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Chapter 3: Bipolar Junction Transistors
Chapter 3:
Bipolar Junction Transistors

TransistorTransistor ConstructionConstruction

There are two types of transistors:

pnp

npn

pnppnp

The terminals are labeled:

E - Emitter

B - Base

C - Collector

npnnpn

• E - Emitter • B - Base • C - Collector npnnpn Electronic Devices and

TransistorTransistor OperationOperation

With the external sources, V EE and V CC , connected as shown:

The emitter-base junction is forward biased

The base-collector junction is reverse biased

biased • The base-collector junction is reverse biased Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Robert L.

CurrentsCurrents inin aa TransistorTransistor

Emitter current is the sum of the collector and base currents:

I

E

====

I

C

++++ I

B

The collector current is comprised of two currents:

I

C

=

I

C + I

majority

CO

minority

of two currents: I C = I C + I majority CO minority Electronic Devices and

CommonCommon--BaseBase ConfigurationConfiguration

CommonCommon--BaseBase ConfigurationConfiguration The base is common to both input (emitter–base) and output

The base is common to both input (emitter–base) and output (collector–base) of the transistor.

CommonCommon--BaseBase AmplifierAmplifier

InputInput CharacteristicsCharacteristics

This curve shows the relationship between of input current (I E ) to input voltage (V BE ) for three output voltage (V CB ) levels.

(V B E ) for three output voltage (V C B ) levels. Electronic Devices and

CommonCommon--BaseBase AmplifierAmplifier

OutputOutput CharacteristicsCharacteristics

This graph demonstrates

the output current (I C ) to

p various levels of input current (I E ).

an out ut volta e (V

) for

g

CB

of input current (I E ). an out ut volta e (V ) for g CB

OperatingOperating RegionsRegions

Active – Operating range of the amplifier.

Cutoff – The amplifier is basically off. There is voltage, but little

••

t

curren .

Saturation – The amplifier is full on. There is current, but little voltage.

ApproximationsApproximations

Emitter and collector currents:

Base-emitter voltage:

I

C

V BE

I

E

= 0.7 V (for Silicon)

AlphaAlpha (( ))

Alpha (αααα) is the ratio of I C to I E :

α

dc

=

I C

I E

Id

ll

= 1

y: In reality: is between 0.9 and 0.998

ea

Alpha (αααα) in the ACAC mode:mode

α ac =

I

C

I

E

TransistorTransistor AmplificationAmplification

TransistorTransistor AmplificationAmplification Currents and Voltages: I E = I i V i 200mV = R i

Currents and Voltages:

I

E

=

I

i

V i 200mV

=

R

i

=

20

= 10mA

I I

C

E

I = 10 mA

L

I

i

V

=

I

R

=

L L

(

10 ma

)(

5 k

)

=

50 V

Voltage Gain:

A

v

=

V

L

V

i

=

50V

200mV

= 250

CommonCommon––EmitterEmitter ConfigurationConfiguration

The emitter is common to both input (base-emitter) and output (collector- emitter).

The input is on the base and the output is on the collector.

The input is on the base and the output is on the collector. Electronic Devices and

CommonCommon--EmitterEmitter CharacteristicsCharacteristics

CommonCommon--EmitterEmitter CharacteristicsCharacteristics Collector Characteristics Base Characteristics Electronic

Collector Characteristics

CharacteristicsCharacteristics Collector Characteristics Base Characteristics Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory,

Base Characteristics

CommonCommon--EmitterEmitter AmplifierAmplifier CurrentsCurrents

IdealIdeal CurrentsCurrents

I E = I C + I B

I C = αααα I E

ActualActual CurrentsCurrents

I C = αααα I E + I CBO

where I CBO = minority collector current

I CBO is usually so small that it can be ignored, except in high power transistors and in high temperature environments.

When I B = 0 µµµµA the transistor is in cutoff, but there is some minority current flowing called I CEO .

I CEO

=

I CBO 1 − α
I
CBO
1 − α

I

B

=0µA

BetaBeta ((ββββββββ))

ββββ represents the amplification factor of a transistor. (ββββ is sometimes referred to as h fe , a term used in transistor modeling calculations)

In DC mode:

In AC mode:

β

β ac

=

I

C

dc I

B

=

∆ I C ∆ I B
I
C
I
B

V CE

= constant

Determining ββββ from a Graph

β AC

β

DC

(3.2mA −−−− 2.2mA) ==== (30µA −−−− 20 µA) 1mA ==== V ==== 7.5 10µA CE
(3.2mA
−−−−
2.2mA)
====
(30µA
−−−−
20 µA)
1mA
====
V
====
7.5
10µA
CE
==== 100

====

2.7 mA

25

A

µµµµ

==== 108

V

CE

====

7.5

BetaBeta ((ββββββββ))

==== 108 V CE ==== 7.5 BetaBeta (( ββββββββ )) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e

BetaBeta ((ββββββββ))

Relationship between amplification factors ββββ and αααα

α ====

β

β

++++

1

β ====

α

α

−−−−

1

Relationship Between Currents

I

C

====βI

B

I

E

==== (β ++++ 1)I

B

CommonCommon––CollectorCollector ConfigurationConfiguration

The input is on the base and the output is on the emitter.

The input is on the base and the output is on the emitter. Electronic Devices and

CommonCommon––CollectorCollector ConfigurationConfiguration

The characteristics are similar to those of the common-emitter configuration, except the vertical axis is I E .

configuration, except the vertical axis is I E . Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Robert

OperatingOperating LimitsLimits forfor EachEach ConfigurationConfiguration

V CE is at maximum and I C is at minimum (I Cmax = I CEO ) in the cutoff region.

I C is at maximum and V CE is at minimum (V CE max = V CEsat = V CEO ) in the saturation region.

The transistor operates in the active region between saturation and cutoff.

operates in the active region between saturation and cutoff. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Robert

PowerPower DissipationDissipation

Common-base:

P

Common-emitter:

Cmax

==== V

CB

I

C

P

Cmax

==== V

CE

I

Common-collector:

P

Cmax

==== V

CE

I

C

E

TransistorTransistor SpecificationSpecification SheetSheet

TransistorTransistor SpecificationSpecification SheetSheet Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Robert L. Boylestad

TransistorTransistor SpecificationSpecification SheetSheet

TransistorTransistor SpecificationSpecification SheetSheet Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Robert L. Boylestad
TransistorTransistor SpecificationSpecification SheetSheet Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Robert L. Boylestad

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky

2323

Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.

TransistorTransistor TestingTesting

••

••

••

CurveCurve TracerTracer Provides a graph of the characteristic curves.

DMMDMM Some DMMs measure

DC or h FE .

OhmmeterOhmmeter

Some DMMs measure D C or h F E . OhmmeterOhmmeter Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory,
Some DMMs measure D C or h F E . OhmmeterOhmmeter Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory,

TransistorTransistor TerminalTerminal IdentificationIdentification

TerminalTerminal IdentificationIdentification Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Robert L.