Sei sulla pagina 1di 37

Mechanical/Chemical Engineering Technician Handbook

2.0 Above Grade Pipe Routing Guidelines

Guide Owner: Mechanical/Chemical Chief Engineer Lead Technician

Approved by Chief Mechanical/Chemical Engineer Technician Lead, Energy: L. C. Rayburn
Revision Date: 21-Feb-2006

1.0 Purpose and Applicability

The objective of this guideline is to provide the Pipe Designer direction in applying recommended
engineering piping layout practices as applied to above grade piping. These recommendations apply to
both critical systems (with an operating temperature above 300° F) and non-critical systems (with an
operating temperature below 300° F). Refer to the Steam Pipe Routing Recommendations Section for
additional guidance for design above 300°F. Additional general design information has been included for
consideration by the Pipe Designer.

2.0 Responsibilities

The Mechanical/Chemical Project Lead Designer (PLD-M) is responsible for assigning pipe systems
appropriate to their staff’s capabilities, and provides direction for incorporating the following guidelines
into the design process.

Mechanical/Chemical Pipe Designers are responsible for developing logical pipe layouts using the design
data as determined by the Design Engineers. Note that close coordination is required by the Designer
with the System Engineer, Stress Analysis Engineer, and all disciplines in communicating design
information that impacts other project personnel design responsibilities.

3.0 Process

The following sections describe the responsibilities associated with pipe routing and the importance of
following a logical set of procedures that has been developed from proven engineering design. The
following design approaches are applicable to all B&V Energy projects, except for GOC projects.

All piping systems will be designed in accordance with the following:

 The latest edition (including the latest addenda, interpretations and cases) of the ASME Power
Piping Code, ASME B31.1 unless specific code and standard dates are required by contract.
ASME B31.1 will govern if there is a conflict between ASME B31.1 and this standard.
 Energy Division Standards, Guidelines, and Recommended Practices.

 Critical systems – steam, feedwater, and systems 300° F and above.
 Non-critical Systems – low pressure systems and systems below 300° F.
 Engineered components – pipe, valves, equipment, structural steel, cable tray and other
components designed or procured by B&V.

3.1 General Pipe Routing Recommendations

This section provides recommendations for general pipe routing layout that should be consistently applied
unless unique project requirements dictate a different approach.
 Piping shall be routed as direct as possible from origin to destination and be arranged for efficient
operation and maintenance.
 A preliminary pipe routing provides several benefits with space control and valve access being
two major factors that must be considered.
 If a single pipe line is being routed in an open space locate the line closer to a column instead of
in the middle of a bay to allow for an efficient use of the space for pipes that are routed at a later
time in the design process.
 Steam piping shall take precedence when establishing pipe space allocation.
 It is recommended that small-bore pipe routing be given consideration at the early stages of a
project to allow for space control and support fabrication requirements. All small-bore piping
greater than 300° F should have a preliminary routing developed for thermal analysis reasons
and the space that it may occupy – a 2” (50mm) main steam drain for example can have a 12”
(300mm) or more diameter when the insulation is included.
 When a modular construction of a pipe rack is considered all small-bore should be preliminarily
routed to account for space and pipe support requirements. Modularization generally requires
small-bore be designed and delivered at site at the same time as the large-bore piping to support
 Consideration shall always be given to a pipe routing to account for pipe support requirements as
described in M/C Department Guidelines for “Pipe Support Guidelines for Cold Systems”. Avoid
running pipe across open areas that are not accessible from support steel or structure above or
below the pipe that can be used to support the pipe.
 Pipe centerline spacing between pipes and from column rows should be rounded to the nearest
inch or 25mm for metric projects. Refer to Figure 3.1A.


Pipe Spacing Guidelines Setting Pipe Elevations

 As a general rule try and maintain the same centerline of pipes that run in the same direction
especially when the pipes are hung from above. Bottom-supported pipes should maintain the
same bottom of pipe O.D. unless the insulation thickness or support requires a specific elevation.
Refer to Figure 3.1B.
 Setting the elevation of piping above a floor or grade is dependant on several different
o What access is required below the piping – personnel walkway, maintenance equipment
(forklift, flatbed truck, cranes, etc.), or railcar access?
o How much space is available between floors – floor spacing of 20’ (6.09m) allows 2-level
piping runs at 9’-0” (2.74m) and 12’-0” (3.66m), where 10’ (3.05m) spacing may only
allow one-level of piping to be run at minimum headroom?
o What other engineered components are located in the same area and require sharing the
available space – electrical cable tray, HVAC ducts, etc?
 All piping, including associated supports, insulation and attachments shall maintain a minimum
overhead clearance of 6’-9” (2.05m) above floor level and 7’-0” (2.13m) above the nearest tread
at stairways. OHSA Standards require a minimum of 6’-8” (2.03m) headroom clearance for
walkway access. Be aware of the governing codes and standards as required by the project
contract. Refer to Figure 3.1C.
Minimum OSHA Head Clearance

 Minimum personnel aisle access generally requires 3’-0” (.914m) clearance with surrounding
plant components. Refer to NFPA requirements that apply to the specific layout conditions as
 As a general rule a 2-level piping approach is used in the turbine areas and the lower floors of
coal plants to allow for an organized change of elevation of piping. As an example overhead
piping may maintain standard elevations of 9’-3” (2.82m) above floor level for east/west pipe runs
and 12’-3” (3.73m) above floor level for north/south pipe runs to allow for consistent vertical
clearances when changes in pipe direction are required. Refer to Figure 3.1D.

 A minimum distance of 3” (80mm) should be maintained from the outside diameter of non-critical
piping systems, including insulation, to allow for installation clearances and account for normal
miss-installation tolerances, which can range from ¼” (8mm) to several inches depending on the
quality of construction control. Refer to Figure 3.1A above.
 A minimum distance of 6”-12” (150-300mm) from outside diameter of critical piping systems,
including insulation, for horizontal and vertical clearances with the following considerations taken
into account-
o Thermal movements of pipe from cold to hot position.
o Some systems may have several thermal positions dependant on the operating
sequence – for example which units are in operation on a 3-on-1 combined cycle
plant, or the operation of a bypass system that may impact the associated systems.
o In the extreme example of 28” (710mm) thermal expansion as designed on a
combined cycle a manual check of clearances is suggested and the space be
allocated to prevent the placement of other components in the path of expansion.
o Coal plants have long vertical runs where we may see up to 12”-18” (300-450mm) of
downward movement. Be aware of these cases and account for space allocation
o Contact and work closely with the Stress Analysis Specialist to identify thermal
movements and impacts on attached components or other components in close
o A 3-D model of the thermal movements can be extracted from the CAESAR model
and then imported into the project 3-D model to visually and electronically check
o Inform the other disciplines of pipes and valves that have large thermal movements
so they may base their design accordingly. Several examples of components that
may be impacted by thermal movements are: conduits to valves and instruments,
cable tray location, or platform steel for accessing valves or instruments.
 Under certain circumstances (for example a long straight run associated with combined cycle
pipe rack routing) specific pipe movements must be obtained from the Stress Analysis Section
(SAS) to verify adequate clearance is maintained between piping and other engineered
components under all plant operating conditions. Refer to Figure 3.1E.


 Piping shall avoid areas designated as equipment and instrument maintenance space, vertical
access hatches, crane and monorail travel spaces and normal personnel access and egress
 When routing bottom-supported pipe it is a good practice to use eccentric reducers (flat on
bottom) keeping the bottom of the pipe run constant. The two main reasons for this are to simplify
the pipe support design by keeping the bottom of the pipe at the same elevation. Draining the
pipe, whether it is a cold system or a hot system that requires draining the condensate, requires
consideration in location of drain connections and can be achieved easier with the use of
eccentric reducers.
 Avoid sudden expansion on the outlet of desuperheaters, a straight run distance is normally
required by the manufacturer to provide a proper mixing zone for the spraywater and the steam. If
reducers are required and allowed use several reducers to allow gradual expansion in lieu of one
large expansion (for example a 20”x30” reducer is too extreme of a sudden expansion).
 Bottom supported piping with no insulation or with insulation for personnel protection shall be
routed with bottom of pipe (BOP) resting on top of steel (TOS) or top of concrete (TOC). When
required, personnel protection insulation should be notched at support points.
 Bottom-supported pipe with insulation for anti-freezing or anti-sweating shall be routed with a
clearance between BOP and TOS or TOC to avoid damaging the insulation and lagging. Pipe
shoes will be used to elevate the pipe off the supporting surface to allow for thermal movements.
 When locating instrument taps, vents and drains, take into consideration freeze protection, hydro
testing and flushing requirements. Locating these connections close together can save on heat
tracing costs.
 Consider locating small-bore vertical runs behind the stairwells for easy installation access. The
pipe supports can be welded to the stair and platform support steel eliminating the need for
scaffolding and manlifts. Always be aware of the OHSA or local codes that define minimum
distances around stairs and ladders.
 Freeze protection requirements shall be adhered to when routing pipe and should be discussed
during the “Released for Routing” meeting. Criteria for freeze protection changes from job to job
but should be identified by cross hatching on the affected lines on the P&ID. A unique line
number should be included in J48 (i.e. preceding the line size with the letter “F”)

3.1.2 Vents and Drains

 Vent connections shall be provided at all high points on top of pipe and drain connections shall be
provided at all low points on bottom of pipe with the following exceptions: Low point drains are
generally not required on air or gas systems down stream of dryers. High point vents are not
required for systems using Initial Service Leak Test (ISLT) to prove system integrity.
 Socket weld connections shall be used for Vent and Drain connections.
 Continuous or high volume vents and drains should be routed to drain funnels or bell-ups.
 Air Relief Valves / Vacuum Breaker Valves / Burp Valves / route discharge to drain.
 Vents and drains are usually fabricated from the same material as the originating header or
equipment connection. Exceptions to this may occur when the main header is alloy material, in
which the material may change downstream of the first isolation valve. Always discuss this with
the Design Engineer and make sure any material change is reflected in the linecodes.

3.1.3 Insulation

 Personnel protection insulation when required should extend 8’-0” (2.44m) vertically above
platform/floors, and 4’-0” (1.22m) horizontally past the handrail when accessible off a

3.2 Pipe Material

The following describes some general features of the typical pipe materials used by B&V that may impact
application in design, valve selection, welding, or connection requirements.

 Carbon Steel
o Carbon steel material is usually used in non-corrosive water applications.
o Carbon steel pipe is generally shop fabricated.
o Butt weld fittings are typically used.
o Flanges or butt-weld end preps are typically used at equipment connections.
o Butt-welded valves are generally used in high pressure systems and either butt-welded or
flanged valves are generally used in low pressure systems. Flanged valves typically have
a lower installation cost.
o Most carbon steel pipe can be welded to alloy pipe, but a dissimilar weld must be
identified on fabrication drawings. It is preferred to have dissimilar welds made in the
shop by the pipe fabricator.
 Alloy
o Alloy material is usually used in steam or flashing applications.
o Alloy pipe is generally shop fabricated.
o Butt-welded fittings are typically used.
o Flanges or butt-weld end preps are typically used at equipment connections.
o Butt-welded valves are typically used.
o Some alloy pipe can be welded to different alloy pipe material (P91 to P22), but a
dissimilar weld must be identified on fabrication drawings. It is preferred to have
dissimilar welds made in the shop by the pipe fabricator.
 Stainless Steel
o Stainless steel material is usually used in low-corrosive water, chemical and control air
system applications.
o Butt-welded fittings are typically used for large-bore applications.
o Socket-welded fittings are typically used for small-bore water applications, and press-fit
fittings are typically used for small-bore air applications.
o Flanges or butt-weld end preps are typically used at equipment connections
o Seam-welded stainless steel pipe. 6” (150mm) and above, should be used in place of
seamless pipe to take advantage of the cost-savings.
 Copper
o Copper material can be used in potable water applications.
o Fittings are typically socket type with braised (soldered) connections.
o Connections to valves and equipment are typically flanged.
 Plastic
o Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) material can be used in general chemical applications, and
Chemical Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) can be used in harsher chemical applications.
o Fittings are typically socket type that uses a bonding solvent at fitting connections.
o Connections to valves and equipment are typically flanged or threaded.
 FRP - Fiberglass Reinforced
o Fiberglass Reinforced Pipe (FRP) can be used for abrasive or non-abrasive water or
slurry applications. Material content is selected based on whether medium is abrasive or
o Fittings vary from butt-end, belled, socket, flanged or threaded depending on the pipe
size and application for the system.
o Valves are generally flanged.
o The use of FRP with concentrated sulfuric acid requires very specific operation
safeguards to be employed by the operators to avoid pipe failures. In the case you see
the use of FRP pipe in the application associated with sulfuric acid discuss and verify the
material selection with the Chemical Engineer.

3.3 Pipe and Connection Schedules and Classes

The following provides general information a designer needs to be familiar with when understanding the
descriptions and applications of schedule/class information associated with pipe and pipe connections.

3.3.1 Pipe Schedules and Classes

 A pipe schedule represents the actual physical dimensions for the outside diameter (O.D.) of the
pipe and the wall thickness associated with carbon steel, alloy, and stainless steel material with a
numbered description – for example the nominal pipe size - 10” (250mm) Schedule 40 tells you
that the pipe O.D. is 10.75” (273mm) with a wall thickness of 0.365” (9.27mm) as established by
the ASTM Specification ASA 36.10.
 The ASTM Specification defines these dimensions based on Pressure-Temperature Ratings for
seamless pipe of the same size, thickness (schedule) and material grade.
 At B&V the J48 linecode dictates the pipe size and schedules as determined by an Engineer’s
calculations for a specific system.
 Higher pressure/temperature systems such as Main Steam may require an alloy pipe with higher
schedules such as schedule 160, while a low pressure/temperature service water system typically
requires carbon steel material with a schedule 40.
 It is common to see a reduction in the pipe schedule when transitioning from a larger pipe size to
a smaller pipe size, since the smaller line size can handle the higher design conditions that
dictated the schedule for the larger pipe. For example on a feedwater recirculation line a pipe size
may reduce from a 12” (300mm) schedule 80 (with a wall thickness of .594”[15.08mm]) to a 10”
(250mm) schedule XS (with a wall thickness of .500”). In this case the 12”x10” reducer would
require a schedule 80 with the 10” (250mm) outlet end prep bored out to match the 10” (250mm)
schedule XS dimensions.

3.3.2 Connection Classes

 Flanges, flanged valves, and flanged fittings are classified by a pressure/temperature rating
based on the appropriate Standard for a specified material, including cast steel, alloys, stainless
steels, bronze, FRP, and PVC material as some examples. The range of pressure and
temperature application is dependant on the material - for example a 10” (250mm) Class 150
carbon steel flange may be rated at a 150 lb. primary pressure class service rating with a test
pressure limit of 425 PSI and a service temperature high of 425° F, compared to a 10” (250mm)
Class 150 FRP flange that is rated at a 150 lb. primary pressure service rating with a test
pressure limit of 225 PSI and a service temperature high of 225° F.
 At B&V the J48 linecode dictates the pipe size and class as determined by an Engineer’s
calculations for a specific system.
 Flanges, flanged valves, and flanged fittings require that the same service rating be used at
flanged interfaces
 Refer to Section 3.5 Flanges for additional detail on flanged connections.

3.3.3 Pipe Connection Types

 Butt weld connections are identified as a wall schedule – two pipe ends that are to be welded
together are required to be the same wall schedule, if they are not a note must be added
identifying that the heavier schedule wall shall be machined to the lighter schedule wall
 Socket weld connections are identified as a 3000, 6000, or 9000 pressure class– require a
minimum of a 3” (80mm) nipple between fittings and a coupling every 20’ (6.09m) of straight pipe.
 Threaded connections are identified as a 2000, 3000, or 6000 pressure class – require a
minimum of a 3” (80mm) nipple between fittings and a coupling every 20’ (6.09m) of straight pipe.
A union may be required at equipment connections or at a field weld to allow the pipe to be
screwed into position when installed.
 Victaulic Pressfit® connections are rated as class 150 or up to 300 psi – B&V currently uses
Pressfit® connections on 304 SS compressed air systems up to 150 psi. Connections are made
using a crimping tool that compresses the ends of the fittings over a raised groove and a gasket
for sealing. Refer to the Victaulic Pressfit® website site
 Flanged connections are identified as Class 125,150, 250, 300, 600, 800, 900, 1500 and 2500
depending on the specified material – flanged connections require a specified number and size of
bolts and nuts as defined by ASA 16.5 Standard to create a solid connection. The majority of
flange connections require a gasket made of the appropriate material based on the pressure,
temperature and medium in the piping system. Refer to Section 3.5 Flanges for additional detail
on flanged connections.
 Glued/Solvent connections are generally used on plastic or FRP fittings that are either socket or
belled connections. The connections are generally described by class or schedule depending on
the material being specified.
 Grooved pipe fittings such as provided by Victaulic® or Grinnell® connections are rated by
working pressure (300 psi for example) – Grooved type connections are commonly used in fire
protection and low pressure water systems. Connections are made by placing a coupling, with a
gasket, over two grooved pipe/fittings ends then tightening the bolts on the coupling. Victaulic
systems can be used to compensate for alignment errors due to the flexibility allowed by the

3.4 Pipe Fittings

Pipe fitting descriptions as in the wall schedule or pressure class, connection type, and fabrication
method are all dependant on the material selected based on the specific application. The following
sections provide some general information for the fitting types usually used by B&V.

3.4.1 Butt-Welded Fittings

 B&V strongly urges the use of induction bending in place of large-bore butt-weld elbows fittings.
There is considerable cost savings that is realized from the fabricator when induction bending is
utilized. The following are requirements and/or considerations to be taken into account prior to
using induction bends:
o Confirm that the pipe fabricator has induction bending capabilities.
o Confirm any capability limitations the pipe fabricator has in the way of pipe size and wall
o Confirm that the System Engineer has performed the proper wall thickness calculations
to account for the wall thinning that occurs during the induction bending process.
o Be familiar with the induction bending process and take into account the allowed radius
bend, the required tangent length at the ends of the bend for the clamps, and the impact
that using bends has on the overall layout of the routing.
o B&V does not currently allow the induction bending of stainless steel due to the
discoloration of the metal during the process.
 When sloping a line it is preferred to use a bend over a fitting. Very little angle deflection is
allowed at the weld on fittings.
 The use of short radius elbows is discouraged unless the piping configuration has such restrictive
space problems that a short radius elbow becomes the solution.
 The suggested method for reducing a pipe line size is to use a butt-weld reducer especially for
high pressure systems and around small-bore control valves. Swages can be used to reduce
from a large-bore to small-bore pipe sizes, but they are generally more expensive than a butt-
welded reducer and availability can be a problem.
 Piping weld spacing shall be maintained as defined in the Standard EEC-Std-3-03113-01304,
Standard for Minimum Distance Spacing for Welds. This Standard will provide the minimum space
requirements - for example when locating olet fittings from an adjacent fitting weld.
 Butt welding elbows shall be long radius, unless short radius is required for clearance.
o Use straight tees for branches of same pipe size and weld-o-lets for branches reducing in
pipe size. Branch connections on steam, air, condensate gas and nitrogen piping should be
on top of the header.
 Double wall containment – LATER Cold Bending Fittings

Section to be written by Charles Henley


3.4.2 Socket-Welded Fittings

 Hot drains on the Main Steam and Hot Reheat systems, for example, require several routing
considerations due to the thermal transitions that are seen during the operation of the system.
o Locate the isolation drain valve(s) close to the drip leg as possible (2’-3’ [610-915mm])
and at the required slope from the olet on the dripleg to prevent a pocket where
condensate can form. The reason behind this design is to eliminate the opportunity for
temperature fluctuations that allows the condensing of the steam, which can result in
cyclic thermal discontinuity stresses - which in turn can result in fatigue failure at the
fittings. By reducing the distance between the dripleg and isolation valve the temperature
will remain hot enough preventing this occurrence.
o It is preferred to use 3 diameter bends over socket-welded elbows to reduce the erosion
effects created in tight radius turns, and to assist the stress analyst by lowering the stress
intensification factor (SIF). In the case socket-welded elbows or couplings are used be
sure to inform your stress analyst of the location of these fittings so that they will take this
into consideration during the analysis and proper location of the supports. If a socket-
weld connection is required in the system, try and locate it away from the bends and
inform the stress analyst.

 The insertion set-back of a pipe into a socket fitting occasionally comes into question as to what
the correct dimension of set-back is, or if it needs to be considered. A 1/16” (2mm) set-back is
typical and is what is required by code as a value that can be measured in the field. B&V fitting
tables are set to 1/16” (2mm) set-back and should accommodate any issue that should arise
whether that is weldability, proper engagement (insertion depth), fatigue issues due to thermal
changes the fitting sees, or from a fabrication accuracy point of view. Since a true zero gap is
nearly impossible to achieve and the fabrication tolerances of small-bore piping can vary
depending on the conditions, our current standard of 1/16” (2mm) is sufficient as a point of
reference. Refer to Figure 3.4.2A.

1/16” Insertion Setback

Figure 3.4.2A
Socket Welded Fitting Insertion Setback

 For reduction of socket-welded small-bore pipe, use reducer inserts as a cost-effective method.
 Swages can be used to reduce from a large-bore to small-bore pipe sizes, but they are generally
more expensive and availability can be a problem.
 A union fitting may be required when a section of pipe needs to be removed at an equipment
interface that has a threaded connection. The union is usually socket-welded on both ends with a
threaded coupling connection in the middle that allows a separation of a line when the coupling is
 B&V guide specifications require that pre-engineered olets be used as a branch connection on
headers. The question arises occasionally if half or full couplings may be welded onto headers as
branch connections and the following must be considered in application of these fittings:
o B31.1 states that couplings may be used for a branch connection only if a full penetrating
weld is used at the header connection – a fillet weld is unacceptable.
o B&V guide specifications state that branch connections must be made with either a fitting
(tee) or a pre-engineered adaptor.
o Due to the challenges associated with quality control of the welding process (manual
beveling of the opening for a full penetrating weld and possible area replacement
calculation requirement) it is B&V practice to avoid the welding of half and full couplings
onto a header. There are a few exceptions associated with unique cases.

3.4.3 Branch Connections

This section addresses the recommended fitting selection of using a butt-weld fitting (for example
a tee) or an integrally reinforced branch outlet fitting (an olet) for making branch connections.
Other options are discussed though not commonly used in application at B&V. These guidelines
have been prepared in order to maintain a higher level of consistency on the application of the
different type of branch connections for all Projects while observing ASME B31.1 Power Piping
Code and established Industry Standards. Project Engineering or the Plant Owner requirements
may specify certain requirements that override the following suggested practices.
When the design allows, use integrally reinforced branch connections in place of machined
forged fittings – for example an integrally reinforced 45° lateral branch connection weighs and
costs less than a forged seamless lateral. Design Criteria

The basis for the selection of the branch connection types is based on the following criteria:
 Applicable ASME B31.1 Design Code Criteria
Sections 104.3.1 and 127.4.8 of the ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code define the
requirements for piping welded Branch Connections, including a listing of acceptable
Standards for piping components on Chapter IV, Table 126.1 of the Code.
Based on the Code, consideration has been given to the following branch connection types:
a) Pipe stub-in branches
b) Reinforced pipe branches
c) Socket welded tee fittings
d) Butt-welded tee fittings
e) Integrally reinforced branch outlet fittings

 Proper material availability

Not all reduction sizes are available from piping component Manufacturers. A selection of the
most commonly used piping sizes has been selected for the comparison.

 Most economic application

Using the previously mentioned criteria, a cost definition, based on shop fabrication labor
associated costs and component costs, was established for the different piping branch
connection types. The cost basis of selecting acceptable connection piping materials as
defined by the Power Piping Code was applied as follows;
a) Pipe stub-in branches – No special materials to purchase, all costs are due to labor and
welding consumable. Its cost is more than the integrally reinforced branch outlet fitting in
all pipe sizes and schedules.
b) Reinforced pipe branches – Labor intensive without special components to purchase, but
more expensive than the stub-in or the integrally reinforced branch outlet fittings in all
pipe sizes and schedules.
c) Socket welded tee fittings – Considered option on same pipe size, even though slightly
more expensive than the integrally reinforced branch outlet fittings.
d) Butt-welded tee fittings – Considered option on same pipe sizes up to 10” sch.80 and
under pipe branches. More expensive on heavier schedules when compared to integrally
reinforced branch outlet fittings.
e) Integrally reinforced branch outlet fittings – This is the most economical application for
piping branch connections. Branch Connection Types

Consideration has been given to the most practical and acceptable Industry Standards for branch
connection types meeting B31.1 Design Code Criteria.
The following branch connection types have been evaluated,

 Piping Stub in connections - Unreinforced, low pressure, low temperature branch connections
meeting ASME B31.1 section 104.3.1 (C) criteria. This option was eliminated because the
cost is comparable to the integrally reinforced branch outlet fittings and does not provide any
additional reinforcement to the connection.
 Reinforced Stub-in connections - Stub-in branch connections with reinforcement pad meeting
ASME B31.1 section 104.3.1 (D) criteria. It is labor intensive and associated costs make it
more expensive than an integrally reinforced branch outlet fitting.

 Tee connections - Both socket-welded and butt-welded tee fittings meet ASME B31.1 section
104.3.1 (B.1) and the Standards listed on ASME B31.1 Chapter IV, Table 126.1 criterion.
These fittings are more expensive than the integrally reinforced branch outlet fitting on all
sizes for full and reducing sizes on schedule 80 and under. Only the socket-weld tee comes
to a comparable cost on same size branch for pipe heavier than schedule 80. Same size tee
pipe sizes up to 10” (250mm) will be used on the branches for consistency.

 Integrally reinforced branch outlet fittings - Fittings manufactured to MSS-SP-97 meet ASME
B31.1 section 104.3.1 (C.3) and it is listed on ASME B31.1 Chapter IV, Table 126.1
Standards. For Shop labor and material costs this is the most cost efficient connection.

 Wyes, laterals and other specialty connections - These are not used very often and due to
their specialized application are usually engineered and priced independently. These fittings
have not been considered for the development of the branch charts. Carbon Steel Branch Connection Charts

The type of branch connection, based on the previously defined criteria, is shown on the following
Charts for the branch connection size and type on carbon steel piping.

The following Chart is for 2 ½” (65mm) and larger butt-welded schedule 80 and under carbon
steel piping, excluding 5” (125mm) pipe sizes.


2” WOL
2 ½”
2 ½” Tee
3” 2 ½”
3” Tee
2 ½” WOL
4” Tee
2 ½”
6” 3”
6” Tee
2 ½”
3” WOL
8” Tee
2 ½”
10” 3” WOL
10” Tee
2 ½”
12” and larger WOL
12” and larger

All piping branches with pipe walls heavier than schedule 80 will have WOL branch connections.
WOL – Is for weld-o-lets or similar reinforced branch connection
Tee – Is for butt-welded piping tee branch connection

The following Chart is for 2” (50mm) and under socket-welded carbon steel piping branch connections on
all piping wall schedules.


½” SOL
¾” Tee
1” ¾”
1” Tee
¾” SOL
1 ½”
1 ½” Tee
2” 1”
1 ½”
2” Tee
2 ½” and larger 1” SOL
1 ½”

SOL – Is for a sock-o-let or similar type connection

Tee – Is for a SW tee connection

References: ASME B16.9 Wrought Steel Butt-welded Fittings

ASME B16.11 Forged Steel Fittings
ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code
MSS-SP-97 Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings.

3.5 Flanges
This section provides typical application and installation suggestions commonly used at B&V. Gasket
and bolting preferences have been included to provide a general guideline for Pipe Designer’s to
follow when selecting and detailing flange connections.
 Refer to section 3.3.2 for description of flange classes.
 When connecting to equipment, valves, and piping interfaces take into consideration the material,
flange class, flange facing furnished with these components before selecting the correct flange.
Verification of these features on vendor drawings is a must in order to provide the proper mating
 Use weld neck flanges except for low pressure/low temperature system and for 30” (750mm) and
larger pipe - Raised face flanges should not be attached to flat face flanges except for unique
 Slip-on flanges have limited applications at B&V such as:
o Unique piping arrangement problems force the use of a slip-on flange instead of a weld-
neck flange.
o A construction contractor or equipment manufacturer uses a slip-on flange in place of a
weld-neck flange due to a piping arrangement problem, costs savings, or for other

Several issues with using slip-on flanges are as follows:

o Spiral wound gaskets are relatively stiff and require high compressive forces to provide a
good seal, which requires high strength alloy steel bolts.
o The high strength bolts, that B&V specifies, are 3 times stronger than normal carbon steel
bolts, which allows for higher compressive forces than the flange may take.
o Combination of these two facts can lead to potential failure of the slip-on flange.

In the case slip-on flanges are the only solution to a piping problem, the following are acceptable
design requirements:
o Slip-on flanges shall not be used at pressures above Class 300.
o Soft gaskets must be used – Do not use spiral wound gaskets or any type of gasket that
requires high compressive force requiring high strength alloy steel bolts.
o Normal strength carbon steel bolts must be used.
 Calculating the length of the studs or bolts required for bolting two flanges together require
knowing the specific thickness of the following components and adding them together to arrive at
an overall length:
1. Thickness of the flange that B&V is furnishing – the thickness will vary from
material to material and the class of the flange. Be sure to include the raised face
dimension (usually .0625” or .25” [2 or 8mm]) if required.
2. Thickness of the vendor furnished component flange (pump, valve, strainer, etc.)
that is being mated up to – the thickness will vary from material to material and
the class of the flange.
3. The thickness of the gasket if one is required.
4. The depth of the nuts on both ends of the flanges – the depth varies depending
on the diameter of the bolt.
5. As a general rule two threads should be exposed outside of the nut, which as a
rule of thumb is .25” to .375” (8-10mm) on each side.
6. Add items 1 through 5 for a total, then round up to the nearest half inch (15mm)
for a total length.

 A good reference for standard length of bolts for a standard flange to flange mating is the NAVCO
book. NAVCO has a table that provides the stud or bolt lengths for typical flange sizes and
 Some valves or equipment connections have tapped bolt holes, or a combination of tapped and
through bolt holes. Refer to the vendor drawing to determine the correct bolting requirements.
 Carbon steel flanges 24” and smaller shall be per ANSI B16.5 and sizes above 24” shall be per
AWWA C207.
 Orifice flanges are used in conjunction with orifice plates that can be used to measure the flow
rate using the differential pressure across both sides of the orifice plate. Each orifice flange will
have a ½”-3/4” (15-20mm) pipe tap located on the outside diameter surface for the tubing to the
pressure indicator. See Figure 3.7.3A for the preferred location of the taps.
 Orifice flanges required similar straight pipe-run up and downstream of the orifice to ensure
accuracy of the flow reading. A safe rule of thumb is 20 pipe diameters upstream and 10 pipe
diameters downstream. Refer to the Control Engineer for specific system requirements.
 Threaded flanges should be used only in places where threaded fittings are permitted by the
piping material specification and on lines such as galvanized piping, where welding would be a
special problem.
 The number of flanged joints in a high pressure process piping system should be minimized.
 The use of flanges or Victaulic coupling in straight runs of pipe may provide an installation cost
savings over welded joints.

3.5.1 Gaskets
 Spiral Wound Gaskets – are used on raised faced metallic flanges and are constructed of
continuous stainless steel ribbon wound into a spiral with non-asbestos filler between adjacent
coils. A spiral wound gasket O.D. fits inside of the flange bolt hole and compresses to 1/8” (6mm)
thickness (0.130” ±0.005” [3.3mm ±.127mm]) at installation. A common manufacturer is Flexitallic
Gasket Company.
 Compressed Fiber Gaskets – are used on flat faced metallic flanges. A compressed fiber gasket
O.D. is full-faced extending past the flange bolt holes and generally has a 1/16” (2mm) thickness.
A common manufacturer is The Klinger Group.
 Rubber Gaskets – are typically used on low pressure larger diameter flanges (usually flat-faced)
and various non-metallic flanges as dictated by the application. Rubber gaskets are full-faced
extending past the flange bolt holes and are constructed of cloth inserted sheet rubber with a
thickness ranging from 1/16” (3mm) to 1/8” (6mm).
 Flange Insulating Kits – are typically used on below grade to above grade metallic flange
interfaces that need to be cathodically insulated to prevent stray ground currents from passing
through the below grade pipe material to the above grade material, causing undo corrosion or
eventual breakdown of the metal. They may also be required for dissimilar metal flange
interfaces. The kit contains a full-faced insulating and sealing flange 1/8” (6mm) thick gasket, full
length insulating sleeve for each bolt, and flat insulating washers for each bolt. A common
manufacturer is Advance Products & Systems. Flange insulating kits are not meant to be used on
flanged valves or expansion joints.

The following table provides typical flange arrangements used at B&V.

Raised-faced Weld Neck Flanges
 Requires 1/8” thick spiral wound gasket
 Stud/Bolt/Nut Material – See Note 1 below

Flat-faced Weld Neck Flanges

 Requires 1/16” thick compressed fiber full-faced gasket
 Stud/Bolt/Nut Material – See Note 1 below

Flat-faced Carbon Steel Slip-on Flanges

 Use of slip-on flanges is limited to only low pressure applications and is
discouraged – must be approved by Engineer and Stress Analysis Lead.
 Requires 1/16” thick compressed fiber gasket
 Stud/Bolt/Nut Material – See Note 2 below

Carbon Steel to Stainless Steel Flanges

 Insulated flange kit is required, with the same gasket thicknesses
requirements as listed above for R.F. and F.F. flanges
 Stud/Bolt/Nut Material – See Note 1 below

Flat-faced Weld Neck to HDPE Flanges

 No gasket required unless required by the pipe manufacturer. The HDPE
facing conforms and seals against the serrated FF flange facing.
 Stud/Bolt/Nut Material – See Note 1 below

CS Flat-faced Weld Neck to Ductile Iron Flanges

 Requires 1/16” thick compressed fiber full-faced gasket
 Stud/Bolt/Nut Material – See Note 2 below

FRP to FRP Flanges

 Requires 1/8” thick (50-70 Durometer) full-faced gasket – consult
Engineer for the correct material callout (for example - Red Rubber).
 Stud/Bolt/Nut Material – See Note 2 below

Weld Neck Flange to Rubber Expansion Joint

 No gasket required as the expansion joints rubber facing conforms
and seals against the flange facing.
 Stud/Bolt/Nut Material – See Note 2 below

Weld Neck Flange to Wafer Check or Butterfly Valve

 No gasket required for rubber-lined valves as the rubber facing conforms
and seals against the flange facing.
 Requires 1/8” thick spiral wound gasket for CS and SS body
 Requires 1/16” thick compressed fiber full-faced gasket for iron body
 Stud/Bolt/Nut Material – See Note 1 below

Weld Neck Flange to Tapped Lug Butterfly Valve

 Same requirements as above for Wafer Check or Butterfly Valves
Note 1: Studs/Bolts – A193/A193M Grade B16 electroplated cadmium
Nuts – A193/A193M Grade 3 electroplated cadmium
Material requirements may be changed if specified by the Engineer due
to system application.
Note 2: The proper stud/bolt material must be selected to suit material selection.
3.6 Valves

 Valve classes are based on the ANSI pressure temperature ratings for valve class and
body/bonnet material. The standard classes are 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500.
Some valves come in class 125, 800, or other designated classes based on material
and/or application of the valve.
 Most valves come in butt-weld or flanged end connections and selection may be based
o The system application
o Valve body material
o Construction preference – flanged valves over butt-weld valves due to installation
o Most high pressure valves (class 600 and above) are likely to be butt-welded
ends, but there are exceptions
 Accessibility to valves shall be taken into consideration when routing a system. Control
valves, motor and air operated valves and all other valves defined as “normally operated”
shall be accessible from floor or platform elevations. Identify the parts of a valve and
operator that require access for operation and maintenance, and then provide a sketch to
the structural engineer defining the elevation and size of required platform. Do not wait
until the project is complete to address access needs as it is likely adequate access
space will blocked by other components. Vents, drains, bypass and root valves may or
may not require normal access and should be considered on a case by case basis.
 There are several approaches to laying out a valve station taking into consideration the
pipe/valve size, type of valves, and the space availability. Figure 3.6A Option A reflects
the typical layout for pipe/valve sizes 8” (200mm) and above due to the height and size of
the valve operators. Figure 3.6A Option B reflects an optional layout when space is
limited and a compact valve station is required. Generally this layout will accommodate
pipe/valve size 6” (150mm) and below. Always take into account the maintenance pull
space for the valves and required space to operate the valve.

Valve Stations with Bypasses

 Valve stations are usually located 12-18” (300-450mm) above the supporting floor to
provide adequate space for locating a support under the station and to allow operating
personnel to access the valve operator without the aid of a ladder. Refer to Figure 3.6B.
 Use the vendor shop drawing or catalog cut to determine the height of the valve operator
from an operations and maintenance point of view. Generally handwheels over 4’-0”
(1.25m) above the floor are difficult for operators to open and close.

 Valves should be installed in the upright position (stem up) wherever possible.
 When valves are located in the vertical give consideration to the height and rotation of the
operator for the following reasons:
o Place the valve height where the operator is accessible from the floor.
o Do not rotate the operator where it extends out into access or maintenance aisle
o Do not place valve at a height that is consider a head-knocker, which may be
from 5-7’-0” (1.5-2.1m) off the accessing floor. Refer to Figure 3.6C.
o Try to rotate the larger valve operators over adjacent piping to shield it from aisle
 The elevation of a valve station on a hot system may require additional space from the
floor to the bottom of the pipe to allow for a pipe support spring can or the HP drain
support bracket detail (refer to DM-125 drawing). Be aware that if the valve is raised in
elevation that the valve operator must still be accessible either off the floor or a platform.
 Use the maximum dimensions provided by the vendor for height (include removal space)
and diameter (include limit switches) when modeling for interference checking.
 Some pump manufacturer’s have specific requirement for location of the first valve off the
pump discharge – always consult the manufacturer for layout specifics.
 Consider access to drip pot drain valves during the routing process as they are often
either elevated off the main floors or located away from platform access. Always consult
the project contract for valve access requirements to determine if permanent platform, or
ladder access is required, or if access via a manlift is adequate to meet contract
 Isolation and root valves should be located as close to the main header as possible in
case of line breakage.
 Consult the valve manufacturer in the case of unique locations and orientations of valves.

3.6.1 Gate/Globe Valves

 Gate and globe valves can be located (rolled) to a position between vertical and
horizontal if required for space and/or operator access requirements. Refer to Figure
3.6.1A. Valve stem/operator should not be rolled past the pipe horizontal centerline for
several reasons:
o The bonnet is below the line of flow and can become a pocket for foreign matter
possibly affecting the performance of the operator or valve internals.
o Some operators are not designed to operate in this position forcing the operator’s
hydraulic oil or grease away from the intended location within the operator.
o Consult the manufacturer for these types of valve orientations.

3.6.2 Check Valves

 Check valves should be located in the horizontal whenever possible
 Most check valves can be located in the vertical whenever the flow is upward. Be very
cautious of locating check valves larger than 10” (150mm) in the vertical due to the
increased chance of water hammer occurring due to the volume of water involved
downstream of the valve. Consult the System Engineer in this case to address possible
water hammer cases. Always verify with the manufacturer if any orientation limitations
 Provide adequate space for removing the bonnet flange and accessing the internals of
the valve to replace/repair the disc and associated components.
 Swing check valves when located on pump discharges should be placed 6-10 pipe
diameters downstream of the pump discharge and approximately 4 pipe diameters
upstream of any downstream turbulence such as an elbow. Consult the valve
manufacturer for specific applications and requirements. Avoid placing check valves
close to either side of an elbow, swages or pipe reductions of 8° or more taper. Refer to
Figure 3.6.2A.
 Stop check valves should always be located in a non-sloped horizontal or 90° vertical line
to avoid opening and closing problems. Manufacturer must be informed of installation
position to properly design the valve internals and operator.

3.6.3 Control Valves
The location of control valves in a piping system must take into consideration several design
parameters such as whether the system is a high or low pressure system, a high or low energy
application. Use the following suggestions to properly locate a control valve along with the layout
mistakes to avoid:
 Incorporate minimum upstream / downstream requirements provided by the control valve
 On high pressure and high energy systems never place a control valve directly adjacent
to a horizontal elbow. The flow rate may cause severe vibration to the valves operating or
control parts leading to damage to the actuator, pilot valve, valve trim, and valve plug due
to actuator failure. A minimum of 10 pipe diameters is required upstream of the valve inlet
and 5 pipe diameters is required downstream of the valve outlet to the inlet of the elbow.
Always follow the manufacturer’s recommendations. Refer to Figure 3.6.3A.
 On low pressure systems avoid locating a control valve directly adjacent to a horizontal
elbow. The flow rate may cause severe vibration to the valves operating or control parts
leading to damage to the actuator, pilot valve, valve trim, and valve plug due to actuator
failure. A minimum of 3-5 pipe diameters is suggested upstream of the valve inlet and 2-3
pipe diameters is suggested downstream of the valve outlet to the inlet of the elbow.
Always follow the manufacturer’s recommendations. Refer to Figure 3.6.3A.


 Reducers are commonly located on each side of a control valve and should be placed as
close to the valve as possible with no or minimal straight pipe-run. See Figure 3.6B.
 One issue associated with pipe reduction around valves is the related to the strength of
the valve in relation to the strength of the adjacent piping. Too much of a reduction
creates sort of a “fuse” connection in the pipe line. Restrict pipe reduction upstream of
control valves to the following common rules of thumb:
o Valve size not less than ½ half pipe size
o Valve size not less than 2 nominal sizes below the line size
 Isolation (block) valves for the control valve should be the same size as the main pipe
line prior to the valve reduction. Refer to Figure 3.6B.
 If the isolation valves are placed in the vertical always leave several pipe diameters up
and downstream of the control valve to allow the flow stream to straighten, reducing flow
turbulence prior to entering the valve inlet.
 Incorporate minimum upstream / downstream requirements from butterfly or ball valves to
control valve.
 Place drain/tell tale connection on upstream side of control valve.
 Verify adequate pull space for operator from the vendor drawing.
 Provide adequate space for the control valve and up and downstream reducers (valve will
probably be one size smaller than line size). The required minimum space should be the
length of the valve at line size and the length of two reducers. It is a good practice to
leave additional space between the valve and the reducers.
 Orientate operator in the vertical position unless authorized in writing from system design
engineer and/or valve manufacturer.
 Avoid crossing over the top of the valve with an overhead pipe run. In plant areas with
low head room the lower pipe run may interfere with the valve and/or operator removal
space, especially on valves for the higher pressure systems.
 Request catalog cuts from the system design engineer during released for routing
meeting and store with the RFR package.
 Require shop drawings for the valve, including the operator, before releasing the pipe for
fabrication. If no shop drawing is available at release for fabrication stage then a “Hold”
must be placed on the valve and associated dimensions.

3.6.4 ARC Valves (Automatic Recirculation Control valve)

An ARC valve is basically a self-contained three-way control valve that sense when the flow rate
in the main line is below a predefined limit and then directs the flow to the bypass port.
 ARC valves should be used whenever project requirements are best satisfied by using an
ARC valve. B&V discourages the use of ARC valves on boiler feedwater systems unless
approved by the Project Engineering Manager.
 Suggested installation of ARC valves are as follows:
o Install ARC valve as close to pump discharge as possible. Most boiler feed pump
vendors suggest locating the ARC valve immediately at the discharge flange on
the pump.
o For horizontal split case pumps the valve should be located after the first 90°
elbow (preferably always a long radius elbow) in the vertical position.
o Depending on the application and manufacturer the valve may require to be
located and installed in a specific position – always consult the manufacturer for
specific requirements.
o The connection to the receiving vessel should always be located above the water
level to prevent adverse impact on the pump suction performance.

3.6.5 HP Bypass (Steam Conditioning) Valves

 The location of the steam conditioning valve depends on the type of plant and the system
in which the valve is required. Combined cycle projects usually have the valve located out
on the main pipe rack near the steam turbine or on the HRSG pipe rack, while on a coal
project the valve will typically be located in the turbine hall on the final steam pipe run
perpendicular to the steam turbine. Since the steam conditioning valve discharge is a
larger line size than the originating header much consideration is required to layout these
large pipes without obstructing access or blocking main pipe runs.
 It is standard practice to locate bypass valves so that the piping upstream of the valve
slopes away from and drains away from the valve back to the source header’s drip
pocket drain.
 It is standard practice to locate bypass valves so that the piping downstream of the valve
slopes away from and drains away from the valve to the condenser. The pocketing of the
piping downstream of the valve requires special considerations and should be avoided –
if a pocket is required the Design Engineer and condenser manufacturer must be
 Orientation of the steam conditioning valves is often driven by the plant layout and
available plant space and platforming. Most manufacturers will allow the operator to be
placed in any position except for the operator in the down position. Refer to Figure
3.6.5A. Always provide the manufacturer the orientation of the valve for their application
Pa – upstream valve inlet straight pipe-run
Pb – downstream valve outlet straight pipe-run
Ia - straight pipe-run requirements for PI location
Ib - straight pipe-run requirements for PT location
Ic - straight pipe-run requirements for TE location






 The orientation of this type of valve requires careful consideration due to the typically 90°
inlet/outlet configuration. The operator is generally very large in size and requires
adequate space to access the operator and maintenance space to pull the operator and
valve stem.
 Upstream and downstream straight pipe-run recommendations vary per the system
application and the manufacturer. Refer to Figure 3.6.5B. The upstream straight run is
required to reduce non-uniform flow pattern as it enters the valve. Downstream straight
run is required to allow the desuperheating injection water droplets, usually condensate
or feedwater, to evaporate prior to hitting the pipe wall and fittings causing erosion. A
general guideline to use is:
o 5 pipe diameters upstream are required based on 1 pipe bend upstream of the
pipe-run prior to the valve. Additional pipe bends require additional straight pipe-
o Downstream straight run requirements varies considerably depending on several
design conditions – velocity and temperature of the superheat steam,
temperature of the desuperheating water, and in some cases water to steam
ratio. In short, each application requires input from the manufacturer which may
range from 10-30 pipe diameters of straight pipe-run.
 When alloy pipe is required upstream of the steam conditioning valve, it is as a general
rule required downstream of the valve outlet. This straight run of alloy pipe is required to
allow the superheating steam drops in temperature as the injection water mixes with the
steam. In short, each application requires input from the manufacturer, which may range
from 5-10 or more pipe diameters of straight pipe-run.
 The temperature element (TE) located downstream of the steam conditioning valve outlet
will vary for the downstream straight pipe-run requirements based on the time it takes the
desuperheating water and steam to mix to provide an accurate temperature reading, The
straight pipe-run distance may vary from 39-100 (11.75-30.5m) feet depending on the
system design conditions. Always consult the engineer and valve manufacturer for
 The location of the pressure transmitter (PT) downstream of the valve discharge will vary
per manufacturer and system application, but a general rule of thumb is 5 pipe diameters
of straight pipe-run downstream of the valve discharge.
3.6.6 Butterfly Valves
 Many butterfly valves are rubber-lined and/or faced so either a flat-faced or raised-faced
flange (preferred by B&V) may be used. Neither flange requires a gasket when the valve
is rubber-faced.
 As a general rule locate butterfly valves a minimum of 6 pipe diameters from fittings,
valves and pumps to avoid turbulent flow that may lead to undue wear of the valve.
Consult the Engineer and/or manufacturer when 6 pipe diameters is not practical.
 Be aware of the clearance requirements of the internal disc on a butterfly valve with up
and downstream components when the valve is in the open position. Two good examples
are the pipe schedule has a wall thickness that impedes the disc from opening and
closing and locating a thermowell too close to the valve, resulting in an interference
between the valve disc and the thermowell that extends inside the pipe.
 It is recommended to orientate the valve stem in the vertical position.
 In certain applications, for example slurries, horizontal positioning is preferred or required
– provide manufacturer this information as required so that they provide the proper valve.
 Butterfly valves should not be installed with the operator in the down position which does
not allow the disc to seat properly.
 Refer to the Standard EEC-Std-3-03113-01208, Standard for Large Diameter Butterfly
Valves for installation and design requirements of large butterfly valves.
 Always consult the vendor for specific installation/orientation procedures that may conflict
with the B&V Standard. Provide layout data to the vendor for recommendations when
questions arise. Large Diameter Butterfly Valves

This section applies to butterfly valves 24” (600mm) and larger. Refer to the Standard EEC-Std-3-
03113-01208, Standard for Large Diameter Butterfly Valves for installation and design
requirements of large butterfly valves. Location
 The location of a butterfly valve in relation to a pump or fitting, such as a tee or elbow,
can affect the performance of the valve and/or pump. Manufacturers normally
recommended a distance of 6 to 10 pipe diameters, which is not always practical on large
diameter piping due to building and/or pump structure space limitations. The distance
from the valve to the nearest pump or fitting may be decreased to 2 to 3 pipe diameters
downstream and 1 to 2 pipe diameters upstream for pipeline velocities with values of 10
fps (3 m/s) or less. This is to be discussed with the System Engineer who may need to
obtain approval from the vendor. Orientation of Shaft

 The orientation of the shaft with respect to pumps and fittings affects the pressure drop
across the valve, torque required of the operator, and stability of the disk in the open
 Butterfly valves located on the outlet of an elbow or immediately after a reducer on the
discharge of a pump will be subjected to an uneven flow pattern. An eccentric type disc
on the valve assists in reducing chattering in the valve.
 Locating a butterfly valve on the inlet of the elbow generally requires an eccentric type
disc on the valve to assist in reducing chattering in the valve.
 Butterfly valves located near suction connections of double suction horizontal pumps
should be oriented with the shaft parallel to the pump shaft to provide hydraulic symmetry
to both sides of the impeller.
 Butterfly valves should be installed with the shaft in the horizontal position on surface
water systems that contain silt and sand that can settle in the bottom of the pipe and
valve. This position keeps the shaft bearing away from the sediment area minimizing
 Some manufacturers recommend orienting the shaft vertical on the discharge of large
vertical circulating water pumps to reduce disk flutter and opening torque caused from the
position and location in relation to the pump discharge. Always provide the manufacturer
with a layout of the piping arrangement for their recommendations.
 All of the above factors must be taken into consideration when determining the shaft
orientation of each valve. Generally, the valve shafts should be installed horizontally for
all applications since the bearing wear factor will normally outweigh all other
considerations. The valve shafts should not be oriented vertically unless there are
specific overriding reasons to do so.
 The valve shaft orientation must be reflected in the line list to ensure proper
communication of orientation to the manufacturer. Tight piping configurations should be
provided to the manufacturer for design considerations. Direction of Shaft Rotation

The actuators for butterfly valves installed in horizontal runs of pipe should be designed to rotate
the bottom half of the disk in the direction of flow when opening. The bottom half of the disk
should rotate toward the pump if located in the pump suction and away from the pump if located
in the pump discharge.

3.6.7 Safety Relief Valves

 The location of safety relief valves in relation to up and downstream fittings is extremely
important. As a general rule SRV’s should be located away from main access aisles and
platforms to avoid damaging other plant components and a hazard to personnel.
Specifics for locating SRV’s can be found in EEC-Std-3-03113-01201, Standard for Safety
Valve and Vent Stack Design. This Standard provides reference details and DM drawings
that can be used in specifications and pipe fabrication/installation drawings. Several key
points from the Standard are as follows:
o On headers and other lines, safety valves should be installed on the center line in
a horizontal run at least 8 to 10 diameters downstream from any bend or other
flow disturbing device; if flow direction is changed from vertical to horizontal, 10
to 12 diameters should be used.
o Safety valves should not be installed any closer than 8 to 10 diameters either
upstream or downstream from a Y fitting
o Multiple safety valves shall be spaced such that the edges of adjacent welds are
no closer than one pipe diameter. Generally the driving factors for spacing SRV’s
are the physical (valve, valve bonnet, drip pan, vent stack O.D.), operational, and
maintenance requirements.
o Valves should have the discharge over the center line of the header or line. If it is
not possible to line up multiple discharges with the center line, the valves should
be oriented with discharges 180 degrees from each other to avoid a twisting
couple on the line.
o The power operated safety valve on the superheater outlet should be the last
valve on the superheater outlet header, i.e., downstream from the other safety

 Energy Standard EEC-Std-3-03113-02109, Standard for Safety Relief Valve Discharge

Stress Analysis requires that the branch connection off the main header for the SRV be a
Safety Relief Valve Vesselet® as manufactured by WFI International, Inc. or an
acceptable equal. A Vesselet® is designed to control flow-induced vibration and possible
fatigue problems that may be seen if a standard olet branch is used.
 The design of the safety relief valve vent stacks is extremely important. Specifics for
locating SRV vent stacks can be found in Standard EEC-Std-3-03113-01201, Standard for
Safety Valve and Vent Stack Design. This Standard provides reference details and DM
drawings that can be used in specifications and pipe fabrication/installation drawings, in
addition the Standard defines the differences between an open and closed stack. Several
key points from the Standard are including in the following:
Open Vent Stack -
o Vent stacks should be short and straight as possible. If an offset is required it
should be located a minimum of 8-10 pipe diameters downstream of the stack
entrance, and the offset should be limited to 45° or less.
o Vent stack outlets should be plain end and not beveled to reduce undue forces at
the exit end of the stack. B&V discourages the use of beveled vent pipe outlets
and requires specific stress analysis to be performed if required.
o The outlet of the vent stack must me above the arms reach of personnel and
located to prevent a hazard to personnel. As a general rule the outlet should be
no less than 8’-0” (2.45m) above the access floor/platform.
o The manifolding of several SRV discharges should be avoided. Only in specific
cases can low capacity valves share a stack.
o The discharge pipe off of the SRV should be centered in the vent stack in hot
position. This requires using the thermal movements associated with the SRV to
determine the movements of the SRV discharge pipe in relation to the vent stack
opening. The SRV discharge pipe must fit within the I.D. of the vent stack taking
into consideration the thermal movements from the cold to the hot positions.
o The thermal movements of the SRV discharge pipe may require an increase in
the size of the vent stack to accommodate the thermal movements and maintain
proper clearance between the two pipes.
o Similar considerations are required with the vent stack drip pan located on the
SRV discharge pipe as are required in the above comment.

Closed Vent Stack – mainly used to protect pressure vessels (FW Heaters, deaerator
heaters, boiler drums as a few examples).
o Equipment vents may be vented to a common open vent stack in certain cases
such as with vents off of FW heaters.
o Closed stacks should be used in extremely long runs and where the failure of an
open stack would be hazardous to operating personnel.
o Closed vent stacks should use a vent connector (Drawings 81113-DM-0116 (dwg
or pdf) and 81113-DM-0117 (dwg or pdf)) between the safety valve and the vent
o In the case that the equipment vent is close in proximity to the common vent
stack, it may be necessary to use a vent seal that can accommodate the thermal
movements or provide a routing that accounts for the thermal movements.
 Relief valves that discharge water 250° F and below may be piped to discharge in a drain
funnel. The pipe routing should be direct and as short as possible. A baffle at the drain
funnel may be required to keep hot water from splashing out of the drain funnel.

3.7 Instruments
 Use care in selecting locations for flow elements and pressure instrument taps to assure
that adequate headroom is available to route the instrument piping properly.
 Careful consideration is required when locating instrument connections so that shutoff
valves can be operated and maintenance can be performed including removal of
 Avoid locating connections on column rows where pipe supports are likely to be placed.
 Locate sample connections on the top or side of horizontal piping.
 Locate connections as close as possible to its destination or sources as possible.
 Locating instruments in vertical piping for any of three following types of connections
listed below allows total circumference usage, which supports accurate instrumentation
 Pressure taps shall be located upstream of temperature taps.
 Space shall be provided adjacent to all taps for instrument installation and removal
(typically a 6” (150mm) diameter cylinder ½ the pipe diameter plus 8” (200mm) in length).

3.7.1 Pressure Connections

 Socket Weld connections (sockolets) shall be used for pressure devices.
 Pressure connections shall be located upstream of thermowell connections
 Connections in tees or elbows are prohibited. In the case that no other options are
available consult with the Mechanical System Engineer and/or the Control Engineer to
discuss suitable options.
 Pressure taps shall be located on the top or within 45 degrees either side on horizontal
fuel gas or air piping.
 Pressure taps shall be located on the side of liquid filled piping or 45 degrees below
horizontal as a second choice.
 Pressure taps shall be located on the side of horizontal steam and water piping or 45
degrees below horizontal as a second choice.
 Taps for measuring differential pressure across strainers should be at the same elevation
 Pressure connections for instrumentation taps shall follow the orientation guidelines as
shown below in Figure 3.7.1A.


3.7.2 Temperature Connections

 The location of TEs (temperature elements) located downstream of a desuperheater is
critical to the accuracy of the data reported by the TE. Most desuperheater manufacturers
do have a recommended distance, which may include 1 or 2 change of directions,
downstream to get the proper mixing of the spray water with the steam resulting in a
more accurate temperature reading. Always consult with the System Engineer and/or the
manufacturer for requirements.
 All thermowells at the discharge of equipment shall be located a minimum of one pipe
elbow fitting downstream of the equipment outlet.
 Thermowells located in the same plane along the axis of the pipeline should be installed
a minimum distance of 12” (300mm) or one pipe diameter apart (whichever is greater).
Thermowells which must be spaced at a distance less than this minimum shall be offset a
minimum of 45 degrees radially about the centerline of the pipe.
 Temperature connections in horizontal gas, air, steam, water, and liquid piping shall be
located on top or side.
 Temperature detectors and test wells shall be located for accessibility. The removal of
grating for instrument removal and installation shall be acceptable only when all
alternated locations would result in a compromise in performance.
 Temperature indicators shall be located not higher than 10’-0” (3.05m) above the floor to
allow for convenient viewing.
 Removal criteria for temperature elements shall follow the general guidelines as set forth
in the Standard Energy-Std-3-03114-03331 Standard for Piping Temperature Element
Wells. As a general rule the removal space may range from 6” (150mm) to 12” (300mm)
depending on the system and design requirements. Always refer to the Control Engineer
for actual temperature element lengths.
 Thermowells for all systems except for Main Steam, Hot Reheat Steam, and Cold Reheat
Steam shall have threaded connections. Refer to the Standard Energy-Std-3-03114-
03331 Standard for Piping Temperature Element Wells. This is to allow removal of the
wells prior to line flushing and/or steam blow if required.

Temperature connections shall follow the orientation guidelines as shown below in Figure 3.7.2A.


 Threaded connections (threadolets) shall be used for temperature measuring devices.

 Installation of threaded thermowells in pipe 2” (50mm) and smaller requires special
consideration. Because the lines are small, the thermowells may restrict the flow in the
line. An enlarged pipe section can be used to allow sufficient flow area and thermowell
mounting in these situations. B&V standard practice is to install a short run of 4” (100mm)
pipe with the smaller line as shown in Figure 3.7.2B. The thermowell is mounted in the
large section. This method is the preferred technique for installing thermowells in small
process lines.

As an alternate, the parallel mounting method does not require a larger section of pipe, and
allows freedom to select sufficient insertion length and still place the sensitive area in the center
of the pipe. However, it typically requires more specialized fittings and careful attention by the
Pipe Designer, and coordination since the proper installation requirements cannot be easily
identified on P&ID drawings. The design also must be reviewed to ensure the thermowell
penetration does not cause unnecessary flow restriction in the pipe. The parallel mounting
arrangement can consist of an elbow with an "Elbolet" (or similar fitting) or the use of a tee. Refer
to Standard Energy-Std-3-03114-03331 Standard for Piping Temperature Element Wells for
additional guidance.
3.7.3 Flow Measurement Connections
 Socket Weld connections (sockolets) shall be used for flow measuring devices.
 All flow elements shall be located in straight sections of piping with adequate straight run,
generally 20 pipe diameters upstream and 5 pipe diameters downstream. Consult with
the responsible Control Engineer and the manufacturer requirements.
 There must not be any valves, pressure connections, or thermowells in these straight
pipe sections, either upstream or downstream.
 Placement of flow elements in horizontal pipe runs is preferred.
 Taps for horizontal steam, water, or liquid filled piping shall be located on the side or 45
degrees below horizontal as a second choice.
 Taps for horizontal gas and air piping shall be located on the top or within 45 degrees
either side.

Flow device connections for instrumentation taps shall follow the orientation guidelines as shown
below in Figure 3.7.3A.

3.7.4. Instrument Bridle Connections

 Level instruments must be arranged and located for easy access during maintenance.

3.8 Piping to Equipment Interfaces

3.8.1 Pumps
Pumps present several unique piping, fitting, and valve layout requirements depending on the
type of pump and the system application. This section will provide good engineering practices in
laying out piping around pumps that will avoid pump problems during operation.
The following are some basic definitions of terminology associated with pumps for the Pipe
Designer’s reference.
o Centrifugal Pump – Is the typical type of pump used in power plants, and within
this group there are several variations of design that are described below. A
centrifugal pump has two main parts – the rotating element, that includes an
impeller and a shaft, and the stationary element consisting of the casing, stuffing
box, and bearings.
o NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) – The Hydraulic Institute defines NPSH as the
total suction head in feet absolute, determined at the suction nozzle and
corrected to datum, less the vapor pressure of the liquid in feet absolute. In
simpler terms, it is an analysis of energy conditions on the suction side of a pump
to determine if the liquid will vaporize at the lowest pressure point in the pump.
All pumps require a positive NPSH to operate correctly or cavitation may occur in
the pump.
o Cavitation – a term used to describe the phenomenon which occurs in a pump
when there is insufficient NPSH available. The pressure of the liquid is reduced
to a value equal to or below its vapor pressure, and small vapor bubbles or
pockets begin to form. As these vapor bubbles move along the impeller vanes to
a higher pressure area, they rapidly collapse. The collapse or implosion is so
rapid that it may be heard as a rumbling noise, as if you were pumping gravel.
Cavitation may result in damage to the impeller, leading to vibration and
mechanical failure such as bearing failure.
o Suction lift - when the pump is physically located above the water source supply
o Hydraulic Institute (HI) - has a leading role in the development of pump standards
in North America and worldwide. HI standards are developed within guidelines
established by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
 Foremost it is very important to be aware that vendor recommendations vary on the
subject of piping and valve arrangements around the pump. Always consult the vendor
for layout specifics and request written documentation to be submitted with the shop
drawings. If these requirements are not reasonable to be met then we must submit B&V’s
layout for the pump manufacturer’s written approval.
 Suction piping should be short in length, straight as possible, and not smaller in diameter
than the pump suction opening. Most pump manufacturers have a minimum of 5 pipe
diameters between the inlet elbow and the pump connection. Always consult the
manufacturer’s recommendations for specific straight pipe-run requirements.
 Avoid locating elbows and tees adjacent to the pump suction nozzle where uneven flow
patterns or vapor separation may occur. The uneven flow distribution across the impellers
may lead to pump cavitation, vibration, and excessive shaft deflection.
 Always use a long radius elbow upstream of pump suction.
 On pump locations that involve suction lift the suction pipe at the pump must be exactly
horizontal or have a uniform slope upward (1% or more) toward the pump suction nozzle.
Always use an eccentric reducer (flat on top) in this arrangement to avoid high spots in
the piping that can form air pockets.
 Avoid several bends (elbows) in pumps that involve suction lift. If the arrangement
dictates several offsets a flow straightener may be required between the last offset and
the pump suction nozzle.
 The depth of the suction pipe for pumps that involve suction lift is critical to the operation
of the pump. A suction line inlet that is too close to the surface may draw the vortex core,
which is filled with air, into the pump suction leading to cavitation of the pump. This vortex
core is similar to the water action you see in a bathtub drain. Refer to the HI
recommendations for submergence level of the suction pipe inlet.
 A reducer or increaser (as required) should separate the valve and the pump connection
in addition to required straight pipe-run.
 As a general rule the reducer reduction size upstream of the pump suction nozzle should
be only one-size, or at the most two sizes, larger than the pump nozzle. If the diameter
difference is larger a straight pipe-run may be required to avoid the flow pattern being
deflected toward one side of the impeller eye due to the drastic angle of the reducer.
 Eccentric reducers installed with the straight side on top should be used as pump suction
reducers except for horizontal circulating water pumps that take suction from a basin.
 Increasers located at the pump discharge should be of the concentric type with an angle
not exceeding 10 degrees.
 A good engineering design is to use an eccentric reducer, flat on top, on the suction side
of centrifugal pumps. The use of an eccentric reducer in this position prevents air pockets
from forming upstream of the pump suction. Concentric reducers located at the pump
suction could result in an air pocket forming and then being swept into the pump suction
cavity causing possible pump cavitation as the air pocket hits the pump impellers.
 Always install the suction side isolation valve where no air pockets can be formed.
 Install gate valves with stems horizontal, if at all possible, to avoid air pockets forming at
the upstream side of the valve wedge. End Suction/Top Discharge Pumps
 This is a centrifugal pump with the suction located on the front-end of the pump and the
discharge on the top of the pump.
 When several pumps are in parallel in a system sharing a common supply header a
separate isolation valve will be required for each pump suction line.
 The suction side requires straight pipe-run upstream of the suction nozzle and usually an
eccentric reducer (flat on top). Follow manufacturer’s recommendations for downstream
pipe diameters.
 In cases where an expansion joint is required it is to be located directly on the nozzle.
 The discharge pipe usually requires a concentric reducer located as close to the nozzle
following only the flange and expansion joint (if required).
 Maintain a straight pipe run downstream of the discharge nozzle as required by the pipe
 Refer to the Valve Section 3.6.2 and Figure 3.6.2A for the location of check valves on the
discharge side of this type of pump.
 Refer to Figure


Centrifugal End-Suction Pump Centrifugal Horizontal
Split Casing Pump Horizontal Split Casing Pumps

 This is a centrifugal pump with the suction located one side of the pump and the
discharge on the other side of the pump.
 This type of pump requires more floor space to accommodate the suction and discharge
pipe since both run perpendicular to the pump centerline near the floor.
 Refer to Figure
 The Hydraulic Institute (HI) specifically recommends that horizontal elbows not be used
on the suction end of horizontal split-cased pumps. It is recommended to enter the pump
with the elbow perpendicular, not parallel, to the pump shaft. Horizontal elbows placed
immediately upstream of the pump suction connection may result in major flow imbalance
on the pump impellers leading to cavitation of the pump. This imbalance will lead to noisy
operation, reduced bearing life and eventually serious pump problems. The following
should be applied to the suction-end piping-
o The suction piping, with the elbow in the vertical, should enter the pump from
above or below the horizontal centerline of the pump, if not then see next bullet.
o Use the pump manufacturer’s requirements for straight pipe-run upstream of
pump suction connection if entering the pump horizontally. Manufacturers vary in
their requirement, which may range from 2-10 pipe diameters of straight pipe-run,
if not then see next bullet.
o Use straightening vanes on the inlet piping. These are specialty components that
require the System Engineer to specify and procure. Barrel and Segmented Ring Pumps

Barrel Pumps
 Generally used on large coal plants for the feedwater system.
 This is a centrifugal pump with the suction and discharge nozzles located on the same
side, which can be either the top or bottom of the pump.
 Generally are much larger in physical size requiring special attention in addressing
access/maintenance space requirements.
 Requires an adjacent pull space for the pump rotor.
 Requires an overhead crane or monorail for maintenance purposes.
 Refer to Figure
Segmented Ring Pumps
 Generally used on combined cycle plants for the feedwater system.
 Connections are usually located on the top of the pump, but the discharge and/or recirc
nozzles may be located on the side of the pump.
 Refer to Figure


Centrifugal Barrel Pump Centrifugal Segmented Ring
Pump Vertical Pumps

 This is a centrifugal pump with the suction and discharge nozzles located in varying
positions depending on the system application. Most circulating water pumps are vertical
pumps with the suction (a long belled inlet) submerged below the supply water surface in
a pump intake structure. The discharge is located in the horizontal above the inlet bell,
typically above grade. Vertical pumps used for condensate systems are typically
arranged with the suction nozzle below the discharge nozzle located on opposite sides of
the pump. The suction flows into a long vertical enclosed can (the can is placed in a dry
concrete pit) that serves as a tank for the pump impeller to pull from.
 In a multiple pump pit (wet) arrangement the location of the pump in relation to the
surrounding walls is crucial to the performance of the pump. Always consult the pump
manufacturer for specific arrangement criteria, but the Hydraulic Institute (HI) may be
used as a preliminary basis for design for the intake structure and pump location. The
following are several general layout recommendations:
o Locate the pump near the back wall. This is especially important for pumps over
3000 GPM.
o Use HI recommendations for upstream straight flow to the pump to avoid
subjecting rapid changes in direction of the flow pattern near the pump suction
o Design the pump intake structure/cell to maintain a water velocity of
approximately 1 foot per second to avoid air being drawn into the pump.
o In the case of multiple pump arrangements special precautions are required
when 2 pumps are installed in the same intake with one pump upstream of the
other. This arrangement will operate satisfactorily only if the appropriate distance
between the pump suctions is met to ensure that each pump will receive its
proportional supply. Consult HI and pump manufacturer’s requirements in this
 Refer to the Valve Section for recommendations on locating the butterfly valve on the
discharge of vertical wet pit pumps.
 Locate expansion joints (if required) directly on the discharge nozzle. However, the
Designer must verify that the expansion control rod lugs, which extend beyond the pump
flange, do not interfere with any part of the pump.
 For vertical pumps as in the case of condensate pumps:
o Keep the suction pipe configuration as simple as possible avoid more than one
change of direction- keep the routing as direct as possible using a minimum of
o Locate the strainer in a location where it can readily be accessed especially
during start-up when the strainer basket is pulled often.
o Locate the strainer with overhead structure that allows the strainer basket to be
removed using a pulley or whatever method to lift the basket for cleaning.
o Extend the suction side isolation valve operator above the suction pit to allow for
operator access.
 Check with the manufacturer’s recommendation when locating the check valve on the
discharge of a dry pit vertical pump such as a condensate pump.
 Refer to Figure

Discharge Nozzle

Belled Inlet Inlet Nozzle

Vertical Mixed Flow Pump Vertical Can Pump

Typical Circ Water Pump Typical Condensate Pump

Centrifugal Vertical Pump
For layout purposes the following list provides typical power plant pump applications for various systems:

Application Pumped Fluid Typical Pump Type

Circulating Water Surface Water -Seawater, river/lake water Mixed flow vertical or HSCP
Auxiliary Cooling Water Surface Water -Seawater, river/lake water Mixed flow vertical or HSCP
Screen Wash Surface Water -Seawater, river/lake water Turbine type, vertical, multistage
Condensate Condensate/feedwater Centrifugal-TT, vertical, multistage, can type
Boiler Feed Condensate/feedwater Centrifugal-horizontal, diffuser or volute type,
double can barrel, multi-stage ring-section
Boiler Feed Booster Condensate/feedwater Centrifugal-horizontal, diffuser or volute type,
double can barrel
Heater Drains Condensate/feedwater Centrifugal-CMVSP
Bearing Injection Water Condensate/feedwater Centrifugal-HSCP or FMESP
Air Pre-heater Water Condensate/feedwater Centrifugal-CMVSP
Condensate Make-up Demineralized Centrifugal-FMESP or HSCP
Demineralized water Demineralized Centrifugal-FMESP or HSCP
Fuel Oil Unloading Fuel oil distillate Centrifugal-FMESP or HSCP or
positive displacement (rotary)
Fuel Oil Transfer/Forwarding Fuel oil distillate Centrifugal-HSCP or FMESP or
positive displacement (rotary)
Fuel Oil Supply Fuel oil distillate Centrifugal-HSCP or FMESP or
positive displacement (rotary)
Firewater Service/Firewater Centrifugal-HSCP or TT, vertical, multistage
Firewater Booster Service/Firewater Centrifugal-HSCP, FMESP or TT, vertical,
Firewater Jockey Service/Firewater Centrifugal-HSCP, FMESP or TT, vertical,
Service Water Service water Centrifugal-HSCP or FMESP
Closed Cycle Cooling Water Treated condensate Centrifugal-HSCP
Chilled Water Treated condensate Centrifugal-CCMP
Hot Water Heating Condensate Centrifugal-CMVSP
Well Water Well water Centrifugal-TT, vertical, multistage, deep-well type
Ash Transfer Ash/water slurry Centrifugal-single stage/suction, volute,
vertically split
Ash Sludge Ash/water slurry Centrifugal-single stage/suction, volute,
vertically split
Scrubber Spray Limestone/water slurry Centrifugal-single stage/suction, volute,
vertically split
Ammonia Feed Ammonia solution Positive displacement, diaphragm
Caustic Feed Concentrated sodium hydroxide Positive displacement, diaphragm
Acid Feed Sulfuric or hydrochloric acid Centrifugal, vertical (sulfuric acid), positive
displacement, diaphragm (hydrochloric acid)
Hydrazine Hydrazine solutions Positive displacement, diaphragm
Phosphate Phosphate solutions Positive displacement, diaphragm
Demineralizer Demineralized water Centrifugal-FMESP or HSCP
Regeneration Water Demineralized water Centrifugal-FMESP or HSCP

Abbreviations: HSCP = horizontal split-cased pump, FMESP = frame-mounted end suction pump
CCMP = close-coupled motor pump, CMVSP = centerline mounted vertically split pump, TT = turbine type
3.8.2 Tanks

 Use flanged valve at tank nozzle with Expansion / BARCO joints outside of isolation
valve. Verify welded attachments required on tank for supports before coating or painting
the tank.
 Use care in placing expansion joints adjacent to a flanged valve because the control rod
lugs extend beyond the flanges and may interfere with the valve body.

3.8.3 General


3.9 Pipe Support


3.10 Pipe Penetrations

The following are recommendations for sizing and specifying pipe penetrations details
that are based on interpretation of OHSA Regulations:
 When piping passes through a wall or a floor (concrete, suspended slab or grating) a
piping penetration shall be identified and reported to the Civil/Structural (C/S)
department. The size, location, type of penetration and format of the information shall be
coordinated with the C/S department.
 The standard for cold system pipes that penetrate a concrete or grating floor must allow a
clearance of 1.5”-2.0” (40-50mm) between the edge of the floor opening and the outside
edge of the pipe (including insulation), to allow for construction tolerances. For pipes with
1” (25mm) or less thermal movement, the penetration will be sized to allow no more than
3” (80mm) clearance between the outside edge of the pipe (including insulation) and the
floor opening. All openings will require a 4” (100mm) high kickplate (toeboard) to prevent
a person from stepping into or an object dropping from the floor surface into the opening.
 In the case that several pipes with less than 1” (25mm) of movement are located adjacent
to one another, a common opening with a 4” (100mm) high kickplate may be used. If the
space between the outside edges of the pipes exceeds 3” (80mm) a coverplate will be
required to prevent a person from steeping into the open space around the pipe. In some
situations the number and/or size of the adjacent pipe may warrant providing an open
pipe chase, with handrail and kickplate, which needs to be coordinated between the
mechanical and structural disciplines.
 For pipes with more than 1” (25mm) of thermal movement the penetrations shall be sized
for 3”-6” (80-150mm) of clearance from the edge of the pipe (including insulation) to the
inside edge of the floor opening, allowing for all thermal movement positions the pipe
may occupy. This type of penetration will require a coverplate. In the case the opening
becomes so large or a coverplate is not feasible the mechanical and structural discipline
will work together to identify an appropriately sized open chase with handrail and
 Consideration must be given to locating multiple pipe and cable tray open chases during
the planning stages of the plant design. The planning of open chases is very important for
plant design that requires long vertical runs of pipe, as in the case of the auxiliary heater
bays on a coal plant.
 Handrail Clearances - Piping, pipe supports, valves, and equipment pull spaces that
require alterations to handrail must be coordinated with the structural discipline.
Handrailing is often installed prior to the mechanical components listed above and too
often must be cut and reconfigured to accommodate these same components at a much
higher cost than if done in the fabrication shop. It is the responsibility of the Designer to
notify the structural discipline of any modifications to the handrail due to the necessity of
a mechanical component occupying the same space. Thermal movement of pipes must
be taken into consideration to allow the structural engineer to design the handrail to
accommodate this movement.

3.11 Pipe Fabrication Considerations

 Field welds shall be located to minimize the number of spools, meet shipping restraints
(typically 40’ x 8’ x 8’ [12.2m x 2.44m x 2.44m]) and to support field installation at
sleeves, penetrations, termination points and construction volume breaks.
 The Designer should always confirm the allowed shipping lengths from the fabrication
shop to the site. It is becoming common to allow up to 50’ (15.25m) lengths vs. the 40’
(12.2m) length restriction mentioned in the bullet above. Taking advantage of this longer
shipping length can provide a significant cost-savings.
 When locating pipe field welds always take into consideration that there is adequate
space to install the piping spool configuration. Refer to the following list when locating
field welds:
o Can the pipe spool fit through the penetration whether that be located in a wall,
concrete floor, or grating floor?
o Is there adequate space to physically move the spool into position – is there
steel, equipment, other piping in the way for example?
o Is there an adequate path to transfer the pipe into the erection area – is there
enough floor headroom space available, is vertical chase access large enough,
are there door size restrictions?
o Consider grouping field welds in an area where they can all be reached by the
same scaffolding. Scaffolding can run into the millions of dollars on a project and
planning the grouping of welds can be a huge cost-savings.
o Take into consideration that by locating field welds where the welder can use an
existing floor instead of having to scaffold up to a weld will result in a labor cost-
savings. An example of this is when extending pipe through a floor locate the
weld on the top of the floor instead of below the floor i.e., to a valve station.
 Fab Longs should be provided in 3 planes, north/south, east/west & elevation, at all
underground termination points. Fab Longs are extended sections of straight pipe
typically fabricated 6” (150mm) longer than designed to allow for field adjustments during
erection at termination points to underground piping and are necessary due to large
tolerances inherent to underground piping installations.

3.12 Constructibility
The following are some general and specific considerations in plant design that designers
need to be aware of.

 During the review of vendor drawings for pipe connections consider how the piece of
equipment will be assembled and set in place during construction. An example of this
would be the pipe connections that are welded onto the sidewalls of the condenser.
These connections may need to be identified as field weld after the condenser is set in
place to miss the turbine pedestals, as the condenser is usually erected outside then
slide in between the pedestal legs. The clearance between the condenser sidewalls and
the pedestal legs may be as little as 1.5” (40mm), which would not allow the pipe
connections that extend 3”-12” (80-300mm) beyond the face of the condenser wall to
clear the pedestal legs.
 Consider shipping flanges loose on systems as the circ water system, which usually are
large diameter lines that are interfacing with large equipment components (cooling tower,
condenser, tanks, and pumps) that have a tendency to have erection accuracy problems.
Shipping the flanges loose allows the field to manually do a fit-up of the flanged
connections before welding the loose flange in place. Always get your constructors input
on this before designating whether a flange is shipped loose. In the case of circ water
piping the field will normally have to repair the pipe interior coating that is damaged
during the welding of the loose flange.
4.0 Responsibilities and Authorities

Responsibilities for the piping process in accordance with this handbook are as follows:

Project Lead Designer is responsible for assigning routing assignments, developing pipe
routing/deliverables schedule, coordinating the engineering support for Released for Routing
Packages, and employing QA requirements to pipe routing deliverables.

System Engineer is responsible for performing the engineering design of the systems including
providing complete line lists, valve lists, equipment data, and P&IDs – all are to be included in the
“Released for Routing” package that is assembled by the system engineer.

Pipe Designer is responsible for performing the pipe routing and associated activities as defined
in this guideline.

Checker is responsible for performing an independent detailed check of all piping systems as
defined in this guideline.

5.0 References

EEC-Std-3-03113-01304, Standard for Minimum Distance Spacing for Welds

EEC-Std-3-03113-01208, Standard for Large Diameter Butterfly Valves

EEC-Std-3-03113-01201, Standard for Safety Valve and Vent Stack Design

Energy-Std-3-03114-03331 Standard for Piping Temperature Element Wells

EEC-Std-3-03113-02109, Standard for Safety Relief Valve Discharge Stress Analysis

Hydraulic Institute (HI) website accessible via Knowledge Central on B&V Intranet - IHS Search

Drawings 81113-DM-0116 and -0117 on Chief Engineer’s Website - Autocad Drawings

Victaulic Pressfit® website site

ASME Power Piping Code, ASME B31.1

ASTM Specification ASA 36.10