Nonlinear dynamic analysis of steel plate shear walls including shear and bending deformations
S. SabouriGhomi and T.M. Roberts
School of Engineering, University of Wales College of Cardiff, Cardiff, UK (Received March 1990)
A nonlinear analysis of the dynamic response of thin steel plate shear walls, based on a finite difference solution of the governing differen tial equations of motion, is presented. The equations of motion incor porate both shear and overall bending displacements of the shear wall. The hysteretic characteristics of the individual storeys, incor porated in the nonlinear analysis, include the influence of shear buckl ing and plastic yielding of the web plate and plastic yielding of the surrounding frame. The results presented validate the analysis for elastic response and demonstrate the effectiveness of the hysteretic characteristics in inhibiting resonance.
Keywords: steel plate shear walls, nonlinear analysis, dynamic response
The structural elements commonly iased in tall buildings, to resist lateral forces induced by wind and earthquakes, are moment resisting frames, braced frames and shear walls ~. Shear wall systems, which have been built almost exclusively of reinforced concrete, usually con sist of a series of plane walls, often surrounding an interior service area to form a central core. They are always heavily reinforced, particularly when used in seismic regions. In recent years, steel plate shear walls have been incorporated in a number of tall buildings, mainly in Japan and North America I8. They consist of thin steel plates, framed by columns and beams, as shown in Figure l(a). The beneficial properties of steel plate shear walls are enhanced stiffness, strength and ductility, stable hysteretic characteristics and a large capacity for plastic energy absorption. The majority of the steel plate shear walls constructed to date have been heavily stiffened, to prevent elastic shear buckling of the relatively thin web plates. In the early 1970s Takahashi et al I conducted a series of quasistatic cyclic loading tests on one and twostorey, stiffened steel plate shear wall panels. All the panels exhibited adequate ductility during several cycles of alternating load and the shape of the hysteresis loops was not affected significantly by the arrangement of the stiffeners. An elastoplastic finite element analysis, based on the assumption that the web plates did not buckle, showed satisfactory correlation with the test results.
01410296/92/05030909
Recently, Kulak et al. 9'1° reported a comprehensive experimental and ~eoretical study of the quasistatic cyclic loading behax;iour of unstiffened steel plate shear wall panels. The beneficial postbuckled reserve of stiff ness and strength and stable hysteretic characteristics of the thin steel plates, were clearly demonstrated. While shear walls are invariably designed to remain elastic under normal service conditions, it is of interest to examine their performance under extreme forms of dynamic loading which may induce geometric and material nonlinearities. Of particular interest is their response to periodic loading, which may induce resonance. Under such conditions, the change in stiff ness of the structure due to plastic yielding, stable hysteretic characteristics and plastic energy absorption, are significant in limiting the maximum amplitude of the dynamic response. A theoretical study of the nonlinear dynamic response of planar steel plate shear walls is presented. The shear wall is idealized as a vertical cantilever plate girder, which exhibits both shear and bending deformation. The coupled nonlinear differential equations of motion are then derived, and solved in discretized form using a finite difference time stepping scheme. The hysteretic characteristics of the individual panals or storeys of the shear wall, are presented by an approximate elasto plastic model, based on quasistatic cyclic loading tests 11. Solutions are presented for a fivestorey steel plate shear wall subjected to pulse loading and periodic ground motion.
© 1992ButterworthHeinemannLtd
Eng. Struct. 1992, Vol. 14, No 5
309
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of steel plates shear walls: S. SabouriGhomi and T.M. Roberts
plastic moment of columns forming frame
defined by equation (23) ratio of plastic strains along panel diagonals effective postbuckled shear strain of web at yield inclination of panel diagonals from horizontal Poisson's ratio uniaxial yield stress post buckled tension field stress at yield critical (buckling) shear stress
yield shear stress post buckled shear stress at yield weighting factor
/~ 
Beam 
N 

"yy 

/ 
/ 
~ 
Column 

/ 
/ 
/ 
Od 

/ 
/ 
/ 
"" 
Steel plate 
tro
o~
rc~
rO
ry
4,
b 

//////// 

a 

A 

C 
Fixed joints 
Pinned joints 
d 
Figure 1
deformation
(c) shear deformation
bending deformation

fixed and pinned joints
Structural idealization
The thin steel plate shear wall shown in Figure I (a) can be idealized as a vertical cantilever plate girder, in which columns and crossbeams of the shear will act as the flanges and transverse stiffeners of the plate girder, respectively. If the relatively stiff crossbeams and associated floor slabs are fixed (built in) to the columns and continuous through adjacent bays of the frame, it may be appro priate to assume that the overall bending deformations of the shear wall are negligible, compared with the shear deformations illustrated in Figure l(b). However, in general it is necessary to consider both the shear and overall bending deformations of the shear wall, illustrated in Figures 1(c) and (d), in a comprehensive analysis.
Continuous system
The vertical cantilever shown in Figure 2 has massper unit length m and is subjected to a distrilmt~t, dynamic, horizontal force p(x, O. The motion of an dement of the cantilever, length 6x, in the z direction, is described by the equation
Steel plate shear wall (a) construction details (b) shear
 fixed and pinned joints (d)
Notation
b 
width of shear wall 

C 
curvature 

h 
thickness of steel plate 

k 
shear stiffness, units of force critical (buckling) shear coefficient 

m, 
m i 
mass per unit length and discrete storey mass 
p(x, t) 
time dependent distributed load 

Pi 
discrete storey load 

S, 
Si 
storey height 
t 
time 

V 
velocity 

W, 
displacement and relative storey displacement, respectively. Superscripts: s, shear, b, bend ing. Subscripts: g, ground; w, web; f, frame, e, limiting elastic; p, plastic crosssection area of columns forming frame Young's modulus 

F 
shear force. Subscripts: wcr, web critical; wu, web ultimate; fu, frame ultimate 

G 
shear modulus 

I 
second moment of area of shear wall 

/i 
second moment of area of columns forming frame 

M 
moment 
OF 
02W 

p(x, 
t) +=m OX 
Ot 2 
(1) 
p(x,t)
Figure 2
IIII
5x
Z s W
p(x
l
~,,~ M+6M
 F+SF
6x
F
Vertical cantilever with distributed loading
310 Eng. Struct.
1992,
Vol.
14,
No
5
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of steel plates shear walls: S. SabouriGhomi and T.M. Roberts
in which F is the shear force, w is the total displacement (shear plus bending_), t is time and a2wlat 2 is the i acceleration. The total displacement w can be expressed
as
w =
w'
+
wb
(2)
where superscripts s and b denote shear and bending, respectively. Considering the moment equilibrium of the element, neglecting rotational inertia, gives
aM
F = ~
(3)
It is assumed that the shear force F is proportional to the gradient of the shear displacement n 14.
aW s
F 
= 
k  
(4) 

ax 

where 
k 
is the 
shear 
stiffness 
(units 
of force). 
The 
moment M is related to the bending displacement wb by
the equation
a2W b
M = El 
ax 2
(5)
in which E is Young's modulus and I is the second moment of area of the shear wall. Hence, substituting equations (4) and (5) into equation (2) gives
82ws
k
ax2
a4w b
ax4
EI
Substituting F
gives
from equation
a2W s
8 2
(4) into equation
p(x, t) + k ~x 2 = m ~~ (w" + w b)
(6)
(1)
_{(}_{7}_{)}
Alternatively, substituting equation (6) into equation (7) gives
p(x,
t)

E1
04w b
axT
=
m
a2
fff~
(w s +
w b)
(8)
Equations (7) and (8) are the coupled differential equa tions of motion for the system. When k and E1 are cons tant, the equations are linear. If, however, k is a function of the shear displacement (discussed in detail later), equation (7) becomes nonlinear.
Discrete system
It is now assumed that the mass of the shear wall and associated storey masses are concentrated at each storey
(i
=
1,
2
n) as shown in Figure
3.
If si and
mi
Figure 3
n+2
n+l
I
0
I
=
Oi ~
External nodes
q
)
i/m/
)
I
s/
0
~t
Diacretized model of shear wall
are the height and concentrated mass of the ith storey
m =
2m i
(si +1 + s3
(9)
Similarly, the distributed dynamic loading p(x, t) can be assumed to be concentrated at each storey, such that
p(x,
t)

pi, t (Si + 1 +
Si)
(10)
in which Pi, t is the concentrated dynamic force for the ith storey at time t and p(x, t) is the average distributed force acting between storeys i  1 and i + 1. Equations (7) and (8) are singular if a2w'/Ox 2 and a4wb/ax4 expressed in central f'mite difference form at time t. This is a consequence of equation (6). It is
and w b as weighted
necessary therefore to express w"
averages of their values at times t  6t, t and t + dtt as follows
w, =
w: 6t
+ dpws + wt~+at
(2 + a)
(11)
Wb
wG,
+ ~w:
(2 +
+
~)
Wt+6t
(12)
in which ¢~ is
tions obtained were numerically stable when a value of 0 = 0, was assumed. As ~b was increased, the numerical
a weighting factor. The numerical solu
Eng. Struct.
1992, Vol.
14, No 5
311
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of steel plates shear walls: S. SabouriGhomi and T.M. Roberts
results tended to oscillate about mean displacement values.
Substituting
equations
(9)(11),
with
equations (7) and (8) gives
2pi.~
(S, +1
+
Si)
2m i
+
:
(si+l
+
k
~
si)
02
O~ ~ (W[_& + O'W[+ft)i
0 2 at 2 (we+
W
b
)i,t
2pi,,
(si + 1 +
si)
El
2

2m i (si + l +
si)
04
OX 4
02
Ot 2
(Wt_ b
& +
(we +
W
Wt+&) b i
b
)i,t
0 
= 
0, 
into 
(13) 

(14) 
In equations (13) and (14), subscripts i and t denote storey and time, respectively. The time and space derivatives in equations (13) and (14) can be expressed in central finite difference form as follows
2
_{}_{}
Ot2
_{(}_{w} _{~} _{+} _{w}_{b}_{)}_{i}_{,}_{,}
=
[ (w ' + wb)~,,+ ~,

2(w~+ wb)i,~
+ (w e + Wb)~,,_~,]/6t 2
_{(}_{1}_{5}_{)}
In equation (15), 6t
Allowing for unequal storey heights and stiffnesses, the
space derivatives can be expressed as
is the finite difference time step.
and
0 
2 
~ 

OX ~ 
( 

l 

04 

El 
~ox 
(w b) 
= 
_{k}_{i}
(wL
= 
Si+l
wT)
(w] 
W
si
$,_ ,)~
L)
2
(s~ + 1 +
si)
I(ei+l
t.
~_¢i) si + l
×
(si+t
2
+
si)
(Ci~_C_il)1
si
)
(16)
(17)
in which the c~ etc. are defined as
ci+ ,
_{C}_{i}
=

{.
(El)i+2 (wb+2Wb+l)
Si+2
(El)i+, (w~+_!
Si + 1
w~)1
l (el),

(El)i
+,
(w?+ ,

Si+l
w~)
(wbi 
wbi ')l
^{2}
312 Eng. Struct.
1992, Vol.
14,
2 

(Si +2 
+ si+O 
+s~)
No 5
(18)
(19)
_{C}_{i}_{} _{1} =
[(E[)i
(Wb
 (EI)ii

WbSi
1)
(W b
~ i~_l
s,
Wb
_i_2)}
~'~.
,
_{2}
,i
(20)
Equations (16) (20) are valid for all time stations, and
(13) and
(14).
After substituting equations (15)(20) and introduc ing the appropriate boundary conditions, equations (13) and (14) represent a set of 2n simultaneous algebraic equations (two for each node i = 1 to n in Figure 3) which can be solved for w[ and wib at time t+ 6t, in terms of known values at times t and t  &. The appropriate displacement boundary conditions for all time t, including t "= 0, are
in particular for t 
6t and
t + 6t in equations
Wb , =
Wg,,/(1
W~o,, = Wg,tN/(l
+N)
+
N)
N = (3EI4ks2)l
wb i.,
=
w~. + 1.,
b
Wn + 1,t
w~,,
=
w~,,
_2wb
Cn+l,t~
Cn_l, t
+
b
Wn 
l,t
=0
(21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
Equations (21)(23) apportion the total horizontal ground displacement %, (corresponding to node zero) in accordance with the finite difference representation of equation (6), when the displacements of all other nodes
are assumed zero. Equation (24) implies that the gradient of the bending displacement at node zero is zero. Equation (25) implies that the gradient of the shear displacement, and therefore the shear force in the imaginary (n + 1)th storey, is zero. Equations (26) and (27) imply that the second and third derivatives of the bending displacements, and therefore the moment and shear force, at node n are zero, which is consistent with the continuous system equations (see Figure 2).
At time t = 0 it is necessary to specify the initial displacement wi, and velocity vi, boundary conditions, for all nodes i = 1 to n, as
W~,o = (w/),=o
w°
i,0
= (wi°),= o
s
Wi.o+ft
Wb
i,0 +6t
_

s
Wi, o6t
Wb
i.O6t
(28) 

(29) 

26t(vT)t =0 
(30) 
= 26t(ViO)t_O 
(31) 
If nonzero initial conditions are specified, they should be in accordance with equations (6) and (2). Substituting equations (28) to (31) into the 2n algebraic equations resulting from the finite difference representation of
equations (13) and (14),
0 + & to be determined. Subsequently, values of w[
enables w[ and wib at time
Non/inear dynamic analysis of stee/ plates shear wa//s: S. SabouriGhomi and T.M. Roberts
and Wib at time t + 6t can be determined from known values at times t and .t ~t.
Hysteretic characteristics of steel plate shear walls
An individual panel (storey) of a steel plate shear wall, with assumed fixed beam to column connections, is shown in Figure 4(a). Fi denotes the shear force in the panel and ~ = w/s  w1_ ~ is the shear displacement of the panel. A typical hysteresis loop for the panel is shown in Figure 4(b). Assuming that the overall bending displace ments, illustrated in Figure l(d) do not affect significantly the shear stiffness of the panel, the shear stiffness corresponding to a known shear displacement w~, at time t (see equation (16)) can be determined from the hysteresis loop, via the equation
(k/s)i,, 
F/,t
l, I
(32)
The overall bending stiffness of the panel (El)i is assumed to remain constant (see equations (17)(20)). The constant bending stiffness and variable shear stiff ness are incorporated in the nonlinear dynamic analysis. An approximate elastoplastic model for the hysteresis loops of a panel, is illustrated in Figure 5. The model
cyclic
loading tests on smallscale
(b) show the first two hysteresis loops for the web plate
and frame, respectively. Hysteresis loops of the com plete panel, shown in Figure 5(c), are obtained by superimposing the hysteresis loops for the web plate and frame. In Figure 5(a), Fwcrand F~, are the critical (buckling) and ultimate shear forces of the web plate and ~e and ~, are the limiting elastic and plastic shear displacements, respectively. From O to A the response
was developed from a
series
of
models i~quasistatic
. Figures 5 (a) and
is assumed elastic and linear, even though the plate may
buckle at a shear force less than
inclined tension field gradually develops in the plate, which becomes fully developed and yields when the shear force equals FwuTM. From A to B1 the plate strains plastically and from B1 to C1 the plate unloads elastically parallel to OA. The length 0.C1 is proportional to be plastic elonga tion of the panel diagonal CC in Figure 4(a). The length O.D1 is proportional to the corresponding plastic con traction of the panel diagonal DD, and is defined by
Fw~. After buckling an
O.D1 = ~O.C1
(33)
The ratio/3 can be determined from the flow theory of plasticity and an assumed state of stress in the plate. D1E1 is parallel to OA. The loop now continues from C1 to E1 to F1. At E1 the plate buckles and from
E1 to F1 an inclined tension field develops in the plate. From F1 to G1 the plate strains plastically in the opposite direction after which it unloads from G1 to D 1, parallel to OA. The plastic elongation of the panel diagonal DD during the second half of the cycle is
to the length of D1.D1. Hence
the length C1.C1, which is proportional to the cor
assumed proporti
onal
responding contraction of the panel diagonal CC, is given by
C1.C1 = ~D1.D1
(34)
C1HI
from H1 to B1 an inclined tension field develops in the plate.
is parallel to OA. At H1 the plate buckles and
Starting from B1, the seco
ndcycle
is similar to the
first cycle. The length D1.D2 is given by
D1.D2 =/3C1 .C2
and length C2.C2 is given by
C2.C2 = flD2.D2
(35)
(36)
a
Figure 4
'•D
C
I
b
^{B}^{e}^{a}^{m}
\
D
I
c
Column
b
If
Individual panel (storey) of steel plate shear wall; (a), storey shear displacements; (b), typical hysteresis loop
Eng. Struct.
1992, Vol.
14,
No
5
313
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of steel plates shear walls: S. SabouriGhomi and T.M. Roberts
Fw ^{~}
¢//
/"1
//
I
A
W%
BI
B2
single bay, fivestorey shear wall, similar to that shown in Figure l(a), having fixed beam to column connections and the following dimensions and material properties.
I I 
iiii 
s 
= 3000 mm (storey height) 

b 
= 
71300 nun (width of shear wall) 

h 
= 3 nun (thickness of steel plate) 

wg 
Ir 
= 799 x 106 mm 2 (second moment of area 
of 

columns) 

AI = 25400 mm21(crosssection area of columns) 
~s
[~ 4
GI
A

,/
D2
Flu
//
///"
~$
@
Bl
/J
z"
i//
B2
~$
Myp= 867 ×
unlns~
106
Nmm
~plastic
moment
of
col
I = 6.2 × 10 u mm 4 (second moment ofiarea of shear wall)
mi 
= 1690 kg (concentrated storey masses) 
E 
= 205 000 N/mm 2 (Young's modulus of steel) 
a0 
= 200 N/mm 2 (yield stress of steel) 
/z 
= 0.3 (Poisson's ratio) 
The magnitude of the time step used in the finite dif. ference analysis should not exceed approximately one twentieth of the smallest natural period of the structure which is considered significant. The time step should also be small enough to represent accurately the varia tion of the stiffness of the structure with time. To obtain
the results presented herein, a time step 5t approximately equal to 1/200 of the largest natural period of the struc ture was used.
Problem 1
For this problem, pulse loads of 200 kN, with a duration of two seconds, were applied to each storey. With this loading, the shear wall remained elastic. The response of the fifth storey is shown in Figure 6(a) while the
25
5thstorey
c
Figure
5
(a), web
Hysteresis loops for panels of a steel plate shear wall;
plate;
(b), frame;
(c), completepanel
The first two hysteresis loops for the frame are shown in Figure 5(b), in which Fy= is the ultimate shear force of the frame, w}e and w~, are the limiting elastic and plastic shear displacements. Loading and unloading curves are assumed to be linear and parallel. When the beam to column connections of the shear wall are fixed, the frame may contribute significant proportions of the shear stiffness, strength and plastic energy absorption of a panel. Alternatively, when the beam to column con nections are pinned, the shear contribution of the frame is relatively small and can be neglected by assuming
F~=0.
Expressions for the various parameters used to define the hysteresis loops are given in the Appendix.
Examples
Solutions were obtained for the dynamic response of a
E
E 0
i~
:
s) 6
a 
 
25 

25 

W 
W$ 
Wb 

0 
I 

b 
I 
2 
.3 
4 
5 

Storey 

Figure 
6 
Elastic response of 
steel plate shear wall to 
pulse 

loading: 
(a), 
variation 
of 
displacements 
with 
time; 
(b), 
displacements at time t =
1 s
314
Eng.Struct. 1992, Vol. 14, No 5
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of steel plates shear walls: $, SabouriGhomi and T.M. Roberts
displacements of the shear wall at time t = 1 s are shown
in Figure 6(b).
The results presented validate the numerical analysis since the displacements reduce to zero after approxi mately 1.4 s, without becoming negative. This behaviour is as expected from an elastic system, when the duration of the pulse loading is greater than a half of the period of oscillation of the first cycle.
Problem 2
For the second problem, the pulse loads applied to each storey were increased to 530 kN, with a duration of 1.8 s. This loading induced plastic shear deformation of the first storey. The response of the fifth storey is shown in Figure 7(a) while the displacements of the shear wall at time t = 1.5 s are shown in Figure 7(b). The relative shear displacement of the first storey is much greater than that of other storeys, due to the plastic
^{A} E
E
70
a 20
E
70
b 20
Figure 7
t=I.Ss
I
W
5th storey
/ (s)
W 
 

wb 

m 

I" 
I 
I 
I 

2 
3 
4 
5 

Storey 
Inelastic response of steel plate shear wall to pulse
loading: 
(a), 
variation 
of 
displacements 
with 
time; 
(b), 
displacements at time t = 1.5 
s 
E
501
5th storey
AgAA,,A
50
Figure 8
Resonance and hysteretic damping of steel plate shear
wall subjected to periodic
t
)#'
ground motion: (
), w;
( 


) w';
shear deformation. The nonlinear response of the first storey also induces higher modes of vibration (deflection curves no longer smooth) with subsequent elastic vibra tion about a plastically strained state (mean displacements not zero).
Problem 3
For this problem, ground motion defined by
Wg,,= 2 sin(4. It)
(37)
was applied. The frequency of the ground motion was chosen to be approximately equal to the lowest natural frequency of the shear wall. The response of the fifth storey is shown in Figure 8. As can be seen, the periodic ground motion induced resonance of the shear wall which is characterized by a linear increase in the amplitude of vibration during the first three or four cycles. The onset of plastic shear deformation inhibited the resonance and resulted in a reduction in the amplitude of vibration. The reasons for this are, firstly, energy is dissipated by the structure dur ing the plastic hysteretic cycles, which acts as a form of damping; and secondly, a reduction in the stiffness of the structure due to the plastic straining decreases the natural frequency of vibration, which does not remain exactly in phase with the ground motion. This also inhibits resonance.
Conclusions
The governing differential equations of motion for a single bay, multistorey, steel plate shear wall have been presented and solved using a finite difference time stepp ing scheme. The equations of motion incorporate both shear and overall bending displacements of the shear wall. The hysteretic characteristics of the individual
panels (storeys) of the shear wall, incorporated in the nonlinear analysis, include the influence of shear buckl ing and plastic yielding of the web plate and plastic yielding of the surrounding frame. The results presented validate the analysis for the elastic response of shear walls and also demonstrate the effectiveness of the hysteretic characteristics in inhibiting resonance.
References
1 Takahashi, Y., Takeda, T., Takemoto, Y. and Takagai, M. 'Experimental study on thin steel shear walls and particular steel brac ing under alternating horizontal loading', IABSE, Symposium on
resistance and ultimate deformability of structures acted on by well
defined repeated loads, Lisbon, Portugal, 1973, 185191
2 'Shear walls and slip forming speed Dallas reunion project', Engng News Record, July 28, 1977, 2021
3 'Quake proof hospital has battleship like walls', Engng News Record, September 21, 1978, 6263
4 'Patent problems challenge spawn steel seismic walls', Engng News Record, January 26, 1978, 17
5 'Steel plate shear walls blunt the winds force and carry gravity load in a towered hotel', Architect. Rec., August, 1978, 116117
6 'Hospital steel plate shear walls were designed for a 0.69G earth quake', Arch. Rec., August, 1978, 118
7 Troy, R. G. and Richard, R. M. 'Steel plate shear walls resist lateral loads, cut costs', Civil Engineering, ASCE, 1979 49, 5355
8 Baldelli, J. A. 'Steel shear walls for existing buildings', Eng. J. AISC, 1983, 20, (2), 7077
Eng. Struct.
1992, Vol.
14,
No
5
315
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of steel plates shear walls: S. SabouriGhomi and T.M. Roberts
9 Thorburn, L. J., Kulak, G. L. and Montgomery, C. J. "Analysis and design of steel shear wall systems', Structural Engineering Report 107, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, Canada, 1983
10 Kulak, G. L. 'Unstiffened steel plate shear walls; static and seismic
behaviour', Steel structures:
applications,
Publishers, London, UK, 1986, pp 56l580
recent research
(Ed.),
advances and their
Applied
Science
M.
N.
Pavlovic,
Elsevier
11 SabouriGhomi, S. 'Quasi static and dynamic hysteretic behaviour of unstiffened steel plate shear walls', Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wales College of Cardiff, Wales, UK, 1989
12 Clough, R. W. and Penzien, J. Dynamics of structures, McGraw Hill, 1975
13 Newmark, N. and Rosenblueth, E. Fundamentals of earthquake engineering, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1971
14 Warburton, G. B. The dynamical behaviour of structures, (2nd edn), Pergamon International Library, 1976
15 Porter, D. M., Rockey, K. C. and Evans, H. R. 'The collapse behaviour of plate girders loaded in shear', Struct. Eng., 1975, 53, (8), 314325
Appendix
The parameters used to define the hysteretic characteristics of individual panels (storeys) of steel plate shear walls, discussed in the main text, are now
defined
I I.
The critical (buckling) shear stress r~, of an assumed simply supported plate, width b, depth s and thickness
h (see Figure
4(a)),
is given by
k~r~2Eh 2
12(1 
~2)b2
b 2
kcr = 
5.35 + 4~ 
for s/b 
> 
1 

b2 

k,.r = 
5.35 ~+4 
for s/b 
< 
1 
(A1) 
where E is Young's modulus and /x is the Poisson ratio. The critical shear force of the web plate Fwcr, is therefore
F,,,,: = r,rbh
(A2)
It is assumed that during the postbuckled stage, a tension field, inclined at 45 ° to the boundaries, gradually develops throughout the entire web plate 15. This assumed stress distribution provides a lower bound for the strength of the plate, provided that the sur rounding frame members are strong enough to sustain the normal boundary forces associated with the tension field. According to the Von Mises' yield criterion, the value of the tension field stress %,, at which yielding of the plate occurs, is defined by the equation
at = 3r2cr+ 37"crOry+ 0 2
(A3)
in which % is the uniaxial yield stress. The boundary
sheer stress 
associated with rcr and O,y, denoted by ry, 
is 
7~ = "rcr + Ory
2
(A4)
Therefore, the ultimate shear force of the web plate
F,,.,, is given by
F~.
= rybh
(A5)
The effective shear strain of the buckled plate, cor responding to ry, denoted by 6y, is given by
'~/y
~"
Tcr

G
2titv
"~
"
E
(A6)
is the shear modulus of the
plate. The limiting elastic shear displacement of the plate Wwe*,is now given by
in which
G = E/2(1
+
#)
s
W we =
S'~y
(A7)
Based on the flow theory of plasticity, the parameter /3 which defines the ratio of the plastic strains along the diagonals of a panel, for zero plastic volume change, is given by
13 =
 zcr sin(20a) +
% [ sin2(0d  lr/4)  1/3 } [(AS)
rcr sin(20d) + O~y{COS20r/4Od) 1/3}
in which Od is the inclination of the panel diagonals from horizontal. A positive value of B should be used in equations in the main text to be consistent with direc tions on the hysteresis loops. When the web plate is stiffened so that rcr is greater than the yield shear stress r0, equations (A1) should be replaced by
"rcr =
7"0 =
Oo/~¢;'3
(A9)
When the beam to column connections of the shear wall are fixed, it can be assumed that plastic hinges form in the columns, at the top and bottom of a storey that deforms plastically in shear (see Figure 4(a)). The ultimate shear force of the frame is then given by
Ff~ 
4Myp
s
(AIO)
in which M/p is the plastic moment of the columns. The corresponding limiting elastic shear displacement ~}e is given approximately by
~
M~s 2
6EI:
(All)
in which I/is
unlns.
Alternatively, when the beam to column connections are pinned, the contribution of the frame to the shear stiffness and strength is relatively small and can be neglected by assuming Ff. = 0. To ensure that the ultimate shear force of the frame (columns) defined by equation (A10) can be mobilized, in conjunction with the normal forces exerted on the columns by the inclined tension field stresses try, the
the second moment of area of the col
316
Eng. Struct. 1992, Vol. 14, No 5
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of steel plates shear walls: S. SabouriGhomi and T.M. Roberts
following condition should be satisfied
8M/e 
> 
o',s 
(A12) 
h$2 
 
The corresponding condition for the extreme cross beams (top of top storey and base of ground storey) is
16Mbe>
hb 2
_
a~y
(A13)
in which Mbeis the plastic moment of the cross beams.
When the above conditions are not satisfied, the value of
O,y used
When the beam to column connections are pinned and the contribution of the frame is neglected by assuming F~, = 0, the condition defined by equations (A12) can be replaced by
in the analysis should be limited accordingly.
16M# >
h$2

o~
(A 14)
Eng. Struct. 1992,
Vol.
14,
No 5
317
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.