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Israel & Palestine 1948-Present Lecture

I.

Birth of Israel & 1948 War

a. 1947 UN Partition Plan 1948 War

b. 1949 Armistice Line: Israel gets 1/3 more land than

partition plan allowed

c. Gaza Egypt, West Bank Jordan

d. 1950: 1 million Palestinians living in UN refguee camps; 2014: 1.5 million in 58 UN camps

e. Law of Return

 
 

i.

granting Jews and their families the right to settle in Israel as automatic citizens. The law marks the realization of the Zionist vision of a national home for the Jewish diaspora in the Holy Land.

ii.

In the three years before the law’s passage, 500,000 Jews had arrived in Israel; another 500,000 arrive in the following decade.

iii.

Many are effectively refugees from Arab countries, where they faced hostility and persecution.

iv.

Some are also motivated to come by Zionist ideology and religious yearnings.

v.

1951: 680,000 Ashkenazic

vi.

Post 1961: 45% of population = Sephardim

II.

Suez Crisis (1856)

 

a. Nasser: “Pan-Arabism”

b. Nationalizes Canal in 1956, blocking Israeli access to the red sea

c. Israel attacks; supported by UK, FR, USA later

d. Ceasefire Israel withdraws

e. UN peacekeepers

 

III.

1967/Six Day War

a. May 1967: Egypt orders UN peacekeepers to leave in May 1967, blocks I. access to the Red Sea

b. Jordan & Egypt sign mutual defense agreement

c. Continued terrorist attacks from Syria’s Golan Heights region

d. Israel believes neighbors are preparing for war

e. June 5, 1967: Israel launches pre-emptive surprise attacks

to create “protective buffer” Egypt; Syria, Jordan attack Israel

i.

Israel wins decisively. Triples territory in 6 days.

ii.

Israel takes control of:

1. West Bank (Jordan)

2. Gaza Strip (Egypt)

3. Sinai (Egypt)

4. Golan Heights (Syria)

5. All of Jerusalem

a. 1.5 million Palestinians placed under Israeli rule

b. Legality?

c. Possibility of compromise after such a bitter defeat?

IV.

Aftermath of Six Day War

a. “Buffer zone” to deter future attacks
b. More Sephardic Jews flocked to Israel
c. Begins to build settlements

i.

Illegal under int’l law. I counters that P isn’t really a state.

ii.

2015: 350,000 settlers in West Bank, 200,000 in East

iii.

Jerusalem UN Resolution 242 Unified Jerusalem under I control “Occupied Territories”

iv.

v.

vi.

Huge increase in Israel’s access to water: 55% from OTs (to detriment of Arabs)

1. Some will accept I at pre-1967 borders

2. Birth of PLO – begins to use terrorism to attract attention to their cause of an independent state

[DOCUMENTS:

PALESTINIAN NATIONAL CHARTER: JULY 1968; UN SECURITY COUNTIL 242]

V. Birth of P.L.O. (Palestinian Liberation Organization)

a. Leaders of the struggle: PLO, other Arab states whose

populations insists that leaders not forege the Palestinian cause

i.

Harness Palestinian militancy

ii.

Discredited after defeat in 1967

b. PLO:

i.

Yasser Arafat (1929-2004)

1. Jerusalem-born civil engineer: al-Fatah

(dominant within PLO) 2. Combined militancy with diplomacy 3. Subsidized by Saudi Arabia

ii.

1974: PLO recognized by the U.N. as representative

of the Palestinian people c. 1987 and 2000 used strategy of intifada[uprising] to oppose Israeli rule d. Became Palestinian Authority 1993; current leader Mahmoud Abbas e. 1988: would accept 2 state solution; other Islamic radicals didn’t follow leadership

VI. 1973 Yom Kippur War/October War

- 1973 Yom Kippur War (politics of calling it the “October War”?)

o

1970: Anwar al-Sadat in Egypt

Main goal: regain Sinai Peninsula

o

1973: E & S opened two-front offensive against I, with USSR aid

E moved into Sinai, Syria through Golan heights

I recovered quickly, swept toward Damascus. Agreed to stop advance.

Nixon convinced to send arms to I

Airlift: 1 thousand tons of military supplies a day during war

USSR threatened to send troops

o

Sadat’s surprise attack questions about I military intelligence and preparedness Results:

Oil embargo aginst US

King Faisal Ibn Saud, solid US ally, initiates

Raised prices 70%

Nixon proposed $2.2 billion in military aid to I total cut-off of oil sihpments

By end of 1973, world oil production had fallen 9%

Gasoline prices in US jumped 40%

Econ output dropped 6%

Unemployment doubled, inflation surged

W. Europe and Japan still got oil b/c they didn’t overtly support I

Kissinger negotiated agreements between I, S, E. Ibn Saud called off embargo March

1974.

VII. 1979 Camp David Accords

o After Israel had extracted most of the oil…

First agreement with an Arab nation

Sadat assassinated showed deep opposition of Muslims to any agreement that ignored Palestinian claims and that facilitated I’s ability to make war elsewhere

VIII. I-:Lebanon War 1982

Israel invaded Lebanon 1978 & 1982 to eliminate PLO commandos raiding Israel

1. Right wing Lebanese Christian Phalange militias massacred Palestinians, horrified world

IX. Intifada I: 1987

a.

Goal: show that military defeat couldn’t quench Palestinian nationalism

b.

Demonstrated, staged strikes, threw stones, disseminated propaganda. Children included.

c.

Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation, living conditions, and to demand independence that begins in 1987. Includes Palestinian demonstrations, strikes, boycotts, rock throwing and gasoline bombs.

d.

Hamas is formed

e.

Israeli military response

f.

Over approx. 400 Israelis Killed

g.

Over approx. 1500 Palestinians Killed

h.

Gained more recogniztion in Europe, US started new peace process

i.

BUT…

i.

PLO didn’t denounce Saddam Hussein unpopular stance (He fired missiles into Israel)

ii.

Kuwait expelled thousands of skilled P. workers whose families depended on remittances

j.

Hamas [DO CHARTER DOCUMENT]

i.

A little over two years ago, rivalries

ii.

in the Gaza Strip were so great that Islamic fundamentalists severely beat several

iii.

members of leftist P.L.O. groups with iron pipes and set fire to an office of the

iv.

Palestinian Red Crescent.

k.

Hamas= “Zeal,” acronym Movement of the Islamic

Resistance

X. Oslo Accords 1993

a. Soviet Jews: 1 million flooded in

b. Bush says he’ll help Israel if it moves toward peace and

curtailed settlements; Rabin says yes to “land for peace” formula secret meetings 1993

c. Terms:

i.

ii.

Palestinians will formally abandon armed struggle

accept I’s right to rule over 78% of mandate Palestine, expect remaining 22% (WB, Gaza, Arab East Jerusalem)

iii. New Palestinian Authority

A.

Separate peace agreements between Israel and Egypt (1978) and Israel and Jordan (1994)

B.

Oslo Agreement (1993) “Land for Peace” 1) Palestinians abandon armed struggle and accept Israel’s right to rule over 78% of mandate Palestine 2) In return they receive the remaining 22% (West Bank, Gaza, Arab East Jerusalem) 3) U.S. Policy- George W. Bush: 2002 “two-state solution”

XI.

Second Intifada

a.

Results:

i.

…no.

ii.

Rabin assassinated by Jewish religious fanatic at pro-peace rally in Tel Aviv 1995

iii.

Hamas suicide bombers increased assaults on Israeli civilians

iv.

Jewish settler had machine-gunned 29 Palestinian worshipers at holy site in Hebron

v.

Israel constructed crisscrossing roads through the West Bank that only Israelis could use, slicing PA into unconnected segments

vi.

More waves of suicide bombings

vii.

Some withdrawal of I. forces in return for Arafat taking out objectionable passages in their National Charter

viii.

Barak takes out remaining IDF forces from Lebanon, tranfers some of West Bank to Palestinian control.

ix.

BUT…continued suicide bombings rightward

turn in Israel’s electorate -stalemate renewed more militant Intifada

x.

Ariel Sharon’s provocative tour of the Haram al-Sharif, on the Temple Mount

1. PLO-linked organizations adopted suicide bombing tactics of Hamas and other Islamic radical groups

2. fierce IDF responses – “targeted killings,” tank sweeps

xi.

2002 barrier

1. 2002: Passover Seder; packed dining hall, detonated suitcase filled w/ plastic explosives. 30 people killed, 100 wounded