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United States Patent (19) (11 Patent Number: 4,903,192

Saito et al. 45 Date of Patent: Feb. 20, 1990


(54) PID CONTROLLER SYSTEM 4,768,143 8/1988 Lane et al. .......................... 364/157
75 Inventors: Tadayoshi Saito, Hitachiota; Junzo OTHER PUBLICATIONS
Kawakami, Mito; Susumu Takahashi; "Expert Self Tuning Control System', Measurement
Testuo Suehiro, both of Katsuta; Technology, pp. 66-72, Sep. 1986.
Hiroshi Matsumoto, Ibaraki; Kouji “PID Self Tuning by Expert Method”, Measurement
Tachibana, Katsuta, all of Japan Technology, pp. 52-59, Sep. 1986.
73 Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan "Method of Designing Control System Based on a Par
tial Knowledge of Control Object', Transactions of the
21 Appl. No.: 177,428 Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, vol. 5,
22 Filed: Apr. 1, 1988 No. 4, 1979.
30 Foreign Application Priority Data Primary Examiner-John R. Lastova
Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Antonelli, Terry & Wands
Apr. 3, 1987 (JP) Japan .................................. 62-80976
Aug. 14, 1987 JP Japan ................................ 62-201733 57 ABSTRACT
Sep. 24, 1987 JP Japan ................................ 62-2372O1 A PID controller system comprises a PID controller
51 Int. Cl'....................... G05B 13/00; G05B 13/02 for PID controlling a process standing for an object to
52 U.S. C. .................................... 364/157; 364/158; be controlled, and an automatic adjuster being respon
364/162 sive to a variable relating to the manipulation of the
58 Field of Search ................................. 364/157-163 PID controller and the response shape of the control
variable from the process to obtain necessary perfor
(56) References Cited mance indexes and preparing, on the basis of the perfor
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS mance indexes, optimum control parameters for tuning
the actual control variable to the control command
3,934,124 1/1976 Gabriel ................................ 364/16S value, the optimum control parameters being fedback
4,441,151 4/1984 Hayashibe ... ... 364/157 from the automatic adjuster to the PID controller.
4,602,326 7/1986 Kraus .......... ... 364/158
4,669,040, 5/1987 Pettit et al... ... 364/162
4,754,391 6/1988 Suzuki ................................. 364/157 9 Claims, 16 Drawing Sheets

CONTROLLABLE
CBEST
CONTROL
PARAMETER
MOOFER

CONTROL
VARABLE PARAMETER
RESPONSE ADJUSTNG
SHAPE VALUE
RECOGNIZER CAUCUATOR
CONTROL
PARAMETER
H MOOFYING
COEFFICIENT
DeDUCER
PP- - - - - -3
VAUTOMATIC
ADJUSTER
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 1 of 16 4,903,192
F. G. A FIG. B
PRIOR ART PRIOR ART

.5

u 3.
9 O 9.D IO
s - L/T = O
- 2
2 O.5 L/T =O |4
H-
2 O.5
O
2 O
S
Ob 4o so to Ob 4o so to
TIME (S) TIME (S)

F. G. 2
PRIOR ART

reach CONTROL PROCESS


Gm(S,S) EAEAMETER
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 2 of 16 4,903,192
F. G. 3A
PRIOR ART

I.O
O.5 L/T = O. 4

Ob 4o so lao
TIME (S)

F. G. 3B
PROR ART

O 8O 6O 24O 32O 4OO


TIME (S)
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 3 of 16 4,903,192
F. G. 3C
PRIOR ART
O

O. 5 L/T = 5

2OO 4oo 6oo soo looo


TIME (S)

F. G. 4

CONTROLLABLE
SV OBJECT
CONTROL
PARAMETER
MODFER
PV
CONTROL CONTROL
VARABLE PARAMETER 6C
! RESPONSE ADJUSTING
SHAPE VALUE
RECOGNIZER CALCULATOR

CONTROL
CONTROL PARAMETER ADJUSTMENT
DECDER MODFYING RULER
COEFFICENT
DEDUCER
L-3
NAUTOMATIC
ADJUSTER
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 4 of 16 4903.192
FIG. 5A F.G. 5B
NB ZE PB ZE PB

O O
E(i) E(2) E(3) E(4) E(5) D() D(2) D(3)
E D

F. G. 6

PB PB

NB ZE PB

O /N/\
C(i) C(2) C(3) C(4) C(5)
CKP, CTi, CTD
MISSING PAGE TEMPORARY NOTICE

PATENT . 2/743/7) FOR ISSUE DATE -2 26-27O


HAS BEEN SCANNED BUT WITH MISSING PAGE (S). UPON RECEIVING
OF MISSING PAGE (S), THE ENTIRE DOCUMENT WILL RE RESCANNED.
PLEASE CALL IMAGE DATA ADMINISTRATION STAFF OF 557-6154 IF
YOU HAVE A QUESTION. ASK FOR DAVE GROOMS, ANITA YOUNG OR
POLA JONES.

THIS NOTICE IS FOR THE MISSING PAGE CONTAINING:

DRAWING SHEET # 3
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 7 of 16 4,903.192

TIME

SV
CONTROL
PARAMETER
MOD FER Y

CONTROL
VARABLE
CONTROL 6
PARAMETER att
RESPONSE ADJUSTING
SHAPE
RECOGNIZER
VALUE 6c
CALCULATOR

CONTROL
CONTROL PARAMETER
ECIDER MODIFYING
COEFFICENT
DEDUCER
-----
t AUTOMATIC
ADJUSTER
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 8 of 16 4,903,192
F. G. 2A

TIME

F. G. 2B

TIME
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 9 of 16 4,903,192
F. G. 3A
NB ZE PB

Yx
E(I) E(2) E(3) E(4) E(5)
E

F. G. 3B

D(i) D(2) D(3)


D

F. G. 3 C
NB ZE PB
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 10 of 16 4,903,192
F. G. 4

RULE PBE II PBD U-11 NB ZE


2 PB PM PB NB NB ZE

4 PB PM NB I PB I PB PB
5 PB ZE PB NB
6 PB zE zE ZE ZE

F. G. 5

NB ZE PB

C(i) C(2) C(3) C(4) C(5)


CKP, CTI, CTD
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 11 of 16 4,903.192

-- ---------
n

O
O
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 13 of 16 4,903.192

F. G. 8A

t t2 1. t3 TIME

F. G. 8B
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 14 of 16 4,903.192

SO }E)?LESHB-1

-!
|
'9)
6]
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 15 of 16 4,903,192

F. G. 20

O
TAE ol 1 A
/ KITAMORI MODEL

O 2 4. 6 8 O
THE RATIO L/T OF DEAD
TME TO TIME CONSTANT
U.S. Patent Feb. 20, 1990 Sheet 16 of 16 4,903,192
F. G. 2A
L
I.O
s 1.
s
as O.5
-
2
O
O

Ob 4o so to
TIME (S)

F. G. 2B
.O
ir
s
1.
s
O
O.5
1.
-
2.
O
O

O) 8O 6O 24O 32O
TIME (S)

F. G. 2 C
n
.O
s
1.
s
- O.5
O
-
2.
O
O

O) 2O 24O 36O 48O TIME (S)


4,903,192 2
1
These methods feature simplified computations but are
PD CONTROLLER SYSTEM disadvantageous in the following points. As an example,
when PID control parameters are adjusted, pursuant to
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION the ZN method, for a controllable object having the
This invention relates to a PID (Proportional-Inte dead time and secondary time lag characteristics, the
gral and Differential) controller for use in feedback control response changes as the command value
control and more particularly to a PID controller sys changes in unit step, as graphically illustrated in FIG.
tem in which the tuning of PID control parameters can 1A for L/T=0.14 and in FIG.1.B for L/T = 1.0. Alter
be effected automatically. natively, when PID control parameters are adjusted
The invention is also concerned with a system for 10 pursuant to the CHR method, the control response
automatically setting PID control parameters which is changes as the command value changes in unit step, as
applicable to processes in which the ratio of dead time graphically illustrated in FIG. 3A for L/T=0.14, in
to time constant is large, these processes being represen FIG. 3B for L/T's 1 and in FIG. 3C for L/T=5. Thus,
tative of, for example, the control of combustion in 15 in the ZN method, the control response deviates from
boilers and the control of temperature, pH neutraliza the stable limit at L/T=1 and in the CHR method the
tion and flow rate in chemical and general industry control response pulsates at L/T=5. Gathering from
In the past, the tuning of PID control parameters in this, it is concluded that in any of the two methods
the PID controller is effected manually by the operator excellent control can not be realized for large values of
who is watching variations in control variables. This 20 L/T.
raises problems that the adjustment workbecomes time On the other hand, as a general-purpose method for
consuming and tuning results are differently affected by adjustment of PID control parameters there is available
individuality of the operators. a partial model matching method as described in, for
On the other hand, a variety of systems based on example, "Design Method for Control System Based on
control theory have been proposed wherein a setting 25 Partial Knowledge of Controllable Object', Transac
test signal is applied to an object to be controlled so as tions of The Society of Instrument and Control Engi
to set a dynamic characteristic of the controllable object
and control parameters are turned to optimum values on neers, Vol 5, No. 4, pp 549/555, Aug., 1979.
the basis of setting results. In these proposals, however, The outline of the partial model matching method
it is expected that because of fluctuation of control 30 will now be described briefly. An arrangement for im
variables due to the application of the setting test signal, plementation of the partial model matching method is
quality is degraded or particularly in a plant of high schematically illustrated, in block form, in FIG. 2. Re
non-linearity, abnormal states disadvantageously take ferring to FIG. 2, reference numeral 1 designates a PID
place. Further, unless the setting test is performed each controller, 2 a process standing for an object to be con
time the dynamic characteristic of the controllable ob trolled, 7 a process setter for setting a transfer function
ject is changed, optimum values of control parameters 35 G(S) of the process, and 11 a control parameter deter
can not be obtained, thus leading to troublesome han miner for determining optimum values of control pa
dling operations rameters included in a transfer function Gc (S) of the
As described in "Expert Self-tuning Controller', PID controller.
Measurement Technology, pp 66-72, Nov., 1986, a According to the partial model matching method, the
heuristic method (expert method) is also known control parameters of the PID controller 1 are so deter
wherein the tuning of control parameters is effected in mined that a closed loop transfer function W(S) cover
consideration of the shape of responses of control vari ing a command value SV and a control variable PV
ables. According to this method, an actual response coincides with a transfer function Gm (s, o) of a refer
shape is collated with a plurality of fundamental re ence model representing an ideal response of the con
sponse shapes prepared in advance and an optimum rule 45 trol variable PV, where S is the Laplace operator and or
is selected from a plurality of adjustment rules for a is a time scale coefficient. The transfer function Gp(S)
matched fundamental response shape in accordance of process 1 obtained from the process setter 7 is indi
with the actual response shape or transient trend cated by the following equation:
thereof, so that PID control parameters may be modi
fied. Disadvantageously, in this method, it is expected 50 1. (1)
that the number of adjustment rules is increased, result Gp(S) = ---
ing in an increase in memory capacity go + gis + gi. + gi. + . . .
For example, "PID Self-tuning Based on Expert
Method', Measurement Technology, pp 52-59, Nov., and the transfer function Gc(S) of PID controller 1 has
1986 is relevant to this type of method. 55 the form of
At start-up of a plant incorporating controllable ob
jects such as processes and a PID controller for control (2.1)
ling the objects, it is general practice that the time re
sponse of a process variable appearing when a manipu
lated variable standing for an input signal to a process is
Gc(s) - K( +- -- TD ..)
changed stepwise is set in terms of a dead time charac = -2-
T. s. (1 + T.s + Ti. TDs) (2.2)
teristic and a primary time lag characteristic and PID
control parameters are adjusted to optimum values on
the basis of process gain K, dead time L and time con where Kp, Ti and TD are control parameters respec
stant T in these characteristics. Such a method for opti 65 tively called proportional gain, integration time and
mum adjustment of PID control parameters based on differential time.
the step response includes a Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) Accordingly, the closed loop transfer function W(s)
method and a Chein-Hrones-Reswick (CHR) method. is given by
4,903,192 4.
3
method requires sophisticated computation for which
Gc(s). Gp(s (3) microcomputer operations are unsuited.
W() = -1 isogo SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The transfer function Gm(s, o) of reference model is The present invention intends to solve the prior art
then given by problems described previously and has for its object to
provide a PID controller system wherein the adjust
(4) ment work by the operator can be reduced to a great
1
extent to prevent adjustment results from being differ
1 + or is + az(or s) -- a 3(or s) + as(or s)
O ently affected by individuality of operators, the opti
mum tuning of control parameters can be effected with
out adopting the setting signal which tends to disturb
where a2, a3, a 4-are constants related to response the controllable object and changes in a dynamic char
waveforms. acteristic of the controllable object can be detected
By making equation (3) coincident with equation (4), 15 rapidly without resort to any manual operations,
the transfer function Gc(s) of PID controller is reduced whereby optimum control characteristics can always be
to
maintained.
(5)
Another object of this invention is to provide a PID
Gc(s) -- Gm(so) controller system which can obtain an excellent control
Gp(s) (1 - Gm(s. or) characteristic even for a process in which the ratio of
go + gis + sí. +g. + . . . dead time to time constant is large and which can deter
or . st1 + azors + ag(o.s) + a 4(os) + ... mine optimum values of PID control parameters in
accordance with relatively simplified computation for
By dividing the denominator by the numerator in equa 25
mulas to ensure that the PID controller system can be
tion (5), there results operated even by the aid of such a computing unit of
small throughput as a microcomputer.
(6)
According to the invention, the above first object can
be accomplished by a PID controller system compris
30 ing a control variable response shape recognizer for
observing a control variable response shape appearing
when a command value or set point changes or external
disturbance is applied so as to determine necessary per
formance indexes a, control parameter modifier for
35 evaluating the performance indexes qualitatively so as
to deduce or estimate modified values of PID control
parameters through fuzzy reasoning, and a controllabil
ity decision device for causing the control parameter
modifier to operate when the performance indexes go
beyond their permissible ranges.
As regards the attainment of the second object, based
on observation that the conventional partial model
Considering that equation (1) equals equation (2.2) matching method is difficult to solve the cubic algebraic
the following formulas can be obtained: equation in order to obtain the root necessary for deter
45 mining the time scale coefficient, it has been found that
A2 = 9. (7) the controllable object set in terms of the dead time and
Ti or primary time lag characteristics can be approximated by
a multi-order time lag characteristic in order that the
T = - a. o. (8) 50 time scale coefficient determined by making the closed
loop transfer function of control variable coincide, for
the command value, with the transfer function of refer
Ti. TD = - a2, a + (as - ago? (9) ence model can be approximated by a linear equation of
the dead time.
O = - a.2i; a + (as - as) o? + (10) 55 By using results of the approximation, the optimum
values of PID control parameters are represented by
(2a2a3 - a 2 - a.4) a functions of gain, dead time and time constant relating
to processes and are determined pursuant to specified
From equation (10), the positive minimum real root relations.
ofo is determined, which is substituted into equation (8) BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
to determine Ti. The thus determined positive minimum FIGS. 1A and 1B are graphs showing prior art exam
real root and Tiare substituted into equations (7) and (9) ples of control response obtained when the controllable
to determine Kp to TD. In accordance with this object having the dead time and secondary time lag
method, coincidence of the closed loop transfer func
tion W(s) with the reference model Gm(s, o) of equa characteristics is controlled by changing the command
tion (4) prevails until the fourth order term of s in equa 65 value stepwise in a conventional PID controller in
tion (4). which PID control parameters are determined using the
Due to the fact that the cubic algebraic equation conventional ZN method, FIG. 1A being for
shown in equation (10) is solved to determined ot, this L/T=0.14 and FIG. 1B being for L/T=1.
4,903,192 6
5
FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a prior art arrangement and secondary time lag characteristics are controlled
for implementation of control in accordance with the under the conditions of L/T=0.14, L/T = 1 and
partial model matching method. L/T=5 by changing the command value stepwise.
FIGS. 3A, 3B and 3C are graphs showing prior art DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS
examples of control response obtained when the con
trollable object having the dead time and secondary The invention will now be described by way of exam
time lag characteristics is controlled by changing the ple with reference to the accompanying drawings.
command value stepwise in a conventional PID con As schematically shown in a block diagram of FIG. 4,
troller in which PID control parameters are determined a PID controller system according to a first embodi
using the conventional CHR method, FIG. 3A being 10 ment of the invention comprises a PID controller 1, an
for L/T=0.14, object 2 to be controlled and an automatic adjuster 3.
FIG. 3B for L/T=1 and FIG. 3C for L/T=5. The PID controller 1 performs a PID computation of
FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating a PID control a control difference e which is obtained from compari
ler system according to a first embodiment of the inven son of a command value SV with a control variable PV
tion. 15 and produces a PID computation result which is ap
FIGS. 5A and 5B are graphs respectively showing plied as a manipulated variable MV to the controllable
membership functions for evaluating overshoot and object 2. The automatic adjuster 3 comprises a control
membership functions for evaluating damping ratio, variable response shape recognizer 4, a control decider
these membership functions being used in the FIG. 4 5 and a control parameter modifier 6. The control pa
embodiment. 20 rameter modifer 6 includes a control parameter modify
FIG. 6 shows an example of adjustment rules. ing coefficient deducer 6a, an adjustment ruler 6b and a
FIG. 7 is a graph showing membership functions for control parameter adjusting value calculator 6e.
control parameter modifying coefficients. Individual components described above will now be
FIG. 8 illustrates graphical representations useful to described specifically. The control variable response
explain the manner of determining control parameter 25 shape recognizer 4 always watches or supervises the
modifying coefficients. command value or set point SV and control variable
FIG. 9 is a flow chart showing the schematic proce PV and begins to observe a control variable response at
dure of an auto-tuning function. time that the control difference e exceeds a predeter
FIG. 10 is a graph showing results of autotuning mined value after the control variable PV has been
according to the invention. 30 tuned to the command value SV. Concurrently with the
FIG. 11 is a block diagram illustrating a PID control commencement of the observation, the recognizer 4
ler system according to a second embodiment of the retrieves extreme values of PV and ends the observation
invention. when the control variable PV is tuned to the command
FIGS. 12A and 12B are graphs respectively showing value SV. The recognizer 4 then computes the amount
the control variable response shape obtained when the 35 of overshoot and the damping ratio on the basis of a
command value changes stepwise and the control vari plurality of obtained extreme values and a change width
able response shape obtained when external disturbance of the command value SV.
is applied stepwise. In the absence of extreme values of the control vari
FIGS. 13A, 13B and 13C are graphs respectively able PV, negative pseudo-values are set. The control
showing membership functions for evaluating over decider 5 determines that the control parameters are of
shoot, membership functions for evaluating damping optimum values if the obtained overshoot and damping
ratio and membership functions for evaluating period. ratio respectively fall within their permissible ranges
FIG. 14 shows an example of adjustment rules used and ends the tuning. If any one of the overshoot and
for the respective types of membership function. damping ratio does not fall within the permissible range,
FIG. 15 is a graph showing membership functions for 45 the decider 5 actuates the control parameter modifier 6.
control parameter modifying coefficients. The control parameter modifying coefficient deducer
FIG. 16 illustrates graphical representations useful to 6a, when based on the fuzzy reasoning method, will
explain the manner of determining the control parame now be described. In order to qualitatively evaluate the
ter modifying coefficients. amount of overshoot and the magnitude of damping
FIG. 17 is a flow chart showing the schematic proce 50 ratio, membership functions as shown in FIGS. 5A and
dure of another auto-tuning function. 5B are defined. In FIGS. 5A and 5B, E(i) where is 1-5
FIG. 18A is a graph showing the autoturning re and D(i) where is 1-3 are constants for prescribing the
sponse in the presence of large overshoot and hunting the shape of the membership function, and PB, ZE and
appearing in the initial control response shape. NB are names assigned to the membership functions
FIG. 18B is a graph showing the autotuning response 55 with the view of evaluating the magnitude qualitatively.
in the presence of over-damping appearing in the initial The names have the following meanings:
control response shape. PB: Positive Big
FIG. 19 is a block diagram illustrating a PID control ZE: Zero
ler system according to still another embodiment of the NB: Negative Big. .
invention. In these Figures, ordinate represents the membership
FIG. 20./is a graph showing how L/T and 8/T are value G which is representative of the qualitative de
related to various reference models when PID control gree. Enumerated in FIG. 6 is an example of adjustment
parameters are determined, pursuant to the partial rules of the adjustment ruler 6b for PID control parame
model matching method, for the controllable object ters which are prescribed by various control variable
having the dead time and primary time lag characteris 65 response shapes prepared using the member ship func
tics. tions.
FIGS. 21A, 21B and 21C are graphs respectively Taking a rule, for instance, this rule has the meaning
showing control response obtained when the dead time “If E is PB and D is PB, then CKP is NB, CTD is PB
4,903, 192 8
7
and CTD is PB.", "if clause” being called a conditional are retrieved in step 14. This process is for each PV
clause and "then clause' being called a conclusive inputted and continues until it is determined in step 15
clause, where E is a modifying coefficient for the that PV is tuned to SV (completion of the observation).
amount of overshoot, D is a modifying coefficient for Upon completion of the observation, performance in
the damping ratio, CKP is a modifying coefficient for 5 dexes (overshoot amount and damping ratio) are deter
the proportional gain, CTI is a modifying coefficient for mined in step 16 by using results of the extreme value
the integration time and CTD is a modifying coefficient retrieval performed in step 14, the status flag is set to
for the differential time. FIG. 7 graphically illustrates "2" in step 17 and the procedure proceeds to the control
membership functions used for converting the qualita parameter computing status. The process flow de
tively determined control parameter modifying coeffici 10 scribed till now corresponds to the operation of the
ents into quantitative values. In FIG. 7, C(i) where control response shape recognizer 4.
i=1-5 is the constant for prescribing the shape of the If it is decided in step 11 that the status flag is "2", it
membership functions, PB, ZE and NB are names is determined in step 18 whether the observed control
which are assigned to the membership functions with response is optimum by using decision as to whether the
the view of qualitatively indicating the magnitude of the 15 performance indexes determined in step 16 fall within
control parameter modifying coefficients and which their permissible ranges. This process corresponds to
correspond to the names used in FIGS. 5A and 5B, and the operation of the control decider 5. Only in the case
ordinate represents the membership value. where the control response is not optimum, the modify
Taking the cases where rules 1 and 2 are applied, for ing coefficients for the control parameters and deter
instance, the manner of determining the control param 20 mined in step 19 and adjusting values for the control
eter modifying coefficients will now be described. Re parameters are determined in step 20. The thus obtained
ferring particularly to FIG. 8, there is illustrated the control parameter adjusting values are used for the
manner of determining the modifying coefficient CKP control computation in the PID controller 1. The step
for the proportional gain in accordance with the fuzzy 16 corresponds to the operation of the control parame
reasoning method. The qualitative degree of the amount 25 ter modifying coefficient deducer 6a and adjustment
of overshoot Eo and the damping ratio Do which are ruler 6b and the step 20 corresponds to the operation of
obtained from the control variable response shape rec the control parameter adjusting value calculator 6c.
ognizer 4 is determined using respective membership When the control response is decided to be optimum in
functions illustrated in FIGS. 5A and 5B. In the rule 1, step 18 and the process in step 20 ends, the status flag is
Eois Gep and Do is Gdp and in the rule 2Eois Gep and 30 reset to "0" in step 21 and the procedure returns to the
Do is Gdz. A product set (minimum value) computation control response supervising status.
is effected within the respective rules to determine the The PID controller system of this embodiment is
adaptability of each rule which is Gep for rule 1 and operated for the controllable object having the second
Gide for rule 2. Subsequently, membership functions ary time lag and dead time characteristics, exhibiting
contained in the conclusive clause of each rule are 35 results as graphically illustrated in FIG. 10. Particu
weighted by the adaptability of each rule, the weighted larly, the time response of the control variable PV ob
membership functions are subjected to a sum set (maxi tained when the command value SV is changed is illus
mum value) computation, and the value of center of trated in FIG. 10. At time that the SV changes stepwise
gravity of a sum set computation result is determined as initially, the initial control response of PV follows the
an output value CKPo of the proportional gain modify 40 change of SV with the overshoot amount E being 50%
ing coefficient. Output values of the integration time and the damping ratio D being 0.6, thereafter the per
modifying coefficient CTI and differential time modify formance indexes (overshoot amount and damping ra
ing coefficient CTD may be determined in a similar tio) obtained from observation results of twice trials
name. which correspond to the twice step changes of the SV
The control parameter adjusting value calculator 6C 45 can fall within predetermined permissible ranges of the
multiplies the thus obtained PID control parameter performance indexes, indicating attainment of the opti
modifying coefficient by the current value of the PID mum tuning, and hence the tunning completes at the
control parameter to determine the current adjusting third trial.
value. As described previously, the auto-tuning of control
FIG. 9 shows a schematic flow chart of the proce 50 parameters can be achived using a small number of
dure in the automatic adjuster 3. In step 10, SV and PV adjustment rules.
are inputted at a predetermined period and each time Although all the membership functions are of a tri
the SV and PV are inputted, a status flag indicative of angular form for illustration purpose only, they are not
the process status of the automatic adjuster 3 is decided limited thereto and may be realize with a quadratic
in step 11. The status flag being "0" indicates a status for 55 curve or an exponential curve without disturbing the
monitoring or supervising the control response, the essentiality of the invention. Further, the number of
status flag being '1' indicates a status for observing and membership functions may desirably be set.
evaluating the control response and the status flag being Referring to FIGS. 11 to FIG. 18A and FIG. 18B, a
"2' indicates a status for computing the control parame PID controller system according to a second embodi
ters. With the status flag being "0", it is determined in 60 ment of the invention will be described. This embodi
step 12 whether the control difference exceeds a prede ment differs from the first embodiment described in
termined value. If the control difference exceeds the connection with FIGS. 4 to 10 in that in addition to the
predetermined value, the status flag is set to “1” in step overshoot and damping ratio, the ratio of period is em
13 and the procedure proceeds to the control response ployed as a control parameter. Since a block configura
observing status. With the control difference not being 65 tion form of FIG. 11 is essentially identical to that of
in excess of the predetermined value, the control re FIG. 4 relevant to the first embodiment with the only
sponse supervising status is maintained. If the status flag exception that the former is so modified as to handle the
is determined to b “1” in step 11, extreme values of PV ratio of period as an additional observation parameter,
4,903,192 10
reference numerals in FIG. 4 are added with dash to sible ranges and ends the tuning. If any one of the over
designate blocks or components of FIG. 11 which cor shoot and damping ratio does not fall within the permis
respond to those of FIG. 4. Observation and control are sible range, the decider 5' actuates a control parameter
actually carried out in a manner as will be described modifier 6'.
below. A control parameter modifying coefficient deducer
A control variable response shape recognizer 4 al 6a', when based on the fuzzy reasoning method, will
ways supervises the command value SV and control now be described. In order to qualitatively evaluate the
variable PV and begins to observe a control variable amount of overshoot and the magnitude of damping
response at time that the control difference e exceeds a ratio and period ratio, membership functions as shown
predetermined value after the control variable PV has 10 in FIGS. 13A, 13B and 13C are defined. In FIGS. 13A
been tuned to the command value SV. Concurrently to 13C, E(i) where i=1-5, D(i) where i=1-3 and R(i)
with the commencement of the observation, the recog where i-1-3 are constants for prescribing the shape of
nizer 4 retrieves extreme values of control variable PV the membership function, and PB, PM, ZE and NB are
and ends the observation when the control variable is names assigned to the membership functions with the
tuned to the command value SV. The recognizer 4 then 15 view of evaluating the magnitude qualitutively. As in
computes the amount of overshoot, damping ratio and the case of the first embodiment, the names have the
period ratio on the basis of a plurality of obtained ex following meanings:
treme values and times the extreme values occur. The PB: Positive Big
manner of determining these control parameters will be PM: Positive Medium
described with reference to FIGS. 12A and 12B. FIG. 20 ZE: Zero
12A particularly illustrates an example of time response NB: Negative Big
of the control variable PV obtained when the command In these Figures, ordinate represents the membership
value SV changes stepwise from Yoto Y1 at time to, value G which is representative of the qualitutive de
indicating that extreme values X1, X2 and X3 occur at gree. Enumerated in FIG. 14 is an example of adjust
times ti, t2 and t2 and the tuning is completed at time t. 25 ment rules of an adjustment ruler 6b' for PID control
The overshoot amount E, damping ratio D and period parameters which are prescribed by various control
T are given by variable response shapes prepared using the member
ship functions.
E = (X, -Y)/(Y - Yo) Taking a rule 2, for instance, this rule has the meaning
30 "If E is PB, D is PM and R is PR, then CKP is NR, CTI
D = (3 - 2)/(X - X2) is NB and CTD is ZE', "if clause' being called a condi
tional clause and "then clause' being called a conclu
T = t - t. sive clause, where E is a modifying coefficient for the
Accordingly, given that the previous value of period 35 overshoot amount, D is a modifying coefficient for the
damping ratio, R is a modifying coefficient for the per
is T1, the period ratio R is expressed by iod ratio, CKP is a modifying coefficient for the propor
tional gain, CTI is a modifying coefficient for the inte
R = T/T. gration time and CTD is a modifying coefficient for the
differential time. FIG. 15 graphically illustrates mem
FIG. 12B particularly illustrates an example of time bership functions used for converting the qualitatively
response of the control variable PV obtained when an determined control parameter modifying coefficients
external disturbance is applied to the input of the con into quantitative values. In FIG. 15, C(i) where is 1-5
trollable object with the command value maintained at is the constant for prescribing the shape of the member
Yo, indicating that extreme values X1, X2, X3 and X4 ship functions, PB, ZE and NB are names which are
occur at times t1, t2, tsandta and the tuning is completed 45 assigned to the membership functions with the view of
at time t5. The overshoot amount E, damping ratio D qualitatively indicating the magnitude of the control
and period T are given by parameter modifying coefficients and which corre
spond to the names used in FIGS. 13A, 13B and 13C,
and ordinate represents the membership value.
50 Taking the cases where rules 2 and 3 are applied, for
instance, the manner of determining the control param
T = t4 - t2. eter modifying coefficients will now be described. Re
ferring particularly to FIG. 16, there is illustrated the
If no extreme value apperas in the control variable manner of determining the modifying coefficient CKP
reponse shape as the command value changes or if no 55 for the proportional gain in accordance with the fuzzy
second-occurrence extreme value appears in the control reasoning method. The qualitative degree of the over
variable response shape when the external disturbance shoot amount Eo, damping ratio Do and period ratio
Ro which are obtained from the control variable shape
is applied, the overshoot is set to a negative value and recognizer 4 is determined using respective member
the period is set to zero. If only one extreme value 60 ship functions illustrated in FIGS. 13A, 13B and 13C. In
occurs in the control variable response shape in re the rule 2, Eois
sponse to the change of the command value or if only the rule 3, Eo isGep, Do is Gdm and Ro is Grp and in
Gep, Do is Gdm and Ro is Grz. A
two extreme values occur in the control variable re
sponse shape in response to the application of the exter product set (minimum value) computation is effected
nal disturbance, the time difference referenced to the within the respective rules to determine the adaptability
tuning time is used as the period. 65 of each rule which is Grp for rule 2 and Grz for rule 3.
Subsequently, membership functions contained in the
A control decider 5' determines that the control pa conclusive
rameter are of optimum values the obtained overshoot adaptabilityclause of
of each rule are weighted by the
each rule, the weighted membership
and damping ratio respectively fall within their permis
4,903,192 12
11
functions are subjected to a sum set (maximum value) Particularly, the time response of the control variable
computation, and the value of center of gravity of a sum PV obtained when the command value SV is changed is
set computation result is determined as an output value shown with FIG. 18A indicating an instance where the
(KPo of the proportional gain modifying coefficient. overshoot amount E for the initial control response is
Output values of the integration time modifying coeffi 50% and the damping ratio D is 0.6 and FIG. 18B indi
cient (TI and differential time modifying coefficient cating an instance where the initial control response is
CTD may be determined in a similar manner. placed in the over damping condition. It will be appre
A control parameter adjusting value calculator 6c' ciated that in any of these instances the substantially
multiplies the thus obtained PID control parameter optimum tuning can be reached through twice trials.
modifying coefficient by the current value of the PID 10 As described above, according to this second en
control parameter to determine a current adjusting bodiment of the invention, not only the auto-tuning of
value. control parameters can be achieved using a small num
FIG. 17 shows a schematic flow chart of the proce ber of adjustment rules but also the tuning can be ob
dure in the automatic adjuster 3. tained at quick response by evaluating the control vari
FIG. 17 shows a schematic flow chart of the proce 15
able on the basis of the period ratio. The control vari
dure in the automatic adjuster 3'. In step 10, SV and PV able response shape recognizer can also use, as the
are inputted at a predetermined period and each time fourth performance index, a control variable corre
the SV and PV are inputted, a status flag indicative of sponding to the rise time of the previously-described
the process status of the automatic adjuster 3 is decided control variables, the ratio between the previous and
in step 11. The status flag being "0" indicates a status current values of occurrence time of the first-occur
for monitoring or supervising the control response, the rence extreme value or the ratio between the previous
status flag being “1” indicates a status for observing and and current values of tuning time of the control vari
evaluating the control response and the status flag being able. The control parameter modifier 6' uses the mem
"2” indicates a status for computing the control parame
ters. With the status flag being "0", it is determined in 25 bership functions of a triangular form but the form of
step 12 whether the control difference exceeds a prede the membership functions is not limited thereto and may
termined value. If the control difference exceeds the be a quadratic curve or an exponential curve without
predetermined value, the status flag is set to "1 38 in disturbing the essentiality of the invention. Further, the
step 3 and the procedure proceeds to the control re number of membership functions may desirably be set.
sponse observing status. With the control difference not 30 Referring to FIG. 19 and the ensuring Figures, a PID
being in excess of the predetermined value, the control controller system according to still another embodi
response supervising status is maintained. If the status ment of the invention will be described. As schemati
flag is determined to be “1” in step 11', extreme values cally diagrammatically shown in FIG. 19, the PID con
of PV are retrieved in step 14. This process is for each troller system of this embodiment comprises a PID
PV inputted and continues until it is determined in step 35 controller 1, a process 2 standing for an object to be
15 that PV is tuned to SV (completion of the observa controlled, and an automatic adjuster 3' including a
tion). Upon completion of the observation, performance process setter 7, a proportional gain calculator 8, an
indexes (overshoot amount and damping ratio) are de integration time calculator 9 and a differential time
termined in step 16 by using results of the extreme calculator 10.
value retrieval performed in step 14, the status flag is This embodiment of FIG. 19 is particularly suitable
set to '2' in step 17" and the procedure proceeds to the for setting control parameters of the PID controller 1 to
control parameter computing status. The process flow optimum values at the start-up of a plant. The process
described till now corresponds to the operation of the setter 7 sets the dynamic characteristic of the process 2
control response shape recognizer 4". in terms of the dead time/primary time lag characteris
If it is decided in step 11" that the status flag is "2', it 45 tic and determines gain K, dead time L and time con
is determined in step 18' whether the observed control stant T of the process from the dead time and primary
response is otpimum by using decision as to whether the time lag characteristics. The proportional gain calcula
performance indexes determined in step 16 fall within tor 8 determines proportional gain. Kp as a function of
their permissible ranges. This process corresponds to the gain K, dead time L and time constant T of the
the operation of the control decider 5". Only in the case 50 process obtained from the process setter 7, the integra
where the control response is not optimum, the modify tion time calculator 9 determines integration time Tras
ing coefficients for the control parameters are deter a function of the dead time L and time constant Tob
mined in step 19 and adjusting values for the control tained from the process setter 7, and the differential time
parameters are determined in step 20'. The thus ob calculator 10 determines differential time TD as a func
tained control parameter adjusting values are used for 55 tion of the dead time L and time constant T obtained
the control computation in the PID controller 1. The from the process setter 7.
step 16 corresponds to the operation of the control
parameter modifying coefficient deducer 6a' and adjust The calculators 8, 9 and 10 feature the present em
ment ruler 6b' and the step 20 corresponds to the opera bodiment and operate for computation based on the
tion of the control parameter adjusting value calculator 60 following theory.
6c'. When the control response is decided to be opti The dead time/primary time lag characteristic Gp(s)
mum in step 18 and the process in step 20 ends, the set by the process setter 7 is given by
status flag is reset to "0" in step 21' and the procedure
returns to the control response supervising status, a-LS (11)
The PID controller system of this embodiment is 65 Gp(s) = i if
operated for the controllable object having the second
ary time lag and dead time characteristics, exhibiting The dead time transfer function of equation (11) can
results as graphically illustrated in FIGS. 18A and 18B. be expanded and reduced by Maclaurin's expansion to
4,903, 192 14
13
T - 1.37 L
Gip(s) = (12) -- (21)
T
1
K1. -- L --K T. -- E/2 K+ LT s’ + L/6 +K L2T2 s' + ... 5 From equation (21), the time scale coefficient of re
duces to
By applying the partial model matching method to or = 1.37. L. (22)
the process dynamic characteristic of equation (12), the
following formulas result from equations (7) to (10) 10 Then, by substituting equation (22) into equations
(13) to (15), the proportional gain Kp, integration time
A2- - - (13) Ti and differential time TD can be determined as foll
T. T. K. or
lows:
T = L -- T - a2- (14)
15
2 15 Kap == -0.22
ar. ET (23)
Ti. TD = -f- + LT-ag(L + To + (as - a.3)a? (15)
1
T = 0.315 -- T. (24)
I-3 L2 L2 LT (16)
O = -- + - - T - a -- + or -- 20 TD =F 0,313. 0.003L2
0.35 - T
(25)

(as - as) (L + 1) a + Therefore, the proportional gain calculator 8 com


(2a2a3 - a 2 - a.4) a putes equation (23) to determine the optimum value Kip
25 of proportional gain on the basis of K, L and T, the
Unless there is a positive real root of or in equation integration time calculator 9 computes equation (24) to
(16), the partial model matching method can not settle determine the optimum value Ti of integration time and
the command control response indicated by equation the differential time calculator 10 computes equation
(4). (25) to determined the optimum value TD of differential
Then, the relation between the time ratio L/T to the 30 time, thereby ensuring that the proportional gain Kp,
time constant and the time scale coefficient ratio ovT to integration time Ti and fifferential time TD of the PID
the time constant is examined using various reference controller 1 can respectively be set and
models as the parameter to obtain results as graphically 2 may be
illustrated in FIG. 20. The transfer functions of the In equation (25), the term of L2 may be neglected for
reference models used in the examination are given as 35 L being smaller than T and the differential time TD may
follows: be computed in accordance with
(1) Kitamori model
-- 0.315L. T. (26)
a) = -- D = 0.315E T
Gm(so) 1 + ors -- 0.5(ors)2 + 0.15(ors) + 0.03(ors)
With the embodiment of FIG. 19, the control re
(2) Butter worth model Y sponse of the object process having the dead time and
secondary time lag characteristics as in the case of
Gn(s. ot) = (18) FIGS. 1A, 1B, 3A, 3B and 3C is examined by changing
45 the command value in unit step to obtain results as
-- graphically illustrated in FIG. 21A for L/T=0.14, in
1 + as -- 0.503(os) + 0.1479(os) + 0.02188(ors) FIG 21B for L/T=1 and in FIG. 21C for L/T =5,
demonstrating that even for L/T being large, an excel
(3) Biromial model lent control characteristic can be obtained.
50 Although all of the foregoing embodiments have
Gn(s. ot) = (19) been described in terms of hardware for clarity of expla
nation, they may obviously be realized with software by
-- the aid of a computer in a similar manner.
1 + ors + 0.375(os) + 0.0625(os) + 0.003906(ors) We claim:
55 1. A PID controller system comprising:
(4) ITAE minimum model a PID controller for receiving a difference between a
set point and a controlled variable of a process to
Gn(s , or) = (20) be controlled and delivering a manipulated vari
1. able to the process, the process being operated by
1 + os -- 0.4664(ors)2 + 0.1067(os) + 0.01882(ors) the manipulated variable to produce the controlled
variable; and
The variable or corresponds to the rise time of control automatic adjuster means including
response and reasonably it will increase as L increases. a control variable response shape recognizer means
Thus, by studying FIG. 20, it will be understood that for receiving the set point and controlled variable
for Kitamori model being used as the reference model, 65 of the process and determining a plurality of per
reasonable values of oy? can be obtained over a wide formance indexes on the basis of a response shape
range of L/T from 0 (zero) to 10. This ot/T is then of the controlled variable obtained when the set
approximated by point is changes or a disturbance is applied;
4.
4,903, 192 16
15
a control parameter modifier means having a plural proportional gain calculator means responsive to the
ity of evaluation means for utilizing a plurality of gain, dead time and time constant characteristics
performance indexes, and interpreting magnitudes produced by said process estimator means to set
of the plurality of performance indexes and defin the proportional gain;
ing magnitudes of control parameter modifying 5 an integral time calculator means responsive to the
coefficients by using a plurality of qualitative val dead time and time constant characteristics pro
ues, and inferring the control parameter modifying duced by said process estimator means to set the
coefficients through fuzzy inference by using a integral time; and
plurality of adjusting rules which express an inter derivative time calculator means responsive to the
relation between the performance indexes and the 10 dead time and time constant characteristics pro
control parameter modifying coefficients by the duced by said processor estimator means to set a
plurality of qualitative values; derivative time.
said automatic adjuster means being responsive to a 7. A PID controller system according to claim 6,
variable relating to the manipulation of said PID 15 wherein said integral time calculator means determines
controller and the controlled variable from the the integral time by adding the dead time characteristic
process to obtain performance indexes and prepar and the time constant characteristic, said proportional
ing, on the basis of the performance indexes, opti gain calculator means determining the proportional
mum control parameters for tuning the controlled gain by dividing the integral time resulting from addi
variable to the set point, the optimum control pa 20 tion by the product term of the gain and dead time
rameters being fed back from said automatic ad characteristics, and said derivative time calculator
juster means to said PID controller. means determines the derivative time by dividing the
2. A PID controller system according to claim 1 product term of the gain and mean time characteristics
wherein said plurality of performance indexes are over by the integral time resulting from the addition.
shoot, damping ratio. 8. A PID controller system according to claim 6
3. A PID controller system according to claim 1 25 wherein output Kp of said proportional gain calculator
wherein said plurality of performance indexes are over means, output Ti of said integral time calculator means
shoot, damping ratio and period ratio defining a ratio and output TD of said derivative time calculator means
between the previous and current values of the period. are respectively determined by
4. A PID controller system according to claim 1
wherein said plurality of performance indexes are over 30 - 0.315L-E. T.
shoot, damping ratio and rise time ratio defining a ratio
between previous and current values of the rise time. T = 0.315 -- T.
5. A PID controller system according to claim 1
wherein said plurality of performance indexes are over 35 TD - 0.315L0.315L
T +--0.003L.
shoot, damping ratio and tuning time ratio defining a - T.
ratio between the previous and current values of the
tuning time. where K is the gain characteristic, T is the dead time
6. A PID controller system comprising: characteristic and L is the time constant characteristic.
a PID controller for receiving a difference between a 40 9. A PID controller system according to claim 6,
set point and a controlled variable of a process to wherein said automatic adjuster means is responsive to
be controlled and delivering a manipulated vari a variable relating to the manipulation of said PID con
able to the process, the process being operated by troller and the controlled variable from the process to
the manipulated variable to produce the controlled obtain performance indexes and prepares, on the basis
variable; and of said performance indexes, optimum control parame
automatic adjuster means, including a process estima 45 ters for tuning the controlled variable to the set point,
tor means for controlling the process and for pro the optimum control parameters being fed back from
ducing gain, dead time and time constant charac said automatic adjuster
sk
means
k
to
it
said
:
PID controller.
teristics to be utilized in the process;
50

55

65