aceh. Loss of mangroves during the tsunami influenced
Of those interviewed, most women viewed caring the livelihood opportunities and food security of coastal
for their family as their most important role. Work is communities in Aceh. Resources that assist livelihood
acceptable, so long as it does not interfere with this task. activities were collected from mangrove forests by both
In the aftermath of the tsunami there appears to be more men and women and included bark to make dye for
social acceptance of women working outside the home. fishing nets, wood for the construction of tambak
Various factors have contributed to this change, including enclosures and homes, charcoal for brick making and
the influence of the international aid community and the leaves for the production of cigarettes. Following the
need for additional sources of income within the family tsunami these free resources were no longer available and
unit. materials for these tasks needed to be purchased. In an
increasingly expensive society this has impacted the profit
V. DISCUSSION margins of these industries or in the case of making
traditional cigarettes the industry has been lost altogether.
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami revealed the Furthermore food, including shellfish, crabs and fish can
strong relationships that exist between tsunami, gender no longer be collected from the mangroves forests
and coastal resources in Aceh. Gender and destruction of meaning low income families no longer have a free and
coastal resources influenced the recovery of communities reliable source of food. The value mangroves provide to
– witnessed notably through the loss of tambak farms and the fishing industry, by supplying a breeding and nursery
mangrove forests. Because these coastal resources are ground for fish, has influenced the sustainability of this
relied on by both men and women for livelihood activities industry and thus the resilience of those relying on it.
and food collection, the rate of coastal recovery impacted Coastal ecosystems, particularly mangroves,
the resumption of these activities. When viewed from a influence the susceptibility of the coastal zone to future
longer term management perspective, coastal hazards. Mangroves offer protection from long term
environments influence the physical susceptibility of the erosion, storm surge and small tsunami (less than 4 m in
coast to future events and the sustainability of coastal height) by accumulating and binding sediment; actively
communities. These factors determine the resilience and building the coast and increasing its resistance to erosion
coping capacity of communities to future hazardous [11, 12]. As mangrove forests have kept pace with rising
events. sea-levels throughout the Holocene [12], they will prove
Destruction of coastal resources including increasingly valuable in the event of rising sea-levels
mangroves, tambak and beach barrier systems during the under future climate change scenarios. Furthermore,
tsunami brought gender specific impacts to the residents mangroves and other coastal habitats provide a physical
of Aceh. Women were impacted most significantly by the barrier that separates human settlements from the
loss of mangrove forests and indirectly impacted by loss shoreline.
of tambak farms, while men were impacted directly by While offering protection from other hazards and
both the loss of mangrove forests and tambak farms. As small tsunami, mangrove forests, casuarinas and coral
the availability of these resources has not recovered since reefs did not substantially mitigate the impact of the
the tsunami, the impact on food security and livelihood tsunami in Aceh. Instead, factors including shoreline type,
opportunities is on-going. sediment budget, wave climate, the tsunami’s
Sustained loss of tambak farms impacted the characteristics and level of pre-disturbance coastal
livelihoods and economic security of those relying on this modification were shown to influence coastal erosion and
industry. During the tsunami tambak farms were recovery.
consistently inundated. At Krueng Cangkoi and Kampung Gender is an important factor that influences how
Pande the natural beach barriers that once enclosed the communities interact with the coastal zone. As coastal
tambak from wave action were eroded and much of the resources support livelihood opportunities, and livelihood
sediment permanently lost from the coastal system. opportunities are a key component to building resilient
Following the tsunami the Indonesian government offered communities, gender analyses provide insight into the
assistance to tambak farmers at Kampung Pande in the economic impact loss of coastal resources has on men and
form of cleaning and repairing; however, a barrier to women within a society. This study has shown that
enclose these tambaks from wave action was not conservation and disaster mitigation needs are gender
completed. The majority of these tambaks are now specific. If conducted with the differing requirements of
permanently inoperable and were nor rehabilitated during men and women in mind, management programs will
the reconstruction effort. build the resilience and sustainability of coastal
As tambak farms are built in coastal lowlands, communities.
predominately intertidal flats whereby they can maintain
the exchange of salt water with the ocean, they are
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
VI. CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
The Indian Ocean tsunami that struck the [1] Chlieh, M., Avouac, J., Hjorleifsdottir, V., Song,
coastline of Aceh on 26 December 2004 drastically T.A., Ji, C., Sieh, K., Sladen, A., Hebert, H.,
changed the landscape configuration of the coastal zone. Prawirodirdjo, L., Bock, Y. and Galetzka, J.,
This change, in conjunction with the influx of the 2007. Cosiesmic slip and afterslip of the great Mw 9.15
international aid community and rising cost of living, Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004. Bulletin
altered livelihood opportunities and food security for men of the Seismological Society of America, 97 (1A), 152-
and women of Aceh. The Banda Aceh west coast, an 173.
anthropogenic modified coastline used extensively for [2] Tsunami Evaluation Coalition. (2006). Joint
tambak farming, has not recovered from the tsunami. In evaluation of the international response to the
comparison, the beaches flanking Lhok Nga Bay on the Indian Ocean Tsunami: Synthesis report. London:
west coast have recovered to their pre-tsunami Telford, J., Cosgrave, J. and Houghton R.
morphology. Factors such as sediment supply, the [3] Paris, R., Lavingne, F., Wassmer, P. and Sartohadi, J.,
tsunami’s characteristics, topography, wave climate and 2007. Coastal sedimentation associated with the
level of pre- disturbance coastal modification have Decemeber 26, 2004 tsunami in Lhok Nga, west
influenced coastal recovery. Banda Aceh (Sumatra, Indonesia). Marine Geology,
Loss of coastal land devastated the tambak 238, 93- 106.
industry and destruction of mangroves resulted in the loss [4] Srinivas, H. and Nakagawa, Y., 2008. Environmental
of resources including wood, charcoal, dye, food and implications for disaster preparedness: Lessons
shelter. At Kampung Pande and Krueng Cangkoi 149 ha learnt from the Indian Ocean tsunami. Journal of
and 93 ha of tambak respectively, have been lost. Despite Environmental Management, 89, 4-13.
mangrove replantation efforts, there has been a loss of 65 [5] Athukorala, P. and Resosundarmo, B., 2006. The
ha of mangrove along the Banda Aceh west coast. Indian Ocean Tsunami: Economic impact,
Mangrove forests, casuarinas and fringing reefs were not disaster management and lessons. Asian Economic
found to mitigate the impact of the tsunami and are not Papers, 4 (1), 1-39.
recommended as a stand-alone mitigation strategy. [6] FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation of the
However, their preservation for the long- term United Nations), 2005. As assessment of the
sustainability and economic resilience of coastal impacts of the 26th December 2004 earthquake and
communities is advised. tsunami on aquaculture in the provinces of Aceh
Women in Aceh now have better access to and North Sumatra, Indonesia. March 2005,
employment opportunities then they did before the Indonesia.
tsunami. Various circumstances including the end of the [7] Chen, P., Liew, S.C. and Kwoh, L.K., 2005. Tsunami
civil conflict and targeted work of the NGO community damage assessment using high resolution satellite
have contributed to this change. The rising cost of living imagery: A case study of Aceh, Indonesia. Proc. IEEE
experienced in Aceh following the tsunami is an ongoing International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium
concern to residents and a major consideration behind 2005, 25 - 29 July 2005, Seoul, Korea.
women’s decisions to enter the workforce. Domestic [8] United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),
responsibilities are a priority for Acehnese women and 2005. After the tsunami: Rapid environmental
influence their specific economic needs in the aftermath of assessment. Nairobi.
a disaster. [9] Wetlands International, 2005. Rapid assessment
This study has demonstrated that the result: Coastal wetlands of Aceh. Indonesia
vulnerability of communities to coastal hazards needs to Programme, Bogor
be understood from a physical and social perspective. [10] World Bank. (2005). Indonesia: Preliminary damage
Only by integrating these disciplines can the resilience of and loss assessment, the December 26 2004
coastal communities to such events be strengthened. natural disaster. Indonesia: BAPPENAS and the
International Donor Community. Jakarta.
[11] Yanagisawa, H., S. Koshimura, K. Goto, T. Miyagi,
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS F. Imamura, A. Ruangrassamee and C. Tanavud,
This research would not have been possible 2009. ‘The reduction effects of mangrove forest on a
without the assistance of Dr Doracie Zoleta-Nantes from tsunami based on field surveys at Pakarang Cape,
the Australian National University and the Tsunami and Thailand and numerical analysis.’ Estuarine, Coastal
staff from the Disaster Mitigation Research Centre of the and Shelf Science, 81: 27-37.
Syiah Kuala University (Dr Syamsidik, Pak Bustamam [12] Alongi, D.M., 2008. Mangrove forests: Resilience,
Koetapangwa and Ibu Fauziah). Their knowledge and protection from tsunamis, and responses to global
assistance was extremely helpful. Thank you to the climate change. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science,
organization LOGICA who provided assistance meeting 76, 1-13.
women recipients of business grants at Lampisang (Dr
Eka Srimulyani and Pak Azwar Hasan). Finally, thank you
to Ibu Era Maida for her excellent translation work.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop

TS 4-03

Effect of Tsunami’s Sea Water Intrusion toward


Spatial Planning of Banda Aceh Coastal Area
Syarifah Mastura Alhabsyi1; Mariana2; Mirza Irwansyah2
1
Dinas Pekerjaan Umum, Kota Banda Aceh
Jl. K.H. Ahmad Dahlan, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
Email: ipahira@yahoo.com
2
Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University
Jl. Tgk. Syech Abdurrauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia

activity, underwater volcanic eruptions, landslides beneath


Abstract: A dramatic growth of disaster, i.e. tsunami, has raised or above the surface of the sea, and falling material from
the vulnerability and susceptibility of water front cities i.e. the outer space [2].
Banda Aceh on environmental issues. One of the tsunami effects
is sea water intrusion. Banda Aceh has been massively damaged
Referring to a research conducted by [3], salinization
including sea water intrusion caused by the 26th December 2004 of fresh groundwater could occur due to tsunami waves as
tsunami. Therefore, a study the effect of sea water intrusion depicted in Figure 1.
caused by tsunami toward spatial planning of coastal area of the
city was carried out. This paper presents and discusses the results
of this study. In addition, several findings from the study are
outlined.

Keyword: Spatial Planning, Sea Water Intrusion, Tsunami,


Disaster.

I. BACKGROUND
Deteriorating condition of groundwater, as a source of
clean water at the coastal region of Banda Aceh, due to
sea water intrusion after the tsunami December 26, 2004
has offered bad impacts for the residents. This is because
salt or brackish water is unhealthy for human
consumption. The salinity level and total dissolved solids
(TDS) of this water are exceeding the maximum threshold
for human consumption which are 1 ‰ and 1000 mg/l,
respectively.
Various efforts should be taken. Spatial planning
involvement is considered as an effective step to solve the
problem of seawater intrusion in the post disaster
resettlements project of Banda Aceh coastline.
Environmentally friendly spatial planning is defined as
the use of environmental quality criteria to integrate
human interaction/living things with their environment so
that it can live in harmony, congruence, and balance to
achieve sustainable environments for human well-
being/living creatures [1].
Fig. 1 The concept of freshwater, brackish and saltwater below the
Thus, a study on the extent of Banda Aceh Spatial ground surface bounded by lagoon/marsh affected by a tsunami [3]
Planning to anticipate the latest intrusion of seawater
caused by the tsunami was needed. Environmental Management for Spatial Planning
Environmental management is an integrated effort to
utilize, organize, maintain, supervise, control, restore and
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
develop the environment [4]. The meaning of
environmental management for spatial planning is that the
Tsunami and Sea Water Intrusion
environmental quality criteria should be included in the
Tsunami is a series of waves or waves caused by a
process of designing and monitoring the arrangement of
mass transfer of water in a relatively very large scale.
spaces [5].
Generally, tsunami can be caused by underwater tectonic
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
In addition, spatial planning can not be separated from some areas with reduce level varies from 0 to 5 meters
regional development. The relationship between regional above seawater level are marsh areas or low land.
development, spatial planning and disaster reduction can In terms of the groundwater conditions, study site is
be illustrated as in Figure 2 [6]. composed by the layered groundwater aquifer with low to
moderate distribution, the groundwater table or
Enhancing the life quality of the community groundwater piezometer, generally, is near the ground
Regional and its environment
surface, discharge wells debit is generally less than 5
development
liters/sec. The direction of the groundwater flow has a
1. Improving the community ability tendency to be perpendicular toward the shoreline [7].
2. Improving the production efficiency
3. Controlling the environmental impact
4. Improving the local government ability
5. Improving the participation of social and
OVERALL economic institution
IV. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS OF THE STUDY
STRATEGY
• Holistic On site salinity and TDS measurements were carried
• Integrative out using HACH CO150 ConductivityMeter in early
1. Managing the production zone area
• Coordinative 2. Managing the settlement, infrastructure and
• Efficient transportation
2008. The results of the field salinity and TDS
• Effective 3. Managing the natural resources measurements were plotted into a map for zoning, as
4. Managing the reserved area
shown in Figures 4 and 5. These maps are used for further
analysis and classification of the study site.
Spatial planning approach
A. Seawater intrusion at the research location
Seawater intrusion is represented by high salinity and
Fig.2 Relationship between regional development, spatial planning and TDS. Figure 4 is the conditions of salinity of the phreatic
disaster reduction [6]
groundwater at the study site in early 2008. A threshold of
1‰ salt content is used to separate between the green
zone and the red zone. The green zone is a safe zone.
III. RESEARCH LOCATION
Salinity measurement in this zone is below the threshold.
On contrary, red zone indicates the unsafe zone. On site
In general, the topography of Banda Aceh can be
salinity measurement in this zone is exceeding the
divided into two reduce level categories. The first is an
threshold.
area with elevation of 0-5 meters above sea level. Most of
this category occupies the area along the coast in varying
distances from the coastline. The second category is a
region with elevation 5-10 meters in above sea level. This
category is in areas mainly relatively far from the
coastline [7]. The study site was classified as the first
category (Figure 3).

Fig. 4 Map of phreatic groundwater salinity at the study site

As shown in Figure 4, most of the area in the study site


is categorized as unsafe zone except for three (3) small
areas which are around Gampong Baru, Makam Syiah
Kuala and Tibang. This finding indicates an improvement
from the previous groundwater conditions (see [8]).
Fig. 3 Map of research location
However, this study also found that the spread of seawater
intrusion in land is more widely in Punge Blang Cut and
Furthermore, reference [7] stated that the study area has Kuta Baro than the condition in 2006. See reference [8]
relatively flat morphology with a slope of 0-20%, and for detail.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
Figure 5 is the results of the TDS measurement of the The results of this study showed a change insalinity and
phreatic groundwater at the study site. The field TDS levels in some areas i.e. Tibang, Makam Syiah
measurement of the total dissolved solids (TDS) produces Kuala, Gampong Baro, and Punge Blang Cut.
two main zones of the shallow groundwater in the study
site. One of the zones has TDS values below the quality
standard of TDS 1000 mg/ l for consumption (green),
while the other has TDS values above the quality standard
(red).
Comparing with the previous measurement in 2006 by
[8], the result of this study showed a change in total
dissolved solids (TDS) at the research sites. This study
found that the areas around Gampong Baru-Punge Blang
Cut, Meuraxa has emerged as new zones with TDS values
less than the allowable standard.

Fig.6 Map of the chloride levels in the phreatic groundwater at study


site

C. Spatial Planning of the Research Location


The spatial planning of Banda Aceh focuses on
economic growth oriented without considering the
environmental limitation factors such as seawater
intrusion. It can be seen in the 2006 RTRW Banda Aceh
that the City Centre (PK) of Banda Aceh remains in the
Old Town Center which is around the Masjid
Baiturrahman and Peunayong. This PK is supported by the
Fig.5 Map of the TDS levels in the phreatic groundwater at the study site Sub City Centre (SPK), namely: Jaya Baru SPK,
Keutapang SPK, Neusu SPK, Lampulo SPK, Lamdom
The improvement of the groundwater condition also SPK, Jeulingke SPK, Ulee Kareng SPK and Darussalam
appears around Makam Syiah Kuala and an area around SPK (Figure 7) [8].
Tibang. However, the TDS measurement of this study also
found deterioration of shallow groundwater at point
N05⁰32 '30 "E095⁰18 '20" Punge Blang Cut and at point
N05⁰33'59 "E095⁰20 '32" Kuta Baro.
In addition, laboratory chloride content test also was
carried on the water samples taken from each point. This
test was performed at the Laboratory of Chemical
Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Syiah Kuala
University. The result is presented in Figure 6.
As shown in the Figure 6, the chloride test results
showed the absence of shallow groundwater samples
taken from the site that exceed the allowable quality
standard (1000mg/l) [9].

B. Summary of Physical Characteristics of the


Research Location
The condition of study site is as follow: junction
between land and water; very gently sloping terrain;
frequent erosion, abrasion and sedimentation that could Fig.7 Spatial planning map of Banda Aceh after the tsunami disaster [8]
cause siltation of water bodies; and high vulnerability to
the tsunami disaster. The PK and some SPKs, such as Jaya Baru, Lampulo
High groundwater inundation and low run-off due to and Jeulingke in the spatial plan, are in the affected area
low retention causes frequent flooding in the study site. of the tsunami disaster on December 26, 2004. In addition,
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
this study shows that the phreatic groundwater in these PK
and SPKs are affected by the sea water intrusion.

V. CONCLUSION
Urban spatial planning begins with identifying areas
that naturally have to be saved (reserved areas) to ensure
environmental sustainability, areas that are vulnerable
(susceptible) to environmental pollution such as seawater
intrusion, and areas that are naturally prone to
disasters(prone to natural hazards). Spatial planning of
Banda Aceh in 2006 did not considering the aspect of
seawater intrusion by the tsunami in 2004. This can be
seen by retaining the Old Town Center (PKL) and the
presence of several Sub City Centre (SPK) in areas
affected by the tsunami December 26, 2004 and
experiencing seawater intrusion.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors wish to acknowledge several people who
have contributed to this study: Dipl. Ing. Helmut Krist,
from GTZ; Dr. Idriss Maxdoni Kamil, from ITB;
Bambang Setiawan M.Eng.Sc, from Syiah Kuala
University; and Risda Neva, M.A for their assistance and
support.

REFERENCES
[1] _______,“Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor
26 Tahun 2007 Tentang Penataan Ruang,” 2007
[2] _______,
http://www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami/intro.
html, 2007
[3] _______, http://www.igrac.nitg.tno.nl/tsunami1-
i3.html, 2007
[4] _______, “Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor
4 Tahun 1982 Tentang Ketentuan-Ketentuan Pokok
Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup” 1982
[5] T. Notohadiningrat, “Tata Ruang Dalam Pengelolaan
Lingkungan Hidup,” 1993 PPLH-UGM,
Yogyakarta
[6] _______, “Panduan Pengenalan Karakteristik Bencana
dan Upaya Mitigasinya di Indonesia,” 2005 Biro
Mitigasi Sekretariat BAKORNAS PBP, Jakarta
[7] D. Ploethner, and B. Siemon, “Hydrogeological
Reconnaissance Survei in the Province Nanggroe
Aceh Darussalam Northern Sumatra, Indonesia
Survei Area: Banda Aceh/Aceh Besar 2005,” 2006
Report Vol. C-1, BGR/Bundesanstaltfür
Geowissenschaftenund Rohstoffe (Federal Institute
for Geosciences and Natural Resources)
[8] _______, “Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (RTRW)
Kota Banda Aceh, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam,”
2006
[9] _______, “Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik
Indonesia Nomor 907/MENKES/SK/VII/2002
Tentang Syarat-syarat dan Pengawasan Kualitas
Air Minum,” 2002
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4-04

The post-tsunami groundwater quality recovery


in the Maldives islands from year 2004 South
Asian tsunami impact, with respect to salinity and
microbial levels
S Barthiban1, Prof B J Lloyd1, Prof R K Guganesharajah2 and Prof M Maier3
1
Centre for Environmental Health Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, England.
2
MottMacdoanld, Cambridge, England
3
Stadwerke Karlshruhe, Germany

Abstract: Even before the tsunami disaster, groundwater quality latitudes 70 06’ 30” N and 00 41’ 48” S and Longitudes
in the Maldives islands was a major issue with concerns for both 720 32’ 30” E and 730 45’ 54” E.
human faecal contamination and saline intrusion of their
aquifers. This investigation describes part of a well surveillance The Maldives experience monsoonal climate with two
study commenced in the Maldives islands in year 2007. This was
aimed at the determination of levels of contamination and the
distinct seasons; wet (Southwest monsoon) and dry
development of a groundwater quality protection strategy. As a (Northeast monsoon). During the period from January to
first step the impact of the tsunami on the Maldives groundwater March, the Maldives experiences the Northeast monsoon.
quality and its recovery status was assessed to understand The torrential rain brought by the Southwest monsoon
whether the post-tsunami groundwater quality was safe for during mid-May to December showers the central,
consumption. The well water salinity and the microbial quality southern and northern parts of the Maldives islands with
(440C thermo-tolerant faecal coliform counts / 100ml) were the annual average rainfall of 1924.7mm, 2277.8mm, and
two main groundwater quality parameters, although other 1786.4mm, respectively (www.meteorology.gov.mv).
physico-chemical parameters were also recorded. The scope of Although the daily temperature varies between 310C,
the project was to include an understanding of the mechanisms
by which the tsunami waves affected the salinity and microbial
during the day time, and 230C during the night-time,
contamination of groundwater; and, how long it took for the throughout the year the temperature varies little, in the
groundwater to recover from the post-tsunami contamination. Maldives.
The well water electrical conductivity observations made in the
Maldives study islands showed that by 2007, 93% of the open II. GROUNDWATER OCCURRENCE
dug wells (out of 86 wells studied) contained fresh water with The groundwater in the Maldives islands occurs in lens
electrical conductivity values below 2,500µS/cm. In addition, formations floating on top of the sea water within the
76.7% of the wells studied showed electrical conductivity values coral formations. According to the borehole drilling
below 1,500µS/cm. The study results together with a comparison studies carried out by Falkland (August 2001, p28) in the
with other relevant studies showed that the groundwater
salinization from the tsunami; i) could not be remedied by
Northern islands, the top 10m of the Maldives islands’
pumping out the wells, and the recovery is delayed due to the geology is comprised of medium and coarse grained coral
disturbances made to the groundwater system such as continuous sand and loose coral rocks. Falkland (August 2001, p28)
well water exploitation, ii) in the absence of intermediate post- further found that in some locations coral rock or hard
tsunami well water salinity level observations and based on the coral rock formations are encountered at depths varying
field work salinity observations, it seems that the natural from 10 to 20m. The groundwater table in the Maldives
recovery by rainfall recharge occurred within a maximum period occurs at shallow depths of about 2m below the ground
of three years. The impact of the tsunami on human faecal level.
contamination down the wells was immediate but transient. The
far greater, chronic problem in the Maldives is the general and
extreme vulnerability of the aquifer to direct contamination from
III. GROUNDWATER EXPLOITATION
septic tank effluents. In the past, groundwater was widely exploited in the
Keyword: tsunami, mechanisms of impact, groundwater quality, Maldives for day to day water consumption needs using
well surveillance, salinity, groundwater quality recovery shallow open dug wells. However, during the 1970s and
1980s the Maldives islands experienced major water-
I. INTRODUCTION borne disease outbreaks linked to polluted groundwater
The Republic of the Maldives is a nation comprised of (Falkland, September 2001, p26). Since then storage of
1200 islets spread over a distance of 868 km in the Indian rainwater in tanks has been used as the primary drinking
Ocean. However, only 200 Maldivian islands are officially water source. The pre-December 2004 tsunami estimation
classified as inhabited islands. The Maldives lie between
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
made by GoM-UNICEF (2000) showed that 75% of the varying degrees. UNDP (2006) reported that the waves
Maldives population drinks water from rainwater tanks. were up to four meters (12 feet), sweeping over the low
lying islands. The average elevation of the Maldives
Although plenty of rainwater is available for consumption islands is only 1.8 m above mean sea level (UNDP, 2006).
during the wet season, rainwater tanks often go dry during
the dry season (MWSA/GWP, 2005), necessitating the V. PROJECT OUTLINE
exploitation of groundwater resources. Furthermore, Even before the tsunami disaster, groundwater quality in
global climatic change seems to be causing more the Maldives islands was a major issue with concerns for
prolonged drought periods and more intensive rainfall and both human faecal contamination and saline intrusion of
flooding events. Consequently, the remote islands need to their aquifers. This investigation describes part of a well
continue to exploit the excess rainwater in their surveillance study commenced in the Maldives islands in
groundwater aquifers to provide an adequate supply in the 2007. This was aimed at the determination of levels of
drought periods. Therefore it is vital to ensure that the contamination and the development of a groundwater
groundwater in the Maldives is safe for consumption. quality protection strategy. As a first step the impact of the
tsunami on the Maldives groundwater quality and its
Groundwater in the Maldives islands is tapped using recovery status was assessed to understand whether the
shallow open dug wells. Although electric pumps are now post-tsunami groundwater quality was safe for
increasingly used to extract water from wells, manual well consumption.
water abstraction using a ‘Dhani’ (a small tin or bucket
attached to a long stick) is still in use. The well water salinity and the microbial quality (440C
thermo-tolerant faecal coliform counts / 100ml) were the
IV. GROUNDWATER QUALITY ISSUES two main groundwater quality parameters, although other
The pressing issues with the Maldives groundwater are physico-chemical parameters were also recorded. The well
faecal contamination from on-site sanitation systems, and water salinity (in terms of electrical conductivity) was
groundwater salinization due to sea water intrusion. measured using the YSI water quality logger and Horiba
Adding to these, the 26th December 2004 South Asian instrument. The well water samples for faecal coliform
tsunami directly affected 70 islands (out of 200 inhabited (FC) counts were processed in situ and incubated using
islands) (MWSA/GWP, 2005), and affected the the DelAgua field test kit.
groundwater system in different ways and at various
levels. The scope of the project was to include an understanding
of the mechanisms by which the tsunami waves affected
On-site sanitation is widely practiced in the Maldives, the salinity and microbial contamination of groundwater;
except for the very few islands which have sewerage and, how long it took for the groundwater to recover from
systems. Owing to the extreme vulnerability of the the post-tsunami contamination.
groundwater system due to the shallow groundwater table,
very permeable vadoze zone, and the domestic waste The overall objective of the well surveillance study is to
disposed into the subsurface very near to the groundwater identify the major groundwater quality issues and to
table; the microbial quality of the groundwater is at high develop a groundwater protection strategy in the medium
risk. to long term.

Electric motors are used in some households on demand VI. STUDY AREA
basis, mainly for toilet flushing and sometimes for use in Seven of the Maldives islands were studied during this
the kitchen. Groundwater pumping to overhead tanks was research study, namely; Vilufushi, Thimarafushi,
not witnessed in the study areas. In addition every Veymandoo and Buruni islands from Thaa atoll
individual house in the Maldives study islands owned a (originally known as Kolhumadulhu atoll), Fenfushi island
well. Therefore groundwater is abstracted at each from Alif Dhaalu (also known as South Ari) atoll,
household on demand basis and no bulk pumping is Thoddoo island from Alif Alif atoll and Daravandhoo
carried out in the study islands. Therefore the occurrence island from Baa atoll. The Study islands were selected by
of groundwater salinisation due to up-coning of the Director of the Maldives Water and Sanitation
freshwater-saline water interface resulting from excess Authority (MWSA) based on the history of groundwater
groundwater abstraction is less likely to occur. However, quality issues and tsunami impact.
since the individual Maldives islands are surrounded by
the sea, and are very small in size, sea water intrusion is a Fig. 1 presents the sea water wave heights observed in
major cause of groundwater salinisation. different islands during the tsunami. The atolls to which
the study islands belong are also identified in Fig. 1. Some
The December 2004 South Asian tsunami was an basic information including the degree of tsunami impact
additional, and almost instantaneous, cause of experienced by these islands is presented in Table 1.
groundwater quality deterioration in the affected Maldives
islands. The tsunami flooded the affected islands to
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
c) seawater accumulated in depressions
subsequently ended up in long term direct infiltration into
the groundwater aquifer, and,
d) groundwater salinization caused by lagoon and
river mouth flooding as a result of tsunami brought sea
water.

Illungasekera (2006) further added that the sea water


infiltration through the vadoze zone during inundation can
cause the largest volume of sea water to infiltrate into the
aquifer in the coastal areas due to the highly permeable
sand and large area of inundation, compared to rapid
direct injection of sea water through the open wells. Due
to the very small land area of the Maldives islands
(everywhere is coastal area) and the very permeable
vadoze zone, the infiltration of the sea water through the
vadose zone could be the major contributor of the saline
(sea) water in to the Maldives groundwater in the affected
islands.

Another mechanism of tsunami impact on groundwater


quality experienced in the Maldives islands was described
by IGRAC (www.un-igrac.org/publications/214) as
follows; “The flooding did not do much damage to the
well structures, but it made the water saline in many wells.
Reports were also received of wells which overflowed and
of wells in which the sandy well bottom was raised. The
pressure wave which came with the tsunami was
Fig. 1 Figure showing the tsunami wave heights observed in different
Maldives islands. The Baa, Alif Alif, Alif Dhalu and Thaa atolls are transmitted through the sub-surface and most probably
identified in the map. will have upset the equilibrium between the fresh and
saline groundwater below the islands”.
TABLE I
SOME INFORMATION ABOUT THE MALDIVES STUDY MWSA/GWP Consultants (2005) carried out water
ISLANDS
resources tsunami impact assessment in July 2005 in three
Thimarafushi

Daravandhoo
Study islands

Veymandoo

Maldives islands to understand the level of tsunami


Vilufushi

Thoddoo
Fenfushi
Burunee

impact on the Maldives freshwater resources so that a


sustainable water sector redevelopment programme could
be planned accordingly. This study illustrated that the
Area (ha) 61 14.5 40.8 30.5 24.2 173.8 56.1 tsunami impact in the Maldives is island specific and
Populatio reliant on “the extent and direction of wave inundation
n density and the area covered by seawater”. Based on the annual
(/ha) 7 166 25 85 33 9 18 rainfall recharge assessments and incorporating the driest
season in the last six years experienced by the Maldives
Substantial

Substantial
Very high

Limited

Limited

Limited

islands following the tsunami impact, MWSA/GWP


High

Tsunami
Consultants (2005) estimated the groundwater recovery
impact# period varying from 0.5 to 4 years. However, this study
# INFORMATION FROM THE MALDIVES MINISTRY OF FINANCE (2005)
also illustrated that the groundwater abstraction plays a
vital role in the length of groundwater recovery period and
VII. TSUNAMI IMPACT ON GROUNDWATER the groundwater salinization worsens (instead of
SYSTEM recovering) in the island studied where over abstraction
Illungasekera (2006) and Vithanage (2008, p5) (in a study was witnessed during the dry season.
in the eastern coastal area of Sri Lanka) and International
groundwater Resources Assessment Centre (IGRAC) Vithanage (2008) studied the effect of tsunami on coastal
(http://www.igrac.net/publications/135) highlighted the aquifers in Sri Lanka. The two transects (about 2.4km
following potential groundwater contamination modes by long at the studied location) studied by Vithanage (2008)
the December 2004 tsunami: are located in the Kirankulam village of the Batticalloa
a) instant inundation of open dug wells with sea district of Sri Lanka. This village is an elongated land area
water and subsequent infiltration of the seawater into the covered on the east and west sides by the ocean and
groundwater aquifer, brackish lagoon, respectively. This narrow land stretch is
b) contamination of wells with organic and about 3 to 4m above mean sea level (msl) in the middle
inorganic debris brought by the flood water, (Vithanage, 2009). Owing to the small stretch of land area
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
of this study area bordered primarily by sea or brackish
1/9/2008 Th03W 1328
lagoon water, hydrogeologically this study area can be
approximated to oceanic islands such as Maldives islands 1/9/2008 Th04W 1349
both of which are also similar in having groundwater 1/9/2008 Th05W 1210
aquifers in lens formation floating on top of saline water
and recharged mainly by rainwater infiltration. Also in 1/9/2008 Th06W 1597
both cases the vadoze zone is very permeable. Therefore 1/9/2008 Th07W 1197
Vithanage’s (2008) findings can be approximated to the
1/9/2008 Th08W 2078
Maldives islands in analyzing the tsunami impact on the
Maldives groundwater system. 1/10/2008 Th09W 581
1/10/2008 Th10W 3680
Based on the well water quality (especially salinity)
observations made along the two transects at the 1/10/2008 Th11W 1784
Kirankulam village of Sri Lanka, Vithanage et al. (2009) 1/10/2008 Th12W 1502
concluded that the natural recovery of the well water
1/10/2008 Th13W 2049
salinisation is dependent on whether the wells are
disturbed (cleaned or well water abstracted) or not 1/10/2008 Th14W 2626
disturbed. According to Vithanage et al. (2009) the post- 1/11/2008 Th16W 1209
tsunami well water salinitation in the disturbed wells
1/11/2008 Th17W 896
persisted longer than that in the undisturbed wells.
1/11/2008 Th18W 791
Villholth et al. (2006) conducted groundwater and lagoon 1/11/2008 Th19W 875
water quality monitoring during September and November
2005 (9 months after the December 2004 tsunami impact) 1/11/2008 Th20W 547
to understand the impact of the onset of first post-tsunami 1/11/2008 Th21W 825
rainy season on the groundwater quality. Villholth et al.
1/11/2008 Th22W 1443
(2006) claimed that according to the results the overall
water quality with respect to salinity improved (average TABLE 4
well water salinity decreased from 1,250 to 950µS/cm) WELL WATER ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
with the 620mm rainfall experienced during the period OBSERVATIONS MADE IN VEYMANDOO ISLAND
between September and November. However, Villholth et Date Location ID EC (microS/cm)
al. (2006) further showed that the post-tsunami
groundwater salinity impact was still witnessed in the 1/12/2008 Ve01W 772
wells flooded with sea water (with 1240 µS/cm salinity 1/12/2008 Ve02W 1028
levels) compared to non-flooded wells (780µS/cm salinity
1/12/2008 Ve03W 711
levels).
1/12/2008 Ve04W 965
VIII. RESULTS
1/12/2008 Ve05W 972
The electrical conductivity spot observations made in six
Maldives islands during different times of the year 2008 1/12/2008 Ve06W 621
are summarized in Tables 2 to 7. Only microbial well 1/12/2008 Ve07W 1069
water quality was assessed in Thoddoo island.
1/12/2008 Ve08W 588
TABLE 2
1/13/2008 Ve09W 1210
WELL WATER ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
OBSERVATIONS MADE IN VILUFUSHI ISLAND 1/13/2008 Ve10W 1096
Date Location ID EC (microS/cm)
1/13/2008 Ve11W 833
07.01.2008 V01W 1001 1/13/2008 Ve12W 756
07.01.2008 V02W 488 1/13/2008 Ve13W 466
07.01.2008 V04W 812 1/13/2008 Ve14W 731
07.01.2008 V07W 1420 1/13/2008 Ve15W 712
07.01.2008 V09W 402 1/13/2008 Ve16W 860
1/14/2008 Ve17W 762
TABLE 3
WELL WATER ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY 1/14/2008 Ve18W 582
OBSERVATIONS MADE IN THIMARAFUSHI ISLAND
1/14/2008 Ve19W 814
Date Location ID EC (microS/cm)
1/14/2008 Ve20W 690
1/9/2008 Th01W 2690
1/14/2008 Ve21W 1086
1/9/2008 Th02W 1493
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop

17/10/2008 2 791
TABLE 5
WELL WATER ELECTRICAL CONDUTIVITY OBSERVATIONS 17/10/2008 3 980
MADE IN BURUNEE ISLAND
17/10/2008 4 1350
Date Location ID EC (microS/cm)
17/10/2008 5 1230
1/15/2008 B01W 578
17/10/2008 6 1170
1/15/2008 B02W 692
17/10/2008 7 811
1/15/2008 B03W 1701
17/10/2008 8 1230
1/15/2008 B04W 926

1/15/2008 B05W 1199 Vilufushi island


1/15/2008 B06W 809 The December 2004 tsunami impact experienced by the
Vilufushi island was ‘very high’ (Table 1). This island
1/15/2008 B07W 778 was completely inundated by the tsunami brought sea
1/15/2008 B08W 2145 water and the population evacuated. It underwent a
complete reconstruction of the buildings and the
1/16/2008 B09W 482
infrastructure. Therefore during the period of the well
1/16/2008 B10W 879 water sampling carried out in January 2008, this island
1/16/2008 B11W 890 had no native population, having transferred temporarily
to neighboring islands. Only the staff and labourers of the
1/16/2008 B12W 2066 reconstruction work (about 425 people in total) stayed at
1/16/2008 B13W 2468 that time. The water supply for these people for drinking,
1/16/2008 B14W 932
cooking and washing utensils were provided from
desalination plant. Groundwater from newly constructed
1/16/2008 B15W 1553 wells near the residences of the staff and labourers were
1/16/2008 B16W 499 used for washing purposes.

TABLE 6 Fig. 2 shows the well water sampling locations in the


WELL WATER ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OBSERVATION Vilufushi island. Among the wells sampled in the
MADE IN FENFUSHI ISLAND
Vilufushi island, well ID V01W is a newly constructed
Date Location ID EC (microS/cm) well which is used by the labourers for hand washing, but
2/7/2008 F01 1011 not very often. Well V02W is a mosque well which is
located in the middle of the island. This well water is quite
2/7/2008 F02 367 often exploited by the labourers for washing kitchen
2/7/2008 F03 3104 utensils. Wells V04W and V09W are old wells which are
now abandoned. Well V07W is also used by labourers for
2/7/2008 F04 1139
washing utensils.
2/7/2008 F05 874

2/7/2008 F06 887


The post-tsunami Vilufushi island is enlarged by land
reclamation. The new extent of the Vilufushi island is
2/7/2008 F07 1661 61ha as opposed to its original pre-tsunami size of 16ha.
2/7/2008 F08 778 Even though all the wells sampled in the Vilufushi island
are now located towards the middle of the island, under
2/8/2008 F09 2353 the pre-tsunami conditions it was only the well V02W
2/8/2008 F10 7501 which was located towards the middle of the island.
2/8/2008 F11 1689
When, three years after the December 2004 tsunami, the
2/8/2008 F12 1689 well water is sampled the abandoned wells V04W and
2/8/2008 F13 4203 V09W showed fully recovered conditions (salinity values
below 500µS/cm). These results show that when the wells
2/8/2008 F14 422
are not used and left to recover under natural conditions
2/8/2008 F15 1068 with rainwater recharge the wells fully recovered in three
2/8/2008 F16 928 years.

TABLE 7 Even though well V02W was used by the labourers, the
WELL WATER ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OBSERVATION groundwater abstraction was manual using ‘Dhani’.
MADE IN DARAVANDHOO ISLAND Therefore the abstraction rate should be below the safe
Date Location ID EC (microS/cm) yield of the aquifer and the well water salinity is less than
17/10/2008 1 1110 500µS/cm. This results shows that when the well water is
not over exploited and allowed to recover over time with
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
rainfall recharge, the post-tsunami
tsunami groundwater salinity is 2004 tsunami. The effect of this is clearly seen in the well
fully recovered in three years. water electrical conductivity observations of this island.
Only wells Th09 (School) and Th20 had groundwater
electrical conductivity levels close to 500µS/cm. This
could be because the well water in these two locations is
less exploited. Fig. 3 shows the well water sampling
locations in the Thimarafushi island.

Fig.2 Well water sampling locations in the Vilufushi Island

Wells V01W and V07W are used by the labourers. A


pipeline seen next to the well V01W showed that
Fig. 3:Well
:Well water sampling locations in the Thimarafushi Island
sometimes this well is pumped. Well V07W is pumped
with electric motor. Therefore these two wells could have
been over exploited due to frequent pumping. And the t Three locations (Th10, Th01 and Th14) showed salinity
well water salinity levels observed in these two wells were levels well above the maximum limit of fresh water
above 1,000µS/cm which is comparatively higher than (2500µS/cm). These wells are located on the east side of
what was observed in the other wells in Vilufushi island. the island which was directly exposed to the tsunami
This observation indicates that even though the wells were waves and facing the ocean. So the wave impact i was
allowed to recover over a 3 years period under rainfall relatively higher on the east side. The west side is facing
recharge, well water pumping affected the complete the lagoon of the atoll. It must also be remembered that
recovery (indicated by salinity values below 500µS/cm) of the groundwater in this island is continuously and heavily
these wells. These observations from the Vilufushi island exploited (due to higher population density) using pumps
show that the recovery of the fresh well water is and manual abstraction
straction means, hence the natural recovery
dependent
nt on time, recharge and whether the well water is of the groundwater salinity is delayed.
disturbed or not.
Compared to the east side of the island, the well water in
the west side of Thimarafushi is relatively recovered in
Thimarafushi island
Thimarafushi island experienced ‘high’ December 2004 terms of well water salinity. This suggests that both the
tsunami impact. However, unlike the Vilufushi island, the wave direction and distance from the shore played a part
natives of Thimarafushi continued to reside in the same
sam in the original impact felt by the groundwater body and
island post-tsunami.
tsunami. Also the population density of this hence the recovery status.
island is the highest among the study islands, 166
people/ha. Well water is abstracted using Dhani and Over all the well water salinity levels observed in the
demand driven electric pumps. Therefore the local Thimarafushi island compared to the Vilufushi island
groundwater was continuously exploited after December observations
servations show that the disturbance caused to the
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
groundwater body affects the groundwater recovery conductivity observations from Fenfushi island were
duration. greater than 2,500µS/cm. Also, about 50% (7 out of 16) of
the wells had electrical conductivity values above
Burunee and Daravandhoo islands 1,500µS/cm. By comparing with other islands which
Fig. 4 and 5 presents the well water sampling locations in experienced similar or severe tsunami impact, the
Burunee and Daravandhoo islands, respectively. The third electrical conductivity observations made in Fenfushi
highest level (‘Substantial’) of December 2004 tsunami island suggests that the cause of the raised electrical
impact felt among the study islands were by Burunee and conductivity observations is not December 2004 tsunami
Daravandhoo. The native population of these two islands impact but sea water intrusion.
continued to stay in the same island after the tsunami
incident. The Internally Displaced People (IDP) from the The overall well water salinity conditions
Vilufushi island were also residing in the Burunee island The overall well water electrical conductivity observations
during the period of sampling. Hence the population indicate that, even though the Maldives study islands are
density of Burunee island is relatively high (85 people/ha) very small in size, continuously undergoing wave action,
and could reasonably reflect on the well water abstraction and affected by the year 2004 tsunami brought sea water
pattern. Since groundwater in these two islands has been to varying degrees (complete inundation to coastal area
continuously exploited the groundwater salinity was not flooding), 93% of the open dug wells (out of 86 wells
fully recovered except for two wells in the Burunee island. studied) contained fresh water with electrical conductivity
None in the Daravandhoo island showed electrical values below 2,500µS/cm. In addition, 76.7% of the wells
conductivity values below 500µS/cm. However, compared studied showed electrical conductivity values below
to Thimarafushi island with respect to population density 1500µS/cm.
and hence groundwater abstraction rates, the conditions of
the Burunee and Daravandhoo islands are better. It could IX. DISCUSSION
be because of that all of the well water electrical The various studies about tsunami impact on the coastal
conductivity values were below 2500µS/cm, and lower aquifers have showed that the mechanisms of tsunami
than 1500µS/cm in the Daravadhoo island. The latter is impact on groundwater system can be categorized as;
because the population density in the Daravandhoo island 1. direct inundation of open dug wells with sea water
is lesser than that of Burunee island. Thus the well water and well water salinisation
electrical conductivity observations from Burunee and 2. infiltration of the flooded seawater into the aquifer
Daravandhoo islands clearly show that when the level of through the permeable vadose zone
groundwater disturbance is reduced the recovery of well 3. well water contamination from debris and failed
water salinity is improved within the same time period of santiation systems
three years. 4. disturbance caused to the freshwater – saline water
interface due to the tsunami induced subsurface tidal
Veymandoo and Fenfushi islands pressure waves.
Fig. 6 and 7 presents the well water sampling locations in 5. physical damage to the aquifer system. However the
Fenfushi and Veymandoo islands, respectively. degree of damage is not assessed and remains
Veymandoo, Fenfushi and Thoddoo islands experienced unknown.
‘Limited’ impact from December 2004 tsunami. The well
water electrical conductivity observations were not carried Tsunami events can also cause tidal movement of
out in the Thoddoo island. The tsunami impact seawater (induced by the tsunami pressure waves) into the
experienced by the Veymandoo island is of lesser degree coastal area groundwater body and instant mixing of the
than that of Daravandhoo island. Therefore the well water underlying saline and brackish water with the groundwater
salinity observations from the Veymandoo island could lens. According to the note on tsunami impact in the
have been lower than that of Daravandhoo island. Maldives islands made by IGRAC, the Underground
pressure wave (tide) movement of the sea water pushed
However, even though all the well water electrical the well water to the ground. However, the groundwater-
conductivity observations made in Veymanoo island are sea water mixing under this scenario is also dependent on
lying below 1,500 µS/cm they are not lower than those the proximity to the coast (beach). The further away the
observed in Daravandhoo island. It is probably because, location the mixing could be less or nil because the
the population density of Veymandoo island (25 pressure waves loose energy as it progresses through the
people/ha) is higher than that of Daravandhoo island (18 aquifer. Since Maldives islands are very small in size it is
people/ha). Since pre-tsunami groundwater conductivity very likely that the tsunami induced pressure waves
observations are not available to compare with the post- caused disturbance to the freshwater – saline water
tsunami observations, the level of groundwater salinity interface.
recovery experienced by the Veymandoo island cannot be
compared. The topography of the Maldives islands is almost flat. The
study islands were absent of depressions which can hold
Fenfushi island also experienced comparatively lesser the sea water flooded during the tsunami incident.
degree of (‘Limited’) December 2004 tsunami impact. Therefore the observed well water salinisation in the
However three out of sixteen well water electrical Maldives islands was due to direct inundation of the wells,
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
sea water infiltration throughh the vadoze zone and the
disturbance caused to the freshwater-saline
saline water interface
by the tsunami induced tidal pressure waves.

Fig. 4 Well water sampling locations in the Burunee Island

Fig. 5 Well water sampling locations in the Daravandhoo Island

Fig. 6 Well water sampling locations in the Fenfushi Island


6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
controlling this is by extraction regulatory control,
including demand management.

X. CONCLUSIONS
The study results together with a comparison with other
relevant studies showed that the groundwater salinization
from the tsunami; i) could not be remedied by pumping
out the wells, and the recovery is delayed due to the
disturbances made to the groundwater system such as
continuous well water exploitation, ii) in the absence of
intermediate post-tsunami
tsunami well water salinity
s level
observations and based on the field work salinity
observations, it seems that the natural recovery by rainfall
recharge occurred within a maximum period of three
years. The impact of the tsunami on human faecal
contamination down the wells was w immediate but
transient. The far greater, chronic problem in the Maldives
Fig. 7 Well water sampling locations in the Veymandoo Island
is the general and extreme vulnerability of the aquifer to
direct contamination from septic tank effluents.
The electrical conductivity observations made in the study
islands show that over a period of three years post-tsunami
post REFERENCES
[1] T. Falkland, “Report
Report on Integrated water resources management
mana and
the groundwater salinity levels in the affected islands sustainable sanitation for four islands, Republic of Maldives”,
Maldives
recovered to varying degrees, depending on the level of MWSA/UNICEF, September 2001..
tsunami impact, rainfall recharge, groundwater [2] Maldives Water and Sanitation Authority (MWSA)/GWP
exploitation pattern, and local effects such as sea water consultants, “Water
Water resources Tsunami impact assessment and
sustainable water sector recovery”,, September
S 2005.
intrusion. [3] Maldives ministry of Finance, “Tsunami Impact Assessment
Summary report”, 2005.
In case of microbial contamination of groundwater from [4] M.S. Vithanage, “Effect
Effect of tsunami on coastal aquifers: Field studies
failed sanitation systems, with time the pathogens die off. and Tank experiments”,, PhD thesis, Department of Geology and
Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen 2008.
Therefore recovery of microbial groundwater quality is [5] GWP consultants, “consolidation
onsolidation report of the previous groundwater
also dependent on time (at which you are assessing the studies in the Maldives’, March 2008.
quality)
ty) in addition to groundwater recharge. [6] M. Vithanage,, K.G. Villholth, K. Mahatantila, P. Engesgaard, and
K.H., Jensen, “Effect of the Indian ocean tsunami on groundwater
quality in coastal aquifers in eastern Sri Lanka”,
Lanka Science of Tsunami
Whereas faecal contamination of the aquifer is a Hazards, Vol. 28, No. 3, pages 218--231, 2009.
continuous process which will go on as long as excreta is [7] K.G. Villholth,, A.S.P. Manamperi and N. Buergi, Buergi “Chemical
allowed to enter the aquifer, saline intrusion is a process characteristics of tsunami-affected
affected groundwater
ground and lagoon on the
which depends both on groundwater extraction rates,
ra and east coast of Sri Lanka”,, Refereed paper, Sustainable development
of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation, 32nd
extreme events such as tsunamis. WEDC International Conference, Colombo, Sri Lanka,Lanka 2006

For salination to be controlled requires several measures. Websites


In the case of tsunami events the effect of direct [8] www.meteorology.gov.mv
inundation of open wells in coastal areas would be largely [9] www.igrac.net/publications/135
[10] www.un-igrac.org/publications/214
igrac.org/publications/214
eliminated by the conversion of dug wells tot tube wells.
Sanitary completion of existing dug wells requires their
backfilling with sand, and prior installation of an
appropriate tube well and pump, and installation of a
plinth with a minimum 1m radius concrete holding the
pump in place. This type of upgrade will also contribute
to the protection of well water from direct down the well
faecal contamination.

Under the well water salinisation due to underground tidal


pressure wave movement scenario, natural recovery of the
groundwater salinity levelss with rainfall recharge could be
the only feasible solution. Restricted and/or no
groundwater exploitation during the period of natural
recovery will enhance the rate of recovery.

exploitation of the aquifer causing


In the case of over-exploitation
saline intrusion from the sea the only practical means of
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4-05

Reconstruction of the 1907 Simeulue Tsunami


G.S. Prasetya1
1
ASR Indonesia
Kantor Taman Unit D Blok A9
Jl.Mega Kuningan Lot 8,9 Jakarta 12950, Indonesia
Email: gegar.prasetya@gmail.com
Abstract-. Smong, the oral history of the 1907 tsunami event Recent studies on paleotsunami deposit and
saved people on Simeulue Island during the two tsunamis caused micro-atolls provide more evidence in constructing and
by the great earthquake that occurred on 26 December 2004 defining the source areas of the events. The extent of
(Mw > 9.1) and subsequently on 28 March 2005 (Mw > 8.5). tsunamis impacting along the northern coast of Sumatra
However, little information is available regarding the source
mechanism, and the extent of the fault rupture of the 1907 event.
Island is confirmed by paleotsunami deposit found at the
Comprehensive studies on geology and geophysics of the northern Meulaboh (Monecke et al. 2008). Micro-atoll
offshore Simeulue Island, paleotsunami and geodesy, and coral data show no coral growth for the period after AD 1454
micro-atoll studies along the island have been carried out after until the early 20th century, suggesting that the reef was
those two events. Based on these studies, scenarios for the 1907 above sea level during that period on the northern part of
event are defined and provide results that are consistent with the Simeulue Island. At the southern end of the island, there is
historical story (local wisdom) of Smong, as well as with the evidence of uplift prior to AD 1907, 1861 and 1799
paleotsunami study results along the west coast of Simeulue (Meltzner et al. 2008).
Island and northern Meulaboh, Sumatra Island. The paleo event
reconstruction using numerical modelling suggests the tsunami II. TECTONIC SETTING
was greater than previously thought.
Simeulue is an offshore island located
I. INTRODUCTION approximately 150 km off the northwestern coast of
Sumatra Island. The island is ~100 km long and ~30 km
The great Sumatra earthquake and tsunamis on wide, with a NW-SE orientation parallel to the subduction
26 December 2004 affected most of the coastal areas megathrust of the Java Trench and adjacent to the zone
surrounding the Indian Ocean. The Banda Aceh region at where the fore-arc basin northwest of the island starts
the northern tip of Sumatra Island as well as the offshore marked curving widening and deepening. The fault system
Island of Simeulue was hardest hit. More than two surrounding the island was studied by Sieh and
hundred thousand people perished or were reported as Natawidjaja (2000), and interpreted to consist mainly of
missing in Banda Aceh, but minimal casualties occurred the subduction megathrust on the seaward side of the west
on Simeulue Island. Only 7 people died from the 78,128 coast, and the Western Andaman fault that runs from the
people who lived mostly along the coast of the island northwest and ends at the Banyak Islands (Figure 1). This
(McAdoo et al., 2006). This was due to the fact that the fault met with the Batee fault that crosses the Banyak
people evacuated themselves immediately to a safe place. Island from Nias to the northwest. Two large earthquakes
‘Smong’, the oral history of the 1907 event that was occurred, which were centred to the northwest and
passed down from generation to generation, helped save southwest of Simeulue Island on 26 December 2004 (Mw
lives of people who lived on this island during the great 26 = 9.1) and 28 March 2005 (Mw = 8.5).
December 2004 tsunami. The post-event survey of the 26 December 2004
Newcomb and McCann (1987) indicated that the event carried out by the coordinated International Tsunami
1907 event appeared to have been greater than the 1861 Survey Team (ITST-1), identified that the northern part of
events, but mainly because tide gauges were then in use. the island was uplifted between 2 –3 m, and the southern
However, the earthquake magnitude M = 7.6 assigned by part subsided between 0.5 – 1 m (Yalciner et al., 2005).
Gutenberg and Richter (1954) for this event is possibly However, after the 28 March 2005 event, the ITST-2
too small to generate tsunamis that affected over 950 km identified that the southern part of the island was uplifted
of the Sumatra coast from Banda Aceh to the Batu between 1 – 2 m (Figure 2).
Islands. Most of the western coast of Simeulue Island was
devastated and almost 2/3 of the population perished. Briggs et al. (2006) interpreted the cumulative
Many of the dead bodies were found on the tops of trees uplift during the two events using coral observations of 16
(McAdoo et al. 2006). According to Newcomb and continuous global positioning system (cGPS) sites. They
McCann (1987), the location of the epicenter was on the postulated that the Simeulue saddle located almost in the
seaward side of the trench slope break, but from the extent middle of the island would represent a permanent
of moderate earthquake intensities in the interior of impediment to rupture from both the northwest and from
Sumatra, it was more likely land ward of the trench. The the southeast. It would not accumulate large stresses as
aftershock was reported for 8 days, and caused only revealed on the 2002 (Mw= 7.3) earthquake that occurred
localized damaged. at the center of the saddle. This type of boundary of the
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
megathrust earthquake also occurred at Batu Island with the deformation front are identified that built the lower
the 1935 earthquake event, and become a boundary of the slope, while the piggy-back basin was considered to have
1861 and 1797 megathrust earthquake (Briggs et al., evolved during folding and uplift between folds.
2006). Interestingly, the lower slope and the outer fore-arc are
lacking a significant accretionary prism that determines
Gravity data show a local gravity high at the
the possible modes of subduction and coupling/decoupling
saddle/segment boundary location of Simeulue Island, and
along the subduction plate interface (Ladage et al. 2006).
is taken as evidence for the presence of coherent masses
of oceanic rocks beneath the ridge (Milsom et al. 1991).

Fig 3. The 3-dimensioanl view of bathymetry offshore from Simuelue


and Nias Islands based on recent surveys from Ladage et al.( 2006) that
show complex features of the deep sea trench, deformation front, lower
and middle slope, “piggy-back” and canyon formation. Map source:
Ladage et al. (2006).

Recent survey results (Franke et al., 2008)


Fig 1. Simeulue Island is located between the subduction megathrust
and the continuation of the Western Andaman Fault. Two large
offshore of Simeulue along the trench using swath
earthquakes occurred at the northwest and southwest of the Island on 26
bathymetry, multichannel seismic reflection, and wide-
December 2004 Mw > 9.1 and 28 March 2005 Mw > 8.5. Base map: angle/refraction seismic data imaged the oceanic plate
GEBCO 08. subducting beneath the fore-arc as well as upper plate
structures. A broad N-S trending ridge entering the
accretionary wedge SW of Simeulue is identified. From
the profiles, there is an increase of slab dip from 4o in the
north of the island to 6o on the south of the Island, and
sediment thickness increases from south to the north. A
fracture zone inferred previously by Newcomb and
McCann (1987) is consistent with the survey results,
where north-south oriented tectonic lineaments on the
incoming plate are related to paleo-fracture zones off
Simeulue. The data acquired during this survey also
support the common segment boundary identified
previously by Briggs et al. (2006). The ridge is about 60
km wide and strikes in a NNE- SSW direction extending
beneath the accreationary wedge, and likely beneath
Simeulue Island. Trench sediments, up to 5 km in
thickness; mask the topographic relief of the oceanic crust
so that the ridge is not identifiable on the bathymetry data
Fig 2. The Labuhan Bakti at the southern tip of Simeulue Island
experienced subsidence (photo a and b) after the 26 December 2004
(Franke et al., 2008).
event, and uplift after the 28 March 2008 (photo c and d) (Photo: G.
Prasetya).
III. DEFINING THE SOURCE REGION
The three-dimensional view of bathymetry offshore of
Simeulue and Nias Islands (Ladage et al., 2006) shows Newcomb and McCann (1987) noted that a
the deep-sea trench (>6000 m), the steep lower slope with strong earthquake had been felt on Nias Island, as well as
a small accretionary complex, and “piggy-back” basins devastation of the seaward coast of Nias and Batu Islands.
fed by canyons following tectonic lineaments that The tsunami affected over 950 km of the coastline from
dominate the middle slope (Figure 3). Few frontal folds at Batu Islands to the northern part of Sumatra Island.
Paleotsunami deposit studies (Monecke et al., 2008)
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
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4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
identified the tsunami deposit preserved along coastal AD 1454. There is no evidence for pre-historical events
areas of northern Meulaboh, Sumatra Island, that correlate after ~AD 1454 due to lack of coral living on any reefs at
with documented tsunami of AD 1907 and with two other northern Simeulue until early 20th centuries. This evidence
deposits that related to the earlier tsunamis in AD 1290 - suggested that the reefs were above sea level during the
1400 and AD 780 - 990. The sand sheets that represented entire period which is consistent with two marine terraces
the 1907 event were found up to 1 km inland, while the observed in northern Simeulue Island during the ITST 2
two others up to 1.8 km inland, as well as the recent event field survey, and correlate with the older tsunami deposit
on 26 December 2004. These finding are consistent with (Monecke et al. 2008) identified at Meulaboh, Sumatra
Newcomb and McCann (1987), but suggest that the source Island. South Simeulue experienced uplift in AD 1907,
region is larger than had previously been thought as 1861, 1843 and around 1797. These findings suggested
Gutenberg and Richter (1954) assigned the magnitude of location of the source region was further offshore where
this event as 7.6. The earthquakes were felt strongly on there is no subsidence or uplift occurring along the coast
Nias and Batu Islands, and the interior of Sumatra Island at the north and central of Simeulue Island, while to the
with moderate intensities. This suggested the location of south-end of Simeulue there is an uplift that should be
the epicenter was on the seaward of the trench slope taken into consideration.
break, but landward of the trench, which however, is
In assessing the source scenario, the fault
contradicted with the epicenter location assigned by
parameter is derived using the McCaffrey method (2008),
USGS and Integrated Tsunami Databases (ITDB/PAC
and the initial deformation is calculated using the Okada
2004) that located the epicenter on the seaward of the
method (1985). The tsunami propagation and run-up
trench.
computation are carried out using the 3DD hydrodynamic
People in Simeulue narrated that the 1907 event
model (Black, 1996) that had been applied for modelling
occurred in the morning of Friday, January 4, 1907,
of tsunami inundation (Borrero et al. 2007, Prasetya et al.
(Newcomb and McCann 1987). The tsunami devastated
2008).
most of the west coast of Simeulue Island, with initial
leading depression waves. The central coasts of Simeulue A. Scenario 1
were hardest hit, where dead bodies were found on top of This scenario considers only the location of the
the trees, as well as many coral block had been transported epicenter on the seaward of the trench slope break as
onto padi rice fields further inland. Smong the local name assigned by USGS and ITDB/PAC2004, and the negative
that represents the situation during the 1907 event, leading waves along the west coast of Simeulue Island
suggested that the initial leading wave is negative (i.e. a based on the 1907 story in determining the fault
depression leading wave) and the tsunami elevation was parameters. This gives a total length of the fault segment
as high as coconut trees, which are between 7 – 12 m as 250 km that stretched along the NW-SE trend (strike =
high. 300o) and correspond to the slip of 6.5 m. Considering the
focal depth = 10 km, and a dip angle = 10o, the maximum
Paleotsunami deposit studies on Simeulue Island
moment magnitude (Mwmax) is 8.3 (Table 1). The initial
identified deposits along the southwest coast, with clear
tsunami condition is computed with the width of fault
possibility of the 1907 event evident at Langi (northern
segment = 100 km, and provides a leading depression
coast of Simeulue Island), Latak Ayah and Naibos at
wave (Figure 4) that is consistent with the historical
central Simeulue, and Busung Bay at south Simeulue
accounts.
(Yulianto and Dengler, 2005). The deposit varied from a
fine sand sheet at the northern tip of Simeulue Island
(Langi Bay) to coarse sand mixed with broken coral or
block coral, and fine muddy swamp materials at the
central and south of the Island buried underneath
mangroves with mud or land sediment under the top layers
of the 2004 deposit.
The deposit became thicker from north to south
where the thickest deposit was found along the central part
of the island. At Busung Bay (south Simeulue), several
layers are found, which possibly relate to the 1861 event,
and other earlier events. In contrast, the northern tip of the
island (Langi Bay) showed only one sand sheet layer
beneath the land sediment with the 2004 deposit on top of
it. The 1907 tsunami deposited sediment was preserved on
top of a mangrove sediment environment.
Recent micro-atoll studies on Simeulue Island
(Meltzner et al. 2008) suggested that northern Simeulue Fig 4. Initial deformation of scenario 1 computed using the Okada
method (1985) produces a leading depression of tsunami that consistent
was uplifted in the 2004 event, and experienced an
with eyewitnesses’ accounts. The marked star is the epicenter location
earthquake couplet or triplet in the 14th – 15th century; the assigned by the USGS and ITDB/PAC2004. Scale bar of sea level units
AD 1393 with modest uplift, and substantial uplift in ~ is in metres.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
the north and south of Sumatra Island. Maximum tsunami
With this scenario, the numerical model results elevation at Meulaboh is 2 m, and at Batu Islands less than
(Figures 5 and 6) show that the tsunami impacts most of 1.5 m, while at the northern tip of Nias Island it is ~ 2 m.
the coastal areas along the west coast of Simeulue, This tsunami model is not capable of producing tsunami
Banyak, and the northern tip of Nias Islands. deposits found at Meulaboh that are preserved ~ 1- 3 m
above sea level, and ~ 1 km inland (Monecke et al. 2008).
The initial deformation also shows that most of Simelue
Island experienced subsidence, while the micro atoll study
(Meltzner et al. 2008) suggests the southern tip of
Simeulue Island was uplifted during the 1907 event.

B. Scenario 2
This scenario considers the location of epicenter
and the tsunami affected areas as suggested by Newcomb
and McCann (1987). The uplift on the southern tip of
Simeulue Island based on micro-atoll study (Meltzner et
al., 2008), tsunami deposits along the west coast of
Simeulue Island (Yulianto and Dengler, 2005) and at
Meulaboh Sumatra Island (Monecke et al. 2008) are taken
into account. With these considerations, the fault
parameters are derived using the McCaffrey method
(2008) with three segments Table 1).
The first segment represents the uplift at the
southern tip of Simeulue Island, and the source for
possible tsunami propagation to the southeastward. The
second segment represents the source of tsunami that
Fig 5. Distribution of modeled maximum tsunami elevation shows the impacted the central west coast of Simeulue Island as
west coast of Simeulue Island was hardest hit as its position is reported in the historical story of the 1907 event, and the
perpendicular to fault plane. The tsunami also affects the northern part third segment represents the source for possible tsunami
of Sumatra Island and less to the South towards Nias – Batu - Siberut impact at Meulaboh, Sumatra Island. This scenario
Islands.
provides the moment magnitude Mw = 8.5 with total
length of fault rupture 361 km.
With variable slip, length, width, and strike of
each segment, the initial deformation is computed using
the Okada method resulting in a negative leading wave
towards the west coast of Simeulue Island (Figure 7) that
is consistent with the historical account.

Figure 6. Modelled time histories of tsunami elevation at the shoreline


shows the leading negative waves dominated the characteristics of the
first waves that arrived along the affected coast, as eyewitnesses reported
during the 1907 event. The central west coast of Simeulue Island is the
hardest hit area followed by Busung Bay at the southern tip of the island
and Langi Bay at the northern tip of the Island with tsunami elevation at
the shoreline greater than 8 m and ~ 4 m respectively. Meulaboh at
northern Sumatra Island as well as Nias Island to the south experiences
tsunami elevation up to 2 m.

Tsunami elevation along the west coast of Simeulue


Island ranges from 4 – 8 m, with maximum elevation ~8 Fig 7. Initial deformation of scenario 2 computed using the Okada
m occurring along the central west coast. (Naibos). The (1985) method producing a leading depression of tsunami that is
distributions of maximum tsunami elevation at the central consistent with eyewitnesses’ accounts, as well as the uplift at the
west coast are consistent with the historical account. southern tip of the Island as revealed by micro-atoll studies by Metlzner
et al. (2008). The central and northern part of the west coast based on
However, the model shows a minimal tsunami impact to this scenario experiences subsidence from 0.2 – 0.5 m.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
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4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop

The numerical model results show the maximum


distribution of tsunami elevation along the shoreline of
west coast Simeulue Island varies between 8 – 11 m, and
along the northern Sumatra Island (Meulaboh area)
between 4 – 7 m (Figures 8 and 9).
With this scenario, tsunami impact to the
southeast is less than to the north as maximum tsunami
elevation at Nias Island is ~ 2.5 m, and at Batu Islands
less than 2 m. The tsunami elevation along the central
west coast of Simeulue Island could explain the
eyewitnesses account where many of the dead bodies were
found in tree tops. While the 4 – 7 m tsunami elevation at
Meulaboh is capable of inundating the coastal low-lying
areas up to 1 km inland, as well as depositing sediment Fig 9. Modelled time histories of tsunami elevation based on scenario 2
further inland, as observed during the 26 December 2004 shows that central Simeulue (Naibos) experienced tsunami elevation at
event. the shoreline >10 m, while the extension of the fault segment to the north
produced considerable tsunami elevation at the northern part of Sumatra
This scenario shows the initial deformation Island (Meulaboh) that varies from 5 – 7 m. To the southeast, the
caused the southern tip of the island to be uplifted, and northern tip of Nias Island experienced tsunami elevation up to 3 m, and
half of the central and northern parts of the west coast of <2 m at Batu Islands,
the island subsided by 0.2 – 0.5 m. This subsidence is not
consistent with the coral study results (Meltzner et al. C. Scenario 3
2008) that show the reefs were above sea level until the In scenario 2, most of the modelled tsunami wave
early 20th century with evidence of no coral growth for phenomena are consistent with most of the historical data
that entire period of time. and recent findings, except the subsidence that occurred
along the central and northern part of the west coast.
Recent geology and geophysical studies at the offshore
Simeulue Island (Ladage et al. 2006 and Franke et al.
2008) show that the lower slope, and the outer fore-arc
lack significant accretionary prism. Considering this, the
width of the central segment is reduced from 60 km to 40
km (Table 1), while other fault parameters are kept the
same as for scenario 2. The computed initial deformation
using these fault parameters shows that there is no
subsidence along the west coast of Simeulue Island
(Figure 10) as expected from micro-atoll studies (Meltzner
et al. 2008).

Fig 8. Modelled distribution of maximum tsunami elevation based on


scenario 2 shows the west coast of Simeulue Island was hardest hit with
maximum tsunami elevation at central Simeulue >10 m, while the
extension of the fault segment to the north produced a high tsunami
elevation at the northern part of Sumatra Island, but less to the south
towards Nias – Batu - Siberut Islands.

Fig 10. Initial deformation using scenario 3 computed using the Okada
(1985) method shows that the subsidence is not occurring at the central
and northern part of the west coast of Simeulue Island, and uplift only
occurs at the southern tip of the island. Modification of the width of fault
segment 2 that take into consideration the recent survey results (Ladage
et al, 2006 and Franke et al. 2008) provide the deformation pattern as
revealed on micro-atolls studies by Metlzner et al. 2008.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
The numerical model results (Figures 11 and 12) magnitude from 8.3 (scenario 1) to 8.5, which involves a
show that tsunami elevation along the coastal area at total 360 km fault length consisting of three segments.
Meulaboh is stills the same as scenario 2, which is The variable slip applied is related to the story of the 1907
between 4 – 7 m. However, along the west coast of event on the west coast of Simeulue, the characteristic of
Simeulue Island, the tsunami elevation distribution is paleotsunami deposits identified along the west coast of
reduced, and varies from 3 to 7 m as the width of the Simeulue and northern Meulaboh Sumatra Island, and the
central segment is reduced. The maximum tsunami coral studies.
elevation of ~ 7 m at Naibos in central Simeulue is still
high enough to accommodate the evidence of the 1907 Time histories of Tsunami scenario 3
historical story. At Langi (northern tip of the Island), the
tsunami elevation is slightly reduced in the order of 0.5 m 10
compared to scenario 2. At Busung Bay (South Simeulue), 8

Tsunami Elevation (m)


6 Busung Bay
the modelled tsunami waves show that the second wave is
4 Naibos
the largest while in scenario 2, the first wave is the largest. Langi
2
The tsunami elevation varies between 2 – 5 m. Further Meulaboh
0
south at the northern tip of Nias Island, the tsunami Lhok Nga

115
134
153
172
191
210
229
20
39
58
77
96
1
-2 Nias
elevation varies between 1 – 2.5 m, and at Batu Islands, -4 Batu
tsunami elevation at the shoreline is less than 2 m. -6
-8
Time (minutes)

Fig 12. Modelled distribution of maximum tsunami elevation based on


scenario 3 shows the same pattern as scenario 2 except for the
distribution of tsunami elevations along the west coast of Simeulue
Island.

The resulting tsunami elevation from scenario 2


explained most of the paleotsunami deposit evidence
(Figure 13) such as the thickest deposit mixed with coral-
boulders identified along the central west coast of
Simeulue (Naibos) corresponding to the highest tsunami
elevation reaching ~ 11 m. This maximum elevation is
consistent with the story of the 1907 event, where many
dead bodies were stranded in the tree tops. Along the
southern part of the island (Busung Bay) that experienced
uplift (as referred to coral studies, Meltzner et al. 2008),
tsunami elevation at the shoreline reached ~ 5 m. Several
layers of tsunami deposit are found at this site, and some
Fig 11. Modelled distribution of maximum tsunami elevation based on
are possibly due to previous events from southeastern
scenario 3 shows the same pattern as scenario 2 except for the
sources, such as the 1861, 1833, 1797 and other older
distributiom of tsunami elevation along the west coast of Simeulue
Island. The maximum tsunami elevation is reduced considerably from
events. At Meulaboh, tsunami wave elevation that reaches
greater than 10 m to ~ 7 m as shown clearly on the time histories (Figure
~ 7 m is high enough to inundate and deposit sediment at
12). a distance of ~ 1 km inland with topography elevation
between 1 to 3 m above sea level (Monecke et al. 2008),
IV. DISCUSSION as was also observed during the 26 December 2004 event
along the west coast of north Sumatra.
Clearly scenario 1 is the most favorable to
explain the 1907 historical tsunami event on Simeulue Scenario 3 is introduced because the coral
Island, until recent studies related to paleotsunami evidence for the central and northern part of Simeulue
deposits along northern Sumatra Island, micro-atolls or Island (Meltzner et al. 2008) is not consistent with the
coral studies around Simeulue Island and continuous initial deformation that shows a subsidence within a range
Global Position System (cGPS), and offshore Simeulue of up to 0.5 m in scenario 2. Reducing the width of the
geology and geophysical studies. These studies suggest central fault segment (segment 2) based on recent geology
that the source of the 1907 event is larger than previously and geophysical studies (Ladage et al. 2006 and Franke et
thought, and involves more than one fault segment. al. 2008) that show the lack of an accretionary prism
Identification of the 1907 paleotsunami deposit at offshore Simeulue, provide the initial deformation that is
northern Meulaboh is a key factor in determining the consistent with coral evidence at northern Simuelue Island
extent of the fault rupture and the size of the earthquake, where the reefs were above sea level during 14th century
while the coral studies mostly control the size and to the early 20th century. This scenario produces the same
characteristic of tsunami impact on Simeulue Island and wave characteristic to the north (Meulaboh) as scenario 2
further southeastward. Scenario 2 increases the moment since the properties of the fault plane are the same, but not
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
to the southern tip of the island, even though the fault landslide as revealed on detailed multi-channel seismic
plane is the same as scenario 2. At southern Simeulue profiling carried out offshore of Simeulue (Franke et al.
(Busung Bay) the second waves were the largest instead 2008). This possibly enhances the tsunami elevation
of the first as produced by scenario 2. However, their resulting from scenario 3 at the central west coast of
magnitudes are the same. The tsunami elevations at Simeulue Island as is what occurred during Flores 1992
central Simeulue were reduced with maximum elevation ~ and Biak 1996 tsunamis.
7 m.
From all scenarios, the extent of tsunami impact
towards the Batu Islands (southeastward from the source
region) was less compared to the north. Maximum
tsunami elevation at Batu Islands is not more than 2 m,
and ~ 3 m at the northern tip of Nias Island. However,
Newcomb and McCann (1987) reported during this event
that Nias and Batu Islands were severely devastated.

V. CONCLUSION

Recent study on tsunami deposits along the west


coast of northern Sumatra as well as coral studies and
geology and geophysical survey results from offshore
Simeulue, improve considerably knowledge about the
source parameters of the 1907 event. The moment
magnitude of the earthquake (Mw) becomes 8.49 with
total rupture length of 360 km that consist of three
segments with variable slip, width and length. The
resulting tsunami waves are consistent with the historical
story or legend of the 1907 ‘Smong” that saved people in
Simeulue Island during the great 26 December 2004
tsunami, as well as the paleotsunami deposits that are
preserved along the west coast of Simeulue Island and
along the west coast of northern Sumatra Island
Fig 13. The maximum tsunami elevations show relatively uniform (Meulaboh). The coral data provide useful information in
distribution along the seaward side of the Simeulue Island with heights determining the deformation pattern and characteristic of
between 7 – 11 m. This produced tsunami deposits that had been
preserved along the coast. The deposits clearly show the evidence of the the wave that may have impacted upon coastal areas, and
1907 events, and also some other events that affected the southern end of the width of accretionary wedges revealed from the
the Island (Busung Bay, C). At this southern end (C), there are at least 3 multichannel seismic and swath bathymetry survey. This
others events identified from the sand layer deposited in the 1907 event. study result shows that the combination of coral data,
They are possibly the 1861, 1833 or 1797 and the 1600’s events which
occurred further southeastward. The same condition was also found by paleotsunami deposits and the onshore-offshore geology
Monecke et al. 2008 at Meulaboh (Sumatra Island). and geophysical survey results are crucial in defining the
source region and analyzing the near field tsunami event
Comparing the result of scenario 2 and 3 at and their impact to the coastal region.
central Simeulue in terms of tsunami elevation to the
historical story of the 1907 event, and the distribution of
the tsunami deposits, leads to the realization that scenario
2 is favorable with an 11 m tsunami elevation. Moreover, ACKNOWLEDGMENT
the subsidence within a range of 50 cm will not change the The numerical model research work had been funded
position of coral platform as the great earthquake in the through NZIDRS, Ministry of Education, New Zealand.
14th century suggested high uplift as was revealed during Thanks to Drs. Rahman Hidayat, Dinar C Istiyanto, Widjo
the 26 December 2004 event. In addition to this is the Kongko, Lukianto and all ITST Sumatra 2004 Teams for
possibility of a rebounding mechanism shortly after the providing the fieldwork data.
event that allowed the coral to arise back at a certain level
after being subsided, as what observed during the field REFERENCES
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6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop

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Fajar, S., Djajadihardja, Y.: 2006, Bathymetric Survey
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earthqukaes, The Geological Society of America 36 (3),
263-266.
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northern Sumatra, Nature 455, 1232-1234.
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Shen, C., Suwargi, B.W., Natawidjaja, D.H.: 2008,
Earthquake Reccurence and Long-Term Segmentation
Near the Boundary of the 2004 and 2005 Sunda
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Meeting, abstract #T51C-08.
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Okada, Y.: 1985, Surface deformation due to shear and


tensile faults in a half space, Bulletin of Seismological
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Prasetya, G.S., Healy, T.R., de Lange, W.P (2008).


Extreme tsunami runup and inundation flow at Banda
Aceh, Indonesia: Are there any solution to this type of
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Jaffe, B (eds): Solution to Coastal Disaster 2008
Tsunamis, ASCE, pp.13-26.

Prasetya
Yulianto, E., and Dengler, L.: 2006, Paleotsunami study in
Simeulue Island, Preliminary results, Poster Paper at The
100th Anniversary Earthquake Conference
Commemorating The 1906 San Fransisco Eartquake,
April 18 – 22, 2006. The Moscone Center. San Fransisco.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4-06

Living in the red zone of tsunami: perception,


action and recommendation of community of
Katapiang and Ulakan
Suhatril Isra, Madonna
Building Disaster and Climate Change Resilience in Padang Pariaman Farming Communities West Sumatera (Bumi
Ceria), FIELD-Indonesia Foundation
Jl. Rohana Kudus No. 128 Kampung Ladang, Lubuk Alung, Padang Pariaman, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia
E-mail: fieldind@indosat.net.id

Abstract: Community of Nagari Katapiang and Ulakan lives in Ulakan, Ulakan Tapakis sub-district. Both are part of
the shore of Indian Ocean. Living in the tsunami red zone for Padang Pariaman district.
genarations is a given for them and they understand that they live
in high risk of tsunami and earth quake zone. They never though The paper itself focus more on the current situation of
to move to other areas since they belong to these nagari.
However, they determine to become community with tsunami
community of two nagari mentioned above, their
preparedness. Participatory vulnerability and capacity perception on earthquake and tsunami, efforts that have
assessment, simulation, first aid training, strengthen the exist been conducted and recommendation for government and
community preparedness team and advocacy at nagari and sub- related parties in terms of disaster risk reduction
district level have been taken to achieve this goal. They particularly the tsunami hazard.
understand the importance of education for every level of
community members on disaster management. Hence, LIVING IN TSUNAMI RED ZONE
coordination and distribution of roles between government, Population of Nagari Katapiang and Ulakan as population
community, private sector, NGOs in building resilience on of other nagari located in the western coast of Sumatra
disaster is important agenda to address.
have been spending their life and develop the livelihood
Keyword: tsunami community preparedness, tsunami risk for many generations in the shore. They make living as
reduction, education towards tsunami resilience. fishermen and farmers. The population fulfills their needs
for food by planting rice. Katapiang has irrigation for
paddy fields while Ulakan relies to rain fall to irrigate
INTRODUCTION their paddy fields.

The Siberut segment is predicted to induce a 8.9 There are many people come and go to these nagari for its
magnitude earth quake which potentially generate uniqueness. Nagari Kataping is the air gate since it has
tsunami. Seven districts in West Sumatra are areas that international airport that serve domestic and international
will suffer from severe damage including hundred passangers. Nagari Ulakan is visited by many pilgrims for
thousand of lives due to this. Ever since Aceh tsunami in the renowned tomb of Syech Burhanuddin. Thousands of
2004, earth quake on September 30 2009 and Mentawai people come to visit the tomb especially on Syafar, prior
tsunami in 2010 took place, many parties pay more Ramadhan and after Ied Fitri.
attention to West Sumatra. Many efforts have been done
by government, private sector, NGO and community that Nagari Katapiang has 12.293 lives consist of 6.197 female
take forms in rehabilitation, mitigation and preparedness and 6.096 male and spread on 64.25 km2 area while
against tsunami hazard activities. Nagari Ulakan has 14.244 lives and 21.50 km2 wide. It’s
population consists of 6.549 male and 7.695 female.
Therefore, tsunami becomes daily issue rather than
threatening and caused panic issue among community. The topography of these nagari are flat and situated on 0 –
The awareness of community to become familiar with 6 meter from the Indian Ocean level. There is no hilly area
their natural condition gradually built. It can be seen from that can function as evacuating location when tsunami
the economic activities. They keep on sailing and farming occurs. The main roads are parallel to the sea and the
their lands. Besides, they have done efforts to increase numbers of roads that are vertical to the sea are limited.
preparedness in terms of disaster risk reduction. Besides, it also has many estuaries of many big rivers that
flow across the nagari. Batang Kasang flows over Nagari
Amongst highly risk areas, nagari that are located near Katapiang and Batang Ulakan and Batang Tapakis flow
Indian Ocean face higher risk than others. Therefore, two over Nagari Ulakan.
nagari were chosen as reference in this paper. The nagari
are Nagari Katapiang, Batang Anai sub-district and Nagari
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
There are fewer varieties of large plants growing here. towards disaster resilience. There are many efforts aiming
Coconut tree is the common large plant found with scarce at increasing capacity such as training and socialization of
vegetation. Therefore, there are many empty spaces disaster risk reduction at schools, mosques and
between plants and it is filled with bush. In addition to community, strengthening capacity of disaster
abrasion erodes the sea shore slowly but surely, flood preparedness team (KSB), nursery of multi purposes trees,
comes once a year and storm happens occasionally. planting trees along coastline and encouraging all parties
(government, midwives, teachers, customary leaders,
religious leaders, bundo kanduang / women leaders,
PERCEPTION OF COMMUNITY ON TSUNAMI farmers’ leader, head of korong, PKK and cadres) to live
All community members of these two nagari are aware tsunami alert life style.
that they are living in the tsunami red zone. However,
according to the results of participatory vulnerability ACTION TAKEN
assessment conducted od May 2011 it found that efforts to Actions toward nagari disaster resilience have been taken
anticipate the disaster are not optimal yet including gradually by the community of Nagari Katapiang and
distribution of roles among community and other related Ulakan. It has been started post Aceh tsunami in 2004,
parties. September 2009 earthquake and Mentawai tsunami in
2010. The actions are increasing ever since Japan tsunami
The assessment aims to assess capacity and vulnerability took place on March 2011. The following are actions that
in 5 resources which are human, natural, social, financial has been and will be taken by the community:
and physical. The results show the main vulnerability lays 1. Community of Katapiang and Ulakan have been
on human and physical resources followed by social, trained on disaster risk reduction and have conducted
financial and natural aspect. tsunami evacuating simulation. It was held in the
schools. Now, they are planning to conduct simulation
The vulnerability on human aspects are 1) uneven in regular basis.
understanding of community on anticipation efforts to be 2. In addition to simulation, community held field school
taken when tsunami occures in household, nagari and on participatory vulnerabilty and capacity assessment
district level. There is no evacuation SOP for family, and presented the results in nagari and sub-district
agreement of meeting point for family members and level.
emergency bag has not prepared yet. Community assumes 3. Rebuilding the existed disaster preparedness team
that it is better to use motor cycle and car to run from (KSB) is also important move taken aside establish
tsunami. In fact, the capacity of evacuation road is new team at korong level.
inadequate. For nagari level, simulation of disaster 4. First aid and training participated by community
preparedness has been conducted once and there is no members, midwives, teachers, member of disaster
early warning system for tsunami. This is not enough to preparedness team and cadres also became part of
build nagari resilience on disaster management. The belief action to increase community preparedness.
saying that as long as the tomb of Syech Burhanuddin 5. As mitigation action a group of farmer is making
exist in Nagari Ulakan tsunami will not occure make the nursery for multi purpose trees to be planted on
effort to build community resilience slowing down. tsunami red zone.
6. Advocacy to convince local government on the
Vulnerability in physical aspect shows by lack of numbers important of disaster education and providing adequate
of evacuation route, the capacity of evacuation routes is evacuating routes and shelters. These issues have been
not adequate to accomodate people of nagari, no delivered to governor of West Sumatra written and
evacuating shelter, and the health center located by the sea verbally in farmers’ camp called Galanggang Alam
shore. In social aspect, the vulnerabilities are disaster Petani Organik which was held on July 21 – 23, 2011.
preparedness team is not capable enough, community The camp was attended by 400 farmers from West
have certain attitude such as indifferent, surrender to fate, Sumatra and other provinces holding workshops with
lack of trust for the leader and organization management, 5 different themes which one of it are disaster risk
diminishing gotong royong tradition, low rate of self reduction.
reliance, and there is no common agreement on
distribution of roles when tsunami occurs. In financial RECOMMENDATION
aspect the vulnerability is lack of habit to have saving in This is community recommendation gathered trough
form of immovabel property such as gold and food several events held including 1) Field school on
security. With respect to natural aspect, the utilization of participatory vulnerability and capacity assessment on
productive lands including yard have not been optimal yet. May 2011, 2) Farmers’ camp: Galanggang Alam Petani
Types and numbers of plants that can function as coastal Organik on July 2011, 3) Multi stake holders workshop on
barrier are less while yards are not utilized as area to August 2011, and 4) Training on Disaster Risk Reduction
provide food security at house hold level. in Nagari Katapiang and Ulakan on September and
October 2011.
All vulnerabilities mentioned above are related one 1. Given geographically located on area with high
another. Consequently, community needs to increase their vulnerability against disaster force government and
capacity and make action plan to reduce its vulnerability community to be prepared in dealing with disaster.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
2. Forming and providing support to achieve nagari with the red tsunami zone has to take action to accelerate the
disaster preparedness is an obligation of government. process. Indifferent, surrender to fate, lack of trust for the
3. Government obligation to protect its community from leader and organization management, diminishing gotong
disaster should be written in government development royong tradition, low rate of self reliance, and there is no
planning and budgetting by providing access to common agreement on distribution of roles when tsunami
community to participate in planning process and to occures are weaknesses found in community lives in
monitor its implementation through Musrenbang tsunami red zone. In addition to human aspect, lacks of
Nagari (nagari consultation in generating development evacuating infrastructure make the condition worse.
plan) to district level. The budget should cover Hence, these weaknesses should be address to build
activities to educate community on disaster risk community resilience in managing disaster. The main
reduction, establishing evacuating routes, and points to be addressed by governments and community are
increasing capacity of disaster preparedness team. the provision of evacuating routes and conducting efforts
Indicators of the implementation are disaster to increase capacity of community in disaster risk
preparedness teams are active in community, reduction.
government is aware to conduct efforts with regards to
disaster risk reduction, teachers and students are ACKNOWLEDGMENT
prepared as well as health providers and cadres. This project is supported financially by the USAID under
4. Build evacuating shelter for community to escape from project titled Building Disaster and Climate Change
tsunami and produce an easy to understand evacuating Resilience in Padang Pariaman Farming Communities
map. West Sumatera (Bumi Ceria). We thank the director of
5. District development plan should have disaster risk FIELD – Indonesia Foundation for the support and the
reduction insight. project manager of FIELD – Bumi Ceria for the
6. Conduct field school on participatory vulnerability and suggestion and critical reviews of the paper.
capacity assessment.
7. Ninik mamak (customary leaders) , alim ulama REFERENCES
(religious leaders), cadiak pandai (scholars) become [1] Galanggang Petani Organik (GAPO), Recommendation of Workshop
5 – Disaster Risk Reduction, July, 2011.
Suluh Bendang, people in nagari who promote disaster
[2] FIELD – Bumi Ceria, Nagari Profile – Katapiang and Ulakan,
risk reduction issue in nagari. January, 2011.
8. Develop program to plan and preserve trees in coastal, [3] FIELD – Bumi Ceria, Participatory Vulnerability and Capacity
hill and river bank area. Assessment Results, July, 2011.
[3] FIELD – Bumi Ceria, Progress Report, October 2011 – June 2011.
9. House hold should be able to reduce disaster risk.
[4] FIELD – Bumi Ceria, Proceeding of Multi Stakeholder Workshop,
Padang Pariaman, August, 2011.
CONCLUSION [5] Statistic of Padang Pariaman, 2009.
All parties have roles in reducing vulnerability and
building disaster resilience. It takes long time to rely on
government to achieve it. Therefore, community living in
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4-07

Education Reconstruction After Tsunami in Aceh


(Lesson Learn from Aceh Province)
Adlim
Former Education Manager of BRR NAD Nias
Academic staff at Teacher Training and Education Faculty
Syiah Kuala University Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111
Email : adlimbandang@yahoo.com or adlim@unsyiah.ac.id

Abstract: Reconstruction of education after tsunami December the teachers were invited to select the text books for their
26, 2004 in Aceh brought some lesson learns for the schools. Then subsequently the budget was block granted to the
implementer. Unreliable data on the number of schools school to buy the books. Problems in housing reconstruction also
destroyed, teachers and students died and data mixed with gave political pressure to the BRR and the local governments.
conflict-affected schools was one of the challenges for This situation make some of local governments being skeptical
composing the strategic & action plans. The personal interest, and even rejected the BRR programs although their staff was
political pressure from politicians attempted to shift away from hired as the PIU of the BRR projects. Some corruption issue,
the reconstruction planning. The BRR master plans that were weak monitoring activities at the end BRR administration and
composed by Bappenas during the emergency period were exaggeration of those issues in media also affected the people
reviewed and adjusted to real current situation. BRR started opinion on the BRR work including in education
execute the program by conducting project proposal screening reconstruction.Should BRR set up the regional offices earlier in
and established project information system as known RAND monitoring of the project might be carried out, these might
database for the coordination system. In the system it is recorded reduce and anticipate the reconstruction problems.
that the total off-budget for education sectors was Rp.
1.783.247.297.600, whereas the on-budget implemented by BRR Keywords: education, reconstruction, BRR, tsunami
NAD Nias was only Rp. 400.157.959.445. The off-budget
implemented by more than 92 NGOs and 17 donors and the on-
budget was implemented by BRR personnel that were a director
and four managers and five PIU team to rehabilitate and rebuilt
I. INTRODUCTION
more 2554 schools and other education infrastructures,
distributed scholarship etc. Most of staff worked very hard to After December 26, 2004 and subsequent
learn the project management instantly and at the same time they earthquake of March 2005 on Nias Island, the life of Aceh
must have capacity as the implementer. BRR at the beginning province and Nias has changed tremendously. In the
worked just as a coordinator for all reconstruction projects but devastated area, the lost in education sector was estimated
due to national regulation of finance, later BRR must also work that as 2500 school teachers and more 4900 students either
as the implementer. BRR face some challenges including perished or were reported missing. About 2135 schools
competition among the reconstruction implementers to claim were destroyed or heavily damaged [1].
their working areas and neglecting collaboration with BRR as
well as delaying the reconstruction process. These gave some
During the emergency period, there was
consequences for the people and brought to psychological Indonesian government agency which is known as
pressure for the BRR as the Government of Indonesian agency. Bakorrnas-BP (Badan Koordinasi Nasional
Political tension raise when reconstruction process was very Penanggulangan Bencana dan Pengungsi). It was
slow whereas, students had been in the tents for two years. BRR established an ad hoc disaster management structure to
replaced the tent schools with temporary schools to reduce coordinate the relief effort [2]. The Bakornas were
tensions on the issue of delaying reconstruction process. Some supported by hundred humanitarian organization both
schools were re-grouping; some were re-built in the same place national and international. It was 16 thousand troops work
to avoid land conflict. In high seismic and costal zone, the together to evacuate bodies, cleaning the environment,
schools were built with steel construction. Massive civil work
activities (nearly 400 construction package of the education
provide food, temporary shelter, water supply and tent
projects in a year) and dispersed to all districts brought some schools.
problems in monitoring the projects, material logistics, the The international helps include mobilizing 9
competency of contractors. To deal with insufficient teachers in carrier vessels, 14 battle ships, 31 airplanes, 75 helicopters
remote and isolated area, BRR gave some incentives to the pre- were used for the rescue, the evacuation, the logistic
service teachers in local university to do their internship and distribution and medical assistance. It was recorded that
those areas. Some scholarships were also provided to university this was the biggest humanitarian mission after world war
students with indirect distribution. The budget was block-granted II. The emergency period was considered accomplished
to their local universities and the university was given authority by Indonesian President on March 26, 2005 [3].
to manage it. BRR also upgraded the school textbooks other
facilities. Procurement for textbook books and other school
The impact of this catastrophe was particularly
needs were initiated by performing school-textbook expo where severely on Aceh Province since the education standard in
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop

the province had already been very low as the impact of In blue print, it stated that “the numbers of
the decade long of political conflict. During conflict the damaged schools due to earthquake & tsunami were about
education service delivery and investment was disturbed 2,135 comprising 101 Kindergarten, 1,521 Primary
and destroyed. Hundreds of school were burnt, repeatedly Schools, 293 Junior Secondary Schools, 172 Senior
displacing teachers and students, and made the learning Secondary Schools, 20 Technical and Vocational Schools,
environment uncomfortable [4]. This situation also made 5 special schools and 23 higher education institutions both
some excuses for the teachers in rural moved to the saver public and private. There are 2,190 non-formal education
place and subsequently education service in rural become institutions, which includes early childhood education
worst. (PADU) centers, Centers for community learning
After emergency period, the Indonesian (PKBM), Course institutions, Qur’an education centers
government established the new agency for reconstruction (TPA). The disaster also damaged supporting equipment
process named as BRR, the Agency for Rehabilitation and and facilities at the education office at provincial and
Reconstruction (BRR – Badan Rehabilitasi dan district level such as education quality assurance
Rekonstruksi). At the beginning, the BRR scope of work institutions (LPMP), learning activities studios (SKB),
was just doing coordination among NGOs, international Houses for teachers and technicians of the schools,
donors and local government. The on budget was Libraries, workshops, etc. [1].
implemented by local government under supervision of About 2,500 teaching and non teaching staff
BRR-NAD Nias. However after BRR run one year, passed away, and about 40,900 students passed away,
Department of Finance and the national body for financial 3,000 teachers and non-teaching staff lost their houses,
monitoring (BPK-Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan) insisted 46,000 students are living in temporary housing and tents
that BRR must responsible not just monitoring but also and about 150,000 students have lost their proper
acted the implementing agency for on-budget project, education facilities.
budget disbursement and monitoring. Therefore since BRR analyzed the education master plan and
2006, BRR implemented on-budget project in amount of developed the action plans assisted by professional
US$ 1357 million) including in education sector as much consultant. However the action plans were re-adjusted
as US$ 29,317,429. Whereas the off-budget that was several times since many adjustment following the
implemented by other agency (NGOs, UN agency & multi dynamic situation. For instant, reconstruction of schools
donors) and under coordination of BRR was US$ 3211 that caused by conflict were subsequently included in
millions [5]. action plan.
Implementing the big projects was really Many people & agency such as politicans, local
working under pressure. Media was observed every government, some universities proposed the new
moment and release all interesting news on the media programs with their own interest and many of which were
views including skeptics on the BRR performance and not in the master plans. Some political parties insisted to
some others discourage news made BRR worked build private universities located in at the top of the hill
uncomfortable. The projects were dispersed in 23 districts that were neither affected by tsunami nor earthquake.
of Aceh and Nias with limited logistics & skill labors, in Some universities outside Aceh also insisted BRR to buy
tight schedule, low human resources and inharmonized their product and services and asked to provide
communication with local authority in field brought some scholarships for people of Aceh to take a new & special
interesting experience and lesson learn. This experience is program in their universities. Whereas other university
important to elaborate as stated by Unesco (2010) in gave free-tuition for students of tsunami victims. Teacher
“Guide Book in planning education in emergency and organization proposed additional incentive for them and
reconstruction” that “Most of the expertise is still in the permanently hired the temporary teachers. The women
heads of practitioners and needs to be collected, since organization also asked to provide special schools for
memories fade fast. Diverse experiences of educational women only, some community come to BRR with project
reconstruction must now be more thoroughly documented proposals and asked BRR to provide budget for
and analyzed before they disappear” [6]. scholarship or other educational activities for them.
Moreover, many BRR personnel also request budget for
II. THE EDUCATION MASTER PLAN IN BRR programs that was outside the master plan. However BRR
BLUE PRINT committed to reconstruct education facilities as stated in
The BRR scope of work followed the BRR Blue master plan.
print which was composed during emergency period. The Should BRR followed those instant programs, the
Blue print which included the education master plan was mission would have been not accomplished and BRR
developed by university scholars and the local would have been trapped by not strategic programs and
governments. It was sent to National Government to be following the instant requested of the community. It might
reviewed and subsequently being formally as the blue have been demonstration, rebellion and chaos when
print for BRR to perform the reconstruction. The blue everybody would have been fighting to get the budget for
print was signed by Republic Indonesian as President their proposals, but these were not happened since BRR
decree of #30, 2005 [1]. committed on education master plans.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop

III. BRR DIRECTORATE OF EDUCATION but it took very long time for them to start build the
BRR was a GOI agency that was equivalent to a school. Whereas, students who had been in hot- tent-
ministerial administration. BRR has three parties that the school were no longer patient to wait too long. Finally the
steering board, the implementing agency, the supervision school principals gave the site to other NGOs who could
board. Governor Aceh was the vice chairman of BRR. In build their school immediately and conflict among NGOs
BRR administration, education sector was divided in two on fighting for working site took place.
components which are informal education and the BRR would not approve NGO project concept
component of both nonformal and formal education. note if the source of their funding had not confirmed. BRR
Informal education was under administration of the held coordination meeting and gave ultimatum for NGOs
Deputy for Religion, Social and Culture. Whereas, both to implement their project on time.
formal and non formal education was managed under
Deputy for Education and Health. This Deputy had two
directorates which were the Directorate of Education and BRR
the Directorate of Health. The Directorate of education Directorate
has responsible to reconstruct schools, and the supporting of
facilities and human resources. While, reconstruction for education
administration office of provincial or district education
was expected as the scope of work at Deputy of
Government facilities. However, there were Imple- BRR
misunderstood between these Deputies, thereby, the menting
BRR
online Regional
education facilities for administration purposes were not partners Concept
reconstructed although there were included in education (NGOs, notes
office
master plan.
To implemented the on-budget project BRR
Directorate of education form 5 PIUs (Project
Implementation Unit) and monitored by 4 managers and Provincial
several administration staff. Each PIU had their own /Distric
office and they had responsible for the procurement, the Education
execute the project, the budget disbursement and all Temporary schools
project payment and monitoring the project. The PIUs During emergency period,
were the compulsory education, the middle school
education, the religious school education, the higher Fig. 1. Schema coordination on
education and the PIU for ADB (Asian Development
reviewing the concept notes
Bank) Education Support.

Coordination among the implementing agencies students study in tents which were very hot and after
The government of Indonesia (GOI) gave several months became moldy. Whereas, it took more than
permission for NGOs, donors to implement their project one year to rebuild the new schools. Local media has
with their own budget and this was known as off-budget. criticized that students had been two year study in the tent
It was recorded that 92 NGOs and 17 donors work in and it would take more years to have permanent schools.
education sector (BRR-Report, 2006). The number of Then, BRR conducted survey the tent-school and provided
NGOs might be more since some NGOs were not 44 packages of temporary school with dimension of 6m x
registered in BRR. They have worked earlier during 6m per classroom and 3 classrooms for each block. The
emergency period before BRR existed. Whereas some construction was semi permanent with wall of polywood
others had have collaboration with other ministry and and zinc roof as shown in Fig. 2.
filling reluctant to work under coordination of BRR. BRR
insisted NGOs to work together under their coordination
by opening temporary emigration office in BRR and the
working permit & visa were endorsed by BRR. BRR also
develop concept note online system to review the program
proposed by NGOs, donor and other implementing
partners. The project proposals were reviewed in a
meeting involving related sectors in BRR and provincial
education (Dinas Pendidikan) as shown in Fig.1. When
the project proposal approved then the implementing
partner were given permission to execute the program
under coordination of BRR. Some NGOs attempted to
register their project immediately and subsequently search
for donors. Many NGOs also claimed their working site

Fig. 2. Temporary school building


6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop

recommendation immediately to build the schools and


waiting some change happened. Finally, the some NGOs
BRR gave block grant (Rp. 50 million per block) to each like Education International agreed rebuilt the school
school committee to build their temporary schools even though they were insufficient students. Many people
following BRR design. The building materials could be said there were more schools than students.
used the used timber found around the location. The
building would belong to the community and should they Reconstruction Material
did not have land to build it, then the temporary school BRR had facing some experience on the material
would be used as the compensation for renting the land construction choices. In Simueule, many school structure
after the building no longer being used [7]. was steel due to high frequency of earthquake and the
schools are located in seismic & coastal zone. There were
IV. PROBLEM AND SOLUTION ON 50 schools built by CORDAID, an NGO supported by
DUCATION INFRASTRUCTURE Nederland Government. The structure of the schools were
RECONSTRUCTION pre-fabricated and installed easily in the location. The
Some government regulation that is applied for quality of the material and the structure was standard and
normal situation, were no longer applicable during controlled effectively.
emergency and the reconstruction process. BRR However, due to insufficient budget, some
successfully convince the Indonesian government to schools were also reconstructed by using reinforced
review and release adopted regulation on finance, concrete and wooden roof support. Many of these schools
procurement process, civil work etc. were low in quality. The potential of manipulation the
specification of the building material might take place in
every moment and every part of the building.
At the beginning of the BRR administration, the
Reconstruction Focus
Long discussion on focus reconstruction had
been taken place at Directorate of Education. There were
two choices, either focus on building some model schools
with all the facilities or reconstruction many classrooms
are required in every district. The argument of the first
choice is BRR wanted to do something large scale,
strategic and being recognized by the community.
However this choice would take large budget and the
sustainability was still questioned. Whereas, the second
choice was urgent, large beneficiary and the ones that
were less attractive for the NGOs. The directorate then
decided to be focus on building many classrooms and
other education supporting facilities. The classroom
reconstruction was shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Classroom construction
Insufficient number of students
After tsunami many students were loss and many
families move to other places and were in temporary furniture for the schools were procured as wooden-hand-
shelter since housing reconstruction has yet not made furniture. Later, BRR realized that it was very
reconstructed. NGOs conducted some survey and difficult to verify the specification. Many type of woods
feasibility study before they rebuilt the schools. Since the and there were not easily to measure the strength and the
students in many schools were only less than one hundred structure. Then, BRR decided to procure only fabricated
persons, the donors supported NGOs, were reluctant to furniture, so that there has the standard for the price and
build schools with complete faculties but less students. for the specification.
The local government also insisted to build schools with
complete facility and not partially. In earlier period, some Procurement of school textbooks
schools were regrouped, two or more schools were group Asian Development Bank (ADB) with BRR
become one school. However, when the people return administration provided total of 1.39 million textbooks
back to their community, they asked to rebuild their that were distributed among one hundred and sixteen
school in their place and challenging the regrouping idea. thousand students in the 395 target schools. Procuring
They argued that when the situation had been normal for textbook also very risky jobs for PIU since it is high
next couple years the school are needed in their potential for corruption, manipulation and intervention
community. BRR was in the middle between people who from the local government. Therefore the procurement
ask to build school with less students and the NGOs/donor system was used modified block-grant system. ADB and
needed some justification. The BRR had not given BRR invited teachers and publishers through local and
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop

national newspaper to attend textbook fairs held in some qualified schools in Bandung and Jakarta. BRR also
districts. The publishers provided example of textbooks provide some budget to reform their school management
and proving the quality of the printed copies. Teachers when they return.
were asked to select the sample of the textbooks with their Some training for improving the capacity of
own specification. BRR verified the number of students in teachers and school managements had also been done by
each schools and signed contract with the school several implementing partners. Unicef developed CLCC
committees to provide textbooks for their schools. Having training for teachers and other supervisors. USAID
contracted signed, BRR transferred the budget partially to conducted active learning training and school
the school committees accounts to buy the textbooks for managements.
their schools. The number and quality of the printed Some capacity buildings for disaster awareness
copies of the textbook was verified by university staff as and management also had also been done by many NGOs,
the independent suprvisors. These procurement methods UNDP and other organizations. There are some brochures,
were also applied for provision of school laboratory mitigation dance and trainings had been provided and
equipment. The completion of budget transferring was conducted. Moreover, for the mitigation education some
based on the verification data [8]. facility such as Tsunami and Disaster Mitigation Research
Center (TDMRC), magister program in disaster
management at Syiah Kuala University, suppoted has
Fellowship for pre-service teachers for remote and been established.
isolated areas
Directorate of Education imitated to provide V. CHALLENGE IN CIVIL WORKS
fellowship for pre-service teachers who were from remote Provision of Detail Engineering Design (DED) of
and isolated areas. After completion their study, they the school buildings was done through bidding process
committed to return back to their villages for teaching at that took a couple of months. The winner consultants took
those rural and isolated areas. However the fellowship was minimum four months to complete the DED documents.
terminated along with BRR closed out. Then the local There 553 of DED bidding packages had been procured.
government continued the program to prepare teachers in They were small packages but dispersed in 23 districts.
the remote area. Thereby, it was also almost impossible to build schools in
The scholarship was also provided for other the same financial with the procurement of the DEDs.
students and lecturers who were taking the post-graduated Therefore, BRR took same policy to use reusable design
programs. The scholarship was block granted to their which was one DED was reused for many similar building
university or the institution and gave the authority for specifications but at different location. The DED was
them for selection of recipient and the disbursement of the adjusted according to the site condition.
fund. BRR-directorate of education rejected application Having DED accomplished, the second bidding
individual to avoid conflict of interest and verification was carried out to select contractors to build the building.
problem. Since the bidding packages were many in small size, the
big contractor did not interested in them, the projects then
Teaching at remote and isolated areas were run by small & local contractors which were less
After tsunami, there were very few teachers at experience. In some cases, the contractors bided the
divested and isolated area. BRR provided some temporary project in very lower cost to get win without verify the
incentive for the pre-service teachers to teach at remote site. While, the site sometime was not easily access and it
area. BRR hire some teacher training college students to takes some additional cost to reach the location. Based on
perform the task. The budget was block-granted to the the bidding regulation, those who offer the lower price
teacher training college for selection and disbursement. will be winner. However when the winner realized that it
Should BRR hire the temporary teachers, then later they was insufficient budget to accomplish the project, then
would have fight to have being permanent teachers which they run and leaving incomplete works. Should this
was beyond the authority of BRR. situation took place, it took several months to solve the
problem and BRR were no longer being trust by
community. The community might think that BRR did not
carefully monitor the projects and suspected that BRR
Building Teacher Training Center involved in corruption practices. The negative perception
BRR also reconstructed Teacher Training Center become worse when housing construction was delayed
both at university and in local government of education and some corruption issues.
department. The teacher training was used as the center BRR then opened some the regional offices in
for pre-service teacher training and training center for the 2006, one year after opening the central office. The
in-service teacher. regional office supposed to monitor the project intensively
BRR also provide several training for in-service since they were closer to the project site. However the
teacher and school head masters to in their subject and in regional office personnel were very few whereas the work
school management. More than 13.000 had been trained area was in several districts covering all sectors including
and 23 head masters were sent to take internship at
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop

housing, economy, agriculture, infrastructure, health and


education.

VI. SUMMARY
BRR Directorate of Education committed to
implement the program following the education master
plan and avoid programs proposed by other institutions
beyond their scope of works. The Directorate of Education
performed coordination action on the off-budget projects
that were implemented by NGOs, donors other
implementing agencies. BRR also implemented on-budget
project, a project funded by GOI or donors. To run the
project, directorate education supported by 5 PIUs and
four education managers managing project in formal and
non formal education. BRR provided some temporary
schools to replace the tent schools before building the
permanent ones.
There some challenges and the solution of
education reconstruction such as insufficient student, type
reconstruction materials, procurement technique for
school textbooks, solution for lack of teachers in remote
and isolated area, reconstruction of teacher training center
and civil work issues.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Thanks for all supports given by BRR management and all


collaborative works among the BRR personel and other
implementing agencies.

REFERENCE
[1] Ministry of National Education, BRR Education
Master Plans, Depdiknas, 2005.

[2] Unicef, Children and the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami:


Evaluation of UNICEF’s Response in ndonesia. Country
Synthesis Report, United Nations Children’s Fund
(UNICEF), New York, 2004

[3] BRR, Exit Strategy, BRR, Banda ceh, 2009.

[4] Y. Qismullah. Education In Emergencies, (Natural


Disasters And Conflict), Department of Education, the
Province of Aceh, Banda Aceh, 2005.

[5] BRR, Progress Report, BRR, Banda Aceh, 2006.

[6] Unesco, Guide Book for planning education in


emergencies and reconstruction, International Institute for
Educational Planning, Paris, 2010.

[7] Direktorat Pendidikan BRR NAD-Nias, Progress


Report, BRR-NAD Nias, 2006.

[8] ETSP-ADB, Fact Sheet Education Component, ETSP-


ADB, Banda Aceh, 2008.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
In Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4-09

Post Tsunami Livelihood Program: Lesson Learn


from Poor Fishermen in Aceh Besar
Indra
Researcher of TDMRC Unsyiah and Lecturer of Agricultural Faculty Unsyiah
Email: indra_ipb@yahoo.com

Abstract: Livelihood program was one of the programs, etc. However, not all of the programs have a significant
that done by government and NGOs, to restorate effect or benefit for the beneficiaries or communities. A
fishermen jobs that losted because of earthquake and lot of factors influencing a successful program, such as
tsunami disaster in Aceh-Nias 2004. At the certain areas, profesionalisme of human resources and institution,
the program was quite well done, but at the others it didn’t efectiveness of the programs, internal and external factors
run well, so that had not affected significantly to of beneficiaries, etc. The aim of the research was to
communities/fishermen livelihoods. The aim of the indentify several factors that contributed to unsuccessful
research was to identify some problems on livelihood programs and its lesson learnt, especially on livelihood
programs, so that to be lesson learn in the future. The programs of fishery sector at Aceh Besar District.
research had take place at Lambada Lhok and Lamnga
subdistricts using survey method. The results of the
research showed that there were 9 livelihood programs II. RESEARCH METHODS
that had done by 14 NGOs and government at research
location, but several programs didn’t give positif effect to Place and Time of Research
targeted communities (poor fishermen). Some lesson This study take place in Lamnga Village, where a large
learns from livelihhod programs can be identified as part of the community are aquaculturists (culture fishery),
follows: (1) most of livelihood projects runner saw the and Lambada Lhok, where most of the population are
tsunami victims as an object and not as subject, (2) several fishermen (capture fishery). The research period was 3
of them more priorities to project quantities than that of (three) months, from October to December 2010.
qualities, (3) most of the field workers and beneficeries
related to the projects were undisiplined, dishonest, Population and Sample
greedy, and egoist, (4) most of livelihood programs is as The population for this research study were
physicly, short time and parternalistik, and in- aquaculturists (heads of households involved in fish
comprehensive, not like “back to future concept” which farming) in Lamnga Village, numbering 43 heads of
needs three main restorations (ecosystem, local institution, household, and fishermen in Lambada Lhok Village, 215
and justice economy), (5) many aids not appropriately heads of household. Sample size was 46 people chosen
targeted (person, form, and amount appropate), and (6) randomly, with the same number of aquaculture and
paradigm of group channeling was not suitable, because capture fishermen, 23 from each group.
many community groups created just for getting aids.
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Keywords: Post Tsunami, livelihood programs, poor
fishermen, and lesson learn General Description
Lamnga Village in Mesjid Raya sub-district, Aceh
I. INTRODUCTION Besar district, is located on the eastern coast of Aceh, 21
km from the sub-district capital, 64 km from the district
The great tsunami of December 24, 2004 had destroyed capital, and 11 km from the provincial capital. The
most facilties of fishery sector in Aceh Province. The village borders directly on the coast (sea), and thus was
disaster had swapped off about 1,000 kms coastal line, one of the villages hardest hit by the effects of the tsunami
same as a distance from Jakarta to Surabaya [1]. Biside, it in 2004 (see Fig.1).
had destroyed/lost/died 17,552 fishermen or 22,8% of all
Aceh’s fishermen on 2004 [2], 11,124 boats and 38 PPI
[3] [4], 20,429 ha ponds or 42,9% of total ponds in Aceh
and 40,000 pond workers lost their jobs [5], and 105,260
ha of mangroves (Dephut 2005 in [4].
There were many programs done by government and
NGOs, from emergency, rehabilitation, and reconstruction
on many development sectors, such as livelihood,
infrastructure, agriculture and fisheries, housing sectors,
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
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4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
an aid house build by an NGO, including, SOS Children’s
Village (Austria), Kadian, and others.
More than 90% of the population of Lambada Lhok are
fishermen or fish traders. Of the fishermen, a large part
use thep-thep boats (≤ 5 GT), and only 2 boats have larger
measurements, areound 30 GT. The number of boats in
Lambada Lhok at this time is estimated at 25 units, of all
types and measurements. The income level of fishermen
using small boats is between Rp 900,000 and Rp1,300,000
per month, while those who use large boats earn between
Rp1,000,000 and Rp1,500,000 per month. Fishermen
work 26 days per month (Fridays are taboo for sea-going),
making one trip per day. Fish traders sell fish in TPI
Lambada Lhok and the Peunayong fish market (in Banda
Fig.1. Map of Research Location (Lamnga and Lambada Aceh). In addition, some of the residents work at coffee
Villages) shops, peddlers, sellers of building materials and fishing
equipment, and at small restaurants.
Most of population of Lamnga Village work in
aquaculture, with an aquaculture area of around 94 Livelihood Programs
hectares owned by 43 households. Of this area, only 54 The condition of natural resources before the
hectares have been rehabilitated, owned by 23 fish tsunami was much better than it is after the tsunami. For
farmers. Around 40 hectares remain to be rehabilitated. example, the mangrove ecosystem before the tsunami was
The commodities that are cultured are tiger shrimp and in fair condition and occupied a large area, but after the
milkfish, both in monoculture and polyculture, using tsunami it was completely destroyed. 100% of the
traditional and “traditional plus” patterns. Traditional plus mangrove forests were lost, swept away by the tsunami, as
is called thus because several cultivation technologies can be seen in Fig. 2. According to respondents from the
have been implemented, but the number of shrimp seeded community, when there was a mangrove forest (before the
is still relatively low, 10,000 shrimp/ha. According to tsunami) small fish, shrimp, crabs, scallops, and oysters
Djuhriansyah and Abdusyahid [6], seed stocking density were easily obtained, but now they are very difficult to
for a semi-intensive pond is 20,000-50.000 per hectare. obtain. This speculation is based on the function of
Besides this, layout, equipment, and management of mangrove forests as a nursery, feeding, and spawning
ponds do not yet fulfill the criteria for semi-intensive ground for various aquatic species such as fish, shrimp,
aquaculture. The rate of production of tiger shrimp before and oysters [8]. Several research studies have shown that
the tsunami was 300-400 kg/ha. After the tsunami, there is a positive relationship between mangrove
productivity declined drastically to around 150-200 kg/ha. ecosystems and fishing resources. Mangrove ecosystems
Lambada Lhok Village has an area of 150 hectares and contribute up to 27.21% of the pelagic fish production in
a distance of 9 km from Banda Aceh City, and is the Aceh Province [9]. Efrizal [10] states that mangrove
capital city of Baitussalam sub-district. This village ecosystems contribute 44.18% of demersal fish production
borders directly on the east coast of Aceh and is another in Bengkalis district, Riau. Paw and Chua [11], state that
village that was heavily damaged by the 2004 tsunami. there is a positive connection between the size of
Besides destroying all public facilities and private homes, mangrove areas and catches of penaeidae shrimp in the
the tsunami resulted in the death of 1,536 victims, around Philippines. Martusubroto and Nammin [12] found that
70% of the total pre-tsunami population of the village, there was a positive connection between yearly catch of
2,200 people. Most of these victims were children, shrimp and size of mangrove areas throughout Indonesia.
women, and the elderly; few were adult males Furthermore, this connection has a linear quality, equal to
(fishermen). The population post-tsunami was 664 y = 0.06 + 0.15x, where y is the result of shrimp captured
people, while the current population is 877, in 351 (ton/year) and x is the area of mangrove forests (ha).
households [7]. The increase of population by 213 people Sudarmono [13] found that around 30% of sea fishing
in the last 6 years has been caused by (1) birth rate in this production depends on the existence of mangrove forests,
time period, (2) new residents brought to the village because mangrove forests are a breeding place for sea
because of marriage, and (3) former residents who have species, including several kinds of fish.
returned to Lambada Lhok. Several kinds of livelihood aid have been given to the
Public facilities and homes have already been rebuilt by research areas (Lambada and Lamnga Villages), based on
the government and various NGOs. Among the public type of fishery, as follows:
facilities that have been built are mosques, wells, an ice
factory, public MCK, village meeting hall, fishing hall, a. Capture fishery
office for the village head, PPI, TPI, public hospital, PKK Capture fishery has been focused on in Lambada Lhok,
building, and kindergarten and elementary school because more than 90 percent of the population of the
buildings. The building of homes was carried out as village are capture fishermen. The kinds of aid given in
planned and every family, 450 households, has received Lambada Lhok have included cash for work, boats, boat
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
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engines, fishing equipment, cold storage,
stor and an ice Village empowerment cadre (AIPRD), Posyandu
Pos cadre
factory, among others. (CWS), and Sanitation (CARE).
From Table 1 it can be seen that much aid was given to
b. Aquaculture
Lambada Lhok Village, Baitussalam sub-district,
sub Aceh
For the study of aquaculture, the location chosen was
Besar district. However, not all of this aid achieved its
Lamnga Village, Mesjid Raya sub-district,
sub Aceh Besar
intended effect on the community, particularly for the
district, because in this village most of the population
fishermen of the village. Besides the physical aid
earns its living from aquaculture (ponds).
(pon Several kinds
discussed above, the other form of aid given to Lambada
of aid were given to the community during rehabilitation
Lhok Village was trainings, such as : Business capital
and reconstruction, as follows:
(ILO), Home industry (BRR), Farming (AUSCARE),

(a) (b)
Fig.2 (a) Mangrove conditions before tsunami in Lambada Lhok Village (Photo: Indra, 8 October 2004, location north
side of TPI),
(b) existing conditions (Photo of the same place, 17 December 2010).

1) Pond rehabilitation by Serasih Foundation and ADB executors. Several types of aid did not have a significant
(Fig.3). effect or benefit for the fisherman and fish farmers in
2) Agro-input
input aid by ADB, Serasih Foundation, Forsikal,
Forsi recovering their livelihoods and incomes. This was
DKP Aceh Besar (oyster culture), and others. caused by the fact that: (1) several of the aid boats were
3) Management aid by FAO and DKP Aceh Besar made from fiber,
iber, which is not appropriate for local sea
4) Boarding/guard houses at the ponds by ADB conditions, (2) aid boats and fishing equipment did not
5) Coastal and mangrove plants by Yayasan Lebah meet standard specifications for the local fishermen,
(Netherlands), weetland, Dephut. primarily in the very low quality of wood used for the
In general, it must be acknowledged that the forms of boats, which quickly were broken or began leaking,
leak (3)
aid given above, both to capture and culture fisheries, had often material aid and equipment which have
a positive effect and socioeconomic benefits for the complementary benefits (like boats and fishing
fishermen, for example: (a) From the aid boats and fishing equipment) were not given together in one packet, but
equipment, impoverished fishermen gained possession of given separately by different programs and donors and at
new boats and equipment.
ment. Thereafter, they returned to different times, (4) often the number of aid packages
fish in the sea as they had before the tsunami. (b) distributed was smaller than the number of people
Through the pond-rehabilitation
rehabilitation aid program, most of the receiving the aid, so that to prevent conflicts within the
ponds in the research area were repaired so that the fish community the packages were divided again (into equal
farmers could return to cultivating shrimp and fish as they parts), and given to all beneficiaries in smaller amounts.
had previously. However, as of now around 44.4 hectares As a result, benefits from
om the aid decreased. Moreover, in
of ponds in the research area (Lamnga Village) remain to several cases, the aid items were not used for productive
be rehabilitated. This is allegedly connected to location of efforts, but rather misused for daily needs (consumptive).
ponds too close to the coast, so that it would have been
contrary to government
ernment regulations forbidding TABLE I
development and rehabilitation of ponds too close to the LIST OF NGOs AND TYPE OF LIVELIHOOD
LIVELIHO AID
water or in tidal areas. In addition, program executors IN LAMBADA LHOK
found it difficult to rehabilitate ponds close to the beach No. Type of Aid Name of NGOs
for technical reasons, in that it was difficult to move heavy 1. Cash for work Mercy Corps, Elsaka
equipment and form dikes from the sandy soil, which 2. Staple Foods PMI, WFP/Word Vision, Islamic
collapses easily in rain or tidal waves. Relief
There are indications that not all of the rehabilitation 3. Boats/Boat SOS Children Village, Islamic
programs above went as efficiently and effectively in the Engines Relief, Secour Populare Francais
field as they had been planned by donorsdo and program (SPF), Auscare, Mensos, JICA,
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
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and ADB 8. Fisherman Pugar
4. Business Secour Populare Francais (SPF) Empowerment
Capital 9. Community AIPRD
5. Small Ice Secour Populare Francais (SPF) Empowerment
Factory Source : Village Head and Community Leaders of
6. Cold Storage JICS (Jepang) Lambada Lhok
7. Livelihood Auscare, ILO
(form not
identified)

(a) (b)

(c) (d)
Fig. 3. (a) A pond in Lamnga under rehabilitation (Photo: 6 December 2005), (b) and (c) Dissemination of soft crab
cultivation by Serasih Foundation in cooperation with BBAP Ujung Batee (Photo location: pond before Lamnga Bridge,
6 December 2005),
(d) current condtions, no more crab cultivation (Photo location same as (b), 19 December 2010).

Upon further examination, the source of the problems measurements or individual/group profit-seeking often
above were donors, program executors, and program resulted.
recipients (fishermen). This can be explained as follows: 4) Some of the benefit recipients (the community) were
1) Often donors and program executors were inexact in also dishonest, covetous, and prioritized their
their assessment and mapping of the natural capacity individual needs, justifying any measures to obtain
of the area and the sociocultural characteristics of the more and better aid.
communities that were receiving aid. 5) The formation of a communal mindset of asking and
2) There was an impression in the community that project receiving ultimately made the community less willing
implementors (LSM/NGOs) were unprofessional and to work and strive for results.
prioritized targets rather than attending to the quality If the varieties of aid given by institutions and NGOs
of work, so that many field activities were conducted (as given in Table 1) is examined further, it appears that
in a perfunctory and not useful manner. several of them resulted in the development of the
3) Oftentimes personnel placed at the project locations institution’s image and community cooperation, so that
had a low capacity and were not honest, so that inexact
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
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these institutions formed a good impression and aid had a Development (AIPRD), Secour Populare Francais
positive effect on the community. (SPF), and the World Food Programe (WFP).
To understand the relationship between the community 3) Far from the community. Instituions or village
and institutions that worked in the villages, a Venn apparatus that was distanced from the community
diagram analysis is given of the relationship between appear in circle three above. These were Child Fund,
these insitutions (Fig.4). This image shows the the National Health Department, Polsek, Koramil,
community’s perception of various parties who worked on Camat, Unicef, Oxfam, and Rolls Royce.
their behalf. 4) Very distanced from the community. Institutions or
village apparatus that was very distanced from the
needs of the community are in circle four of the Venn
diagram. These were PPK/Village Facilitators, BPM,
and the National Social Welfare Department. The
majority of the community members were not
acquainted with their PPK/village facilitators, because
there was no deliberation before their election.
Under the current conditions, aid no longer exists as it
did during the rehab-reconstruction period. Currently, aid
with capital is given from funds from PNPM Mandiri-KP,
2009-2010, both for culture and capture fisheries. PNPM
funds are distributed in the name of a group, and in the
form of cash. The amount of money received by
fishermen from this program is Rp 1.500.000 per person.
These funds are usually used by the fishermen or fish
farmers as an addition to operating costs, like buying
shrimp fry and feed, but there are also those who use them
to build or repair watergates on the ponds, fix fishing
equipment, or add to capital from trading (selling) fish.
Fig. 4. Venn Diagram of Community Perception of Based on the above analysis, it can be concluded
Insitutions Working in Lambada Lhok Village (Source: that livelihood aid gave some positive effects to the
Kantor Desa Lambada Lhok, 2006). fishermen (both capture and culture) in the research area,
although these effects were not maximal. Regarding
From Fig.4., the instiutions/officials can be formed into income, the aid raised income levels of the fisherman
4 groups, according to the community’s perception: compared to the 1-2 years immediately after the tsunami,
1) Closest with the community. Institutions or village but income has still not returned to its pre-tsunami level.
government apparatus that worked most closely with Before the tsunami, the fishermen’s income was Rp
the community appear in circle one in the Venn 1.000.000-2.000.000 per month, while after the tsunami
diagram. These are the kepala desa (village head or (current conditions) it has decreased to ≤ Rp 1.000.000 per
keuchik), Sekdes, mosque imam, youth leaders, street month. Conversely, daily needs after the tsunami are
heads, and the NGO SOS Children’s Village (Austria). greater than before the tsunami because of an increase in
This closeness sprung from the development of the prices of basic supplies.
communication, transparency, and good interactions Several problems occurred in the research area, causing
with the community. The result of intensive the capture and culture fishery sectors to not develop since
interviews revealed that the effectiveness of SOS the tsunami, identified as follows:
Children’s Village in this program was because 1) Shrimp viruses are still the greatest obstacle for fish
employees and officers were humble, not arrogant, farmers.
materialistic, or “glamorous” as were most officers and 2) There is a lack of business capital. Aid capital given
personnel from other NGOs. The first time SOS during the rehab-reconstruction phase has already been
representatives came to Lambada Lhok Village, it was exhausted because of harvest failures, while the capital
with the utmost politeness and on motorbike, while given by PNPM Mandiri, TA 2009-2010 is
other NGOs used double-cabin vehicles. There was insufficient.
also another unidentified NGO that gave aid by 3) The price of feed is unattainable for fish farmers. If
digging wells and distributing medication but was given feed in accordance with recommendations, then
driven by a religious mission. This became known to it uses up production fees and marginal costs are
the community and the NGO was asked to leave their greater than marginal revenue. As a result, profits
village. Throughout the aid process, this NGO was decrease and can be lost.
strongly disliked by the community of Lambada Lhok 4) As a result of the tsunami, the river (delta) in Lambada
Village. Lhok became shallower. Thus, large boats cannot enter
2) Close with the community. Institutions or village TPI Lambada, and even small boats cannot enter and
apparatus that was close with the community appear in exit at all times but must wait for the tide. This has
circle two in the diagram above. These were the reduced the number of trips because time is wasted
Australia Indonesia Partnership for Reconstruction and waiting for the tides.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
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5) The loss of mangrove forests has caused a drastic will cause a huge increase in results and benefits from
reduction in the population of small fish, crabs, mangrove forests, both for economic and environmental
scallops, and oysters. purposes (including their role in mitigation of and
6) A reduction in the kemeukup of women (wives and adaptation to global climate change).
female children) of fishermen has occurred because Development of intensive ponds by opening remaining
the river, the ordinary location for collecting shrimp, mangrove forests must be forbidden because this is
scallops, and oysters, has become part of the sea. It is opposed to the aims of sylvo-fishery. To guarantee
estimated that as a result of the tsunami, around 300 m protection of the ecosystem and long-term results from
of the beach in Lambada Lhok Village has become coastal rehabilitation efforts with a sylvo-fishery
ocean. Thus, fishermen’s household income has approach, it is best to form/arrange a village regulation
decreased because the wives no longer contribute. regarding ecosystem management. This regulation should
7) There is a matter of low quality of human resources be drafted with the involvement of the community and the
compared with the quality of capture and culture agreement of residents and village government.
fisheries. Sylvo-fishery models on a wide scale and long term
will create a green belt that will function to protect
Lessons Learned national and individual assets (homes and aquaculture
Evidence shows that the tsunami destroyed all ponds in land) from natural disasters. Because of this, it should be
Lamnga Village. However, the majority of these ponds promoted by a clear government regulation.
have already been rebuilt or repaired by various parties. Giving aid to groups has few and perhaps no results.
The reparation efforts focused on physical reconstruction This is caused by groups that are formed not out of need
rather than fixing coastal ecosystem conditions. but only to receive aid. There is no force to make the
Consequently, some of the ponds that were repaired have members stick together. There is no group management,
not yet become as productive as they were before the plan, organization, accountability, or control. As a result,
tsunami. Apparently ecosystem restoration is no less there is no feeling of possession of group assets by
important than physical restoration. This is in accordance individuals, so that groups easily disband.
with Fauzi’s “Back to the Future” concept [14], that there In the experience of Lambada Lhok Village, when aid
are three main restoration items needed (“back”) to create was given to groups in the form of boats and fishing
healthy fisheries for the future (“to the future”). equipment, the aid was often sold to one of them in
1) Ecosytem restoration should not only repair physical exchange for money (tulak peng). When one group
ponds, but also coastal ecosystems, including an (usually of 3 people) was given one thep-thep boat
updated database (predicting stock sdi, boats, etc.). (measurements 2GT-5GT) by an NGO or government,
2) Local and vertical (top-down) restoration insitutions after it was received by the donating party, the newly
repair communications between stakeholders, restore received boat was handed over to one member of the
property rights, and protect food security. group, while the other two received payment (tulak peng)
3) Economic restoration refers to economic justice, or from the first in an agreed amount. This money was
economic ethics in the perception of fishing resources, quickly consumed by daily needs. The same happened
not only as merely an engine of growth but also from with fishing equipment and large boats (>30 GT) in
non-market aspects. groups of 10-12 people. Finally, what had happened was
A method must be implemented so that fish farmers are that while groups received the aid, individually the
encouraged to do vegetative (in addition to physical) question was not of livelihood development. For this
reconstruction of destroyed ponds. Methods that can be reason it can be concluded that the group approach to
used include a campaign for “environmentally-friendly distributing aid was not effective.
ponds/sylvo-fishery” and facilitating the application of There is an assumption that appeared in the community
sylvo-fishery models (planting trees in and around ponds, that one cause of the low results of rehabilitation and
as in Fig. 5) by giving an incentive (such as business reconstruction was that aid boats and fishing equipment
capital). were given to non-fishermen (like becak drivers), or in
other words the aid was not appropriately targeted. This
opinion is not entirely true, because in fact aid boats given
as aid to fisherman have also had no results or benefits for
them. On the other hand, aid given to those who were not
fishermen but who had an entrepreneurial spirit and good
management did not eliminate the possibility of positive
(a) (b) results. This is evident in the community of Lambada
Fig.5. (a) Planting Mangroves in Ponds using an Pond Lhok. One event that needs to be noticed is that the
Moat Pattern, (b) Planting Mangroves in Ponds using a fishermen mentioned above come from several levels,
Komplangan Pattern beginning with the labor fishermen (ABK), cleaning
crews (Aneuk Itek), handlers, captains, benchmen, and
The Aceh government hopes to promote the importance others who earn a livelihood from the fishery sector.
of developing sylvo-fishery ponds to individuals and Besides this, there are true fishermen (staple) and side
businesses. If possible, it is intended that the sylvo- fishermen (not staple workers). If boats and fishing
fishery model will become provincial-level policy. This equipment were given to laborers, aneuk itek and side
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
In Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
fishermen, or to those who were not fishermen, then groups. However, experience proves that the group
nearly one hundred percent of the aid would be useless approach is no better than the individual approach.
and not give positive effects to its recipients. This is Problems with the formation, qualities, and management
because (1) management of boats requires operational of fishing groups resulted in aid that was not suited to the
management, which is not possessed by all fishermen, needs of the fishermen.
including laborers and aneuk itek, with the result that the
boat would be sold to other people (possibly to IV. CONCLUSION
benchmen), then those involved again becoming laborers
on the boat itself (2) if boats and fishing equpment were a. There were 9 livelihood programs that had done by 14
given to imaginary fishermen (rather than real fishermen) NGOs and government at research location.
then the boats and fishing equipment could be sold or used b. Several programs didn’t give positif effect to targeted
in the short term, but in the long term boats would not be communities (poor fishermen).
cared for so that small damages would be neglected and c. Some lesson learnt from livelihhod programs can be
not repaired. There are two possibilities, first that the identify as follow: (1) most of livelihood projects
owners would have too little understanding of boats, runner saw the tsunami victims as an object and not as
engines, and fishing equpiment and secondly, that they subject, (2) several of them more priority to project
would not think it important to spend money on repairing quatities than that of qualities, (3) most of the field
the boats because fishing is not their true profession. As a workers and beneficeries related to the projects were
result of this, boats were neglected and ultimately undisiplined, dishonest, greedy, and egoist, (4) most of
destroyed. (3) If the boats were given to people who were livelihood programs is as physicly, short time and
neither fishermen nor newly-minted fishermen, then there parternalistik, and in-comprehensive like “back to
was a large possibility that the boats would be sold. Boats future concept” which needs three main restorations
were sold in the way described above, either altogether in (ecosystem, local institution, and justice economy), (5)
separate pieces, for example engine or equipment only. many aids not appropriately targeted (person, form,
Another weakness of giving aid to groups is that and amount appropate), and (6) paradigm of group
the benefits are limited to one group and its members, at channeling was not suitable, because many community
most 3 – 12 people (depending on the size of the group). groups created just for getting aids.
Citizens who were not involved in a group did not receive
any benefits except those given in the form of public BIBLIOGRAPHY
facilities, such as TPI, or in relation to environmental
rehabilitation, like the planting of mangroves. This is [1] Mangkusubroto, K., 2006. Membangun Tanah
different from the agricultural sector, in which if aid was Harapan: Laporan Kegiatan Satu Tahun Badan
given in the form of fertilizer or seeds, the aid could be Pelaksana Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi Nanggroe
divided to benefit all of the farmers, even if the amount Aceh Darussalam dan Nias, April 2006. http://www.e-
given was small. aceh-nias.org/upload/03082006030226.pdf.
In the experience of Lambada Lhok Village, aid dikunjungi pada 19 September 2006.
given to individuals, such as was done by village leaders, [2] [DKP] Dinas Kelautan dan Perikanan Provinsi NAD,
had higher results relative to group aid. This relates to the 2005. Statistik Perikanan Tangkap Provinsi Nanggroe
level of personal responsibility involved with receiving Aceh Darussalam Tahun 2004. Banda Aceh.
aid. On average, aid given to individuals up to this point [3] FAO, 2005a. Damage and need assessment. Tidak
is still in good condition and still productive, while most diplublikasikan
of the aid given to groups has already changed hands (was [4] Medrilzam, P, Nizhar M, Erik A, Joko S, Afwandi,
sold) or has been destroyed by neglect. Indra D, Vivi Y, Herry S, Nono R, Anwar S, Halim I.
Another experience is that the giving of cash by one 2005. Rancangan Rencana Induk Rehabilitasi dan
NGO to be used for business capital by Lambada Rekonstruksi Masyarakat Aceh dan Nias, Sumatera
cooperatives has not had the intended results. The Utara, Buku II: Rencana Bidang Sumber daya Alam
problems were that (1) there was no one who wanted to dan Lingkungan Hidup.
organize the cooperative, (2) the highest-level decisions of [5] FAO, 2005b. 15 Steps for Agriculture Rehabilitation.
the cooperatives depended on a meeting of the members. http://library.enaca.org/
This regulation can often “boomerang” on part of the Shrimp/Publications/15_steps_for_aquaculture_rehabi
cooperative. Limitations of science, knowledge, and litation_FAO.pdf. Dikunjungi pada 26 September
capacity of the group members, who are only poor 2006
fishermen, cause the intentions and goals of the member [6] Djuhriansyah dan Abdusyahid, 1999. Potensi
meetings to become biased, which did not bring positive Tambak-Tambak Primitif di Kabupaten Kutai.
effects for the fishing cooperative so that most of the FRONTIR Nomor 24, Pebruari 1999
leadership was ineffective unless the members of the [7] Kantor Kepala Desa Lambada Lhok 2010. Profil Desa
cooperative themselves had enough knowledge and vision. Lambada Lhok Kecamatan Baitussalam, Aceh Besar.
The above results can teach a valuable lesson that the [8] Dahuri, R., J. Rais, S.P.Ginting, M.J.Sitepu. 2001.
giving of aid to groups needs to be re-evaluated. Almost Pengelolaan Sumber daya Wilayah Pesisir dan Lautan
all of the aid given to the fishing community, both during Secara Terpadu. PT.Pradya Pratama. Jakarta.
and after rehabilitation and reconstruciton, was given to
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
In Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
[9] Indra, 2007. Model Bio-Ekonomi dan Opsi
Rehabilitasi Sumber Daya Perikanan di Provinsi
Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Disertasi, Tidak
Dipublikasikan. Sekolah Pascasarjana, IPB. Bogor
[10] Efrizal, T., 2005. Analisis Pengelolaan Sumber daya
Ikan Demersal di Pulau-Pulau Kecil : Melalui
“Converging Dual Track Model (CD TRAM)”
Disertasi, Tidak Dipublikasikan. Sekolah
Pascasarjana, IPB. Bogor.
[11] Paw JN, Chua TE. 1989. An assessment of the
ecological and economical impacts of mangrove
conversion in Southeast Asia. Marine Pollution Bull.
20(7): 335-343.
[12] Martosubroto P, Naamin N. 1977. Relationships
between tidal forest (mangroves) and commercial
shrimp production in Indonesia. Marine Research in
Indonesia (18):81-86.
[13] Sudarmono. 2005. Tsunami dan Penghijauan
Kawasan Pantai Rawan Tsunami. Inovasi Online
Vol 3/XVII/Maret 2005.
[14] Fauzi. 2005. Kebijakan Perikanan dan Kelautan: Isu,
Sitesis, dan Gagasan. PT. Gramedia Pustaka
Utama, Jakarta.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
In Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4-10

Predicting Schoolchildren’s Protective Behavior


on Tsunami in Phuket, Thailand
Wignyo Adiyoso1*, Hidehiko Kanegae2, Chaweewan Denpaiboon3 and Monchanok Chuwichean4
1
Ph.D Student, Graduate School of Policy Science, Ritsumeikan University, Japan
2
Professor, Graduate School of Policy Science, Ritsumeikan University, Japan
3
Asst.Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Planning, Thammasat University, Thailand
4
Bachelor Student, Faculty of Architecture and Planning, Thammasat University, Thailand

*Corresponding author: wignyoa@yahoo.com

Abstract: The devastated 2004 tsunami that hit many India, according to UN Country Team Thailand (2006),
countries situated along Indian Ocean and Andaman Sea Tsunami hit Thailand killed more than 8,200 and another
disrupted thousand people’s livelihood including children 2,000 still missing. It also engendered 1, 637 orphan
in Thailand. The broader concerns have been raised about children and devastated the livelihood of 27,000 children
the need for preparedness involving school to provide in Thailand.
knowledge and increase the level of awareness students, Disasters do not discriminate race, gender, age, and
teachers and their family on natural disaster. The present places (ASEAN Secretariat, 2011). Compare to adult,
study is to understanding factor influencing student’s children is the most vulnerable community members to
protective behaviour using the extended theory of planned disaster as they have limited capacity and resources to
behavior (TPB). It was hypothesized that intention of cope with the disaster. Therefore there has been effort to
students’ protective behavior on tsunami such as build a disaster preparedness culture in schools by
observing siren tower regularly and visit the evacuation introducing new approach of education based on disaster
route in their area was determined by attitude toward such as incorporating disaster curriculum, school
behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, evacuation drill and extracurricular related to disaster
risk perception and critical awareness. The questionnaire issues. Effective risk management should involve children
survey was conducted in a secondary school in Phuket to participate in disaster risk reduction. School therefore
province, Thailand, one of the worst areas affected by plays an important role to build children resilient on
Tsunami 2004 (N=97). Interview with some teachers, disaster. Schoolchildren is the best stage to build the
selected students and parents was also done. Using the disaster resilient culture at an early age. “Education is
enter method, a significant model emerged (F5, 86=15.069, vital in nurturing a culture of disaster resilience among
p=0,000) and adjusted R square= .436. Multiple people and in societies” (ASEAN Secretariat, 2011).
regression analyses resulted that critical awareness, Therefore, building a disaster preparedness culture should
perceived control behaviour and subjective norm were be begun in families, in communities, in workplaces, and
significant predictors. In contrast, attitude and risk in schools.
perception were not significant predictors of intention to After tsunami 2004, there has been massive
prepare on tsunami disaster. encouragement public education focusing on the school
children as one of the vulnerable people in the event of
Keywords: Schoolchildren, tsunami, preparedness, tsunami. As a result, governments introduced the school
critical awareness, behaviour, Thailand. curriculum covering the tsunami and other natural disaster
events. The implementation of the curriculum in the
school is expected that school community become aware
I. INTRODUCTION about natural disaster including tsunami (ASEAN
Secretariat, 2011). The integrated school education and
The 26 December 2004, a giant tsunami following a school evacuation training has been creating school safety
massive earthquake in northern Sumatera Island have for tsunami especially schools are in the closer the beach.
caused 200,000 people died in many countries situated It is also expected that having such knowledge and raising
along Indian Ocean and Andaman Sea, including awareness on disaster in turn can better prepare for the
Thailand. The tsunami affected six provinces along hazard. Although the development of school education on
Thailand’s Andaman coast and destroyed more than 407 tsunami disaster has been extending, the evaluation of its
villages (UN Country Team Thailand, 2006). Although effectiveness has been limited studied. The present study
the number of people die was not many as compared to its is to evaluate the students’ risk perception, and critical
neighbourhood countries such as Indonesia, Sri Lanka and awareness on Tsunami. It also examines the ability of the
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
In Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
theory of planned behavior (TPB) in explaining students’ inhibiting factors determine people intention to behaviour,
preparedness behavior on tsunami. he added perceived behaviour control (PBC) as an
This study is very important in increasing our additional component of TRA. Therefore, Ajzen improved
understanding of how children attitude, perceive the risk, the TRA consisting only two variables in determining
critical awareness and other factors related to protective intention to behavior to be three variables on the TPB
behaviour on tsunami will help policy makers in making a model.
decision on disaster public awareness. Attitude refers to the degree to which a person is in
favor or unfavor toward behaviour. It reflect an evaluation
II. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK of feeling about attributed object such as useless-useful,
good-bad, and pleasant-unpleasant (Ajzen, 1992; n.d).
The increase in unpredictable natural disasters events Subjective norm refers the perceived someone important
for a decade has led to put the disaster preparedness as a to person to perform or not to perform a particular
central issue in disaster management. Disaster behavior (Ajzen, 1992; n.d). Someone can be parents,
preparedness reduces the risk of loss lives and injuries family members, teacher, friend and teachers. Another
and increases a capacity for coping when hazard component of TPB is perceived behavioural control.
occurs. Considering the value of the preparatory Perceived behavioral control refers to a person’s
behavior, governments, local, national and international perception on how the ease or difficulty to perform a
institutions and non-government organizations made some particular behavior. It reflects the evaluation of resources
efforts in promoting disaster preparedness. However, or condition whether it is able to do prepare on disaster or
although a number of resources have been expended in an not.
effort to promote behavioural preparedness, a common According to TPB, intention can be modified by: (a)
finding in research on natural disaster is that people fail to changing major determinants of intention: attitudes,
take preparation for such disaster events (Paton, 2003; subjective norms & perceived behavioural control, (b) by
Shaw 2004; Tierney, 1993; Kenny, 2009; Kapucu, 2008; changing the relatively weight of determinants. Two
Coppola and Maloney, 2009). According to Ripley, for strategies by which belief may be changed is by
example, the fact that nearly 91% of Americans live in a introducing new salient beliefs and changing existing
moderate to high risk of natural disasters, only 16% take a beliefs (Rutter & Quine, 2002;).
preparation for natural disaster (Liu, 2007). However, the success of application of TPB model
This problem of preparatory behaviour on disaster could be varied. The extension of the model by adding
has been concern for many scholars. There are several some variables may work better in predicting people
factors why public awareness programs gained little behaviour. There were many studies stating that hazard
success in promoting protective behaviours. It is worth awareness is one of the important factors that can
noting that the failure of most intervention in promoting influence people in preparing on disaster events (Tierney,
health behavior because of not using behavioral theory as 1993). Past studies of earthquake preparedness and
the basis of their intervention (Jones, et.al, 2004). One of bushfire hazards (Paton et al., 2003) concluded that
the most famous theory in predicting behavior is Theory critical awareness determined people’s preparedness. In
of Planned Behavior/TPB (Ajzen, 1991). TPB has been addition, a positive correlation between public awareness
widely used in the public health and other social issues and disaster preparedness is proposed by the University of
such as driving safety, working safety and tourism Colorado Natural Hazards Center (Mulilis et. al, 2000).
(O’Keefe, 2002; Rutter & Quine, 2002; Jones, et.al. 2004; Another expert proposes the factors related to the
Armitage & Conner, 2002; Valois, e.al., 2001; Talibudeen preparedness behaviour such as risk perception,
& Armitage, 2009). Until 1997 almost 185 research using availability of relevant information, past experience,
TPB model had been published and succeed in predicting salience of hazard and level of knowledge (Johnston et.
27% - 39% of the variance of behavior and intention al., 1999). Lindell and Perry suggest that household
(Armitage & Conner, 2001). In general, the literatures characteristic, household resources, experience with the
discussed above demonstrated that the TPB is powerful in hazard and perception of the hazard influence
predicting behavioral intentions. preparedness (Mulilis et. al, 2000). Additional variables to
Given the success in adoption of Theory of Planned the TPB model are proposed: critical awareness and risk
Behavior (TPB) in promoting behavior in the public perception (Rohrmann, 1999; Johnston, 1999; Paton,
health, this study will mainly be based on TPB (Ajzen, Kelly, Burgelt & Doherty, 2006; Sagala et.al, 2009; Shaw,
1992). TPB is one of many theories that explain how 2004).
people performance behaviour. This is the extended Therefore it is hypothesized that the intention to
Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) introduced by Icek prepare on tsunami preparedness will be determined by
Ajzen and Martin Fishbein in 1975 (O’Keefe, 2002). TRA TPB components (attitude, subjective norm, perceived
stated that the intention is a precursor of behaviour. control behaviour), critical awareness and risk perception.
Intention is determined by attitude (AT) toward behaviour The intention to prepare in this tsunami context is
and subjective norms (SN). The more favorable the developed from work of GeoHazard International (2007)
attitude and the subjective norm, and the greater the and Sugimoto et.al (2010). GeoHazard International
perceived control, the stronger is person’s intention to (2007) recommends that making tsunami hazard and
perform the behavior. However, according to Ajzen evacuation maps are the best way to begin preparedness
(Armitage & Conner 2002), considering that there are efforts. Evacuation maps basically is routes for people to
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
In Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
use in evacuations. These routes should be familiar with community leaders) would want me to visit tsunami
the community members and can guide people to the evacuation route and tsunami siren tower ”, “family
safest and fastest routes when tsunami coming. The best (teacher, community leaders) would approve of me to visit
way to develop evacuation routes is to involve the tsunami evacuation route and siren tower in my area
communities started from identifying the safest places to or close my area, (strongly disagree/strongly agree)”.
the creating a map, conducting community workshop, Perceived behavior control was assessed by four
disseminating maps to other community members and items (Cronbach’s Alpha= .816) which cover the
exercising or practicing evacuation routes. However due perceived ability that they can do behavior by evaluating
to the long frequency of tsunami events, updating the map resources, such as “For me, checking/visiting the tsunami
and regularly check the evacuation route is recommended evacuation route in my area or close my area would
(GeoHazard International, 2007). be…(extremely difficult/easy)”, and “There are few
Another tsunami preparedness used in the study is obstacles for me to check/visit the tsunami evacuation
visiting tsunami siren tower as part of action preparedness. route (siren tower) in my area or close my area (strongly
Sugimoto states that the building the unique device of disagree/strongly agree)”.
tsunami height poles may bring people remember the Risk perception was evaluated by 5 items
impact of the tsunami over a longer period of time. (Cronbach’s Alpha= .816) consisted of 1 item, “How
Tsunami memorial statues such us stone, poles, plaque likely do you think tsunami would occur in the next time”
can transfer tsunami understanding and awareness. and 4 items “If a tsunami would occur in your area, how
Therefore, in this study siren tower can be categorised as likely do you think it would affect/cause to harm you/your
memorial monument as well as early warning device. It is family (damage properties, disturb family to earn money
expected that people surrounding coastline areas are and social activity), (very unlikely/very likely”.
familiar with siren tower. The knowledge of and regularly Critical awareness was assessed by 3 items
visiting the tsunami siren tower is reflect the “level of (Cronbach’s Alpha= .724) using Paton et. al. work (2003)
tsunami preparedness”. Student who recognised well the that are “I am thinking about the tsunami events and the
siren tower they would be familiar with the early warning impact on our life”, “I am talking (discussing) about the
system when tsunami occur and remember the tsunami tsunami with member of family (father, mother,
disaster. In addition, regularly practice and recognise grandmother, grandmother, brother, sister, etc)”, “I am
evacuation route if very useful for people when tsunami talking (discussing) about the tsunami with friends in my
occur. As during disaster panic situation is always school/village” (never/always).
happened, becoming familiar with the evacuation route Last variable is the intention to prepare consisting of
will help in finding safer place easily and quickly. 4 items (Cronbach’s Alpha= .857), there were “How
Therefore visiting or practicing tsunami evacuation route likely is it that you will check/visit the tsunami evacuation
is one of important behaviour in tsunami preparedness. route (tsunami siren/loudspeaker tower) in my area or
close my area… (very unlikely/very likely)”, I want to
check/visit the tsunami evacuation route (tsunami
III. METHOD AND MEASURES siren/loudspeaker tower) in my area or close my area
(strongly disagree/strongly agree)”.
A questionnaire survey was conducted among
schoolchildren in a school which in the Kemala Beach in
Phuket, one of the province hardest swept by the 2004 IV. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
tsunami. In-depth interview also was done to ask teachers,
parents and selected students. The distribution of The basic profile of students is as follows. The grade is 9
questionnaires was conducted by the teachers. Teachers (34%), 10 (30%), 11 (25%), 12 (11%). More than a half of
were briefed and supplemented the “explanation of students’ age is more than 15 year (54%) and 13 year
questionnaires” to ensure the students correctly (4%), 14 year (25%), and 15 year (18%). Female was
completing questionnaires. 110 set of questionnaires were dominated (72%) over male 29%). Their house distance to
distributed and 103 were returned (94%). Out of returned the coastline (N=88) was less than 100 m (14%), 101-300
questionnaires, only 97 were analysed due to invalid m (15%), 301-600 m(22%), 601-900 (35%). The
(major missing) response. difference of house before and after 2004 tsunami was the
All extended TPB were measured using five-point same before (68%) and different (32%). Parents’
scale (scored 1-5) related to intention tsunami education included elementary school (6%), secondary
preparedness and most of the items adopted from the school (13%), senior high school (21%), university (35%).
previous studies and suggested by Ajzen (n.d). Attitude Around 64% of students were Buddhism and 35% were
variable was measure by six items (Cronbach’s Alpha= Moslem and the remaining is Christianity (1%).
.702) in relation to intention to visit evacuation route and Although all students were born when 2004 tsunami
tsunami siren tower, such as “For me, visiting the tsunami attacked their areas, only 17% of them was directly
evacuation route (tsunami siren tower) in my area or close experiencing tsunami events while the remaining (83%)
my area would be… (Extremely bad/ extremely good, was not. However around 57% of students’ houses were
extremely unpleasant/extremely pleasant)”. hit by tsunami (N=95) and 36% was not and 7% of
Subjective norm was also assessed by six items students responded don’t know. They were also asked
(Cronbach’s Alpha= .702) such as “my family (teacher,
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
In Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
whether they lost their family or not when tsunami hit Ajzen, 1992). The possible explanation might be that
their house. Only 5% of students lost her/his family. disaster education taught in school only focused on the
Students were also asked about their knowledge transfer knowledge about tsunami expecting can increase
regarding evacuation route (shelter), tsunami siren tower awareness of students about tsunami. Unlike earthquake
and the evacuation drill. Only 42% knew about evacuation where the “universal preparedness” on earthquake such as
route and around 58% responded no/don’t know/ever “fasten shelves securely to walls, having disaster kits
heard it. As a result when they asked about whether they (supplies) on hand, are widely well known as a
have ever practices or visit the evacuation route (N=60) preparedness action in the events of earthquake”, however
only 37% answered yes and remaining no (63%). “global standard” of tsunami preparedness has not yet
Different to knowledge of evacuation route, around 68% been popular.
of respondent (N=95) “know” about tsunami siren tower Considering the result of this study, it appears that
and 32% “don’t know/no/have ever heard it”. However, perceived behavioural control was the most predictor of
only 27% of respondents (N=68) “have ever visited” siren intention to prepare behaviour. Perceived behaviour
tower and 73% “never visited”. In contrast, around 70% control refers to a person’s perception of the ability to
students (N=95) know about the evacuation drill event and performance preparedness on tsunami. Schoolchildren’s
more than 56% “have ever participated” in such activity. perception on how difficulty or easy will determine the
Mean and standard deviation of the variables tested intention to visit the evacuation route and siren tower. It
showed in the table 1. In general, the rate of respondent’s also reflects an individual’s belief concerning availability
responses was higher than half (2.5) of the highest point (5 of resources to visit evacuation route and siren tower. The
point) measured. This showed that the level of attitude, result of direct observation showed that the availability of
subjective norm, perceived control behaviour, risk evacuation route sign in the school and surrounding areas
perception, critical awareness, and intention of students make students’ perception is easy to visit tsunami
higher than 50%. Using the enter method, a significant evacuation route and siren tower.
model emerged (F5, 86 =15.069, p=0,000) and adjusted R Second predictor influencing intention to prepare
square = .436. Multiple regression analyses resulted that was critical awareness. This finding is relevant with
critical awareness, perceived control behaviour, and Tierney’ ideas (1993) that hazard awareness is one of the
subjective norm were significant predictors (Table 1). In important factors that can influence people in preparing on
contrast, attitude and risk perception were not significant disaster events. It is also supported the study of
predictor of intention to prepare on tsunami. earthquake preparedness and bushfire hazards (Paton et
al., 2003) that critical awareness determined people’s
Table 1 preparedness. Thinking about threats of tsunami reflects
Mean, SD, Beta and Significant of Variables
the people’ concern on certain situation may threat their
lives. This uncertainty thought may lead to person to find
Variables Mean SD Beta Sig (p)
Attitude (N=94) 3.2057 .65511 .095 .354 out about situation by talking and discussing with the
Subjective norm 3.2766 .84809 .299 .010 other people.
(N=97) Last component of TPB that could predict the
Control behaviour 3.1495 .82732 .245 .028 preparedness intention was subjective norm. This variable
(N=97)
refers to someone influences person to performance or not
Risk perception 3.3649 .89163 .113 .250
(N=97) performance behaviour. This implies that the role of
Critical awareness 2.5556 .95567 .202 .013 family members, teacher and community leaders played
(N=96) important role in influencing schoolchildren to have
Intention (N=97) 2.8119 .86830 - - preparedness intention. Result of in-depth interview with
*Range: 1 – 5.
the parents confirmed that they gave the understanding to
their children not to afraid about tsunami as long as they
The actual preparedness reported by students showed
prepare well how to cope with the tsunami. Therefore, the
that the majority of schoolchildren never visited
role of family members was important to influence
evacuation route and tsunami siren tower in their areas.
schoolchildren intention to prepare on tsunami events.
On the others hand, more than 50% of students
On the other hand, this present study failed to predict
participated in evacuation drill. Based on interview with
another primary component of TPB, attitude. Although the
teacher, evacuation drill is done in school and all students
response of attitude of students was high (M= 3.2057) it
should participate such events. This implies that the
could not predict the intention to behaviour. Risk
participation of student in tsunami evacuation drill was
perception, an extended variable TPB model also was no
due to school requirement instead of voluntary-based
significant to intention (M=3.3649).
activities. In contrast, most students did not know the
There was however important to highlight that
evacuation route and tsunami siren tower, even they never
creative school in developing media education on tsunami
visited or practised in their home. The lack of preparation
prevention might contribute to the slightly high level of
of students was also supported the result of their response
critical awareness. School does teach children about
to questionnaires about intention to prepare. Although,
natural disaster unlimited on “recommended by
the rate of intention to prepare was higher than 50%, this
government”, teachers have developed other activities
should be alarmed since the intention to prepare is just
including co-curricular related to tsunami prevention that
predict the actual behaviour (Armitage & Conner, 2001;
could increase the student’s awareness. Interview with
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
In Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
teacher also confirmed that this school also conducted thank the students, teachers and parents in Phuket
evacuation drill in the evening that has not been done in province Thailand, for participating in this study.
other schools. The evacuation drill held regularly twice a
year also involves community surrounding school areas,
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(ITP), Global On-Site Training Program for Young [19] O’Keefe, D., J (2002) Persuasion: theory & research 2ed.
Researchers, Ritsumeikan University. We also wish to London: Sage Publications.
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In Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
[20] Paton, D. (2007) Preparing for natural hazards: te role of
community trust. Disaster Prevention and Management, 16, 3,
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[24] Rutter, D & Quine, L. (2002) Changing health behaviour.
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[25] Sagala, S., Dwiyani, R., Bajek, R., Takeuchi, Y., Okada, N.
(2008) Examining the relationship between earthquake
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communities, Kyoto. Annuals of Disast. Prev. Rest. Inst, Kyoto
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[26] Shaw, R and Shiwaku, K., (2008) Proactive co-learning: a new
paradigm in disaster education, Disaster Prevention and
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poles and disaster awareness. Disaster Prevention and
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Linking experience, education, perception and earthquake
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[29] Tanaka, K (2005) The impact of disaster education on public
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comparison between Fukui, Japan and the San Francisco Bay
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[30] Tierney, K., J. (1993) Disaster preparedness and response:
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[31] United Nations Country Team Thailand (2006) Building back
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Influence of a persuasive strategy on nursing student’s beliefs and
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6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4-12

Statistical Review on Aceh Disaster of 2010


AIWEST-DR 2011 Irma Setyawati1, Fachrul Fikri2 and Khairul Munadi3
1,2,3
Tsunami & Disaster Mitigation Research Center (TDMRC) - Syiah Kuala University
3
Electrical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University
Jl. Tgk. Abdur Rahman, Gampong Pie, Kec. Meuraxa, Banda Aceh
Email:{irma, fachrul, munadi}@tdmrc.org

Abstract: Every year, Aceh experiences various disasters, contains historical data and information of disasters
particularly natural disasters. This paper analyzed the occurrence occurred in Aceh, including data of events and its impact.
of disasters in Aceh during the period January to December In addition, DIBA can be an analysis tool of disaster data.
2010. The analysis is a statistical review of natural disaster This paper presents a statistical review of disaster
events, and its impact occurred throughout Aceh province.
Along 2010, there were 92 natural disaster events occurred in
which occurred in 2010 throughout Aceh province. Most
Aceh. Furthermore, more than 50% of total events is flooding. of the data used were obtained from DIBA, in addition to
Although dominated by flooding but highest death toll caused by several other relevant sources. This statistical review is
landslides. Whereas highest damage of building caused by the expected to provide an overview of the disaster and its
earthquake. Looking from the high intensity of natural disaster impact on society and development. Eventually expected
events, district of Pidie is the highest one following to 11 events to be a reference for governments and other stakeholders
while Simeuleu id the biggest losses’ district affected by the in DRR based development planning.
natural disaster noticed through many buildings consisting of
1048 units damaged by the earthquake. In the side of victims, the Disaster Definition
highest death toll is occurred in South Aceh, which is 5 persons
died by the landslide. The natural disaster during 2010 is
Disaster is an event or series of events that threaten
decreasing in terms of its intensity comparing to 2009, but it has and disrupt the lives and livelihoods, whether caused by
a higher impact. It can be said that the high and low of natural natural factors and / or non-natural, and human factors
disaster intensity would not ensure how the impact raised. that cause loss of life, environmental damage, loss of
Therefore, both community and government should be prepared property, and the psychological impact. [3]. Center for
to cope with any disaster happened. It should be remembered Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED)
that disaster neither be predicted nor prevented thus such this classified disaster into five subgroups (Table 1) [1].
information may warn government, community and other related
parties to be aware of the efforts of Disaster Risk Reduction Table 1. Disaster subgroup definition and clasification.
(DRR). Disaster Subgroup Definition Disaster Main Types
Keyword: disaster intensity, disaster impact, DRR efforts.
Geophysical Events originating from Earthquake, Volcano,
solid earth Mass Movement (dry)
I. INTRODUCTION
Meteorological Events caused by short- Storm
lived/small to meso
As a region located in the ring of fire, each year scale atmospheric
Aceh suffered various kinds of disasters, particularly processes (in the
spectrum from minutes
natural disasters. These disasters impact to people's lives
to days)
and development. Disasters not only cause casualties, both
Hydrological Events caused by Flood, Mass
dead, injured, displaced and suffering, but also cause deviation in the normal Movement (wet)
damage to homes, buildings and public facilities, such as water cycle and/or
schools, hospitals, religious buildings, etc. overflow of bodies of
Historical disaster data can be processed into water caused by wind
set-up
information that plays an important role in DRR efforts.
Climatological Events caused by long- Extreme
Analysis of disaster data can describe the pattern of lived/meso to macro Temperature,
disaster trends, tendencies, and intensity of disasters in a scale processes (in the Drought, Wildfire
region within a certain period. Thus, it can provide a spectrum from intra-
reference for interested parties in decision-making related seasonal to multi-
decadal climate
to DRR efforts. variability)
TDMRC – Unsyiah as one of Aceh government
Biological Disaster caused by the Epidemic, Insect
partners is working to provide support and contributions exposure of living Infestation, Animal
for DRR programs. One of them is performing data organisms to germs and Stampede
management and disaster information properly and toxic substances
systematically. Aceh Disaster Data and Information
(DIBA) is one of disaster database of Aceh. DIBA
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
disaster was the disaster that occurred in Aceh during
II. METHOD period January to December 2010, including:
- Flood
The data used to compile this analytical report - Landslide
consists of disaster data from the year 2010 collected at - Earthquake
the provincial and district level from across Aceh. The - Strong wind
data was gathered from various sources, including: - Whirlwind
- Aceh Disaster Management Agency (BPBA), - Tidal wave
- Aceh Disaster Data and Information (DIBA) - Abrasion
- Serambi Indonesia daily newspaper.
III. RESULT
The disasters analyzed in this report fulfill at least
one of the following two criteria: Based on data collected during 2010, 92 disasters
− caused destruction of buildings and/or occurred in Aceh. The highest
ighest event was flood with 47
− resulted in human casualties, including death, injury, cases, followed by 13 cases of strong winds, winds 10
displacement, or other suffering occurrences of whirlwind, 7 each of landslides
landsli and tidal
waves, 4 cases of abrasion, and 1 case of erosion (see Fig.
Because of data limitations, impact and financial 1).
losses are not shown here. Classification of disasters in
this report is using the CRED standards [1]. The analyzed

50

45 47
40

35

30

25

20

15

10 13
10
5 7 7
4 3 1
0
Flood Strong Wind Whirlwind Landslide Tidal Wave Abrasion Earthquake Erosion

Fig 1. Intensity of disaster occurrence in Aceh.

PIDIE

ACEH UTARA

NAGAN RAYA Flood


Whirlwind
ACEH JAYA
Strong Wind
ACEH SELATAN
Landslide
BIREUEN Tidal Wave
ACEH BARAT DAYA Abrasion

LHOKSEUMAWE Earthquake
Erosion
ACEH BARAT

ACEH TIMUR

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Fig 2. 10 districts with highest disaster intensity.


6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
Pidie experienced the highest rate of disaster of and Sabang, there was no structural damage as a result of
Aceh’s 23 districts, with 11 cases of disaster (see Fig. 2). disasters. Langsa, another city in Aceh province, is also
The next highest rates were in North Aceh and Nagan susceptible to disaster (the disaster that strikes most often
Raya, which each had 8 disasters; followed by Aceh Jaya being flooding), but there was no report of human loss or
and South Aceh with 7 cases each; Bireuen, Southwest structural damage in Langsa as a result of disaster in 2010.
Aceh, Lhokseumawe, and West Aceh with 6 disasters Although Pidie had the largest number of disasters in
each; and East Aceh with 5 disaster occurrences. 2010, Simeulue experienced the greatest economic loss.
Regarding human casualties, South Aceh suffered Simeulue’s losses were due to a high level of damage to
the highest number of losses with 5 deaths as a result of buildings and infrastructure caused by the earthquake (7,2
landslides, while Nagan Raya and Subulussalam lost 2 SR) on 7 April 2010. The earthquake damaged 884
residents each, and Southwest Aceh one person (Table 2). homes, 114 public buildings, and 60 offices (Table 3).
As far as injuries, Simeulue had the largest number of The next highest rate of loss was in Aceh Singkil,
wounded, with 30 people injured in the earthquake on 7 and was a result of the same earthquake that struck
April 2010, followed by Central Aceh, where 4 people Simeulue in April. 904 buildings were damaged in Aceh
were injured and Subulussalam where 2 were injured. The Singkil. The third greatest losses were in Aceh Tengah,
highest rate of displacement was in North Aceh, where and were caused by the earthquake there on 28 January
4976 people were displaced as a result of flooding. 2010, which damaged 706 buildings.
There were no human casualties in East Aceh,
Bireuen, or Banda Aceh during 2010. In Aceh Tamiang

Table 2. Disaster effects by number of human casualties.

Displaced Suffered
District Dead Injured
People Household People Household
Aceh Selatan 5 - 1244 343 10743 2738
Subulussalam 2 2 29 10 - 1382
Nagan Raya 2 - 402 130 4465 1208
Aceh Tengah 1 4 - - - 632
Aceh Barat Daya 1 - - - 3800 952
Simeulue - 30 - - - 884
Bener Meriah 1 - 5 56 122
Gayo Lues - 1 - - - -
Sabang - 1 - - - -
Aceh Utara - - 4976 1231 11154 2925

Bireuen - - - - - -
Banda Aceh - - - - - -
Langsa - - - - - -
Total 11 39 9467 2122 127978 25050

Table 3. Disaster effects by number of damaged buildings.

Education Health Religious Kiosks/S


District Homes Offices Shops Total
Facilities Facilities Buildings torage
Simeulue 884 23 26 55 60 - - 1048
Aceh Singkil 881 12 1 7 3 - - 904
Aceh Tengah 639 25 13 29 - - - 706
Bener Meriah 164 8 1 10 - - - 183
Aceh Selatan 86 - - 1 - - 1 88
Pidie 79 - - - - - - 79
Pidie Jaya 30 2 - 9 4 - - 45
Subulussalam 38 3 - 2 1 - - 44
Aceh Timur 12 - - - - 10 - 22
Nagan Raya 14 - - - - - 4 18

Aceh Tamiang - - - - - - - -
Sabang - - - - - - - -
Langsa - - - - - - -
Total 2902 74 41 114 71 10 18 3230
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
1. Disaster Intensity and Effects Aceh, Aceh Singkil, and Subulussalam. Although there
Viewed by the number of disasters per month, were no deaths, the flood struck 33 sub-districts and
January, November, and March were the months with the affected as many as 16870 families. The flood also
highest number of disasters in 2010, as can be seen in the caused significant economic losses, as many buildings and
Table 4. In January, there were 13 disaster occurrences, in infrastructure were damaged and farmland was submerged
November there were 11, and in March there were 10. On under the floodwaters.
average, there were 8 cases of disaster per month. Although floods were the most frequent disaster,
These disasters caused the deaths of 11 people, 8 of equivalent to more than 50% of the total number of
whom were killed in landslides and the remainder of disaster occurrences, the greatest number of human
whom perished in floods. 39 people were injured, with 36 casualties was caused by landslides, which killed 8
of them injured as a result of earthquakes and the others people. 5 people died when a gold mine in South Aceh
by whirlwinds and strong winds. Regarding cases of collapsed in May 2010. The highest number of injuries
displaced persons, flooding was the main cause of resulted from earthquakes, which injured 36 people.
displacement, causing 9438 of a total of 9467 Total structural damages were 3230 units in 2010.
displacements (Table 5). Highest damaged buildings (88.02%) was caused by the
The worst flood occurred at the beginning of October earthquake, counted 2843 buildings. Accounting for
2010 and affected seven districts in southwest Aceh: West 89.85% of total damages were damaged houses (Table 6).
Aceh, Aceh Jaya, Nagan Raya, Southwest Aceh, South

Table 4. Number of disasters per month.

Strong Water Landslid Earthqua


Flood Tidal Wave Abrasion Eros ion Total
Wind Sprout e ke
January 6 - 1 1 1 2 1 1 13
February 2 1 1 - - - - - 4
March 6 - 2 1 1 - - - 10
April 3 1 - 1 - - 1 - 6
May 3 1 - 1 1 - 1 - 7
June 2 1 1 - 2 - - - 6
July - 5 1 - 1 - - - 7
August 2 3 2 - 1 - - - 8
September 4 - 1 3 - - - - 8
October 8 - - - - - - - 8
November 9 - 1 - - 1 - - 11
December 2 1 - - - 1 - - 4
Total 47 13 10 7 7 4 3 1 92
Total (%) 51.09 14.13 10.87 7.61 7.61 4.35 3.26 1.09

Table 5. Number of victims by disaster.

Displaced Otherw ise Affected


Dead Injure d
People Household People House hold
Landslide 8 - 29 10 - -
Flood 3 - 9438 2078 127582 22439
Earthquake - 36 - - - 2557
Whirlw ind - 2 - 5 119 4
Strong Wind - 1 - - 5 -
Abrasion - - - 21 100 50
Tidal Wave - - - 8 172 -
Total 11 39 9467 2122 127978 25050
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
Table 6. Structural damage by disaster (unit).

Education Health Religious Kiosks/S


Hom es Office s Shops Total
Facilities Facilities Buildings torage
Earthquake 2563 71 41 103 65 - - 2843

Whirlw ind 100 2 - 9 4 - - 115

Tidal Wave 104 - - 1 - 1 106

Flood 59 - - 1 - - 17 77
Abrasion 34 - - - - - - 34

Strong Wind 22 1 - - 1 10 - 34

Landslide 10 - - - 1 - 11

Erosion 10 - - - - - - 10
Total 2902 74 41 114 71 10 18 3230

2. Disaster Condition: 2010 vs 2009 whirlwinds, decreased in 2010, which had 23 such
Hydrological disasters, including floods, tidal waves, disasters, when compared to 35 disasters in 2009.
abrasion, landslides, and erosion, accounted for the There were no climatologic disasters in 2010,
greatest number of disasters in both 2009 and 2010. although there were 3 geological disasters, namely
However, in 2010 the number of occurrences of this type earthquakes. Although there were only 3 earthquakes in
of disaster was still lower than it was in 2009, with 66 2010, they caused the majority of structural damage,
cases compared to 71 cases the previous year (see Fig. 3). accounting for 88.02% of the total 3230 buildings that
Similar to hydrological disasters, the number of were damaged by disaster.
meteorological disasters, including strong winds and

4 2009 2010
Climatological
0

0
Geophysical
3

35
Meteorological
23

71
Hydrological
66

Fig. 3. Disaster occurrences in 2010 compared to 2009.


6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop

92 2009 2010
Infrastructures Damaged (Unit)
328

1228
Homes Damages (Unit)
2902

34030
Displacements (Person)
9467

21
Injuries (Person)
39

5
Deads (Person)
11

Fig. 4. Disaster effects in 2010 compared to 2009.

IV. CONCLUSION V. REFERENCE

Based on the analysis had been done, it can be [1] CRED. Classification. [cited 2011 04 March ]; Available from:
http://www.emdat.be/classification
concluded that by 2010 as many as 92 disasters occurred
in the Aceh dominated by the flood, namely 51,09% of [2] Aceh Disaster Data and Information. [cited 2011 03 January];
total disaster. This amount is lower than in 2009, which is Available from: http://diba.acehprov.go.id
110 events. However, the impact in 2010 is higher, both
[3] Law of The Republic of Indonesia Number 24 Year
casualties and damage to buildings.
2007concerning Disaster Management.
The greatest number of human casualties was caused
by landslides, which killed 8 people out of total 11 people.
The most severe damaged was caused by earthquake
occurred on January in Central Aceh and April in
Simeulue.
In point of view at district level, Pidie experienced
the highest rate of disaster, with 11 cases of disaster. In
East Aceh, Bireuen, and Banda Aceh there were no human
casualties during 2010. In Aceh Tamiang and Sabang,
there was no structural damage as a result of disasters.
And there was no report of human loss or structural
damage in Langsa as a result of disaster in 2010.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4-13

Growth and Peanut Production Due To Addition


of Super Bionik as Organic Liquid Fertilizer on
Tsunami Affected Area
Zuyasna1), Halimursyadah1), and Chandra Saputra2)

1) Lecture in Agriculture Faculty, Syiah Kuala University


2) Alumni Agriculture Faculty, Syiah Kuala University
Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
Email: zuyasna@yahoo.com

Abstract: The aims of this study were to investigate several with micro elements, organic acids, 17 kinds of amino
varieties and liquid organic fertilizer on the growth and the yield acids, enzymes, and vitamins which are needed for the
of peanut at the tsunami affected area and also to identify the plants growth.
interaction between the two factors. The research was conducted Super bionik fertilizer act as bioremediation in
at the Lamnyong river flood plain which is located at the west
sector of Komplek Pelajar Mahasiswa (Kopelma) Darussalam –
improving physical properties, chemical and biological of
Banda Aceh, from March to Mei 2009. Randomized completely the soil, and also can increase the activity of enzyme and
block design with two factor was used on this experiment using microbial in the soil. In addition, super bionik fertilizer
three replications. The first factor was peanut variety (i.e. also can increase the availability of nutrients, and
Jerapah, Singa, and Kuala Batee), and the second factor was stimulate the plant and roots growth. Spraying the super
Super Bionik fertilizer concentrations (i.e. 0; 0,9; and 1,8 bionik fertilizer to the roots or the plant canopy can
cc/225cc). We conducted 9 combinations of treatments which improve the general health of plants, and reduce pesticide
were design into 27 units of experiments. The variety use (Agromedia, 2007).
significantly influenced the plants height on 45 days after
planting, the amount of gynophores, the plant wet weight, and II. MATERIAL AND METHODS
100 seeds weight, however the variety not significantly
influenced other parameters (i.e. the amount of branches at 45
days after planting, the total pods, and the amount of full pod).
This research was conducted at the Komplek Pelajar
The result showed that Super Bionic concentrations not Mahasiswa (Kopelma) Darussalam from March to May
significantly influenced all parameters observed, and no 2009, to determine the suitable concentration of Super
interactions between the variety and the fertilizer concentration Bionik organic liquid fertilizer for the growth and the
occurred on the parameters observed. yield of several varieties of peanuts planted on the land
tsunami affected area.
Keyword: peanut, tsunami area, organic liquid fertilizer The materials used on this research were peanut seeds
varieties; Jerapah, Singa, and Local variety (Kuala Batee),
I. INTRODUCTION manure, Super Bionik fertilizer, Urea, SP-36, and KCl.
Curater, extract of Azadirachta indica leafs and garlic that
The earthquake and tsunami that occurred on December was used for preventing plants from diseases.
25, 2004 in Aceh had been destroyed many strategic Tillage
sectors, primarily the agricultural sector where has been The land affected by tsunami which was used for this
affected on paddy fields and dry land around the beach. experiment was plowed in the 15-20 cm depth for 2 times
The damage that occurred in the tsunami affected and divided into 12 plots of 1.5 to 1.5 m. The plots were
agricultural land caused by the presence of landfill waste 30 cm in height and distance between the plots were 50
and increased levels of saline soil which resulted in cm. The numbers of plots used for the experiment were
damaging of soil biological properties and reducing of soil 36, and one week before planting each plot was given 2.25
fertility level. kg of manure.
One of the efforts in improving of soil biological Thinning
properties is by the addition of organic material such as Planting was done simultaneously base on the treatment
compost or other organic fertilizers. Super Bionik is one tested. Three peanut seeds were put in the hole about 2-3
of the organic fertilizers available on the market. This cm depth, and curater was placed in the hole to prevent
fertilizer is made from the extraction of various organic the seeds from the insects. The planting distance used
wastes such as plants, marine algae and fish, which are were 25 x 25 cm, and so that there were 25 plants in each
processed using microbial biotechnology. This fertilizer plot. By the age of 14 days after planting, thinning was
contains 8% N, 5% P2O5, and 4% K2O and also enriched done and left only two plants per hole.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
Fertilizing terms of shapes, colors and seed size. Cahyono (2007)
In addition to manure provided for the plants, inorganic stated that each variety has different response to the
fertilizer also given 1/3 of the dosages recommendation. temperature and humidity in the process of grain filling
Each plot was given 45 g Urea, 45 g SP-36, and 37.5 g and the formation of carbohydrates on the seed. Singa
KCl. Super bionic fertilizer was given three times during variety was found to be the heaviest plant wet weight and
the plants life (15; 30; and 45 days) by spraying it to the the highest plant height compare with other varieties on
whole plant canopy according to the treatment this experiment. Rahardi (1993) stated that the
concentration. components of plant growth such as plant height, and the
Plants Maintaining number of leaf will affect the weight of the plant, meaning
Plants were watered two times a day unless it was rain. that the more optimal the plant growth the heavier the
Weeds were manually control by taking them out from the weight of the plants.
plots on the 21 and 35 days after planting. Pests and
diseases control applied only there were symptoms on the TABLE I
Means of Variables on Three Peanut Varieties
plants by spraying organic pesticide that was prepare from
Variable Variety Mean
extract of Azadirachta indica leafs and garlic at dose of 1 Jerapah (V1) 43,63 b
cc L-1. Plant Height at 45 days after
Singa V2) 46,97 c
Harvesting plants planting
Kuala Batee (V3) 41,12 a
The plants were harvested on the days 90 after planting BNT = 1,99
when the plants shown the majority of harvesting criteria, Jerapah (V1) 8,99 b
i.e. leaves were yellow; hardening stems; full pods with Number of branches at 45
Singa (V2) 5,11 a
blackish brown color and hardening. days after planting
Kuala Batee (V3) 9,0 b
The parameters observed were plant height (cm), the BNT = 0,58
number of branches per plant, the age of plants flowering Jerapah (V1) 32,72 a
(days), the number of gynophores, the total number of Number of gynophore Singa (V2) 41,92 b
pods per plant, the number of pithy pods per plant, wet Kuala Batee (V3) 33,93 a
weight of plant (g), and seed dry weight of 100 grains (g). BNT = 2,86
Jerapah (V1) 22,40
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Total Pods per plant Singa (V2) 22,46
Kuala Batee (V3) 23,48
Effect of Peanut Varieties Jerapah (V1) 13,90
Based on the research conducted, shown that peanut Number of pithy pods Singa (V2) 14,17
varieties are significantly effect on plant height at the age Kuala Batee (V3) 15,16
45 days, the number of branch per plants at the 45 days BNT = 11,7
age, the number of gynophores, wet weight of plant and Jerapah (V1) 105,78 a
dry weight of 100 grains. However peanut varieties are Wet Weight of plant Singa (V2) 157,33 b
not significantly effect on the total number of pods per Kuala Batee (V3) 108,72 a
plant and number of pithy pods per plant.
Jerapah (V1) 55,86 c
Of the three peanut varieties that were tested listed in
Weight of 100 grains Singa (V2) 49,36 a
Table 1, shows that the number of branches at the 45 days Kuala Batee (V3) 51,94 b
age, the total number of pods and the number of pithy BNT = 2,33
pods tend to be more in Kuala Batee variety (V3) than
other two varieties. While the highest plant at the 45 days Note: Figures followed by same letter in same column are not
age, the heaviest plant wet weight and the highest number significantly different at 5% level (LSD 0.05).
of gynophores found on Singa variety (V2). The best dry Effect of Concentration of Liquid Organic Fertilizer Super Bionic
weight of 100 grains found on Jerapah variety (V1). It was From the research can be shown that the concentration of
shown that a local variety Kuala Batee has better fertilizer was not significantly effect on the plant height at
morphological performance but low yield compared to the 45 days age, the number of plant branches at the 45
Jerapah variety. Sudjijo and Salpinus (1995) previously days age, the number of gynophores, the plant wet eight,
stated that type of seeds, planting technique and the total number of pods per plant, the number of pithy
appropriate land can influenced the production, both in pods per plant and the dry weight of 100 grains. Among
quality and quantity. Difference of growth and yield of the liquid organic fertilizer concentrations applied on the
each variety not only influence by the genetic of the plant peanut plants, as list on Table 2, the branch number per
but also by environmental factors. Gardner et al. (1991) plant at the 45 days age, the number of gynophores per
stated that factors that stimulate the plants growth not only plant, the total number of pods per plant, the number of
lay on the internal genetic control, but also influence by pithy pods and dry weight of 100 grains tend to be better
the elements of climate, soil and biological factors such as found on the application of 0.9 cc/225 ml (P1) Super
pests, diseases, weeds, and the competition between the Bionic Fertilizer. This is probably due to the concentration
plants may also affect the growth and yield of the plant. was sufficient for the plant needed and effective for the
Peanut varieties gave a significant influence on the plant growth. Lingga (2005) stated that the pure organic
weight of 100 grains of dry seeds. This is probably due to fertilizer even in very small quantity having the capability
different varieties will give different characteristics, in to provide nutrients for the plant growth, to increase the
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
productivity, to speed up the harvest, to stimulate the roots fertilizer is very much depends on the genotype of the
growth, stems, leaves and flowers. In addition, Sutedjo varieties and the environment factors surround the plants.
(2002) also stated that macro and micro nutrients are And it appears that three peanut varieties tested gave the
absorbed by plants at the sufficient amount and balance same response to various concentrations of Super Bionic
for the plant growth and development in accordance to liquid organic fertilizer given.
increase crop production.
The plant growth is largely determined by the III. CONCLUSION
availability of nutrients in an optimum level and the Base on the experiment we conclude that the best
balanced. A plant will grow better if all the required concentration of Super Bionic organic liquid fertilizer
nutrients supported and suitable form for the plant applied for the peanut growth and yield at the tsunami
absorption (Dwidjoseputro, 1996). The plant height at the affected area is 0.9 cc/225 ml. Different varieties can
45 days age and the plant wet weight tend to be better response differently to the treatments due to the genotype
found in the treatment concentration of fertilizer 1.8 type of the plants.
cc/225 ml (P2). This is presumably due to the excessive
use of fertilizer and supported by environmental factors REFERENCES
Agromedia. Petunjuk Pemupukan, Jakarta.2007.
which can cause vegetative growth of plants run faster.
Cahyono, B. Kacang Tanah: Teknik Budidaya, Pengolahan dan Analisis
This statement also in accordance with Dartius opinion Usaha Tani. Aneka Ilmu, Semarang, 2007.
(1990), when the availability of the elements needed by Dartius. Fisiologi Tumbuhan 2. Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera
the plant is sufficient, it will affect the metabolism of Utara, Medan. 1990.
Dwidjoseputro. Pengantar Biologi Tumbuhan. PT. Gramedia, Jakarta.
proteins, enzymes, hormonal and carbohydrates, so that
1996.
the enlargement, the extension and the cell division will Gardner,FP., RB. Pearce and RI. Mitchell. Fisiologi Tanaman Budidaya.
occur quickly. And Musnamar (2005) stated that the Universitas Indonesia Press, Jakarta. 1991.
amount of fertilizer at the optimum level can stimulate Lingga,P. Petunjuk Penggunaan Pupuk. Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta. 2005.
Musnawar,EI. Pupuk Padat: Pembuatan dan Aplikasi. Penebar Swadaya,
plant growth and as a result plants will growth better.
Jakarta. 2005.
Rahardi. Agribisnis Tanaman Sayur. Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta. 1993.
TABLE II Sudjijo, M and N. Salpinus. Pengujian Varietas Kubis Bunga yang sesuai
Means of Variables Base on Concentration Super Bionic Fertilizer untuk ekspor. J.Hortikultura 5(1):102-105.
Variable Variety Mean Sutedjo, MM. Puuk dan Cara Pemupukan. PT.Rineka Cipta, Jakarta.
Kontrol (0 cc/225 ml) 43,88 2002.
Plant Height at 45 days after
0,9 cc/225 ml 43,35
planting
1,8 cc/225 ml 44,49

Kontrol (0 cc/225 ml) 7,61


Number of branches at 45
0,9 cc/225 ml 7,81
days after planting
1,8 cc/225 ml 7,68

Kontrol (0 cc/225 ml) 35,70


Number of gynophore 0,9 cc/225 ml 36,61
1,8 cc/225 ml 36,27

Kontrol (0 cc/225 ml) 22,56


Total Pods per plant 0,9 cc/225 ml 23,29
1,8 cc/225 ml 22,49

Kontrol (0 cc/225 ml) 14,28


Number of pithy pods 0,9 cc/225 ml 14,57
1,8 cc/225 ml 14,38

Kontrol (0 cc/225 ml) 122,61


Wet Weight of plant 0,9 cc/225 ml 122,83
1,8 cc/225 ml 125,39

Kontrol (0 cc/225 ml) 52,39


Weight of 100 grains 0,9 cc/225 ml 52,46
1,8 cc/225 ml 52,31
Note: Figures followed by same letter in same column are not
significantly different at 5% level (LSD 0.05).

Interaction
The results showed that there were no interaction
between the concentration of Super Bionic organic liquid
fertilizer and peanut varieties for all growth parameters
and yield of peanuts. This is presumably because respond
ability of each variety to a giving treatment such as
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4-15

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)


as Technology Innovation to Improve
the Productivity of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
in Post-tsunami Affected-Area of Aceh Province
Efendi
Departmen of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Syiah Kuala University
Jl. Tgk Syech Abdurrauf No. 8, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
Email: efendi.idris@gmail.com
I. INTRODUCTION
Abstract: Disasters, global climate changes, rapid population The giant tsunami waves following the earthquake of
growth, and slow the growth of rice production in Asia put the west coast of Sumatra on December 26, 2004, have
increasing pressure on the already strained food-producing effected soil salinisation of agricultural lands and cracked
resources. We need a technology innovation to solve this
problem. The system of rice intensification (SRI) will be an
to irrigation and drainage channels along the coastal areas
innovation technology in several ways can raise the productivity of Aceh Province, Indonesia. Rehabilitation of the damage
of the land, labor, water, and capital in rice production. Skill and land is important work to improve productivity of rice
confidence as well as innovation, SRI can become saving agro- field in Aceh. The system of rice intensification (SRI)
inputs and raising paddy output. The basic of SRI works by will be an innovation technology to raise the productivity
managing root system, soil, water and nutrients. SRI improves of the land, labor, water, and capital in rice production of
the growth and functioning of rice plants root systems and Aceh.
enhances the numbers and diversity of the soil biota. SRI raises The SRI around the world will be an innovation in
not only the yield of paddy, but also to increase the outturn of many processes can raise the productivity of the land,
milled rice. Many SRI users and researchers also report a
reduction in pests, diseases, grain shattering, unfilled grains and
labor, water, and capital in rice production. There are
lodging. As a climate-smart agricultural methodology, additional costs involved with SRI adoption, particularly increased
environmental benefits stem from the reduction of agricultural labor from farmers during their beginning education
chemicals, water use and methane emissions of global warming. phase. furthermore, with skill and belief, SRI can become
The methods of SRI are being explained as below: transplant labor-saving over time, saving water (50%) and seed
seedlings at a very young age; raise seedlings in unflooded (90%), reducing costs (20%), and raising paddy output at
nurseries, not planted densely and well-supplied with organic least 25%, and often 50-100% and sometimes even more.
matter; transplant seedlings quickly, carefully and shallow; This signals too good to be true, but the productivity of
transplant seedlings at wider distance and singly, giving roots SRI methods has been verified in 28 countries around the
and leaves more space to grow; do not continuously flood the
soil–soil saturation causes plant roots to degenerate and
world, including Indonesia (Uphoff, 2008).
suppresses soil organisms that require oxygen; weed control is The foundational of SRI performs by changing the
preferably done with a simple mechanical hand weeder; provide management of plants, soil, water and nutrients utilized in
as much organic matter as possible to the soil–while chemical paddy rice production. SRI integrates transplanting only
fertilizer gives positive results with SRI practices. SRI does not young seedlings with wider spacing, carefully and quickly
require the use of new varieties or the application of chemical into fields that are not kept continuously flooded, and
inputs. In other hand, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses will whose soil has more organic matter and is actively
become more important around the world have to cope with the aerated. The method of SRI enhance the growth and
effects of climate change and the growing frequency of extreme functioning of rice plants, root systems, and elaborate the
events. The resistance of SRI rice plants to lodging caused by
wind and/or rain, given their larger root systems and stronger
numbers and diversity of the soil organism that serve to
stalks, can be quite dramatic. The SRI method reduces the plant health and productivity [20; 23; 10, 14]. The effect
agronomic and economic risks that farmers face. Because of rice of these methods is raise not only the yield of paddy
become the staple food of almost all the population of Aceh, SRI without anticipating on improved varieties or
development with organic farming, has big prospects in post- agrochemical inputs, but also to increase the outturn of
tsunami affected-area of Aceh province, since there is limitation milled rice, by 10-15%. This additional advantage is due
of organic foods supplied to Aceh market currently. Technology to having fewer unfilled grains and fewer broken grains
of SRI will become a technology innovation to improve the (Uphoff, 2008).
productivity of rice in post-tsunami affected-area of Aceh Rice plant produced by SRI method enhances
province.
performances both quantity and quality (Fig. 1). Many
Key words: SRI, rice, organic, tsunami, Aceh farmers report and researchers have validated that SRI
crops are more resistant to most pests and diseases, and
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
(5) keep paddy soil sufficiently moist but not continuously
flooded, mostly aerobic and not saturated; (6) actively

Fig 1. A farmer SRI paddy field in Subdistrict of Lhoong, Aceh Besar,


Indonesia (Photograph: Efendi, 2008) Fig. 2. The SRI practice give plants optimally wider spacing, one plant
per hill and in square pattern. Rice field in Lamtamot, Aceh Besar
better capable to tolerate adverse climatic affects such as Indonesia (Photograph: Efendi, 2008).
drought, storms, hot spells or cold snaps. The length of the
crop cycle as time to maturity is also reduced, with higher aerate the soil as much as possible, using a rotary hoe or
yields. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses will conoweeder to control weeds; (7) enhance soil organic
become more important in the coming decades as farmers matter, compost, mulch, manure, etc. Chemical fertilizers
around the world have to cope with the effects of climate can be used with SRI, but the best results have come with
change and the growing frequency of extreme events. The organic soil amendments [26].
resistance of SRI rice plants to lodging caused by wind II. BASIC CONCEPS OF THE SRI
and/or rain, given their larger root systems and stronger
stalks, can be quite dramatic, as seen from the picture SRI Reducing water applications
below. In general, one can say that use of SRI methods Wetland paddy rice has been regarded as an aquatic
reduces the agronomic and economic risks that farmers plant [4]. However, rice plant roots that are grown under
face [25]. flooding conditions develop abnormally. The roots
Implementation of the SRI will become a system for become functionally less effective, taking up less nutrients
agricultural innovation in future around the world. It was and water [8]. Under anaerobic soil conditions, the soil
reported that rice plants in border rows can give 45-249% biota are less numerous and less diverse. The aerobic
more yield than those in the center of a field. It was bacteria and fungi that are able to fix N, solubilize P and
explained that SRI is remarkable not only in its origins provide other benefits to plants cannot function under
and in the benefits that it can create, but also in the ways such conditions. It was confirmed that with SRI
that it is being developed and extended [15]. SRI has been management, which reduces water applications, the
explicitly conceived of and presented not as a technology populations of beneficial soil biota are greater [6,9]. An
but rather as a methodology based on a set of ideas and important benefit of aerobic conditions is the development
insights formulated as principles that are to be translated of larger root systems [2,11, 22]. This gives rice plants
into specific practices, which seek to create a more larger exploitable root zones in the soil. The profuse root
favorable growing environment for irrigated rice plants. systems that develop with SRI management improve the
Proponents stress that SRI is not finished yet. It is a work plants access to nutrients and soil moisture, and thereby
in progress, still evolving and improving. It is also enhance their resilience against biotic and abiotic
continuously being adapted for diverse environments as stresses (Fig. 3).
these environments and SRI becomes well understood [12, SRI Reducing plant populations
13]. It has been thought that having larger numbers of
SRI can become an open technology developed by plants per unit area is advantageous [19]. Nevertheless,
farmers or researchers to obtain the optimum yield. most researchers have been striving to achieve
However, everybody needs to understand the basic of SRI. intensification through optimum density of rice plants.
Uphoff explained that the basic concepts of SRI can be SRI insights and experience propose an optimization of
summarized succinctly as follows: (1) use young seedlings sparcity so that there is an optimum balance between
(5–12 days) to preserve mature plants growth potential; performance of individual plants and crop area. In
-1
(2) avoid trauma to the roots, by transplanting seedling conventional rice practice, seeds up to 120 kg ha are
quickly, shallow (1-2 cm), with no inversion of seedlings recommended to achieve high density of panicle-bearing
root tips that will delay the plants resumption of growth tillers. With SRI, on the other hand, with young seedlings,
after transplanting; (4) give plants optimally wider no crowding and aerobic soil conditions, an even higher
spacing, one plant per hill and in square pattern (Fig. 2);
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
panicle-bearing tiller density can be field in Samalanga, Bireun, Aceh, Indonesia
(Photograph: Efendi, 2008).

Fig. 3. Aerobic soil condition of SRI enhance their resilience against


biotic and abiotic, like drought stresses. Rice field in Fig. 5. SRI seedlings while still at the 2–3 leaf stage. This is usually
Lambeugak Subdistrict, Aceh Besar, Indonesia (Photograph: between 8 and 12 days after sowing in the nursery. Rice field in
Efendi, 2008). Meureudu, Pidie Jaya, Aceh, Indonesia (Photograph: Efendi,
2008).
produced with seed rates as low as 3–5 kg ha-1. It is hard
to believe that crop yield can be increased on an area basis and canopy development, and consequently they mature
by 50–100% (or even more) with large reductions in the into more productive plants (Pasuquin et al. 2008; 21).
number of plants per square meter. With having only Using organic soil amendments in preference to
about 12–20 plants per square meter, we minimizes plant synthetic fertilizer
competition below and above ground, thereby The productivity increases achievable with compost
encouraging greater root and canopy growth and and serves more functions for maintaining the productivity
distribution. Plant canopies (Fig. 4) have more uniform and sustainability of soil systems. Organic matter from
access to solar radiation while soil nutrients can be compost is provided to nourish the soil system that feeds
captured from a larger soil-root zone. So, the the plant efficiently. Compost improves the structure and
photosynthetic process is greater translocation to the functioning of soil systems in ways that chemical fertilizer
panicles of the carbohydrates and nutrients stored in the cannot and does not. This enables soil systems to
rest of the plant [7]. contribute to its health and productivity. Compost made
Transplanting younger, smaller seedlings from biomass contains more of the trace minerals that are
Seedling is better to transplant into rice field with essential for plant metabolism. Thus, micronutrients play
younger and smaller size. If the crop is not established by key roles in plant health and performance. The use of
direct-seeding, an SRI option being developed by farmers, organic soil amendments can be very productive and also
it is best to transplant seedlings while still at the 2–3 leaf profitable [7].
stage. This is usually between 8 and 12 days after sowing Yield increases and additional benefits from SRI
in the nursery (Fig. 5). Such young seedlings, although The SRI changes in rice-growing practices can result
they look more vulnerable and unpromising than older, in win–win outcomes—for farmers, consumers, and the
larger ones, have a far greater vigor and potential for root environment. The practices of SRI will enhance the
[7]. productivity of other resources used in rice production:
water, nutrients, labor, energy, and capital. However,
yield is the simplest standard of comparison. It was
summarized yield information from the different countries
(Table I). It shows considerably country-to-country
variation, for both SRI and conventional management, but
overall, the average yield advantage is over 60% [7]. The
increases with SRI methods varied from 11% in Chinese
to 220% in an on-farm, innovative-mechanized version of
SRI in Pakistan [18].

III. SRI INNOVATION IN INDONESIA


It was explained that under SRI management in
Indonesia, average paddy yield increase was 3.3 t/ha
(78%). This was achieved with about 40% reduction in
water use, 50% reduction in chemical fertilizer
Fig. 4. Plant canopies have more uniform access to solar radiation while applications, and 20% lower costs of production. The
soil nutrients can be captured from a larger soil-root zone. Rice
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
yield information of SRI from
rom the different province was
summarized in Table II [16].
TABLE I
YIELD DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SRI AND CONVENTIONAL IRRIGATED
RICE IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES [7]
Productivity (t ha-1)
Country Non-
SRI SRI Increases (%)
SRI
Afghanistan 5.6 9.3 66
China 7.3 8.1 11
Gambia 2.5 7.6 204
India 4.4 6.5 48
Source: Sato, Yamaji, and Kuroda, 2011
Indonesia 4.3 7.6 78
Iraq 3.8 5.3 40
Kenya 5.0 9.6 92 Lessons learned from Indonesian SRI
Madagascar 3.4 6.4 89 One conclusion from various experiences is that the
Mali 5.5 9.1 66 SRI method is not a conventional agricultural technology
Pakistan 4.0 12.8 220 innovation. It was explained that SRI is a whole
Panama 3.4 4.8 47
Averages
cultivation system that involves the integration of
technical,
ical, managerial, social, psychological, and
agronomic factors: (1) Good irrigation infrastructure is
SRI in Indonesia were begun in the 1999 as the first essential for efficient operation and maintenance; (2)
evaluations by the Agency for Agricultural Research and Provision of field ditches is quite effective to reduce yield
Development (AARD) at in Sukamandi, West Java [5]. [5] gaps within a plot and to make for smooth
sm performance of
There were also then on-farm
farm evaluations done 2001 in intermittent irrigation application; (3) Good management
Ciamis district, West Java. The aim was to disseminate of irrigation schemes by administrative staff are essential
SRI production methods to small farmers who own less to get the farmer participation that facilitates water- water
than 0.2 ha of paddy field. With financial support for sharing and intermittent irrigation; (4) Strong and
farmer training from the Ministry of Agriculture, vigorous farmer
mer groups are essential for carrying out
international NGOs and local governments, Indonesia rigorous intermittent irrigation regimes; (5) Motivated
expanded SRI area within 7 years to cover 4,616 ha in 10 farmers are important, with high levels of agricultural skill
provinces. Average paddy yield of organic SRI is reported and an acute awareness of possibilities for innovation and
to be 6–7 t/ha. increasing their yields and crop area; area (6) Local
The first use of SRI methods in eastern Indonesia was government’s support for SRI dissemination is quite
in West Timor, where an NGO (ADRA) introduced
introd the effective to encourage farmers to introduce SRI.
methods in early 2002 [24].. In the first season, seven Extension of SRI methods is likely to be quickest and
farmers averaged
veraged 11.6 t/ha with SRI, compared with 4.4 most successful in schemes where the above-listed
above factors
t/ha using their conventional methods This was so are present [17].. The process works
w best if farmer-driven,
remarkable, however, that few persons outside West and it should proceed at a pace and rate that farmers are
Timor took it seriously, even when SRI use there comfortable with, rather than promote SRI in a top-down
top
expanded to 200 farmers in the next season. The main campaign [25].
impetus for SRI spread in eastern Indonesia passed to Implementation of SRI projects showed different
DISIMP as considered in the next section [16]. [1 The respond of farmers. Experience in various countries
distribution of SRI area across Indonesia by province as of indicates that the introduction of SRI itself helps to
2008 is shown in Fig. 6. improve farmers’ motivation and desire for new
TABLE II knowledge and skills. So, adaptations should always al be
YIELD DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SRI AND CONVENTIONAL IRRIGATED encouraged to suit local conditions. Once famers see that
RICE IN DIFFERENT PRONINCE ON-FARM LOCATIONS IN EASTERN their previous practices, in which they have had so much
INDONESIA [7]
confidence, can be surpassed by simple but profound
Productivity (t ha-1) changes in their methods of production, this is a real
Provinces
SRI mind-opener, for most if notot all farmers. Farmer-to-farmer
Farmer
Non-SRI SRI Increases dissemination is possible and desirable with SRI because
(%)
West Nusa Tenggara 4.3 7.6 78
this innovation does not rely on external inputs, only on
East Nusa Tenggara 4.1 7.9 94 new knowledge and altered attitudes. In addition to farmer
South Sulawesi 3.2 7.2 125 efforts and field trials and research from the government
go
Southeast Sulawesi 4.6 7.6 69 and NGO side, the uptake of SRI will benefit from
Central Sulawesi 3.6 6.0 68 publicity campaigns through posters, lectures, and other
North Sulawesi 4.2 5.4 74 means of communication, not only at the field level, but
Goroantalo 4.0 6.7 67 from all national, regional and local governments involved
Bali (hybrid trials) 2.8 7.1 158 with paddy rice cultivation.
ion. This can create a widespread
Bali (other trials) 8.4 13.3 58
awareness of the opportunities presented by these new
West Java 6.7 11.9 78
Lampung 3.5 8.5 143 understandings for optimizing rice production.
Aceh 4.3 8.8 105
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
IV. SRI AS AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION FOR ACEH
During period rehabilitation and reconstruction of
Aceh, 2007-2009, ETESP-Project donated by Asian
Development Bank (ADB) had disseminated the
technology of SRI in 11 districts of Aceh provinces: Aceh
Besar, Pidie, Pidie Jaya, Bireun, Aceh Utara, Aceh Timur,
Aceh Jaya, Aceh Barat, Nagan Raya, Aceh Barat Daya,
and Simeulu. SRI in Aceh were begun to introduce during
the 1996-1997 (Fig 7) as the successful evaluations by the
Government in some area, especially Aceh Besar and
Bireun district. Now, SRI already spread out almost all of
districts in Aceh province.
For almost all the population of Aceh, rice is the staple
food. So, we should ensure the sustainability of rice
production. Using SRI technologies can increase yields by Fig 7. SRI technologies can increase yields significantly from 50% to
over 76 to 185% (Table III). SRI uses organic techniques 105%. Rice field in Samalanga Subdistrict, Bireun, Aceh,
restore soil fertility and improve a healthy, ecological Indonesia (Photograph: Efendi, 1997)
environment in the community. With the practices of SRI,
System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Research on water
Aceh has a large potential to reduce poverty through
management and agro-inputs for SRI system in 10 ha pilot
increased incomes and employment creation is large.
scheme has been carried out by learning-by-doing through
SRI development like other organic farming, has big
farmers’ field school methods. Government Agricultural
prospects in Aceh, since there is limitation of organic
Research Centre (BPTP), in cooperation with ETESP, is
foods supplied to Aceh market currently. With more than
carrying out variety trials adjacent to this SRI pilot
4 million people eating rice in Aceh and with rice
scheme. Action Required: More extension training and
consumption per capita 180 Kg, Aceh needs 720.000 ton
demonstrations for SRI will be carried out in 2008.
of rice each year. If 10% of them prefer to eat organic
Thus, priority in soil management needs to be given
rice, 72.000 ton organic rice needed by Aceh. Aceh
to the 97%, or about 350,000 ha, of rice fields that are
already has created a community training centre or village
being farmed. Throughout Aceh, productivity is low and
learning point for coastal families to increase productivity
stagnant at average productivity of 4.2 t/ha. Productivity
and profits from rice lands available along coastal areas in
needs to be increased to increase income and alleviate
West coast and East coast of Aceh [1]
poverty and malnutrition. Based on experience gained
The ETESP and JFPR sub-project results have been over 3 and a half years of project implementation, the key
highly satisfactory with all output targets achieved and soil management issues in Aceh are: (1) low productivity
exceeded. Participating families incomes have increased due to damaged soil ecosystem from over use of chemical
by US $ 1.00/day from SRI rice and US $ 3.00 additional fertilizers and pesticides, (2) lack of knowledge and
income per day from compost making (OISCA, 2011). expertise by farmers and extension workers in sustainable
Through the Caritas Czech livelihood program, local agriculture, and (3) gender equality limiting women
small holders have learnt the System of Rice farmers’ access to information and new technology. To
Intensification (SRI): an innovative way of growing rice help address this, the Asian Development Bank through
crops which has had incredible results. Dr Ingvar Anda, the Earthquake and Tsunami Emergency Support Project
Caritas Australia’s Humanitarian Coordinator says that (ETESP), budgeted $36 million for the Agriculture
SRI improved the yield in Aceh from two tons per hectare Component, aimed at restoration of farming, restoration of
to 8.5 tons per hectare [3]. support services, and community empowerment. For
ETESP, BRR was designated the Executing Agency and
TABLE III implementation was carried out in partnership with
YIELD DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SRI AND CONVENTIONAL IRRIGATED
RICE IN DIFFERENT ON-FARM LOCATIONS IN ACEH PROVINCE
Government Agricultural Agencies.
This project implemented by providing farmers with
Productivity (t ha-1) training in new agriculture technology, and linking them
SRI to sources of information, processing, marketing and
Provinces Non-SRI
SRI Increases
Averagea credit. This is being achieved through the development of
(%)
Aceh Besar 9.3 107.1% Livelihood Connection Centers: BPP+ for Food Crops and
Pidie 8.6 91.5% Horticulture (11 units, one per district). These Centers will
Pidie Jaya 8.5 89.3% focus on commodities being prioritized by the Planning
Bireun 12.9 187.3% Agencies and Agriculture Services for these districts, like
Aceh Utara 8.9 98.2% SRI of rice. The centers (Fig 8) are visualized as multi-
4.49
Aceh Timur 8.4 87.1% purposed centers, and will be available for use by a full
Aceh Jaya 8.5 89.3%
Nagan Raya 9.5
range of government agencies. These facilities are
111.6%
Aceh Barat Daya 9.2 104.9% strategically located to support the implementation of
Simeulu 7.9 75.9% activities promoted under “Aceh Green” program being
a
Average productivity of Non-SRI in 2010 (BPS, 2011) implemented by the Government of Aceh.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop

Fig 8. Training of Agriculture Extension Workers in the Participatory


Methods. Right, classroom training at BPP+ (ETESP-ADB, 2008)

Nowadays, one important sustainable agriculture


technology being developed and promoted in Aceh is the
System of Rice Intensification (SRI). With this
technology, rice production can be increased up to 185%.
Farmers’ Field School methodologies are being used to
Fig 9. Farmers Field School for SRI Technology - Capacity Building for
train extension staff and farmers in 11 tsunami-affected Farmers’ Groups
districts. Under ETESP, extension workers have been
trained in participatory methods, intensive methods for To replicate this exciting eco livelihoods potential and
crop production, organic farming and sustainable exploit the market potential, the following activities
agriculture, integrated pest management, and System for should be carried out; (1) Site Visits to improve
Rice Intensification. Farmer Field School methods have understanding of organic planting for other farmer groups
been used to train farmers in the production of a number also need to be done, including conducting site visit, and
of key commodities including rice. training/workshop/demplot; (2) Set up organic food outlet
At the end of 2008, there were about 150 low income in strategic area as a show case not only for organic food
families living in Lambeugak Village, Kuta Cot Glie Sub- but also for JFPR program. (3) Build cooperation with
District in Aceh Besar District. Out of them 22 families, premium outlet such as Blang Rakal Supermarket to
Keumang Melati Farmers group, were identified as very market organic food for middle up class, that are willing
poor. ADB-ETESP Agriculture provided the members of to pay higher price for healthy food; (4) Market education:
Keumang Melati Farmer group with agro-inputs for their To make more people aware about the benefit of healthy
rice culture development through SRI system including food, and motivate them to switch from chemical food to
one unit of compost processing with a capacity of 400 kg organic food.
per hour.
ADB-JFPR also developed subproject of SRI V. CONCLUSION
Livelihoods Model–was launched building on the ETESP
achievement with further development of SRI technology. The system of rice intensification (SRI) will become
After receiving training from OISCA-JFPR on SRI and an agricultural innovation to raise the productivity of the
the production of compost, bio-pesticides, liquid land, labor, water, and capital in rice production. The
complementary fertilizers and fruit EM, the Keumang basic of SRI works by managing root system, soil, water
Melati Farmers Group had operated since January 2009. and nutrients. SRI improves the growth and functioning of
The production rate of Ciherang rice variety in April 2009 rice plants root systems and enhances the numbers and
reached 9.3 tons per hectare under SRI or an increase by diversity of the soil biota. SRI also report a reduction in
100% compared to the average production 4.6 tons under pests, diseases, grain shattering, unfilled grains and
non-SRI. The planting area under SRI was 5 hectares lodging, as same as the reduction of agricultural
involving 27 farmers (original 22 plus five). Their chemicals, water use and methane emissions of global
incomes through this rice culture increased by Rp warming. The SRI method reduces the agronomic and
1,930,000 – Rp 9,780,000 per harvest per family. economic risks that farmers face. SRI development with
OISCA-ADB JFPR (2010) explained that the Farmers organic farming has big prospects in post-tsunami
Group produced compost not only for its own needs but affected-area of Aceh province. Technology of SRI will
also for commercial sale. They received an order from the become a technology innovation to improve the
Food Crops and Horticulture Office for 10 tons and the productivity of rice in post-tsunami affected-area of Aceh
next month for 40 tons. They sold about 50 tons of province.
compost at Rp 1,000 per kilogram. After deducting 30%
production cost, their net profit was Rp. 35,000,000. Some
part of the profit was saved as capital for micro-loans and
savings managed by the members and may be borrowed
even by villagers outside of the Keumang Melati Farmers
Group. The focus of SRI development is women farmers
that work in a group of village. They were being trained in
System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Technology using
Farmers’ Field School methods, that is, learning-by-doing
(Fig 9).
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
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Systems, 409-424, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
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[3] Caritas. 2009. Rice aplenty in Aceh. NEWS SPRING, Update in [16] Sato S (2006) Water-saving for paddy cultivation by intermittent
Aceh. P.10 irrigation under the system of rice intensification in Eastern
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[4] DeDatta, S.K. (1981). Principles and Practices of Rice Production, practices in rice paddy cultivation, Malaysia.
John Wiley & Sons, New York.
[17] Sato, S., E.Yamaji,. and T. Kuroda. (2011) Strategies and
[5] Gani A, Kadir TS, Jatiharti A, Wardhana IP, Las I (2002) The engineering adaptions to disseminate SRI methods in large-scale
system of rice intensification in Indonesia. In: Uphoff N et al (eds) irrigation systems in Eastern Indonesia. Paddy Water Environ
Assessments of the system of rice intensification (SRI). Proceedings (2011) 9:79–88. Doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0242-2
of International Conference, Sanya, China, 1–4 April 2002, pp 58–63.
Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and [18] Sharif, A. (2011) Technical adaptations for mechanized SRI
Development, Ithaca. production to achieve water saving and increased profitability in
Punjab, Pakistan. Paddy Water Environ. doi:10.1007/s10333-010-
[6] Iswandi A, Rupela OP, Thiyagarajan TM, Uphoff, N. 2011. Effects 0223-5
of SRI on beneficial organisms in rice rhizospheres and soil. Paddy
Water Environ (2011) 9:53–64. doi: 10.1007/s10333-011-0260-8 [19] Sinclair TR (2004) Agronomic UFOs waste valuable scientific
resources. Rice Today, July–Sept, vol 43. International Rice
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modifications in rice crop and water management and research
issues for making further improvements in agricultural and water [20] Stoop, W., Uphoff, N. and Kassam, A. (2002). A review of
productivity. Paddy Water Environ , 9:163–180. Doi: agricultural research issues raised by the System of Rice
10.1007/s10333-011-0259-1 Intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: Opportunities for
improving farming systems for resource-poor farmers, Agricultural
[8] Kirk GJD, Bouldin DR (1991) Speculations on the operation of the
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rice root system in relation to nutrient uptake. In: Penning de Vries
FWT et al (eds) Simulation and systems analysis for rice production, [21] Stoop WA (2011) The scientific case for the System of Rice
Pudoc, Wageningen, Netherlands, pp 195–203 Intensification and its relevance for sustainable crop
intensification. Manuscript under review by Int J Sustain Agric
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organic fertilization with SRI crop practices on hybrid rice growth [22] Thakur AK, Rath S, Patil DU, Kumar A (2011) Effects on rice plant
and rhizosphere biota. Paddy Water Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10333- morphology and physiology of water and associated management
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The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): A challenge for science,
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[11] Mishra A, Salokhe VM (2011) Rice root growth and physiological
responses to SRI water management and implications for crop [24] Uphoff N (2006). Increasing water savings while raising rice yields
productivity. Paddy Water Environ.doi:10.1007/s10333-010-0240-4 with the system of rice intensification (SRI). Paper for 2nd
international rice congress, New Delhi, 9–13 October 2006.
[12] Prasad, S. (2006). System of Rice Intensification in India:
Innovation History and Institutional Challenges, WWF-ICRISAT [25] Uphoff, N. (2007). Reducing the vulnerability of rural households
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[13] Prasad, S., K. Beumer and D. Mohanty (2007).Towards a Learning [26] Uphoff, N. 2008. The System of Rice Intensification as Agricultural
Alliance: SRI in Orissa, Xavier Institute of Management, Innovation. Jurnal Tanah dan Lingkungan, Vol. 10 (1):27-40
Bhubaneswar, and WWF-ICRISAT Dialogue on Water, Food and
Environment, Patancheru.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4-17

Mercury Levels and Distribution in Organs of


Freshwater Organisms from Krueng Sabe River,
Aceh Jaya, Indonesia
Suhendrayatna1*, Akira Ohki2, Ade Chairunnisa Gultom3
1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Syiah Kuala University
Jalan Tgk. Abdurrauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, Indonesia, 23111
*Corresponding author: suhendrayatna@unsyiah.ac.id
2
Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology, and Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering,
Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, 890-0065, Japan
3
Faculty of Engineering, State University of Medan,
Jalan Williem Iskandar, Pasar V, Medan, Indonesia, 20221

in the water column and sediments. It was estimated that a


Abstract: The distribution and relative concentrations of mean of 4500 metric tons per year of anthropogenic
mercury in the main tissues of freshwater organisms from mercury emissions, these measurements indicate that
Krueng Sabe River were investigated with the purpose of present-day mercury deposition is a factor of two to five
knowing the emissions and environmental implications of times greater than preindustrial deposition measurements
mercury from artisanal gold mining in Aceh Jaya, Indonesia.
Freshwater fish and shellfish were caught in the estuary from
[2]. Natural process causes the entering of mercury in
Krueng Sabe River, Aceh Jaya. All organisms were transported aquatic ecosystem such as mineral deposits, volcanoes,
live to the laboratory and sampled dissected after death. Organs forest fires, oceanic emission, and crust degassing. It also
from each organism were removed and grained after freeze- could be released by human activities such as smelters
dried. Total mercury analyzed using a Heat-Vaporization Atomic processing sulfide ores (i.e., in the production of metals
Absorption Spectrometry (HV-AAS), MA2000 automatic such as gold, copper, iron, lead and zinc) and cement
mercury analyzer. The results showed that total mercury was kilns, roasting of sulfide ores for production of sulfuric
detected in all fish and shellfish and the accumulated mercury in acid [3].
organisms were significantly greater in shellfish than in fish The elemental form of mercury (Hg0) that released in
which mean concentrations were 1,305+87.5 and 362+23.9
mg/kg-dry weight, respectively. High mercury levels in
the atmosphere is transformed into a soluble species
organism samples provided strong indication of a high (Hg2+), such transition from an inorganic compound into
bioaccumulation from the Krueng Sabe River area. an organic form (mainly as methyl mercury) is the first
Bioaccumulation of mercury by fish was found minimum in step in the accumulation process in aquatic biota; the
head (0.046+10.0 mg/kg-dry weight), whereas maximum conversion of mercury forms is enhanced by bacteria that
bioaccumulation founded in the gill (0.399+1.5 mg/kg-dry operate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions [4]. After
weight). Mercury concentrations varied in the order: Gill > bacterial activity, methyl mercury enters food chains and
Muscle > Bone > Eye > Head. Others heavy metals such as Cu, is eventually accumulated [5]. Methyl mercury in aquatic
Zn, As, Cd, Pb, and Se were also found accumulated in fishes biota is a major public health concern internationally [6].
and shellfishes and dominated with metals Cu, Zu, and Pb.
Based on these results, a regular monitoring program in Krueng
Large-size marine organisms, such as dolphin and tuna,
Sabe River is necessary conducted in order to better elucidate the contain high levels of mercury. For medium-size fish, the
rate of bioaccumulation and biomagnification by organisms. mercury level is relatively small in their muscles, however
Keyword: mercury; bioaccumulation; Krueng Sabee; and Aceh their internal organs, such as liver, may contain much
Jaya. more mercury [7,8,9]. Reference [4] reported the
distribution and relative concentrations of Mercury in the
I. INTRODUCTION main tissues of penaeid shrimps mostly accumulated in
hepatopancreas, followed by muscle and exoskeleton.
Many researchers have been studied the emissions and Reference [10] observed the emissions of mercury from
contamination of mercury in environment. Reference [1] artisanal gold mining in North Sulawesi and indicated that
reported the contamination of the marine environment by an increase took place along the three main rivers in the
mercury compounds is the result of natural phenomena in watershed. Reference [11] also reported that high
conjunction with anthropogenic discharge, especially near concentration of mercury was detected in main tissues of
the coastline; anthropogenic discharges contribute to an freshwater fish and shellfish from Kr. Meurebo River,
increase of the mercury flux and to the alteration of the West Aceh and the accumulated mercury in organisms
chemical forms and species of this trace element present were significantly greater in shellfish than in fish which
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
mean concentrations were 2.882+148 and 0.321+18.7 after death. Organs from each organism were removed and
mg/kg-dry weight, respectively. High mercury levels in grained after dried. Freeze-dried conducted in Vacuum
organism samples provided strong indication of a high Oven Eyella VOS 450SD follow with liquid Nitrogen at
bioaccumulation from the Kr. Meurebo River area. 60oC.
Solutions to this problem must be formulated as soon as
possible in order to avoid a major health, economic, and
ecological disaster arising from the continuing discharge
of mercury in North Sulawesi and West Aceh.
Mercury contamination in some rivers in Indonesia
mosly caused by the gold mining activities, such as
Ciliunggunung River in Sukabumi Regency [12],
Tawalaan, Bailang, and Kima River in North Sulawesi
[10], and Barito, Kahayangan, Rungan River in Central
Kalimantan [13], and Kr. Meureubo River in West Aceh
[11]. The gold ore from the mining is processed with a
direct amalgamation method and produces low gold
concentrate, but the concentrate of mercury discarded to
the river is high enough. Furthermore, low levels of
technical knowledge and skills and no regulation are also
applied in all related gold mining processes in Indonesia
[10].
Krueng Sabe River is located in Aceh Jaya District, the
west part of Aceh, Indonesia and only 3 – 4 m deep on
average. The major source of pollution is predicted by the
waste effluents from the artisanal gold plant lies in the
upstream of the river as parts of Gunung Ujeun Mountain.
The gold separation processes are undertaken with a low
level of technical knowledge and skills, no regulation, and
with disregard for the safety of human and environment
health. The situation is generating serious potential health
and environmental risks in that area. As part of an ongoing Fig. 1. Map of sampling location.
monitoring program, total mercury concentrations and
other heavy metals were examined in the organism’s C. Analysis Procedure
samples from the Krueng Sabe River, which receives A Heat-Vaporization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
drainage from gold plant practices. This study assessed the (HV-AAS), MA2000 automatic mercury analyzer
levels of mercury and other heavy metals concentration in (Nippon Instruments Co., NIC, Ltd.) has been used to
biological samples from organisms such as fishes and analyze the total mercury in fish and shellfish sample.
shellfish in a watershed of Krueng Sabe River, Aceh Jaya Sample (20-30 mg) added to ceramic boats with
District. With the purpose of knowing distribution and two types of additives, that one consists of
relative concentrations of mercury and other heavy metals activated alumina (additive B) and the other consists of
in the main tissues of organisms, levels of mercury and a mixture of sodium carbonate and calcium hydroxide
other heavy metals in head, eye, gill, bone, and muscle of (additive M), which were purchased from NIC. All
fish from Krueng Sabe River were investigated. ceramics boats and additives heated in a muffle
furnace at 700-800oC for 6 hours to remove any
background mercury. Hg2+ standard solutions adequately
II. METHODOLOGY diluted and added directly to the ceramic samples boats.
The standard solutions and samples in the boats put into
A. Reagents the sample loader part of analyzer to measure the total
Hg2+ standard solution (1000 mg/L, HgCl2 in 0.02 M mercury concentration in samples. All glasses and ceramic
HCl), methylmercury(II) chloride, and hydrochloric acid boat wares were cleaned by soaking with a cleaning
were purchased from Wako Pure Chemical Industries, solution followed by a Millipore water rinse prepared by a
Ltd. All chemicals used were analytical grade quality. All Purelab Ultra Ionic (Organo Co., Ltd.) before use. Quality
solutions were prepared in ultrapure water prepared by a control was assured by DOLT3 Dogfish liver (National
Purelab Ultra Ionic (Organo Co., Ltd.). Research Council, Canada) and recoveries of mercury
ranged 110.4%. The other heavy metals such as Cu, Zn,
B. Experimental Procedure As, Cd, Pb, and Se analyzed by Inductively Coupled
Fish and shellfish were caught in the estuary from Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS).
Krueng Sabe River and sampling sites were selected in the
downstream of river that correlated to the contaminant
sources as illustrated in Fig. 1. All organisms were
transported live to the laboratory and sampled dissected
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION parts per million (mg/kg). In Canada the limit for total
mercury content is 0.5 mg/kg [15,16]. Although the
Kreung Sabe River is situated at the Aceh Jaya coastal and mercury levels in fishes from Krueng Sabe River found
recently more attractive for prospector since the issue of are below these limits, the mercury levels found in
gold deposits around the Gunung Ujeun forest land. shellfishes frequently exceed 1.0 mg/kg. Comparing with
Villagers have mined gold by hand in the mountainous the mercury levels found in shellfishes and fishes caught
site. This area is predicted containing abundant and easily from the Kr. Meureubo River, this resultr shows has
mined deposits of nickel, gold, iron ore and potassium. significantly same pattern [10].
Aceh Environmental Protection Agency in 2009 predicted
that the gold-mining
mining activities in this area are
a alarming TABLE I
due to the massive and uncontrolled use of mercury. MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN TISSUES OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMS
FROM DIFFERENT LOCATIONS
Around 14.400 liters of mercury waste water run without
a proper management into the Krueng Sabee river every
Hg
around 600 kg of mercury/day [14]. Furthermore, in the Species Location Concentration Ref.
vicinity of the Krueng Sabe River, there are some people's (mg/kg-dw)
activities, and the main contamination source of mercury Fish, C. canos Krueng Sabe River 0.362 + 23.9*) This study
predicted is the artisanal gold plant. This activity relies (upstream)
Fish, C. canos Krueng Sabe River 0.335 + 23.2*) This study
mainly on manual labor and makes use of simple methods. (downstream)
The processing plant is built at the side of the river,
ri Shellfish, P. Krueng Sabe River 1.305 + 87.5*) This study
because water necessary for the processing of ore. exilis (upstream)
Shellfish, P. Krueng Sabe River 1.285 + 23.5*) This study
exilis (downstream)
Trout FDA 2002-04, USA 0.072 [16]
T. FDA 1990-02, USA 0.010 [16]
mossambica
Catfish FDA 1990-04, USA 0.049 [16]
Perch FDA Survey 1990- 0.140 [16]
02, USA
Shrimp FDA 1990-02, USA ND [16]
Fish, C. canos Kr. Meurebo River, 0.321 [11]
Meulaboh
Shellfish, P. Kr. Meurebo River, 2.882 [11]
exilis Meulaboh
Fig. 2. Mercury levels in shellfish and fish muscles caught from the
Small fish Talawaan River, 3.140 [10]
Krueng Sabe River.
Sulawesi
Small fish Bailang River 0.510 [10]
Total mercury was detected in all organisms sample and Sulawesi
the concentration of mercury in shellfish and a fish are Small fish Kima River, 0.453 [10]
presented in Figure 2, while the summary of Sulawesi
M. Salmoides Gulf coast, Mexico 0.430 [17]
concentrations in tissues of freshwater fish from different
Carp Enid Lake, North 0.352 [18]
locations is given in Table 1. Mean concentrations were Mississippi
significantly greater in shellfish than in fish and the mean Note: ND = not detected
concentrations were 1.305 + 87.5 mg/kg-dry
mg/kg weight and *) Average of data from two replicated series of measurements
0.335 + 23.2 mg/kg-dry dry weight, respectively. This result
showed in line with the former research results conducted
in the Kr. Meureubo River [10]. A comparison with
literature data (Table 1) showed that the specimens here
analyzed had mercury level higher in freshwater
fres fish and
shellfish than those reported for freshwater fishes in other
parts of the world [15,16], except for freshwater fish from
mercury contaminated area in Sulawesi, Mexico, and
North Mississippi [10,17,18], which showed comparable
levels. Nearly all fish and shellfish contain traces of
methyl mercury. However, larger fish that have lived
longer have the highest levels of methyl mercury because
they've had more time to accumulate it. These large fish
Fig. 3. Distribution of mercury in fish tissues from Krueng Sabe River.
(swordfish, shark, king mackerel, and tilefish) pose the
greatest risk. Small fish absorb methyl mercury from
water as they feed on aquatic organisms. The longer fish The distribution of accumulated mercury in various
lives causes more methyl mercury accumulated in its tissues in fish was observed. The minimum content was in
body. Large, long-lived,
lived, larger fish that feed on other fish head (0.046+10.0 mg/kg-dry dry weight), whereas the
(high in the food chain)) accumulate the highest levels of maximum content was in the gill (0.399+1.5
(0.399 mg/kg-dry
methyl mercury. In the United States the limit for methyl weight) as shown in Fig. 3. Mercury concentrations varied
mercury in commercial marine and freshwater fish is 1.0 in the order: Gill > Muscle > Bone > Eye > Head. Not all
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
tissues will receive the same blood flow, and the Nakajima, Mr. El Amin, and Mr. Kosei Haraguchi for
distribution of mercury in the various tissues will be their enthusiastic assistance with organism’s collection
different [10,19]. Mercury accumulation in tissues will be and analysis.
a function of uptake and clearance rates of the individual
organs. The significant correlations of mercury REFERENCES
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attenuata) from the Eastern Tropical Pacific, in relation to biological
suitable for accumulation. and ecological factors. Mar. Environ. Res., 1990, 30, pp. 43-72.
The others heavy metals accumulated in fishes and [2] O. Lindqvist, Johansson, K., Astrup, M., Andersson, A., Bringmark,
shellfishes were also observed and the results showed in L., Hovsenius, G., Iverfeldt, A., Mieli, M., Timm, B., “Mercury in
the Swedish environment. Recent research on causes, consequences
Table 2. Cu, Zu, and Pb were dominant found in the
and corrective methods”, Water Air Soil Pollut., 1991, 55, pp. 251-
muscle of fishes and shellfishes. These results related to 261.
the deposits around the Gunung Ujeun forest land that the [3] L.D. Hylander, Meili, M., “500 years of mercury production: global
main source of Krueng Sabe River stream. annual inventory by region until 2000 and associated emissions,”
Sci. Total Environ., 2003, 304, pp. 13-27.
[4] J. Ruelas-Inzunza, Garcıa-Rosales, S.B., Paez-Osuna, F.,
TABLE II
“Distribution of mercury in adult penaeid shrimps from Altata-
HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATION IN TISSUES OF FRESHWATER
Ensenada del Pabellon lagoon (SE Gulf of California)”,
ORGANISMS
Chemosphere, 2004, 57, pp. 1657-1661
[5] W.L. Fitzgerald, Mason, R.P., “The global mercury cycle: oceanic
Concentration in muscle (mg/kg-dry) and anthropogenic aspects”, In: Baeyens, et al. (Eds.), Global and
Heavy Regional Mercury Cycles: Sources, Fluxes and Mass Balances,
Fish, C. canos Shellfish,
Metals Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 1996. pp. 85-108.
Upstream Downstream P. exilis [6] B. Wheatley, Wheatley, M.A., “Methylmercury and the health of
Cu 6.99 392.20 17.92 indigenous peoples: a risk management challenge for physical and
social sciences and for public health policy”, Sci. Total Environ.,
Zn 32.29 330.89 166.90 2000, 259, 23-29.
As 0.41 0.36 2.15 [7] L.R. Kamps, Carr, R., and Miller, H., Bull. of Environ. Cont. and
Toxicol., 1972, 8(5), p. 273.
Cd 0.15 0.06 0.47
[8] S. Mishra, Tripathi, R.M., Bhalke, S., Shukla, V.K., Puranik, V.D.,
Pb 4.58 3.58 7.37 2005, Anal. Chim. Acta, 551(1-2), p. 192.
Se 0.34 0.64 2.41 [9] T. Endo, Hotta, Y., Haraguchi, K., Sakata, M., 2003, Environ. Sci. &
Tech., 37(12), p. 2681.
[10] D. Limbonga, Kumampunga, J., Rimpera, J., Arai, T, Miyazaki, N.,
IV. CONCLUSIONS “Emissions and environmental implications of mercury from
artisanal gold mining in north Sulawesi, Indonesia”, The Sci. of the
This present study has shown that total mercury was Tot. Environ., 2003,302, 227-236.
[11] Suhendrayatna, Haraguchi, K., Nakajima, T., Ohki, A., “Total
detected in all fishes and shellfishes from the Krueng Sabe Mercury Concentrations in Organisms from Kr. Meurebo River,
River and the accumulated mercury in the organisms were Meulaboh, Indonesia”, National Conference on Chemical
significantly greater in shellfish than in fish which mean Engineering Science and Applications (ChESA) 2010, December
concentrations were 1.305+87.5 mg/kg-dry weight and 22-23, 2010 ISSN: 1693-3044, p. 371-378.
[12] Widodo, “Pencemaran air raksa (Hg) sebagai dampak pengolahan
0.335+23.2 mg/kg-dry weight, respectively. High mercury bijih emas di Sungai Ciliunggunung, Waluran, Kabupaten
levels in organism samples provided strong indication of a Sukabumi”, Jurnal Geologi Indonesia, 2008, 3, pp. 139-149.
high bioaccumulation from the Krueng Sabe River area. [13] S. Gumiri, Dohong, S., Iqbal, R., Ardianor, Darung, U., Inoue, T.,
The bioaccumulation of mercury by fish was found Elvince, R., Kawakami, T., Nagafuchi, O., Tsushima, K., “The
concentration and Distribution of mercury contamination in Central
minimum in head (0.046+10.0 mg/kg-dry weight), Kalimantan, Indonesia”, Compilation of Research Results JSPA-
whereas the maximum bioaccumulation founded in the DGHE Joint Research Project 2006-2009, DGHE, Indonesia-JSPS,
gill (0.399+1.5 mg/kg-dry weight). Mercury Japan, 2009, pp. 1-9.
concentrations varied in the order: Gill > Muscle > Bone > [14] El Amin and Yunaldi, F., “Aktivitas Penambangan Emas di Gunung
Ujeun Krueng Sabe, Aceh Jaya”, Bapedal Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh
Eye > Head. Others heavy metals were also found Darussalam, 2009.
accumulated in fishes and shellfishes, such as Cu, Zn, As, [15] FDA, “What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish”,
Cd, Pb, and Se. The dominated heavy metals found in the FDA/Center for food safety & Applied Nutrition,
muscle of fishes and shellfishes were Cu, Zu, and Pb. A http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/Product-
SpecificInformation/Seafood/FoodbornePathogensContaminants/Me
regular monitoring program in Krueng Sabe River is thylmercury/ucm115662.htm, update November 17, 2009.
necessary conducted in order to better elucidate the rate of [16] FDA, Mercury levels in commercial fish and shellfish, FDA/Center
bioaccumulation and biomagnification by organisms. for food safety & Applied Nutrition”,
http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/Product-
SpecificInformation/Seafood/FoodbornePathogensContaminants/Me
ACKNOWLEDGMENT thylmercury/ucm115644.htm, update November 19, 2009.
This study is conducted on the collaboration research [17] B.W. Ache, Boyle, J.D., Moore, C.E., “A survey of the occurrence
between Syiah Kuala University and Kagoshima of mercury in the fishery resources of the Gulf of Mexico”, USEPA
University under the Professional Human Resources Gulf of Mexico Program, Stennis Space Center, MS., 2000.
[18] D.B. Huggett, Steevens, J.A., Allgood, J.C., Lutken, C.B., Grace,
Development Project Phase III (PHRDP-III), Japan C.A., Benson, W.H., Mercury in sediment and fish from North
International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Loan Mississippi Lakes”, Chemosphere, 2001, 42, pp. 932-929.
Agreement IP-535. The authors acknowledge to Pusat [19] Suhendrayatna, Ohki, A., Nakajima, T., Maeda, S., “Metabolism
Pembinaan Diklat Perencana, Bappenas, Indonesia, which and Organ Distribution of Arsenic in the Freshwater Fish, Tilapia
mossambica”, Appl. Organometal. Chem., 2001, 15, pp. 566-571.
have funded this program. We also thank Dr. Tsunenori
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
TS 4-18

The Use of Agroecological Zone Concept for


Land Use Planning
in Krueng Aceh Watershed
Hairul Basri1), Ema Alemina2), Muslimsyah3), Muzailin Affan4), Agus Halim5) and T. Alvisyahrin6)
1) Faculty of Agriculture, Syiah Kuala University, 2) Aceh Planning Board, 3) Faculty of Engineering, Syiah Kuala
University, 4) Faculty of Math and Science , Syiah Kuala University, 5) Faculty of Agriculture, Syiah Kuala
University, 6) Faculty of Agriculture, Syiah Kuala University.
Communication: hairulbasri@gmail.com

Abstract: Descriptive study using the concept of agro-ecological define the best use of land in an effort to meet human
zone has been conducted to analyze the condition of land uses in needs in an effort to protect the resource for the future
the watershed Krueng Aceh. This is important so that natural (FAO, 1993).
resources can be used in an optimal and sustainable. The The large diversity of natural resources potential
research was conducted in the watershed Krueng Aceh because
of this watershed has been degraded characterized by the
can be utilized to improve the welfare of society.
occurrence of floods. Research activities include analysis of However, the use of natural resources require special
conditions of land use, biophysical land (slope, soil depth, and management by taking into account the complex and the
elevation) and climate (rainfall, humidity and temperature) as unique nature of the linkages of the various factors that
well as the requirement grow of plants through spatial analysis affect the sustainability of natural resources.
using Geographic Information System (GIS), surveys, The problem usually occurred is the case of
verification field and laboratory analysis of soil samples. development activities that are not harmonious and
By using the concept of Zone of Agroecology, balanced with environmental conditions and lack of
Watershed Krueng Aceh were grouped into four zones namely attention to his ability, giving rise to environmental
zone I (forestry), zone II (plantation), zone III (agroforestry) and
Zone IV (food crops).The actual land use is dominated by
degradation. This is caused by a land-use planning tends
production forest and protection forest area of 89212.00 ha tp be more concerned with economic aspects of the
(45.09%) and dryland farming area of 43203.89 ha (21.84%). environmental aspects and it damage natural resources.
The deviation of land use is mixed dry land agricultural covering Land is one of the natural resources and
area of 12708.65 hectares and plantation area covering 131.78 environmental components that can not be separated from
hectares in the area of zone I (slope > 40%). In Zone II (slope human life and is used as the main capital in national
15-40%), it should be reserved for plantation crops, but in the development. The increase of population has resulted in
reality the actual land use is for rice field area of 312.89 the amount of load that must be supported by the soil.
hectares. This should be avoided to reduce the risk of Activities of human efforts on the ground realized in land
environmental damage such as landslides and erosion. In zone
III (slope 8-15%), it should be planted with agro-forestry
use patterns, the greater increase of human activity the
plantations such as cocoa, coconut, cloves, areca nut, pepper, greater necessety of land use, in terms of both the
pulses, rice, pigeonpea, peanut, soybean, bean, corn, cassava, increasing of space and the intensity of its use.
sweet potatoes and peanut. Nevertheless there still some land According to Vink (1975) the change or
uses that are not in accordance with the principles of agro- development of land use is influenced by two main factors
ecological zones such as a wetland area (2299.48 ha) and mixed namely the natural factors and human factors. Natural
upland forest area (4266.59 Ha). In zone IV (slope 0-8%) have factors include climate, relief, land or natural disasters
shown towards the zone in accordance with the principles of such as earthquakes or floods, while the human factor of
agroecology, which it should be planted and used for agricultural its activity on a parcel of land. Human factors perceived to
wetlands and dry land farming.
have a more dominant influence when they are compared
Keywords: Land use planning, agroecological zone, watershed, to natural factors. Most of the changes in land use are
deviation of landuse determined by human activities in meeting their needs on
a specific plot of land, protected areas such as land
conversion to plantations or the conversion of paddy fields
I. INTRODUCTION into settlements.
It is espected that the land resources can be utilized to Agro-ecological zone is an area that defined as the
a higher productivity and consistent with the function of concept of agroecology which are concerned with
the region, trough the planning of land use. Land use understanding aspects of growing crops on land and
planning is a systematic assessment of land potential and produces the interaction between plants with the land in
alternative land use and socio-economic conditions in certain climatic conditions in certain areas. This concept
order to select the best land use, the goal is to select and requires the existence of land and natural resource
parameters such as climate, topography, soil and
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
vegetation that are formulated into a zone. The agro- Krueng Aceh watershed scale 1: 50,000, ALOS Satellite
ecological zones is a relatively large area which is Imagery Data Krueng Aceh Watershed Year 2009, climate
determined by climatic conditions, the shape of the region data such as rainfall data, temperature, air humidity during
(in the category of coarse), hydrologic regime, soil type the last five years, chemicals for soil analysis in the
grouping (in the category of coarse) and or vegetation laboratory. Map and data above were obtained from
(semi) natural, appropriate and corresponding to a various institutions such as BPN, Bappeda, Department of
particular plant species and cultivars (FAO, 1978). Agriculture, Irrigation Department of Public Works, and
Agroecological zoning (ZAE) is one way in others or from the results of research ever undertaken by
managing the use of land through the grouping based on an individual or institution. Special data on cropping and
similarity properties and conditions of the region. The farming patterns in various agro-ecological zones is done
grouping aims to establish the planting area and a through observation in the field at several locations
potential commodity, scale economies, and well ordered representing.
in order to obtain a sustainable farming system and refers The method used in this study is an integrated survey
to the concept of expert systems (expert systems). This method (integrated survey) and is descriptive, i.e the
concept refers to the suitability of land characteristics, utilization of remote sensing data which is equipped with
climate and plant growth requirements (Amien 1997). A field surveys, and other secondary data using quantitative
major component in determining agroecological zones are and qualitative analysis. Qualitative data obtained from
land biophysical conditions (slope, soil depth, and relevant agencies, report or research results. While the
elevation), climatic (rainfall, humidity, and temperature), quantitative data obtained from field analysis,
and the growing requirements of plants, so plants can interpretation of maps and the results of laboratory
grow and produce optimally. analysis.
Krueng Aceh watershed has several sub-watersheds
namely Sub watershed Krueng Seulimeum, Krueng Jrue, 2.1. Stages of Work
Krueng Inong, Krueng Keumirue and Krueng Aceh Stages of work in this study are:
Downstream section. Several sub-watershed conditions a. Preparation phase which includes the collection of soil
are generally subject to degradation as a result of changes and climate data and maps both the base map and
in land use, particularly in the upstream (upper catchment thematic maps, and reports or research results. Climate
area) of each sub-watershed. This condition tends to data is the data collected during the last 5 years.
increase the value of the coefficient of runoff from each b. Interpretation of satellite imagery data in 2009 to
sub-watershed, which in turn can boost the frequency of determine the existing land use conditions in the
flooding that occurred in the watershed Krueng Aceh. watershed Krueng Aceh.
Floods and droughts that occurred is the impact of not c. Overlay maps to delineate zones of agro-ecology and
harmonious arrangement of land uses in the watershed determine the physical characteristics of land and
Krueng Aceh. A Land use change drastically and there has climate in each zone. Various types of maps (slope,
been significant from year to year. Therefore, it is altitude, rainfall, soil type, land use and limit
necessary to study of the condition of land use by using administrative region). Furthermore, the map is
agro-ecological zone concept in the Krueng Aceh processed into 4 pieces main map: a map of slope,
watershed. temperature (isotherm), moisture and drainage are the
basis for distinguishing agro-ecological zones. Maps are
digitized and "overlay" using Arc GIS.
II.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
d. Field observations carried out based on the results of
The research was conducted in the watershed that interpretation and analysis of maps and re-evaluate the
includes the Krueng Aceh and Aceh Besar district of results of zoning is to see: effective soil depth, slope,
Banda Aceh. The research activities carried out starting texture, drainage, land use change, soil sampling in the
from August 2010 until January 2011 and processing of field.
data using Data Satellite Imagery and Geographic e. Soil sampling in the composite and each one is taken as
Information System (GIS). deep as 00-30 cm and 30-60 cm of food crops to
The tools used were a set of compatible computer perennial crops (tree crops). Composite of soil samples
equipment such as: PC AT Pentium, a set of software was taken as much as 1 kg to be analyzed in the
(software) ie Arc GIS, Arc View, ER Mapper, expert laboratory. Soil analysis aims to determine the physical
systems (expert systems) "Landuse", and SPSS version 15 and chemical soil properties such as nutrient
for statistical analysis, laboratory equipment for soil availability, pH, texture, base saturation and CEC. A
analysis and stationery. Other equipment used in the field guideline for soil analysis is the guidelines of Soil and
is a ring samples, drill ground, abney level, soil color Agro-climate Research Center Bogor (Puslittanak,
book, pH meters, binoculars and compass. GPS is used to 1998).
improve the accuracy of geo-reference objects that were f. Furthermore, the result of each polygon overlay zone
observed in the field. map was coded according to the "agro-ecological
Materials used in this study are in the form of primary characteristics".
data and secondary data such as a watershed Map RBI g. To identify the type of plants that fit the actual and
Krueng Aceh (as the base map) scale 1: 50,000, soil type potential to be developed for each agro-ecological zone
of Krueng Aceh watershed scale 1: 250,000, climate maps is done by Landuse Expert System that will provide
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
direction regarding the proper use of land based on land suspected of altitude from sea level to the following
attributes such as slope, texture, climate (Amien, 1997). conditions: hot temperature regime found in areas with
The result will be identified a number of potential altitude 750 m above sea level (lowland). While the cool
agricultural commodity in each zone with a particular temperature regime found in areas with an altitude of 750
polygons. - 2000 m above sea level (plateau). Determination by
h. The next stage is to overlay the map of land use (land other means can also be calculated based on the elevation
use) by agro-ecological zones map. The result will be an (altitude) by using the formula Braak (1975), namely air
area identified in the current land use in accordance temperature = 26.3 ° – (0.01 x elevasi x 0.6 oC).
with agro-ecological zones. Area of land use by agro- Based on differences of climates (humidity regime
ecological zones compared with the extensive use of and temperature regime), then each zone can be
existing land. subdivided into several sub-zones of the symbol ax
i. Field observations are to see in an actual field (lowland perudic climates) and the symbol bx (upland
conditions in the field. perudic climates).
Sub group of the zone, then grouped again based soil
2.2. Analysis drainage classes, namely: the symbol 1 (soil with bad
The analysis in this study consisted of several drainage class) and the symbol 2 (soil with good drainage
phases. First stage begins with an analysis of typology of class). So there are some combinations of sub-zones in an
the research area (analytical overlay). At this stage the agro-ecological zone (Figure 1).The output of this stage is
characteristics of land and climate to be the main the actual agricultural commodities and potentially
parameters were identified. The output at this stage is cultivated in each zone.
deleiniasi agroecological zone.
The second phase of the suitability analysis x.
(matching) of land and climate characteristics for each a. hot perudic
Temperature Humidity
agro-ecological zone with the properties of various plants y.
growing conditions by using an expert system Land Use. udic
Agroecological zone grouping is based on differences in
b.
cool z.
several biophysical parameters of slope, climate
III ustic
(temperature and humidity) as well as drainage.
Level slope is the main parameter in the agro-ecological a. Zone I ay1
zones in the expert system and grouped into four main 1.
zones namely zone I, zone II, zone III and zone IV as b. Zone Slope Drainage good
shown in Table1.
II 2. bad
TABLE 1.
CLASSES OF SLOPE AND LAND USE TYPE
c. Zone
Zone Class of slope Land use type III
I >40 % Forest
d. Zone
II 15-40 % Estate crops IV
III 8-15 Agroforestry Figure 1. Stucture of Agroecological Zone (Sudaryanto,
IV <8 Food crops et.al., 2002)
V < 3*) (peat soil) Horticulture
VI < 3**) (saline & Fish pond and mangrove In the third stage was performed to compare
acid soil) between the broad land use existing conditions and
VII < 3***) (quarzt Forest (production & after conducting land use planning according to
sand soil) industry crops) agroecological zones with two-sample t test (one-
VIII < 8****) (shallow Animal husbandary tailed tests). Value of t-count can be formulated as
of solum soil follows:
Further, division into sub-zones based on climatic zones, Y1 - Y2
t-count =
namely the regime of humidity and temperature. Humidity S Y1 - Y2
regimes distinguished by the number of months of dry and
wet months of the year. If rainfall <60 mm is classifed as Where:
dry month. Humidity regime define as perudic when the Y1 = average land use by agro-ecological
number of dry months <3 months of the year (symbol x) zones
and it is udic when the number of dry months between 4 Y2 = average actual land use (existing)
to 7 months of the year (symbol y). Sy1 – y2 = standard deviation by the formula
There are two temperature regimes (hot and cool S2 = Standard deviation with the formula:
temperature regime). It is defined as hot temperature
= ∑ Y1 − ( ∑ Y1 ) / n + ∑ Y 2 − ( ∑ Y 2 ) / n
2 2 2 2
regime if the difference of air temperature on average S2
2 ( n − 1)
daily maximum and minimum greater than 6 °C, while the n = number of obeservaed polygons
cool temperature regime if the difference in air
temperature average maximum and minimum is less than
6 0C. In practice the distribution of air temperature regime
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
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4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION whereas 2002 was a year with the lowest number of rainy
days as many as 151 days.
3.1. Physical Condition of Area The average air temperature in this area from 2000 to
3.1.1. Morphology of Land 2009 that is equal to 26.84 ° C ranged from 26.0 oC to
Watershed of Krueng Aceh has physiographic flat, 27.7 oC. The average January temperature is the highest
undulating, hilly and generally located in Aceh Besar and lowest temperature in July. The average humidity
district. Areas with flat topography (0-8%) area of regime in the study area is from 2000 to 2009 categories
46487.29 ha (23.50%) of the total watershed area Krueng as perudic with humidity ranging from 77.0 to 82.3
Ace, undulating (8-15%) area of 26421.16 ha (13.35%), percent and the average of humidity is 79.85 percent.
hilly (15-25%) area of 9338.96 hectares (5%) and Solar radiation from 2000 to 2009 shows that the highest
somewhat mountainous (25-40%) covering an area of radiation in February (62.5 percent), May (62 %) and June
2368.86 ha (1.20%) and the rest is a mountainous region (62 percent).
(> 40%) area of 113,236.06 ha (57.23%).
The data above shows that the watershed of Krueng 3.1.4 Soil types
Aceh is dominated by a mountainous region that has a Soil types found in the watershed are dominated by
steep topography which is generally a mountainous Latosol Krueng Aceh is an area of 32900.54 ha (16.63%),
Seulawah. Areas with steep topography are highly Alluvial area of 28938.36 ha (14.63%) and Regosol area
susceptible to erosion if the land does not have a cover of 15581.93 ha (7.88%). Furthermore, complex and litosol
(without vegetation). It is associated with rainfall that has podsol brown podzolic area of 38325.06 ha (19.37%), and
a kinetic energy that falls on land without ground cover litosol renzina complex area of 31135.68 ha (15.74%) and
can damage soil structure and stimulate the flow of the the complex red-yellow podzolic latosol and litosol area
surface becomes high. On the other hand, if the land has a 22056.45 hectares (19 , 37%).
soil covered by vegetation that has the ability to withstand Distribution of soil types showed that some soil
the kinetic energy of rain water erosion can be minimized. types such as Red Yellow podzolic Latosol and contained
Therefore, the uses of suitable land for a mountainous area in areas with very steep slopes (> 40%), as well as some
is necessary to keep the soil remain stable. complex soil. Latosol soil type and red-yellow podzolic
located on very steep slopes are generally susceptible to
3.1.2 Hidrology erosion and landslides. This condition will become worse
Krueng Aceh watershed consists of several sub- if the type of land has no vegetation (cover crops). The
watersheds of the sub watershed Krueng Seulimum, heigth of rainfall tends to increase the surface runoff that
Krueng Keumireu DAS, DAS and DAS Krueng Krueng causes erosion and sedimentation processes in the region.
Inoeng Jreu Krueng Aceh and downstream. The entire Therefore the region needs serious attention to anticipate
water flow from the sub-watershed is concentrated into or to control the occurrence of land degradation in the
the main river Krueng Aceh River which empties into the future.
downstream basin (Lampulo-Banda Aceh). In order to
anticipate of flooding in the city of Banda Aceh, the Aceh 3.1.5 Soil physical and chemical properties
Krueng flow of river water also flowed through the flood The results of field surveys showed that the color of
way to Alue Naga Banda Aceh. Thus Krueng Aceh river the soil varies from 2.5 YR (Yellow Red) 4/ 8-10 YR 5/6.
water flow in the downstream watershed is divided into The results of soil analysis in the laboratory showed that
two areas. the soil texture varies from clay to sandy loam. The
degrees of soil acidity ranged from pH 4.02 to 7 are
The condition of water in quantity and quality for the
classified into acidic, slightly acidic and neutral. This type
needs of humans, plants and animals depends on the
of red-yellow podzolic soil, brown podzolic latosol and
condition of watershed Krueng Aceh in particular is the
generally have a pH of acid and slightly acid. Meanwhile,
condition of the sub-sub-watershed that has been
the alluvial and regosol belong to the neutral. The content
mentioned above. In general, sub-watershed is located in
of total organic C and N were generally low. The P-
the upper watershed Krueng Aceh, which has a hilly and
available and K-dd generally classified into very low. The
mountainous topography. Determination of the
CEC soil varied i.e low, medium and high. The base
appropriate type of land use for the region based on agro-
saturation also varied i.e very low, low, medium and high.
ecological zones will determine the sustainability of the
In general, the level of soil fertility in the study area
watershed Krueng Aceh.
is low. This is indicated by the low content of organic C,
N, P and K. To improve soil fertility is then encouraged to
3.1.3. Climate
implement soil and water conservation techniques are
Based on data for 10 (ten) years ( 2000 to 2009)
correct and supported by the provision of organic fertilizer
climate in the watershed Krueng Aceh, including class B
and liming on acid soils, and not to fire at the time of land
type rainfall (wet) with a value of Q = 16/52 x 100% =
clearing in agricultural areas.
0.3077 and the average annual rainfall is amounting to
1225.9 mm with an average of 145 rainy day today. Since
3.2. Actual land use
2000 until 2009, the highest amount of rainfall occurred in
Land use patterns in the watershed Krueng Aceh
2009 which is 1772 mm / yr, while the least in 2008 with
varied and consists of rice (wet land agriculture), dry land
the amount of rainfall 1207.4 mm / yr. The day of highest
farming, garden/perennial crops, forest (production forest
rainfall occurred in the year 2007 as many as 290 days,
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
and protected forest), and others. Zone I (forestry) that is an area of 113,236.06 ha
Actual land use is most widespread utilization of forests (57.23%), followed by Zone IV (plant food) that is an area
for production forest and protected forest area of of 46487.29 ha (23.50%). While the least was in Zone II
89,991.11 hectares or 45.48 percent, while the least is the (Estates) is an area of 11,707.82 ha (5.92%).
utilization of wetlands for agriculture (rice) that is an area In Zone I consists of two sub-zones are sub-zone and
of 4614.87 hectares (2.33 %) and garden (perennials) is an I ax I bx with characteristic slopes> 40%, the temperature
area of 1802.09 ha or 0.91 percent. While other of the hot, moist cool with moisture regime. In this area of
designation that is used for settlement, farming, fisheries agricultural systems that can be developed is of forestry,
(ponds). Generally, forest land located in areas which both for protection forests (natural vegetation) as well as
have slopes in hilly to steep upper watersheds in the East, permanent production forests with monoculture. Land use
Southeast and West. in Zone I can be planted with natural vegetation such as
meranti, sengon, teak, or mahogany, krueing, cane in areas
with hot temperature regime (I ax) and in cool temperate
3.3. Land use based on agroecological zone regions (I bx) can be planted with crops such as pine
Rapaea group, Lauraccea, Quercus, and Casuarina. This
Krueng Aceh has a wide catchment area of area can be a productive resource, if the exploit done in a
197,852.34 hectares. This land area, based on agro- planned and prudent management.
ecological zones consists of 4 (four) zones are zone I, II, Zone II consists of one sub-zone is IIax with
III and IV are based on slope, soil type, altitude and characteristic slopes between 16-40%, heat and moisture
climate. regime, including moist. Agricultural systems can be
Zone I is on slopes > 40% by physiographic hills to developed is a good annual crops or plantation crops with
mountains. In this zone, which can be developed monoculture or mixed farms, crops, plantations and fruit.
agricultural system is a system of forest covering The types of plants that can be developed in areas that
protected forests and production forests. These forests are have hot regime (IIax) can be cultivated rubber, cocoa,
needed in the upstream region that serves as a coconut, coffee robusta, clove and other tropical fruit
conservation area and buffer to maintain the environment crops such as durian, rambutan, tan, lanseh, mangosteen,
and water system. Sloping land is widely used as a melinjo, bananas, guava and mango.
material consideration given the danger of erosion and Zone III has only one sub-zone is IIIax with
degradation of land that is a real threat to agriculture in characteristic slopes between 8-15% with the hot
steep sloping wet tropical regions. Area of Zone I of temperature regime (IIIax) by including the moist
46487.29 ha (23.49%) of the total watershed area of moisture regime. This zone is intended more for system
Krueng Aceh. Its spread in nine districts is located in the wana farm / farming corridor through the development of
southeast, south and west. commodity mix of plantation crops / annual crops or
Zone II is on the slopes between 16-40% with vegetables. Annual plants can double that in addition can
physiographic hills, undulating to the plains. In this zone, produce fruit, leaves or wood can improve the
it more intended for intensification of monoculture microclimate and keep the land from erosion. The types of
plantations or gardens with a mixture of perennial crops plants that can be cultivated in sub-zone is a commodity
and fruit plantations. Agricultural commodities in this IIIax chocolate, cocoa, coconut, clove (for annual crops)
zone, as well as for production purposes are also intended and upland rice, peanuts, corn, soy beans, sweet potato,
for conservation efforts. This is a broad zone of 26421.16 cassava, green beans, long beans (for annual crops ).
ha (13.35%) of the total watershed area, and its spread in Zone IV has one of two sub-zones of the Sub Zone
three districts are located in the north, east, southeast, IV ax2 IVax1 and the characteristics slope less than 8%,
south, and west. the temperature regime of moist heat and moisture regime.
Zone III is on slopes 8-15% by physiographic hills This area can be developed for agricultural crops in the
and plains. In this zone it is recommended to wana farm form of a drained paddy field for bad (sub zone IVax1)
system (agroforestry) or the cultivation of the hall, where and agricultural land that is dry to well drained upland rice
the crops grown simultaneously with crops (annual crops). and pulses (sub zone IVax2). Plants that can be cultivated
Annual crops are cultivated on these integrated farming in the sub zone IVax2 is upland rice, soybean, peanut,
systems can double that in addition to produce fruit, green beans, cassava, sweet potatoes, beans and chili.
leaves and wood also can improve the microclimate and The results of land suitability analysis shows, that
keep the land from erosion and landslide hazards. Extent the land in the watershed Krueng Aceh Besar has the
of Zone III is 11707.82 ha (5.92%) of the total watershed potential to support the development of various
area and the spillover Krueng Aceh found in seven agricultural commodities either food crops, vegetables,
subdistricts. plantation or forest products. Most of the land (76.57%)
Zone IV is the slope <8% by physiographic flat to had a slope> 8% is in Zone I, II, and III. Farming on
alluvial deposits. Agricultural systems can be developed sloping lands is erosion-prone if not done soil
are all kinds of commodities for food crops. Area of land conservation efforts. Erosion can accelerate the decline in
in this zone amounted to 46487.29 ha (23.50%) and their soil fertility. In fact, to carry out the commercial
distribution in 10 districts. agribusiness needs to improve land productivity. Erosion
From the fourth zone, it appears that the most is also caused by changes in land use from permanent
extensive land according to agro-ecological zone is in vegetation (forests) to agriculture or settlements. Erosion
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control can be carried out by mechanical means combined In Zone II, with a slope between 15-40% should be
with a vegetative way, by making terraces and planting earmarked for plantation crops, but the fact of actual use
crops. Plants in the upper terrace of the main crops, cover of land used for rice field area of 312.89 ha. Should be on
crops and grass fodder terrace on terrace guludan areas with slopes between 15-40% of land use for rice
(Bermanakusumah, 1978). On sloping land conservation needs to be avoided. Activities for community economic
farming (farm conservation management) need to be activities such as farms and settlements were also
implemented. Planting of vegetable crops on slope> 15% conducted in zone II. This should be avoided to reduce the
must be terraced to prevent erosion. On a slope> 40% risk of environmental damage such as landslides and
should be reforested to preserve water resources and erosion. In zone II is also still contained a mixture of dry
prevent erosion. Former moor lands and other marginal land forest area of 2010.31 hectares that can still be used
lands should be planted with grass fodder to support the as plantation areas.
development of Integrated Ranch area in Kuta Baro In zone III with a slope between 8-15% which
subdistrict. should be planted with agro-forestry plantations such as
cocoa, coconut, cloves, areca nut, pepper, crops, upland
3.4. Analysis of land use deviation rice, pigeonpea, peanut, soy, beans, maize, cassava, sweet
Based on the results of comparative analysis potatoes, peanuts length and various other types of crops.
between the actual land use and the land use based on Nevertheless there are still some land uses that have not
agro-ecological zones, there are several land uses that are been in accordance with the principles of agro-ecological
not in accordance with agro-ecological zones (Table 2). zones such as the presence of rice fields is still an area of
This is because people use to economic activity in the 2299.48 ha, upland mixed forest area of 4266.59 Ha. This
watershed area Krueng Aceh. Table 2 shows that there is a suggests that the use of land for agro-commodities and
diversion of agricultural land use blend of dry land area of crops have not been optimal. Land conversion from dry
12,708.65 hectares and a garden area of 131.78 hectares in land into forest land for agro-forestry and crops should be
the area of zone I with a slope above 40%. Land encouraged in the zone III area is so the productivity of
conversion from forest to plant crops plantation in an area the commodity could be optimal.
that has a slope above 40% can caused erosion and According to the mapping of land use in zone IV
landslides especially on lands that are sensitive to erosion with a flat slope to 8% has been shown towards the line
and to be volatile as Red Yellow podzolic soil (Ultisol). with the principles of agro-ecological zones, which in this
zone should be planted and used for agricultural wetlands
TABLE 2. and dry land agriculture. On the map of actual land use
ANALYSIS OF LAND USE DEVIATION can be seen that the dominant land use in this zone is rice
Zone
Land use based on Actual land use
Area (Ha)
Land use
Recommendation
field (10007.93 ha) and dry land farming (16,746.58 ha)
agro-ecological zone (existing) suitability
or mixture already cover more than 70% of this zone.
I Forest 81,275.54 S
Parannial crops
There was almost no deviation from the principles of
I 131.78 NS Agroforesty
(garden) agro-ecological zone to zone IV. Mixed dry land forest
I Paddy field 343.43 NS Agroforesty
I
Forest (protected &
Others 1,327.69 NS Rehabilitation
area of 1659.55 in zone IV is also present in forest areas
productive forests)
I Bush 10,295.04 NS
Animal where there is a slope below 8% or in the valley between
husbandary
I Mixed dry land 12,708.65 NS Agroforesty
the hills.
I Opened land 7,153.93 NS Conservation Generally, land use deviation caused by the
Upland mixed
II
Forest
2,010.31 S conversion of forest land into agricultural areas,
II Rice fields 312.89 NS Terracing settlements or industry would adversely affect the quality
II Others 179.11 NS Rehabilitation
Estate crops Animal
of the land resource itself. Forest serves as water
II Bush 8,661.95 NS
husbandary resources. In the rainy season, the forest will absorb more
Mixed dry land
II
crops
203.17 S Estate crops water into the soil so that water runoff will be reduced in
II Opened land 340.39 NS Conservation number and speed. In the dry season water sources will
Upland mixed
III
Forest
4,266.59 NS not dry up because of the forest preserve water resources.
Parannial crops
III
(garden)
6.15 S However, when forests are cleared and converted into
III Rice fields 2,299.48 NS Terracing agricultural or non agricultural, then the balance of the
Agroforestry
III Others 156.87 NS Conservation
Animal
ecosystem will be disturbed. Logging will cause erosion.
III Bush 3,953.12 NS
husbandary The erosion caused by erosivity, erodibility, and land
Mixed dry land
III
crops
13,545.50 S form and management of land and crop. The greater the
III Opened land 2,193.44 NS Conservation values of the component the greater the erosion will occur.
Upland mixed
IV
Forest
1,659.55 S Land and agro-climate conditions in the watershed Krueng
IV
Parannial crops
(garden)
1,061.60 S Aceh is very easy erosion to occure if not managed
IV Agricultural dry and Rice fields 10,007.93 S properly. Type of soil has a high erodibilitas. Slope
IV wet land Others 9,248.92 S Mangrove
(slope) that the average> 8% are very prone to erosion,
IV Bush 5,299.02 S

IV
Mixed dry land
16,746.58 S
compounded by land and crop management that ignores
IV
crops
Opened land 2,463.69 NS Conservation
the principles of soil conservation in the form of land use
Total 197,852.32 will facilitate the occurrence of erosion.
S = suitable, NS = not suitable As a result of soil erosion will decrease the
productivity or soil fertility levels, because it coincides
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4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop
with a number of land, then also transported a number of Karakterisasi Zona Agroekologi. Pusat Penelitian Tanah
major nutrient to places like the lower rivers and this has dan Agroklimat. Bogor, 30 p.
resulted in agricultural lands become critical and are no
longer productive.. Arsyad, S, H.A. Priyanto dan L.I Nasoetion. (1985).
IV. CONCLUSION Pengembangan Daerah Aliran Sungai. Lokakarya
a. The use of agro-ecological zone concept for land use Pengembangan Program Studi “Pengembangan DAS”
planning in Watershed of Krueng Aceh proposed 4 (four) Fakultas Pascasarjana. IPB, Bogor.
zones i.e zone I (forestry), zone II (plantation), zone III
(agroforestry) and zone IV (food crops). Beek, K.J. (1978). Land Evaluation for Agricultural
b. Actual land use is agricultural wetlands, dryland Development. International Institut for Land Reclamation
agriculture, open land, productive forest and protection and Improvement/ILRI. Wageningen, The Netherland.
forests, bush, perennial plants (garden) and others (bodies
of water, settlements, clouds, ponds, and regional Burrough P.A, McDonnell R.A. (1998). Principals of
airports). Actual land use is dominated by forest area Geographical Information Systems: Oxford University
(production and protected forest) of 89212.00 ha (45.09%) Press.
and dry land farming area of 43203.89 ha (21.84%).
c. Deviation of land use to agro-ecological zone is Dent, and A. Young. (1981). Soil Survey and Land
dominated by a mixed dry land farming area ( 12708.65 Evaluation. George Allen and Unwin, Boston.
ha) and parennial crops/garden (131.78 ha).
FAO. (1976). A Framework for Land Evaluation; FAO
V. RECOMMENDATIONS Soil Buletin 32. Food and Agriculture Organization of the
a. Land use zone I (forestry) is recommended for teak, United Nation, Rome.
sengon, rattan, mahogany and meranti, zone II (plantation)
for rubber, cocoa, coconut, coffee robusta, cloves, betel Hardjowigeno, S. (1992). Penerapan Survei Tanah untuk
nut and pepper, Zone III (agroforestry) for rubber, cocoa, Bidang Bukan Pertanian dalam Prosiding Pertemuan
coconut, cloves, areca nut, pepper, upland rice, peanut, Teknis Perubahan Sistem Klasifikasi dan Metode Survei
soybeans, maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, string beans, Tanah. Bogor.
and zone IV (food crops) for paddy rice, upland rice, corn
soybeans, peanuts, green beans, cassava, sweet potatoes, Izhar, L. (2002). Geo-spatial Analysis of Corn Production
string beans. Areas in Isabela. Philippines. University of The
b. Land use in watershed Krueng Aceh must be in Philippines Los Banos Masteral Thesis (Unpublished) pp.
accordance with agro-ecological zones, especially in 1-8.
forest areas and dry land agriculture which are on steep
slopes. It is important to anticipate or control the impact of Patel, N.R., Mandal, U.K. and Pande, L.M. (2000). Agro-
land use that causes erosion, landslides, droughts and ecological zoning system. A Remote Sensing and GIS
floods. Perspective. Journal of Agrometeorology, 2 (1) : 1-13.
c. The function of the area agricultural zones (I, II, III and
IV) can be optimized proportionally by adopting the soil Pratap, T., Pradhan, P., Lotta, P.K., Mya, S., Karim and
and water conservation techniques. Nakarmi, G. (1992). Geographic Information Systems and
d. The results of this study are expected to be utilized by Technology application in Agro-ecological zonation of
relevant stakeholders in planning land use in the future. mountain agriculture. Eds. N.S. Jodha, M. Banskota and
Tej Pratap, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New
VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Delhi.

Our gratitude goes to all those who have contributed in Rhoades, R.E. (1987). Basic Field Techniques of Rapid
this research, especially to the TDMRC as manager of Rural Appraisal. Prociding of The International
research projects funded by sourced from the UNDP. Conference on Rapid Rural Appraisal. Rural Systems
Similarly, the institutions involved in the provision of Research and Farming Systems Research Projects. Khon
secondary data we say thank you. Hopefully this research Kaen, Thailand.
can be beneficial to local governments in planning for
land use in watershed of Krueng Aceh. Sandy, I.M. (1973). Pola Penggunaan Tanah (Land Use)
sebagai Indikator Tingkatan Pencemaran Lingkungan
VII. REFERENCES Hidup. Publikasi No. 33. Direktorat Tata Guna Tanah,
Amien, I. (1995). An Agroecological Approach to Departemen Dalam Negeri, Jakarta.
Sustainable Agriculture. In S.E. Swaify et al (eds)
Multiple Objective Decision Making for Land, Water and Talkurputra, M. Mad Darga T. Agustono dan Sugiarto
Environmental Management. St. Lucie Press Corporation. Sarco. (1994). Tata Guna Tanah. Fakultas Pasca Sarjana,
Delray. Florida (in press). Universitas Padjadjaran, Edisi II.

Amien, I. (1998). Karakterisasi dan Analisis Zona Vink, A.P.A. (1975). Landuse in Advancing Agriculture
Agroekologi. Pembahasan Pemantapan Metode Spring Verlag. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.
6th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2011
in Conjunction with
4th South China Sea Tsunami Workshop