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SẢN XUẤT BỘT GIẤY BẰNG PHƯƠNG

PHÁP CƠ
ThS. Hoàng Minh Sơn
08/2018

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MỘT SỐ THUẬT NGỮ
- Chemical pulp: bột hóa
- Mechanical pulp: bột cơ
- Grinding processes: quá trình mài
- Stone groundwood (SGW): phương pháp mài
- Pressure groundwood (PGW): phương pháp mài áp suất
- Thermo groundwood (TGW): phương pháp mài nhiệt
- Refiner Mechanical Pulp (RMP): bột nghiền cơ
- Thermo Machenical Pulp (TMP ): bột cơ nhiệt
- Disintegration: phân hủy, tan rã, duỗi sợi
- Wood log: gỗ khúc
- Grinding Process: quá trình nghiền

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MECHANICAL PULPING

- Dùng cơ học để tách xơ sợi


- hiệu suất 80 – 95% từ gỗ
- giấy có định lượng thấp
- các tính chất cơ lý không bằng giấy được sản xuất từ bột hóa
- phạm vi sử dụng lớn: in báo, tạp chí, giấy vệ sinh, dán tường,
bao bì,
bao gói thực phẩm,…
- đòi hỏi nguyên liệu gỗ chất lượng cao
- tiêu tốn nhiều năng lượng điện
- tách lignin không hoàn toàn
- bề mặt không mịn như bột hóa
- hai phương pháp chủ yếu: mài, nghiền
- sử dụng phương pháp kết hợp: nhiệt cơ, hóa cơ,…
- xu hướng phát triển nhanh, chiếm 20 % sản xuất bột giấy
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CHEMICAL PULPING
- Bột hóa hay bột cellulose
- hòa tan hầu hết lignin và thành phần không phải cellulose
- hiệu suất thu hồi cellulose 45 – 55%
- sợi xenlulô có độ bền môi trường và cơ lý cao
- sử dụng cho giấy cao cấp nhưng phạm vi ứng dụng hẹp
hơn
- đắt hơn bột cơ
- phân loại bột giấy tùy thuộc vào dung dịch nấu gỗ :
• bột soda: NaOH
• bột sunfat (bột kraft): NaOH và Na2S
• bột sunfit: sunfit của kim loại (Ca, Mg, Na, NH4) kết hợp với
dung dịch SO2
• bột bán hóa: bột sunfit nấu trong môi trường êm dịu kết hợp cơ
học để tách sợi làm cho hiệu suất nấu có thể đạt 80%
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COMPARISON OF MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL PULPING

• Mechanical pulping
Fibres mechanically removed from wood matrix
• Mechanical pulping
Ligin holding fibres together is dissolved

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COMPARISON OF MECHANICAL AND
CHEMICAL PULPING

MECHANICAL PULP CHEMICAL PULP

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DEBARKING – DRUM DE-BARKER

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DEBARKING – RING DEBARKING

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3.1. MECHANICAL PULPING
• Mechanical pulping is the process by which fibers are
produced through mechanical methods:
• Grinding-Stone Groundwood (SGW)
• Logs (very occasionally chips) are pressed into a turning stone
thus releasing fibers.
• Refining-Refiner Pulp
• Chips are fed between 2 disks. One disk is always turning while
the other can be fixed or turning.
• Often heat or a chemical pretreatment is utilized.

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3.1. MECHANICAL PULPING
• Raw Material Quality
» Pulps cannot be brightened very much; therefore good quality
material must be used
- Chips used should be less than 2 weeks old (oxidation and
biological decay darken chips after this point).
- Low bark and dirt tolerance (color and machinery wear
issues).
• Species Dependence
» Different wood species work better in different processes.

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PROPERTIES OF MECHANICAL PULP
• Relatively cheap
• High yield of product (85-95%)
• Low capital costs relative to Kraft mill

• High opacity product


• Large amount of fines in product scatter light
• Allows printing on both sides of thin sheet

• Good printing surface


• Broad fiber size distribution gives smooth surface
• Good bulk

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PROPERTIES OF MECHANICAL PULP
• Relatively weak product
» Not strong enough to get through printing press
» Need to add chemical fibers to product
- Can use recycle fibers
• Limited brightness
» Bleached with lignin retaining bleaching agents
• Photoyellowing
» Formation of chromophores from lignin compounds through the
reaction with light and oxygen

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Ký hiệu
Tên tiếng Anh Đặc trưng
bột
Áp suất khí quyển, nhiệt độ nuớc tưới 70-75oC, hiệu suất
SGW Stone groundwood
98%.
PGW Pressure groundwood Áp suất 2,5 bar, nhiệt độ nuớc tưới > 100oC, hiệu suất 98%.
PGW-S Super pressure groundwood BÁp suất 2,5 bar, nhiệt độ nuớc tưới > 100oC, hiệu suất 98%.
Áp suất khí quyển, nhiệt độ nuớc tuới > 80oC, hiệu suất >
TGW Thermo groundwood
98,5%
Bột suấtnghiền 97%. đĩa sản xuất từ dăm ở áp suất khí quyển,
RMP Refiner mechanical pulp
hiệu
Pressure Refiner mechanical
PRMP Tuơng tự RMP có áp suất và nhiệt độ cao, hiệu suất 97 % .
pulp
TMP Thermomechanical pulp Áp suất 3,5 bar, nhiệt độ 140-155oC, hiệu suất 97%.
Gỗ được xử lý với hóa chất, hiệu suất 80-95%
Chemimechanical pulp
Dăm được xử lý sơ bộ với hóa chất rồi được nghiền ở áp
CMP (phương
suất cao hay áp suất khí quyển
pháp mài hoặc nghiền)
Hiệu suất < 90%.
Nghiền chấtđượcdăm thựchay hiệnbột ở ápthô suất đãkhí qua
CTMP Chemithermomechanical pulp
quyển, xử hiệu lý sơsuất bộ> 90 với %.
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3.2. STONEGROUND WOOD

• Pulp produced by
pressing logs against
rotating grindstone
• Unchanged for 15 years

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3.2. STONEGROUND WOOD
• Circuferential speed 30m/s
• Grinding pressure 250kPa
• Grits deform fibre-lignin
matric
• Repeated visco-elastic
deformation creates heat
increased heat wood
• Heat softens lignin that’s
found in between fibres and
the fibres

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3.2. STONEGROUND WOOD

• The surface of the stones are cut with patterns (burrs) using
a metal burr.
• Patterns are 1.6 mm deep.
• The stones must be sharpened every 50-150 hours.

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STONE SHARPENING

• Stones wear due to constant


high speed abrasion
• Ceramic stones
• Sharpening every 6 -14 days
• Sharpenss affects energy and
production

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STONEGROUND WOOD: MECHANISM

This is a poor reproduction of a drawing showing the action of


the stone on the surface of the wood.
Source: Handbook of Pulping and Papermaking
, Biermann, C, 1996, page 65 18
STONEGROUND WOOD: MECHANISM
• The burrs on the stone
alternately compress
and decompress the
fibers. This loosens the
fibers. Additionally, the
heat developed softens
the lignin in the middle
lamella which helps the
process.
• The application of heat
or chemical will also
soften the lignin and
improve this process.
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ACTION OF GRINDER

• Fibres are peeled back in


layers
• Grits pass over partially
removed fibres
• Develops surfaces and
flexibility of fibers … paper
strength
• Fibres are released
• Next layer peeled off

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OPERATING PARAMETERS

• Species and property of wood


• Amount of spray water
• Temperature of spray water
• Rate of wood feed
Pressure applied
Speed of grinder
Structure of stone

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PULP CONSTITUENTS

• Shives: fibre bundles 3%


• Long, intact fibres 20%
• Short, broken fibres 35%
• Fines 45%
Flour 30x30
Fibrils 30x1
Dust 1x1u

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PULP PROPERTIES

• Higher strength as more


energy applied
• CSF drops 150 – 50ml as
energy applied
• Brightest of unbleached
pulps up to 65 ISO

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CONTINUES GRINDER

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3.3. PRESSURE GROUND WOOD

• Higher pressure leads to higher temperatures


• Soften lignin, easier to detach whole fibres
• Stronger pulp

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3.4. REFINIER PULPING
• Refiner Mechanical Pulping
(RMP)
• Thermo-mechanical Pulping
(TMP)
• Chemi-mechanical Pulping
(CMP)
• Chemi-thermomechanical
Pulping (CTMP)
• The differences between
these systems are
discussed in the notes Small laboratory refiner
section and on the next
slide.
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3.4. REFINIER PULPING
Process Heating Temp Chemicals pH Pretreatment Pretreatment
Time (C) Time Temp
(min) (min) (C)
RMP NA NA NA NA NA NA

TMP 1-10 110-140 NA NA NA NA

CTMP 1-10 110-140 2-5% Na2SO3 9-12 2-5 120-130

CMP
- Cold NaOH NA NA NaOH Bath 12+ 120 30

- Sulfite 1-10 110-140 12-17% Na2SO3, 9-12 60 130-170


SCMP/BCMP 12-17% NaHSO3 6
ARTMP 1-10 110-140 0.65% DTPA, 12 3 - 30 Steamed
0.05% Mg2SO4, minute
3.1% NaSiO3, 5.1% reactions
NaOH, 4.1% H2O2
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REFINER MECHANICAL PULP (RMP)

• Wood chips are comminuted into fibers by bars on rotating and


stationary discs

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TYPES OF REFINES
• Single disc
Moving rotor stationary stator
1.7m Dia 15MW
• Double Disc
Two counter – rotating discs
More power delivered
Less energy required per ton
(Higher shives, less long fibres
• Twin refiner
One rotor, two stator…more
Refining surface
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REFINER PLATES
• The refiners contain
opposing plates that shred
the chips. These plate are
separated into different
sections
• 1st section (inlet) rips
chips into wood slivers.
• Each subsequent step
reduces the size of the
bundles.
• Water carries the fibers
through the disk.
REFINER PLATES

Directional Variable pitch Chicane


CƠ CHẾ NGHIỀN
REFINER PULPING
TYPICAL REFINER FLOWSHEET
Oversize
Chip Screen Rechipper
Fines
Chip Washer

First Stage
Refiner
Reject
Refiner

Second Stage
Refiner
Screens
Screens Thickener

Thickener Bleaching Storage Paper Machine


Centrifugal
Cleaners
Rejects
REFINER MECHANICAL PULP (RMP)
• Wood is typically chipped in a disc
chipper
• Goal is to have a chip proportion
acceptable chips
• 3 – 16 knives on a disc
• 4m diameter
• 450 m3/h of solid wood
• Low cutting speed (20m/s) as
pin chips increase with speed 35
REFINER MECHANICAL PULP (RMP)
• Chips are preheated to soften lignin
• Chips hit breaker bars and undergo a series or
normal and shear forces
• Rapid breakdown in screw feeder, entrance
zone and breaker bars section (fractures along
grains, mostly along fracture planes initiated in
chipping)
• Match stick size fragments accumulate in
refining zone with majotr axis along tangential
direction
• Match sticks deffibred by kingitudinal grinding
and brooming
• Fibres form flocs and flow out by steam drag
and inertial forces
• Flocs caught on bar edges and repeatedly
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compressed by passing bars
REFINER MECHANICAL PULP (RMP)
Fibre development step
• Fibres undergo cylclic
compressions between
bars
• Internally and
externally delaminates
the fibres
• Increase flexibility and
surface area

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REFINER MECHANICAL PULP (RMP)

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EFFECT OF CHIP SIZE
• Over size chips
• Unenven feed in refine
• Reduces quality

• Over thick fraction


• Contains most of the knots
• Decreases the fibre length and long fibres portion
• Decreases strength and brightness

• Fines Fraction
• Lowers energy consumption
• Decreases strength, sheet density, brightness and light
scattering
• Creates linting problems and increase shive content
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CHIP WASHING
• Immersed in a tank fed by paddle wheel (sunds)
• Removes: rocks, metal, sawdust, bark
• Add moisture
• Raises temperature

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CHIP SCREENING
• Chips are passed through a series of screens
• Oversize: left on screen with 45mm holes
• Overthick: left on screen with 7mm slots
• Accept: left on screen with 7mm holes
• Pin chips: left on screen with 3mm holes
• Fines: pass through last screen
• Overthick chips don’t react weel to pre-treatment, lower
yield
• Fines and pin chips produce too many shives ( not refined)

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CHIP STEAMING/PREHEATING
• Atmospheric type
Steam to 80 – 95C
• Most are pressurized (50kPa to 110kPa over pressure)
• Objective is to warm chip and equalize the moisture content
• Can optimize a bit:
Higher temperature gives longer fibres, higher tensile
Lower temperatures give better optical properties
• Chip impregnation systems
Used in CTMP processes
Compresses chips
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SELF PRESSURIZATION
• Refining imposes cyclic
compression of visco – elastic material
• Generates tremendous amount
of heat and steam
• Dilution required to maintain
approx 30% consistency
• Steam pressure reaches max
and flow both ways
• Can cause blow-back 43
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45
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3.5. THERMAL – MECHANICAL PULP (TMP)

• Pulping carried out in two refiners in


tandem
• First refiner – pressurized with steam
• Second refiner is atmospheric
• Produces longer fibre (stronger paper)
and
fewer shives ( small bundles of fibres)
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3.5. THERMAL – MECHANICAL PULP (TMP)
SGW RMP TMP

Energy required (GJ/ton) 5.0 6.4 7.0

Freeness 100 130 100-150


Burst index 1.2 1.6 1.8-2.4
Tear index 3.5 6.8 7.5-9.0
Breaking length (km) 3.2 3.5 3.9-4.3
Shive content (%) 3 2 0.5
Long fibre content (R48) 28 50 55
Fines content (P100) 50 38 35
Brightness (unbleached) 61.5 59 58.5
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3.6. CHEMI THERMAL MECHANICAL PULP (CTMP)

• To decrease energy cost or to improve pulp quality,


chemical treatments are often added to mechanical
pulping
• Pre-treatment of chips
To lower energy
• Interstage treatment
Lower energy, fibre flexibilization
• Post-treatment
Fibre flexibilization 49
3.6. CHEMI THERMAL MECHANICAL PULP (CTMP)
CTMP process chemicals

• Hot Sulfite (NaOH + Na2SO3)


» NaOH swells wood for easier refining.
» Sulfite prevents the wood from darkening upon this
treatment.
• Cold Soda (NaOH)
» NaOH swells the wood.
» Some hemicelluloses and all resins lost.
» Softwoods resist this treatment so used only for
hardwoods; a very very minor process.
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CHEMI THERMAL MECHANICAL PULP (CTMP)
CTMP process chemicals
• Alkaline Peroxide (NaOH + H2O2)
» Pulping and bleaching together.
» Difficult with Softwoods.
» Need to stabilize peroxides against:
- Thermal degradation and degradation by metals
» Silicates used to stabilize peroxides can deposit on
refining equipment.
• CTMP (2-5% Na2SO3)
» Most common of the chemical processes. The lignin is
sulfonated to only a very slight extent. This softens the
lignin making fiber removal easier. 51
EFFECT OF SULPHONATION ONLIGNIN STRUCTURE

52
USUAL MEANS IS SULPHONATION USING SODIUM SULPHITE OR SODIUM
BISULPHITE

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A CHIP PRE-TREATMENT FOR TMP CALLED CTMP IS
SHOWN BELOW

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DETERMINATION OF ENDPOINT

• In chemical pulping, the pulping reaction is allowed to go


until a certain level of lignin is reached as determined
through the determination of Kappa number.
• In mechanical pulping, the material is refined until a
specific freeness is reached.
» Freeness is the ease with which water leaves the fiber
mat formed on a wire mesh from a dilute slurry.

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PULP PROPERTIES

• RMP fibres broken


• TMP separated at primary
wall, some fibre broken
• CTMP middle lamella very
soft, almost all fibres
separated at ML

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PULP PROPERTIES

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LATENCY REMOVAL

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EFFECT OF LATENCY REMOVAL

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CHEMICAL PULPING VERSUS MECHANICAL PULPING

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CHEMICAL PULPING VERSUS MECHANICAL PULPING
Chemical Mechanical
Yield Fibre/Wood Low 40-70% High 90-98%
- High - lignin
Cellulose Purity Low - lignin remains
dissolved
High quality papers Low quality
(eg., books). High volume paper
End Uses
Dissolving pulp (e.g. newsprint)
Reinforcement pkg. Molded products
Raw Material
Low High
Sensitivity
Chemical Mechanical
Strength High - fibres intact Low - fibres damaged
High - few and less
Bulk Low - more flexible fibres flexible
fibres
Bright but hard to bleach
Dark but bleachable
Optical high
Poor light scattering
Good light scattering
Poor - short fibres, many
Drainability Good - long fibres few fines
fines
Permanence
Good Poor
(optical) 61