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22 Jun 2018

45. Draw a table that compares the biochemical and cell count findings in bacterial, viral and tuberculous meningitis

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3 Sep 2018

Rana Alateeq 3729288

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22 Jun 2018

46. What is polio and why is it no longer seen in Australia?

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s3604530

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3 Sep 2018

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22 Jun 2018

47. What is rabies? Describe how treatment attempts to save the life of someone bitten by a rabid animal.

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3 Sep 2018

Xuerui GUO 3705905

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What is rabies?

a deadly infectious encephalitis caused by Lyssavirus , a single-stranded RNA virus Lyssavirus, a single-stranded RNA virus

main cause of human infection: dog bitecaused by Lyssavirus , a single-stranded RNA virus Virus can be dormant for years, but once

Virus can be dormant for years, but once symptoms appear, the progression isRNA virus main cause of human infection: dog bite (1) irreversible (1) clinical symptoms: fever with

(1)

irreversible

(1)

clinical symptoms: fever with pain, discomfort of bite site, hydrophobiasymptoms appear, the progression is (1) irreversible (1) (2) Figure 1. Overview of rabies (3) Treatment:

(2)

fever with pain, discomfort of bite site, hydrophobia (2) Figure 1. Overview of rabies (3) Treatment:

Figure 1. Overview of rabies

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Treatment: Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)

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1. First-aid

Immediate extensive wash (>15 min) of bite siteTreatment: Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) (4) 1. First-aid Preferable with soap/ povidone-iodine/ detergent to kill

Preferable with soap/ povidone-iodine/ detergent to kill virus(4) 1. First-aid Immediate extensive wash (>15 min) of bite site 2. Human rabies immune globulin

2. Human rabies immune globulin (HRIG)

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Passive immunity against virusIgG Antibodies from immunized human donor’s serum Recommended dose : 20 IU/kg body weight (including

IgG Antibodies from immunized human donor’s serumPassive immunity against virus Recommended dose : 20 IU/kg body weight (including children) NOT given after

Recommended dose : 20 IU/kg body weight (including children)virus IgG Antibodies from immunized human donor’s serum NOT given after 7 days of first vaccine

NOT given after 7 days of first vaccine shot (may decrease immune response) given after 7 days of first vaccine shot (may decrease immune response)

Complications: pain and soreness at injection site7 days of first vaccine shot (may decrease immune response) Figure 2. HRIG injections sites (6)

response) Complications: pain and soreness at injection site Figure 2. HRIG injections sites (6) 3. Vaccine

Figure 2. HRIG injections sites

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3. Vaccine

Active immunity against virus, takes 7-10 dayssite Figure 2. HRIG injections sites (6) 3. Vaccine 2 available kinds in Australia: (7) (5)

2 available kinds in Australia:3. Vaccine Active immunity against virus, takes 7-10 days (7) (5) Human diploid cell rabies vaccine

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Human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV)

Purified chicken embryo cell vaccine (PCECV)

Complications: local pain and swelling, immune complex reactionsvaccine (HDCV) Purified chicken embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) Precautions: Patient with previous allergic reaction to eggs

Precautions: Patient with previous allergic reaction to eggs or egg proteins should receivechicken embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) Complications: local pain and swelling, immune complex reactions (5) HDCV (7)

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HDCV

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Figure 3. PEP Algorithm for possible exposure to lyssaviruses from an animal in a rabies-

Figure 3. PEP Algorithm for possible exposure to lyssaviruses from an animal in a rabies-

enzootic area

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References:

1.

CDC - The Rabies Virus - Rabies [Internet]. Cdc.gov. 2018 [cited 20 September 2018]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/transmission/virus.html

2. Rabies - Symptoms and causes [Internet]. Mayo Clinic. 2018 [cited 20 September 2018]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/rabies/symptoms-

causes/syc-20351821

4. Rabies [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2018 [cited 21 September 2018]. Available from: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/rabies

5. Hankins DG, Rosekrans JA. Overview, prevention, and treatment of rabies. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2004;79(5):671-6.

6. Prevention / Treatment | Maricopa County, AZ [Internet]. Maricopa.gov. 2018 [cited 21 September 2018]. Available from: https://www.maricopa.gov/2337/Prevention-Treatment

7. Rabies and other lyssaviruses | The Australian Immunisation Handbook [Internet]. The Australian Immunisation Handbook. 2018 [cited 21 September 2018]. Available from:

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22 Jun 2018

48. What agar plates are used to culture bacteria from meningitis? Which bacteria grow on these plates and what do they look like when they grow on these plates? A table and some pictures would be ideal?

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3 Sep 2018

Sami Alghamdi

S3620304

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