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Excerpt AASHTO—Geometric Design of Highways and Streets ‘© A city transit bus may be used in the design of state highway intersections with city streets that are designated bus routes and that have relatively few large trucks using them. + Depending on expected usage, a large school bus (84 passengers) or a conventional school bus (65 passengers) may be used for the design of intersections of highways with low-volume county highways and township/local roads under 400 ADT. The schoo! bus ‘ay also be appropriate for the design of some subdivision street intersections. ‘+ The WB-20 [WB-65 or 67] truck should generally be the minimum size design vehicle considered for intersections of freeway ramp terminals with arterial crossroads and for other intersections on state highways and industrialized streets that carry high volumes of traffic and/or that provide local access for large trucks. In addition to the 19 design vehicles, dimensions for a typical farm tractor are shown in Exhibit2-1, and the minimum tuning radius for a farm tractor with one wagon is shown in Exhibit 2-2, Turing paths of design vehicles can be determined from the dimensions shown in is 2-1 and 2-2 and through the use of commercially available computer programs. Minimum Turning Paths of Design Vehicles Exhibits 2-3 through 2-23 present the minimum turning paths for 19 typical design vehicles. ‘The principal dimensions affecting design are the minimum centerline turning radius (CTR), the cout-to-out track width, the wheelbase, and the path of the inner rear tire. Effects of driver characteristics (such as the speed at which the driver makes a turn) and of the slip angles of ‘wheels are minimized by assuming thatthe speed ofthe vehicle for the minimum turning radius is {ess than 15 km/h [10 mph. ‘The boundaries of the turing paths of each design vehicle for its sharpest tums are established by the outer trace of the front overhang and the path of the inner rear wheel. This turn assumes that the outer front wheel follows the circular arc defining the minimum centerline turning radius as determined by the vehicle steering mechanism. The minimum radii of the ‘outside and inside whee! paths and the centerline turning radii (CTR) for specific design vehicles are given in Exhibit 2-2. ‘Trucks and buses generally require more generous geometric designs than do passenger Vehicles. This is largely because trucks and buses are wider and have longer wheelbases and seater minimum turning radii, which are the principal vehicle dimensions affecting horizontal alignment and cross section. Single-unit trucks and buses have smaller minimum turning radi than most combination vehicles, but because of their greater offtracking, the longer combination vehicles need greater turning path widths. Exhibit 2-11 defines the turning characteristics of a typical tractor/semitrailer combination. Exhibit 2-12 defines the lengths of tractors commonly used in tractor/semitrailer combinations. A combination truck is a single-unit truck with a full trailer, a truck tractor semitrailer, or a truck tractor with a semitrailer and one or more full trailers. Because combination truck sizes and turning characteristics vary widely, there are several combination truck design 18 Design Controls and Criteria Metric Sonor tional | Largo? Pas: | ‘singe: city | Schoot | Schoo! Intermed intro sengor | “Unit | Intorcity Bus | Transit | Bus (65 | Bus a4 | Arcu- lat Som-te Semi car | truck | Motordoachy | “Bus pass) |istod Bus] taller | talon [su | 6us-i2 [ aUS. 17 [onyaUs|SeusiT| SeUSI2] ASUS | WEL | WBS iim Design tumng | 7a | re | tar | tar | ze | ano | azo | ar | 22 | tar dus a Cente ine! | tuning} e4 | tte | ze | 24 | 1s | 105 | sos | we | 10 | 125 Ras | CTR iim eee eet ee fees | ere see ra) |e roe pees sot ea Fads im) Tape “Double | Triple | Doubie motor | Farm Design Bottom" | Somi- | Som carand | carand | Home | Tractor Interstate (Combina aler! | trailer? | Motor Boat [and Boat] wione Somivatior | “tion” | tale |_raler_| Home Symbot | w5-10 [we20~ | we-200 | wesor [we-350"| mit rma Design tuning | 197 | 137 | 137 | t37 | tes | 22 | tor | 73 | 152 | 55 Radius ) Tener tne tumng | 125 | 125 | ws | ws | wa | to | 04 | 64 | mo | aa Radus cry im Minimam Inside aos cn) ‘Nolo. — Nambevelh table have boon rounded t ho neareat tanh ofa meer. s)= _Design vehi with 14.83-m tale as adoptog in 1962 Surface Traneportaion Assistance Act (STAM) [Design vehicle with 16.16-m tale: as grandtathered in wih 1982 Surface Tranepotaion Assistance Ac STAR) ‘The turing radius assumed by @ designer when investigating possible turing paths and is st alte cenatine of the font aso ofa vehicle. Ifthe miimar tuning path's assumed, the CTR approxmately equals the minimum setign tring radius minus one-half he font with ofthe venice, % = School buses are manuactured from 42-passenger to Bt-passenger sizes. This covtesponds to wheotbaeo lengths of 8:35 m 10 61 m,respecthely. For these different sizes, the minimum design ‘uring rad vary fom 8.78m'o 12.01 mand ine minimum ini ral vary tom 4.27 mo 7.74 m, “Turing racus i or 180-200 np tracter ath one 5-641 lng wagon altached to fitch point. Front whee ve is sisengaged and without brakes boing applied ratlor_|"Traler | Wagon Pre | ws | TR ze | is | se | 30 | as | ro | ss | 26 | tor | a2 Exhibit 2 . Minimum Turning Radii of Design Vehicles 19 AASHTO—Geometric Design of Highways and Streets US Customary Conver" tional | Large? | Design | pase | single cciy | sehoot | Sehoot Intormod-intermed | Vehicle | senger | “Unt” | intercity Bus | Transit | Bue (85 | Bus (84 | Articu- ite Som |ate Som | ‘type | “car | truck | (motor oscny | “Bus | ‘pees | pass) ated Bus| trailor |-traler | Syneot|—P | su | Bus | Bus <5 [ory eUs|S aus] Sas] ASUS | WE40 | WESD | Bn | Design | tumng | 2 | az | as | 4s | 420 | seo | ace | ap8 | ao | as Racios | ra Tene ‘ne | suming | 21 | aa | aos | aoe | are | x49 | ac4 | ass | a | at | Radi cre) 7 Nam wrsae | twa | 20s | ze | 255 | m5 | m0 | asa | ars | toa | 170 w ‘Double | Teple Motor | Farm Design Bottom? | Som. Carand | carand | Home | Tractor | Voriso | interstate [Combina-| trailer totor | Camper | “Boat” |and Boat| wine “Type | Somivate [tion | tars Home| rater | trates |“Traler | Wagon | symbol | we-s2" | WEES | we.67D | we-100T jwe-to90"] Ml Pr pe | Mee | TRW | ro Design tung | 4s | as | as | 4s | oo | ao | om | mw | © | wo Radius | ©. L Toni ine! umro| a1 | se | oat | oak | os | oe | oo | om | we | Reds | (cre) ‘nim trde'| ro | 44 | 19s | oo | uo | 259 | sa | oo | an1 | tos fa Design vehicle with 46:8 Waler as adopted in 1982 Surface Transportation Aesatance Ac (STAA). Design vehicle with 53:1 alr as grandiathored in with 1082 Surtace Transportation Assistance Ac (STAA). = The turing radius assumed by a designer when investigating possible turing paths and is sot atthe centaine of ‘na font ane of @ vehicle. If the mim tuming path assumed, the CTR approximately equals the minimum sign turing racius minus one-half he font with of he von, = School buses are manufactured trom a2-passenge to B&-pacsenger sizes. This coresponds to wheelbase Tongihs of 1.0°% to 20.0, respecivay. For these aferent sizes, the minimum dosign tuning radi vary fom 28.8 to 304 Rand th minimum inside rad van fom 14.0140 254 fy ‘= Turning rai for 160-200 hp trate wth ona 18.5 long wagon attached to htc point. Font wheel dive is ‘sengaged and without brakes bing appeod Exhibit 2-2, Minimum Turning Radii of Design Vehicles (Continued) | 20 Design C Path of left front wheel” o 1m 25m Path of ight__ scale rear overhang + Assumed steering angle is 31.6 ° = CTR=Centerine turning Ba] reds at ron axe ray Exhi it 2-3. Minimum Turning Path for Passenger Car (P) Design Vehicle trols and Criteria Path of front a AASHTO—Geometric Design of Highways and Streets | Path of front ‘overhang Path of left front whee! V\t yy iyi yi +l ea scale it 1 | Path of ght if rear ea 1 f 1 |i Lt 1 4p, + Assumed steering angle is 31,7° Le | [3 fy © CTR = Centerline tuming radius at front axle it2-4. Minimum Turning Path for Single-Unit (SU) Truck Design Vehicle 22 Design Controls and Criteria | [ 320m {e C= me 732m goa 7 s220m_24 fl 1 4220m —__8§n Sft__10ft Gon oO im 25m scale Path ofioht front whee! Path of font 7 overhang + Assumed steering angle is 38.7° + CTR = Centerline tuning radius at front axle Exhibit 2-5, Minimum Turning Path for Intercity Bus (BUS-12 [BUS-40]) Design Vehicle 23 AASHTO—Geometrie Design of Highways and Streets: ] fm IJ. Look 250m [4.72hn F 808m 4,83 esi [26.5 fi fem | Oey 19 8 Bsn” EA is72m 265 A) I bees 145) 0 1m 25m scale aot ont ate Path tien 4 frontarce BS V4 V4 th} | i! 1 |! | osniot Al | 1) BZ. panatiant | | |! | ! 7) rear whee! nl | yt 1! 1 t | : + Assumed steering angle is 44.4° 1 |! 2892, « CTR=Centerine turing 1 | bn rads st rant axle Exhibit 2-6. Minimum Turning Path for Intereity Bus (BUS-14 [BUS-45]) Design Vehi 4 Design Controls and Criteria 2.44 m, 762m 213m (Ay 1220m (25) fia on oO. sft 108 o 1m 25m scale Path of loft sro I | osniok \ 025 path of ght Hd rearwi i {i 1} Vi | 1; 259m 1 |: at 1 | een th * Assumed steering angle is a? + CTR = Centerline turing radius at front axle Exhibit 2-7. Minimum Turning Path for City Transit Bus (CITY-BUS) Design Vehicle 25 AASHTO—Geometrie Design of Highways and Streets en __ 649m (2A) 709m 2138) 135.8 A} hl om 25m (Vista style) scale Path of front ‘overhang 0 25m scale Path of right. rear wheel \ \ | 1 I 0 shor ! ae 1 1 1 I \ I t + Assumed steering angle is 37.2° + CTR= Centerline tuming radius at front axle * 65 passenger bus it 2-8. Minimum Turning Path for Conventional School Bus (S-BUS-11 [S-BUS-36]) Design Vehicle 113 fy Path of loft frontwheet 44am uu fet) Exhibit 2-9. Minimum Turning Path for Large School Bus (S-BUS-12 [S-BUS-40}) Design C © 6.10 7 ioe 2.20m (20) 7 i (40 a | (Transit style) Ost tof o im 25m scale Path of front overhang ostt0f 0 25m scale path of right rearw '* Assumed steering angle is 34, 2° CTR = Centerline turning radius at front axle 84 passenger bus Design Vehicle 27 metric Design of Highways and: AASHTO- + pgs 6 scale Path ofift rent wheat radius at front axle Ost 108 je 3.05 m 402m_, 11.09 m Om e5m [OA (329) 762A) 67im 28am 122.0 8) 26] 418.29m_ [E00] Path of front . eae + Assumed steering angle is 37.8° + Articulated angie is 38.1° + CTR=Centertine turing Exhibit 2-10. Minimum Turning Path for Articulated Bus (A-BUS) Design Vehicle 28 Design Controts and Criteria ‘Tractor / trailer Path of Front inside_ Tractor Tie | CTR Turning Radius Defintions: 4. Turing radius—The circular arc formed by the turning path radius ef the front outside tie of a vehicle. ‘This radius is also described by vehicle manviacturers as the “turning curb radius 2. CTR—The turning raclus ofthe centerine of the front axle of a vehicle 3. Offtracking—The difference in the paths of the front and rear wheels of @ tactorisemitraiier as it negotiates a tum. The path of the rear tres of a tuming truck does not coincide win that of the front tres, and this effect is shown inthe drawing above, 4, Swept path width—The amount of roadway wisth that a truck covers in negotiating a turn and is equal to the amount of offracking plus the width of the tractor unit. The most significant dimension affecting the swept path width of a tractorlsemitailer is the distance fom the kingpin to the reer trailer axle or axles. The greater this distance is, the greater the swept path width 5. Steering angle—The maximum angle of tum built into the steering mechanism of the front wheels of a vehicle. This maximum angle Controls the minimum turning rads of the vehicle. 6. Tractortralier angle—The angle between adjoining units of a tractorisemitraler when the combination Units placed into a turn; this angle is measured between the longitudinal axes of the tractor and lualer as the vehicle tums. The maximum tractorfrailer angle occurs when a vehicle makes a 180° tum af the minimum turning radius, this angle is reached sighly beyond the point where maximum ‘swept path width is achieved, Exhibit 2-11. Turning Characteristics of a Typical Tractor-Semitrailer Combination Truck 29 AASHTO—Geometric Design af Highways and Streets ‘a Typical iong-haul Wactors (Tractor semivalir configuration) 35m (CABOVER) rf WJ (CONVENTIONAL) dll, sfezh™ orn [go 371m isan (22 Ay Bat test Zh, s20m zm een trae fe 595m ’. Typical city and short-haul tractors (Tractor - semitraler configuration) o7im es roy i 317m ut Serosnige 435 | 381m 125% iA ‘© Typical actor for Double & Tile configuration 1 nee) Exhibit 2-12. Lengths of Commonly Used Truck Tractors 30 Design Controls and Criteria 10.06 m{33 A Trailer 77m | [ashy 2558 | o 5h 108 2 a i | O tm 25m 9 f scale i al [say TO ae oan ®) (12.5 A) est eau | TARE 12.20 mid0 A] wneebase ‘ in 13.87 m[4535 flor greater + Typical tie size and space between tires applies to all trailer. Path of front Path of left 7 Svethang ‘Font wheel \ * Assumed steering angle is 20.4° + Assumed tractorftrailer angle is 46° © CTR=Centeriine tuming radius at front axle = i {80 f} Exhibit 2-13, Minimum Turning Path for Intermediate Semitrailer (WB-12 [WB-40]) Design Vehicle 31 AASHTO—Geomeiric Design of Highways and Streets 12.95 m{42.5 fl] Trailer 10.82 m55 aa = = i 9 gon i] pee ' = i H Otm 25m o9tm,! i scale t 1 2 a0 : Sim 122m 1.28 347m _.) ‘ fy | ia2n] 04h I (oml 3eim_, \t 15.24 m{50M] Wheebase (421) 1258) I ___ 16.77 {55 ft]or greater i Path of front Path of tft ‘overhang front whee! asition Pathofright as Fear wheel ily 0 25m scale ‘Assumed steering angle is 17.9° + Assumed tracorfrailer anglo is 56° * CTR = Centerine tuming radius Tt at front axle 1} 259m i {8.5 ft} Exhibit 2-14. Minimum Turning Path for Intermediate Semitrailer (WB-15 [WB-50]) Design Vehicle 22 Design Controls and Criteria 14.63 mi4g fi Trailer toa otmbOsn ; a0 5: 115 fy | o 5h 108 | i ot 25m ostm |} | ' Toe a @@ ‘ (ee Sales 122m m 530m © m_| Zan__s30m_,f "t ny any 2’) 505m (174A) any i Ties ty 18.90 m [62 A] Wheelbase 20.88 m [68.5 all ~————_ Path ofeft SS front wheel mien! ‘ear whee! ‘= Assumad stecring angle is 28.4° ‘Assumed tractorfraler angle is 65° = CTR = Centerine turning \ 1 I 1 I 1 Dantok Path ofright 1 t ' ' 1 1 ! ! 1 ‘adius at front axle | I Il EE sT Exhibit2-15, Minimum Turning Path for Interstate Semitrailer (WB-19 [WB-62]) Design Vehicle 33 AASHTO—Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 98 a 457m Tea T "ose 108 ; i ' i on 25m ostm | ‘scale re g Path ote Front ised (eles = 3 72mRE 24h date eal (aa ggiio! 4 O Fb ‘scale Nol: The WB.20 {WB.-65)is shown. ‘longer wheolbase vehicle, the \W.20 [WE-67), can be created by moving the tnéor woot assembly on tha Waller back by Osim ny + Assumed steesng angle 284° + Assumed wactciaer angle ie 68.5° 1 CTR = Centering turing radius at rot te ism bem osm 2-16. Minimum Turning Path for Interstate Semitrailer (WB.20 [WB-65 and WB-67}) Design Vehicle 34 Design Controls and Criteria 4.00 (28.5) Tater __260m208 6 Tor toms 70123 4) i as) Loom: 070m i ors “am pA} est J ose oeY 6 6 ¥ ae ortm Ointsm am esa” ira ate 2a43 67 Wrasse ! ze =—— Ha m(733H ath of front ‘overhang Pat of ok ent wheel + Assumed stoorng angle is 15.7° + Assumed vactolialer ange is 35.1° * Assumed vailrtvaler angles 85.0° + CTR = Conteine turing. ‘ads a ont ase 259m 5 Exhibit 2-17. Minimum Turning Path for Double-Trailer Combination (WB-20D [WB-67D]) Design Vehicle 35 AASHTO—Geometrle Design of Highways and Streets | 8.69 m 128.5 f) Taller, §.69.m [28.5 8} Trailer, 8.69 m [28.5 ft Tralor 701 m (23 7.01 m[23 t 701 my patormiasnl | | Zoran. | |. Zo1mize A team O76 m,1 Tostm O78m,! L[ loom O76m! Lye) Oo" esq | Pisa 25a || Mea 25 ty | "Ole To. ort @S 35) o71m | rl bg [288 i (2.39 1) ! tA tra sas aia25 30.33 m{99.5 f] Wheetbase 31.96 m [104.83 ft] o sft 108 = Oe Path of front Path of left Front wheel gsnion i Fim 1 scale Path of ight I rear ares! it | + Assumed sterng ange iste0 I '* Assumed tractoritrailer angle 1] “isssoe 1 | + Aesumed trailer Mie? angle iq i886.0° +4 ‘+ Assumed trailer2/trailer3 angle my “seo0" + CTR = Centerine tuming radius ! at front axle | | I hl 253in Bet Exhibit 2-18. Minimum Turning Path for Triple-Trailer Combination (WB-30T [WB-100T}) Design Vehicle 36 Design Controls and Criteria 14.63 m(48 f Tealler 14,63 mas 1 Tralee 12.34 {605 8) ‘Sm 12.34 m0.5 0) 145 EO er Br Bia. Exhibit 2-19. Path of front ‘overnang osnion O 25m ‘scale rear wheel Note: ia conventional ype tractors used with this combination, a longer wheelbase is obtained. With & conventional actor use 9 wheelbase of 5.34 m 17.51) += Assumed steering angle is 12.7 ‘+ Assumed trecorialler angle is 45° “+ Assumed tralantallar ang i 70.0 ° * CTR = Centertine turing radius at font axe Minimum Turning Path for Turnpike-Double Combination (WB-33D [WB-109D}) Design Vehicle 37 AASHTO—Geometric Design of Highway and Streets og QO 1 183m 6.1m 422m (i) etm OH TER] 130 ft) oO 5 10 oO 1m 25m scale Path of front penta ee ‘overhang 0 sf ton 0 25m —— Path of right [_] rearvneet | "2.44 m el | {8 ft] ‘+ Assumed steering angle is 33.7° + CTR = Centerline turning radius at front axle Exhibit 2-20, Minimum Turning Path for Motor Home (MH) Design V‘ 38 Design trols and Criteria f= 8.23/27 ft psa) Aa pom izplisapl, ssem | [.2atm | 365m sam "PA tA ty tel tam 7 { a ers ot) ose son 4} I ; 0 25m \3 y scale Path ofight_~| | wy ‘ear wheel 1 i 1 1 1 + Assumed steering angle is 21,6° — + Assumed caritraler angle is 47.2° —4 + CTR = Centerline tuning radius at front axle Exhibit 2-21, Mi mum Turning Path for Passenger Car and Camper Trailer (P/T) Design Vehicle 39 AASHTO~Geometric Design af Highways and Streets Path of front overhang nui i radius = 7 32 TBE TT | scale Path of right rear wheel 7+ Assumed steering angle is 31.62 | + Assumed cartrailer angle is 61.12 RAS) + CTR= Centerline turing TM) radius at ront axle Exhibit 2-22. Minimum Turning Path for Passenger Car and Boat Trailer (P/B) Design Vehicle 40 = Design Controls and Criteria 122m ay O im 25m scale Path of left Path of front | 9 Sf tof 0 25m ay Path of right _—1 rear wheel + Assumed steering angle Is 25.8° + Assumed motor homertailer angle is 30° + CTR = Centerline turning radius at front axle I ad 59 # Exhibit 2-23. Minimum Turning Path for Motor Home and Boat Trailer (MH/B) Design Vehicle 4 AASHTO Geometric Design of Highways and Streets vehicles. These combination trucks are identified by the designation WE, together withthe whee! base or another length dimension in both metric and U.S. customary unis. The combination tuck design vehicles are: (1) the WB-12 [WB-40] design vehicle representative of intermediate size tractor-semitrailer combinations, (2) the WB-15 [WB-S0] design vehicle representative of @ slightly larger intermediate size tractor-semitrailer combination commonly in use, (3) the WB-19 (WB-62] design vehicle representative of larger tractor semitrailer combinations allowed on selected highways by the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982, (4) the WB-20 [WB-65, or WB-67] design vehicle representative of a larger tractor-semitraler allowed to operate on selected highways by “grandfather” rights under the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982, (5) the WB-20D [WB-67D] design vehicle representative ofa tractor-semitraier/full trailer (doubles ot twin trailer) combination commonly in use, (6) the WB-30T [WB-100T} design Vehicle representative of tractor-semitrailer/ull trailer/full trailer combinations (triples) selectively in use, and (7) the WB-33D [WB-109D] design vehicle representative of larger ‘ractor-semitrailer/full trailer combinations (tumpike double) selectively in use. Although tumpike doubles and triple trailers are not permitted on many highways, their occurrence does \warrant inclusion in this publication, ‘The minimum turing radii and transition lengths shown in the exhibits are for tums at less than 15 krv/h [10 mph]. Longer transition curves and larger curve radii are needed for roadways with higher speeds, The radii shown are considered appropriate minimum values for use in design, although skilled drivers might be able to turn with a slightly smaller radius ‘The dimensions of the design vehicles take into account recent trends in motor vehicle sizes ‘manufactured in the United States and represent a composite of vehicles currently in operation However, the design vehicle dimensions are intended to represent vehicle sizes that are critical to geometric design and thus are larger than nearly all vehicles belonging to their corresponding vehicle classes. ‘The turning paths shown in Exhibits 2-3 through 2-10 and Exhibits 2-13 through 2-23 were derived by using commercially available computer programs, The P design vehicle, with the dimensions and turning characteristics shown in Exhibit 2-3, represents a larger passenger car ‘The SU design vehicle represents a larger single-unit truck. The control dimensions indicate the minimum turning path for most single-unit trucks now in operation (see Exhibit 2-4). On long-distance facilities serving large over-the-road truck traffic ot intercity buses (motor coaches), the design vehicle should generally be either a combination truck or an intercity bus (see Exhibit 2-5 or Exhibit 2-6), For intracity or city transit buses, a design vehicle designated as CITY-BUS is shown in Exhibit 2-7. This design vehicle has a wheel base of 7.62 m [25 fl] and an overall length of 12.20 m [40 fi}. Buses serving particular urban areas may not conform to the dimensions shown in Exhibit 2-7, For example, articulated buses, which are now used in certain cities, are longer than a conventional bus, with a permanent hinge near the vebicle’s center that allows more ‘maneuverability. Exhibit 2-10 displays the critical dimensions for the A-BUS design vehicle, a | | Design Controts and Criteria Also, due to the importance of school buses, two design vehicles designated as S-BUS 11 [S-BUS 36] and S-BUS 12 [S-BUS 40] are shown in Exhibits 2-8 and 2-9, respectively. The larger design vehicle is an 84-passenger bus and the smaller design vehicle is a 65-passenger bus. ‘The highway designer should also be aware that for certain buses the combination of ground clearance, overhang, and vertical curvature of the roadway may present problems in hilly areas. Exhibits 2-13 through 2-19 show dimensions and the minimum turning paths of the design vehicles that represent various combination trucks. For local roads and streets, the WB-15 [WB-S0] or WB-12 [WB-40] is often considered an appropriate design vehicle. The larger combination trucks are appropriate for design of facilities that serve over-the-road trucks. Exhibits 2-20 through 2-23 indicate minimum turning paths for typical recreational vehicles, In addition to the vehicles shown in Exhibits 2-3 through 2-10 and Exhibits 2-13 through 2- 23, other vehicles may be used for selected design applications, as appropriate. With the advent of computer programs that can derive tuming path plots, the designer can determine the path characteristics of any selected vehicle if it differs from those shown (1) Vehicle Performance Acceleration and deceleration rates of vehicles are often critical parameters in determining highway design. These rates often govern the dimensions of such design features as intersections, freeway ramps, climbing or passing lanes, and turnout bays for buses. The following data are not meant to depict average performance for specific vehicle classes but rather lower performance vehicles suitable for design application, such as a low-powered (compact) car and a loaded truck or bus. Based on its acceleration and deceleration performance, the passenger car seldom controls design. From Exhibits 2-24 and 2-25, it is obvious that relatively rapid accelerations and decelerations are possible, although they may be uncomfortable for the vehicle's passengers, ‘Also, due to the rapid changes being made in vehicle operating characteristics, current data on acceleration and deceleration may soon become outdated. In addition, refer to the NCHRP Report 400, Determination of Stopping Sight Distances (2). Exhibit 2-24 is based on NCHRP Report 270 (3), When a highway is located in a recreational area, the performance characteristics of recreational vehicles should be considered. Vehicular Pollution Pollutants emitted from motor vehicles and their impact on land uses adjacent to highways are factors affecting the highway design process. As each vehicle travels along the highway, it emits pollutants into the atmosphere and transmits noise to the surrounding area. The highway B