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Cellulose is not only the most abundant organic substance available, it is a major
component of woody plants and is constantly replaceable. Its conversion to paper
products is the function of the pulp and paper industries which manufacture
thousands of useful items from it.

Writing paper first
appeared between 2500
and 2000 B.C., made from
a tall reed called
papyrus which grows
along Nile river in Egypt.
Strips from the reed were
glued together with
starch. This sheet was
superior to calf and
goatskin parchments,
clay, bricks, waxed
boards, and other writing
materials available at
that time.
The Chinese invented good processes for paper manufactured from bamboo and
cotton about A.D. 105 and continue to make good paper by hand today.

Southern Europe learned of the process and began to manufacture rag paper near
the end of 14th century. English manufacturers became established in the 17th century,
and a paper mill was established in the United States in 1690. At this time all
European paper was made from cotton and linen rags. Book printing began with
Gutenberg’s Bible and greatly increased the demand of paper.
Paper demand increased with lower prices and through the advancing technology,
many mechanical processes for making pulp emerged.

Before paper can be made from wood, the cellulose must be freed from the matrix
of lignin which cements them together. The fibers may be separated by mechanical
procedures, or by solution of the lignin by various chemicals. The pulp thus formed
has its fibers recemented together to form a paper when suitable additives used.

All processes used for pulping have the same goal – to release the fibrous cellulose
from its surrounding lignin while keeping the hemicellulose and celluloses intact,
thereby increasing the yield of useful fibers. The fibers thus obtained are naturally
colored and must be bleached before they can be used for paper. Here again, the
goal is to obtain good color without degradation and loss of yield.
The major processes are: Kraft process, Groundwood and Thermomechanical
process, Semichemical process, and sulfite process.
Kraft, or sulfate pulping is an alkaline process by which most pulp is
presently made. It is a process for conversion of wood into wood pulp
consisting of almost pure cellulose fibers. It entails treatment of wood chips
with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, known as white liquor
that breaks the bonds that link lignin to the cellulose.
The processes are: Impregnation, Cooking, Recovery Process, Blowing,
Screening, Washing, Bleaching, & Process Chemicals
The sulfite process produces wood pulp which is almost pure cellulose fibers by using
various salts of sulfurous acid to extract the lignin from wood chips in large
pressure vessels called digesters. The salts used in the pulping process are
either sulfites (SO32−), or bisulfites (HSO3−), depending on the pH. The counter ion can
be sodium (Na+),calcium (Ca2+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+) or ammonium (NH4+).
The processes are: Pulping Liquor preparation, Pulping, Chemical recovery, Calcium
based, Ammonia based, Magnesium based, and Sodium based
For semi chemical pulping, wood preparation and chipping are essentially the same
as that for other wood-pulping processes. The chips are steeped and impregnated
with inorganic chemical solutions similar to those used for full chemical pulping,
but in smaller amounts and with less severe conditions. Probably the most common
is the solution of sodium sulfite in the neutral range, between acidity and alkalinity.
Other agents used in some cases are acid sulfite, caustic soda, and kraft cooking
Thermomechanical pulp is pulp produced by processing wood chips using heat (thus
"thermo-”and a mechanical refining movement (thus "-mechanical"). It is a two stage
process where the logs are first stripped of their bark and converted into small
chips. These chips have a moisture content of around 25–30 percent and a mechanical
force is applied to the wood chips in a crushing or grinding action which generates
heat and water vapour and softens the lignin thus separating the individual fibres.
The pulp is then screened and cleaned, any clumps of fibre are reprocessed. This
process gives a high yield of fibre from the timber (around 95 percent) and as the
lignin has not been removed, the fibres are hard and rigid.
Wet Process. The various pulps, even though frequently manufactured in coarse
sheets, still lacking those properties which are so desirable in a finished paper, such
as a proper surface, opacity, strength, and feel. Pulp stocked is prepared for
formation into paper by two general processes, beating anf refining. There is no
sharp distinction between these 2 operations. Mills use either one or the other alone
or both together. However, the beater is of decreasing importance with the the
increasing of refining. The operation of refining fits in well with the trend toward
automatic mills.
Dry Process. Considerable interest in a dry process for making paper and nonwoven
fabrics exists because of the cost and complexity of drying equipment and the
enormous process-water demands of conventional methods. Pilot plants have been
built to make paper by dry processes, but there are difficult problems as yet

Coated Papers. Specialty papers are often coated with wax or plastic materials to
impart special properties such as printability or resistance to fluids. Functional
coatings are especially important for food products. The principal types of
processes and equipment required for coatings are discussed in the Technical
Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Monographs.

Life is the Best School.

God is the Best Teacher.
Problem is the best assignment.
Failure is the best revision.”
God Bless! 