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a. What is the principle of moment and how moments achieved?

The principle of moments also known as Vargon’s Theorem. It states that when in
equilibrium the total sum of the anti clockwise moment is equal to the total sum of the
clockwise moment. The moment can achieved when the distance from the line action of
the force to the pivot was obtained and it’s perpendicular to the force.

b. What does the principles of Moment state about the turning moments of forces acting
on a body?

Turning moment was measured by multiply force acting on a body and perpendicular
distance between force and pivot.
M = turning moment
F = force acting on a body
d = distance from pivot
principle of moment state that the moment of any force is equal to the algebraic sum of the
moments of the components of that force.


At the end of the experiment, we can learn that turning moments can be measured
by the product of F x d , where F is the force acting on a body and d is the perpendicular
distance between the pivot and the line of the force. We can say that this experiment is
successed when the total sum of the anti clockwise moment is equal to the total sum of the
clockwise moment is achieved. Based on the result, the total M1 – M2 is zero and the result
of graph also shows that the ratio of forces is directly propotional to the distance.

While conduct this experiment, there are some errors occurred. The error is parallax
error while taking the results. Besides, the apparatus condition is unstable and havig
difficulty to balance the beam.

For improvement, make sure the eye level must be parallel to the measurement
scales in order to avoid parallax error. Provide sufficient facilities such as variety number
of load and weight hooks. Insure that the beam is in balance condition before taking a