Sei sulla pagina 1di 40


B6<6O>C: >hhjZ&(6eg^a'%%,



HigZZia^\]ih G<7ajb^cV^gZhe((




 #   $           


C:LH6C6ANH>H    ) i^b#l]^iV`Zg5aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb
Philips to acquire TIR Systems  ‘Ban the Bulb’ calls echo around the world  Cree buys IZa# ))%&&,.)&*),-
Cotco  GELcore becomes Lumination  Ford and Element Labs license from Color
Kinetics  DOE invites participation in SSL demonstrations  Konica Minolta and GE HVaZhBVcV\Zg/?dVccV=dd`
commercialize OLED lighting  Renaissance enables user control _dVccV5aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb
IZa# ))%&&,.)&*(,-
C:LH/9:K>8:H    .
Luxeon Rebel redefines dimensions of power LEDs  Cree announces ‘lighting-class’ 8den:Y^idg/Gji]=VglddY
warm-white LEDs  Seoul updates Acriche light source
>CI:GK>:L    && EVja?d]chdc/lll#]^\\h"Wdhdc#Xdb
Discussing the OIDA’s roadmap for solid-state lighting, Michael Lebby highlights the
advances needed to bring SSL technology to general purpose illumination.
B6G@:IH    &(
Hda^Y"hiViZa^\]i^c\bVg`Zied^hZY[dgYgVbVi^X\gdli] A:9hBV\Vo^cZ^hejWa^h]ZYWn
Improvements in white LED performance and price will greatly increase their penetration of 8VWdiBZY^VAiY
the mainstream general illumination market, predict Robert Steele and Vrinda Bhandarkar. :Vhidc7jh^cZhh8ZcigZ!;Za^mGdVY!
HIG::IA><=IH    &- IZa# ))%&&,.)&*(,-
A:9higZZia^\]ih]ZaeIdgdcidWZXdbZWg^\]iZgVcY\gZZcZg :bV^a/^c[d5aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb
An installation of 16 LED streetlights in Toronto’s Exhibition Place demonstrates reduced
energy usage and improved light quality. Eg^cihjWhXg^ei^dch
8DC;:G:C8:H    '% hjWhXg^ei^dc#Eg^XZ^cXajYZh+eg^ci^hhjZheZg
HigViZ\^Zh^cA^\]ihZZhA:9hejh]^c\i]ZWdjcYVg^Zhd[a^\]i^c\ nZVgeajhi]ZVccjVaA:9Hjeea^Zgh9^gZXidgn#
In its eighth year, the Strategies in Light conference continued to address key issues in the J@VYYgZhhZh—'&#
LED marketplace. DkZghZVh—'-$**$6)'#
H I 6 C 9 6 G 9 H    '- 6^gbV^a—).$.*$6-%#
HiVcYVgYhgZfj^gZY[dg[jgi]ZgeZcZigVi^dcd[hda^Y"hiViZa^\]i^c\ K^h^i/lll#aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb$hjWhXg^WZ
The SSL industry urgently needs standards to assist its growth and to avoid hype and negative :cfj^g^Zh/hjWhXg^WZgh5aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb
reactions. The good news, says Kevin Dowling, is that standards work is proceeding rapidly.
8DADJGB>M>C<    (( I]ZZaZXigdc^XE9;kZgh^dc^hVkV^aVWaZ[gZZ
8dadjgXdbeZchVi^dc[dgA:9iZX]cdad\nZcVWaZhXdadjg"XdchiVciG<7ajb^cV^gZh d[X]Vg\Z[gdbdjglZWh^iZ#K^h^i
Colour compensation technology allows luminaire manufacturers to provide colour- lll#aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb$hjWhXg^WZ#
constant products for demanding applications, writes Thomas Schielke, ERCO Leuchten.
768@A><=I>C<    (+
LED backlight units are beginning to appear in large commercial LCD panels, says Brian
Bae, but penetration will increase dramatically in the next few years.


6YkZgi^hZghÉ>cYZm A:9H
B6<6O>C: >hhjZ&(6eg^a'%%,
688$FjVcijbH^a^XdcZh&+ :cÒh(- Anc`AVWh(. GD6A:aZXigdc^Xh') bVg`Zie&(
86D<gdje(' ;jh^dcDei^m&, C^X]^V' GD=B:aZXigdc^Xh)% GREEN4BIZ,EOTEK¬
8VgXad(. Egd"A^iZ&, CjH^aIZX]cdad\n', GH8dbedcZcih(&
8^i^oZc:aZXigdc^Xh, >BH. DXZVcDei^Xh(. HZdjaHZb^XdcYjXidg&' LOWER¬LEFT ¬
8dadg@^cZi^Xh* >chigjbZciHnhiZbh'* Dei^XVaGZhZVgX]6hhdX#&% ?^jo]dj:aZXig^X<gdje'( %2#/¬BOTTOM¬RIGHT
HigZZia^\]ih G<7ajb^cV^gZhe((

8ddaEdanbZgh(. >ciZgcVi^dcVaA^\]i EZg`^c:abZg'. He]ZgZDei^Xh(*


8gZZ&* IZX]cdad\^Zh(- EA98(- HjeZgiZm&.

:Y^hdc&& >ciZgiZX]A:9h'%%,(, EdlZgKZXidg(. KHDeidZaZXigdc^X(.

aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 
A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : C:LH6C6ANH>H
A><=I>C< Leading the coalition, Philips agreed to become the first lighting
E]^a^eheaVchidVXfj^gZHHA manufacturer in North America to seek a phase-out of inefficient
incandescent light bulbs by 2016 (see
heZX^Va^hiI>GHnhiZbh news/4/3/18).
In the short term, such legislation will provide a huge boost to CFL
Philips has made a bid to acquire all outstanding shares of TIR manufacturers, while the focus on energy efficiency is good news for
Systems Ltd, a Vancouver, Canada-based LED lighting company. LEDs in the medium to long term. An Associated Press article quoted
The deal is valued at approximately C$75 million (around US$64m Theo van Deursen, CEO of Philips’ lighting division, as saying that
or €49m) in cash and, subject to the approval of TIR shareholders, is incandescent bulbs did not have a long-term future. “We believe there
expected to close in the second quarter of 2007. are better technologies going forward,” he said. He predicted that
TIR Systems has been at the forefront of developments in the area of halogen lights and CFLs will continue to gain market share in the
color-changing LED-based architectural lighting, and is now deeply medium term, but in the long term LEDs will dominate the market.
involved in technology for products that generate high-quality white
light. TIR’s Lexel technology was first announced in mid-2005 and A: 9B6CJ;68IJG> C <
subsequently licensed to several leading lighting-fixture manufac-
turers, including Zumtobel and Canlyte. Lexel provides a platform 8gZZWjnh8]^cZhZA:9
of fully integrated solid-state lighting (SSL) modules. TIR has been
struggling through successive money-losing quarters and made pub-
lic its search for a suitable partner.
Supporting TIR’s technology and products is a solid IP portfolio
that, when integrated into Philips’ substantial set of SSL patents, will
create a strong competitive advantage. TIR is currently involved in a
patent dispute with Boston-based rival Color Kinetics and the Philips
acquisition could shift the goalposts is this particular confrontation
As well as its own SSL module and luminaire business, Philips
owns Lumileds, the largest manufacturer of power LEDs, and at the
other end of the supply chain Philips recently acquired PLI, a leading

European manufacturer of luminaires for the home market (see www.
Peter van Strijp, chief executive of Philips Lighting’s SSL business
unit, said that the TIR acquisition “strengthens Philips’ position in
delivering integrated lighting products to lighting fixtures manufac-
turers. Our focus will now be on making lighting products that utilize
TIR Systems’ SSL modules widely available.”
 More details at
LED maker Cree has purchased Hong Kong-based Cotco Luminant
: C: G <N  : ; ;>8>:C 8N Device Ltd, a leading supplier of high-brightness LEDs in China, for
$200 million in stock and cash. Cree says the acquisition of Cotco will
È7Vci]Z7jaWÉXVaahZX]d provide access to the important and fast-growing solid-state lighting
VgdjcYi]ZldgaY market in China. Another benefit will be Cotco’s low-cost manufac-
turing capabilities for packaged LEDs.
The plain old incandescent lamp has been added to the endangered Currently, most of Cree’s revenue comes from the sale of LED
species list around the world. Australia’s government has announced chips, and its only packaged LED product line is the XLamp power
it will begin to phase out incandescent light bulbs by 2010, while a LED family. Cotco has a competitive power LED family, Dorado,
proposed bill seeks to do the same in the state of California by 2012. and also manufactures many other types of LED packages. Cotco
European Union heads of state have adopted an energy policy that currently purchases LED chips from suppliers including Cree, and
calls for the European Commission to submit proposals rapidly to has licensed a white LED patent from Cree. Buying Cotco will put
increase requirements for energy efficiency. These requirements will Cree into competition with more of its chip customers.
affect office and street lighting by 2008, and incandescent lamps and Cree says that its goal for the acquisition is to offer more value-
other forms of lighting in private households by 2009. The result added products in key markets for high-performance LED screens,
could well be an outright ban on incandescents. In the UK, the Co- signage and solid-state lighting. “This is the next step in our strategy
operative Group, a leading retailer, will stop selling incandescent to enable the solid-state lighting revolution,” said Chuck Swoboda,
lamps in some of its stores later in 2007, while increasing its range of Cree chairman and CEO. “We look forward to working together
CFL products (see to expand our business in China and to transform Cree into a truly
In Washington, DC, a coalition advocating energy efficiency pre- global company.”
sented plans for proposed legislative action to phase out inefficient Cotco Holdings Ltd will receive $70m in cash and 7.6m Cree shares
lamps through the substitution of existing (or yet-to-be-developed) valued at around $130m. Up to $125m will also be paid if Cotco meets
energy-efficient alternatives including compact fluorescent lamps specific financial targets over the next two fiscal years.
(CFLs) and energy-saving halogen lamps, as well as LED lamps.  More details:

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,



Industry defining technology that has transformed

over 15,000 installations worldwide

Complete system solutions that address a broad

range of lighting applications

A worldwide service and support network

committed to real-time response

Rigorous product testing and verification ensuring

exactly what you expect, every time

When you select an LED systems provider,

select the trusted leader: COLOR KINETICS


1.888.FULL RGB

©2007 Color Kinetics Incorporated. All rights reserved.

A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : C:LH6C6ANH>H
A > 8: C H>C < downlighting is a preferred (but not the only) application, due to its
;dgYVcY:aZbZciAVWha^XZchZ prevalence in US homes and because the directionality of LED light-
ing lends itself to this application.
[gdb8dadg@^cZi^Xh  More details:

A> <=I> C <

GE Consumer & Industrial has changed the name of its LED business
from GELcore LLC to Lumination LLC as part of a drive to develop
Ford Global Technologies has signed a licence agreement to access white LED products for general illumination. This follows last year’s
Color Kinetics’ complete patent portfolio, enabling the car maker to announcement by GE of an investment of $100 million and the for-
incorporate color-controllable LED-based lighting into its vehicles. mation of a strategic alliance with LED maker Nichia (see www.
Ford was one of the first to capitalize on the digitally controllable The company has grown more
nature of LEDs when it introduced the MyColor color-changing than 30% annually since it was founded as a joint venture between
instrument panel in its Ford Mustangs. The CK licence will cover GE Lighting and Emcore. David Elien, president of Lumination, says
such products as well as other intelligent color-controllable systems that the company will continue to deliver LED products for signage,
that Ford may introduce in the future. architecture, transportation signals and retail display. The company
CK’s patents have also been licensed by Element Labs, a prominent plans to release a white LED emitter that targets high quality-of-light
manufacturer of LED systems that merge lighting and video. CK has general illumination.
also licensed certain patents owned or controlled by Element Labs.  More details:
Several of Element Labs’ intelligent LED product lines apply CK’s
proprietary control methods to generate millions of colors and video- D A: 9H
based lighting effects. As such, Element Labs will pay royalty fees
on the sales of these products in all markets covered by CK’s patent @dc^XVB^cdaiVVcY<:iZVbje
portfolio. Element Labs was a member of the LED Alliance that sup-
ported Super Vision in its ultimately unsuccessful patent battle with
CK. Commenting on the CK deal, Nils Thorjussen, president and
CEO of Element Labs, said: “As we continually look to take advan-
tage of rapidly improving LED technology, we think it’s important
to work with Color Kinetics, whose pioneering R&D and resulting
IP have led the market.”
 More details (Ford):
(Elements Labs):

C 6 I > DC 6 A  E GD<G 6B H
As part of its Solid State Lighting project, the US Department of
Energy (DOE) is to conduct demonstrations of solid-state lighting
products, and is inviting participation from manufacturers. The inten-
tion is to place commercial state-of-the-art LED lighting products Konica Minolta and General Electric have signed a strategic alliance
into real-world applications across several sites, to demonstrate their agreement to accelerate the commercialization of organic LEDs for
performance and cost-effectiveness. lighting applications. The goal is to bring OLED lighting to mar-
The demonstration is being coordinated by Pacific Northwest ket within the next three years. Michael Idelchik, VP of Advanced
National Laboratory (PNNL) and will include several teams, each con- Technology Programs at GE Global Research, said that both compa-
sisting of an LED lighting manufacturer/consortium, an energy-effi- nies have achieved significant advances in OLED technologies at the
ciency organization or utility, a host site, and PNNL. A list of willing R&D stage. “Now, we will pool our substantial resources and expertise
participants has already been started, including diverse organizations to accelerate the development of this transformational technology.”
such as several branches of the US military, the Smithsonian Institute, In June 2006, Konica Minolta announced the successful development
the Federal Aviation Administration and the US Postal Service. of a white OLED with a world-record power efficiency of 64 lm/W at
After product installation, PNNL will evaluate the results, includ- 1000 cd/m2 – a brightness which is appropriate for lighting applications.
ing energy and cost savings and related economic analyses, as well as KM has also developed long-life blue phosphorescent materials as well
qualitative responses to the LED lighting fixtures. DOE says that it is as barrier films and coating technology to enable high reliability.
interested in products that will become economically justifiable and As far back as 2004, GE researchers demonstrated a 24×24-inch,
that can impact a large segment of the lighting market. Residential 1200-lumen OLED panel with similar efficiency to an incandes-

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
Whether you are designing a new fixture or updating a classic, these new high-efficiency
Citizen LEDs offer high performance and design flexibility, to give you an edge. Efficiency is
greater than many fluorescents, and other LEDs. Lead-free and environmentally friendly.

New CL-652S offers 85lm (70lm/watt) New CL-L100 ultra-flat, 245lm LEDs (70lm/watt)

The Orion offers trend-setting brightness with unheard of efficiency.

Luminous Flux: cool white is 85lm (70lm/watt). Warm white model is The CL-L100 packs a super luminance flux of 245lm with high
57lm (47lm/watt). Draws 1.2 watts. Configure as 8 junctions in efficiency. Space-saving thin package releases flat, well dispersed
series for just 44mA or in parallel for 350mA. 14x14mm. illumination. Power consumption is 3.5 watts. 50x7mm.

For Specification For Sample Request

Contact Japan Tel:+81-3-3493-2081 Manabu Danjo Asia Tel:+852-2793-0613 Eric Au Yeung
North America Tel:+1-847-619-6700 Dave Lomas Singapore Tel:+65-6734-1398 Edmond Wong
Europe Tel:+49-69-2992-4810 Yuichi Iwako
A  complete,  
HB 6 < 6 O > C :
modular  LED    
luminaire   cent bulb. Since then, GE has more than doubled OLED efficiency
system using device architectures that are scalable to a large area and can be
produced cost-effectively. Other developments include plastic film
substrates, as well as fabrication processes and equipment to enable
high-speed, cost-effective “roll-to-roll” manufacturing.
GE Consumer & Industrial VP Michael Petras said that because
OLED lighting is soft and diffused, it will create some exciting appli-
cation opportunities for designers and specifiers. “The applications

are numerous, ranging from ceiling lighting for office and residential
applications to interior automotive and aircraft lighting.”
 More details:

A> <=I> C<8D CIGD A

LIGHT BARS TM GZcV^hhVcXZ\^kZhjhZgXdcigda
At the upcoming Lightfair show,
Renaissance Lighting will demon-
strate a PDA controller with Bluetooth
connectivity that allows users to select
color, intensity, and white color
temperature for downlight fixtures.
Intelligent control is built into the
back of the fixtures, which contain
multiple R,G,B LEDs. “Active color
adjustment inside the fixture means
you can control the color temperature
during dimming, for example,” says
Kevin Willmorth of Renaissance.
•    Up  to  95%  optical  efficiency “This type of approach [with R,G,B
LEDs] uses the inherent ability of
•    Integrated  micro-­optics* LEDs to do what they do best, and what can’t be done with other
•    24V  DC,  Class  II sources. We think there are sections of the lighting market that are
•    Plug-­in,  turnkey  solution ready for this type of transformation in lighting.”
•    Just  add  power  
7JH> C :HH
*patent(s)  pending
is   a   unique   concept   where   all   the   major  
design   components   related   to   LED   luninaire   manufacture   LED lighting manufacturer Super Vision International has been
are  provided  in  a  ready to run  format. renamed Nexxus Lighting and has relocated its corporate headquar-
ters to Charlotte, NC. This is part of the company’s new strategic plan
The   system   is   completely   modular   and   scalable,   available  
with  various  beam  profile  optics  including  Type  III,  IV  and  V,  
to direct its focus towards advanced technology lighting products and
meeting  IES  standards.  For  architectural  lighting  from  spot   systems, including LED and fiber-optic lighting.
to  flood  and  sizes  ranging  from  12  to  200  watts.  More details:

We’ve  taken  all  the  hard  work  out  of  creating  an  LED  product  
line.  You  simply  incorporate  with  your  own  luminaire  housing,  
;> C6C8:
and  just add power. :cÒhhiVgihigVY^c\h]VgZh
For more infomation please call:
(949) 567-1930 x228, Bud Grandsaert Enfis, a UK-based manufacturer of intelligent high-power LED arrays, has commenced trading on the AIM (Alternative Investment
Market) in London. The company placed 3.2m shares at a price of 140
pence, raising a total of £4.5m (approx. $8.8m). This gives the com-
pany a market capitalization of £12.5m. Enfis’ light engines combine
a high-powered LED array with associated controlling electronics
ILLUMINATION and heat management components. The company expects to launch
Management Solutions Visit   us   at  
a 1000-lm color-changing light engine later in 2007 and a 1000-lm
18242  McDurmott  West,  Suite  J L i g h t F a i r   color-temperature-tunable white light engine in early 2008.
Irvine,  CA    92614 booth  #  982
 More details:

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
C:LH/9:K>8:H A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :
AjmZdcGZWZagZYZÒcZh 8gZZVccdjcXZhÈa^\]i^c\"
Y^bZch^dchd[edlZgA:9h XaVhhÉlVgb"l]^iZA:9h
Philips Lumileds has Cree has announced that it is shipping warm-white XLamp LEDs that
launched the Luxeon produce up to 124 lumens at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of
Rebel, which contains 3000 K when driven at 700 mA. The company claims that this repre-
a 1×1 mm 2 chip and sents the industry’s first demonstration of “lighting class” warm-white
has a footprint of just LEDs, allowing lighting manufacturers to start to address the “low-
3×4.5 mm, consider- hanging fruit” among indoor lighting applications. Most warm-white
ably smaller than rival power LEDs are not qualified to operate above 350 mA, although
power LEDs. The chip there are a few exceptions (see “Warm white LEDs ready for a leap
is mounted on a ceramic forward in 2007” –
substrate and has a hemi- The new XLamp warm-white LEDs show color point stability
spherical silicone lens. within a four-step MacAdam ellipse when driven at 700 mA. Older-
After criticism of delays in launching the Luxeon K2, Lumileds has generation XLamp devices (and many competing devices) can only
been careful to ensure that the product can be shipped immediately, demonstrate this level of color point stability at 350 mA.
via Future Lighting Solutions. Cree’s datasheet for the high-end XR-E family shows a typical
The Rebel operates between 350 and 1000 mA, and is the first luminous flux of 70 lm at 350 mA and 120 lm at 700 mA for a 3700 K
power LED to offer guaranteed minimum performance for each bin, LED. The corresponding values are 65 lm (equivalent to 56 lm/W)
rather than typical performance. Lumileds says this approach enables and 110 lm (around 45 lm/W) at 2600 K.
greater design and manufacturing consistency, and allows custom-  More details:
ers to purchase the appropriate light output performance for each
The Rebel comes in neutral-white with a CCT range of 3500–
4500 K, as well as 2670–3500 K for warm-white and 4500–10 000 K Seoul Semiconductor
for cool-white. For each CCT range, there are several bins with dif- (SSC) has unveiled
ferent minimum performance; for example, these are 40, 50, 70 and a new version of its
80 lm at 350 mA for cool- and neutral-white. With a forward voltage Acriche AC-LED,
of 3.15 V, the highest bin has an efficacy of around 72 lm/W. At higher a semiconductor
drive currents, the datasheet shows that the top bins deliver 145 lm at light source that runs
700 mA in cool- and neutral-white (57 lm/W), and 110 lm for warm- directly from an AC
white (43 lm/W). The typical color-rendering index (CRI) is listed as supply without a con-
80 for warm-white, 75 for neutral-white, and 70 for cool-white. verter. The Acriche
The package’s small footprint and low profile of just 2.1 mm should 2 W single emitter has
enable significantly reduced color mixing and diffusion depths. This one AC-LED on an
will allow luminaire designs that are significantly thinner than those octagonal PCB with a
using alternative power LED packages. The Rebel’s small size could diameter of 25 mm. The new device has an efficacy of 48 lm/W, and
prove particularly useful in LCD backlighting applications. SSC says this is equivalent to a conventional power LED with an
 More details: efficacy of 57 lm/W, after conversion losses (from AC to DC) of about
20% are taken into account.
Ajb^aZYhgZYjXZh]^\]XjggZci  More details:

ÈYgddeÉ^cedlZgl]^iZA:9h EVcVhdc^XA:9h\gdlcdc<VC
A well-known problem with all high-power white LEDs is that the Matsushita Electric Industrial Co, Ltd, through its Panasonic brand,
device efficacy decreases significantly at high drive currents, espe- is to become the first company to launch commercial power LEDs
cially at 1000 mA and higher. The result is that driving a power LED that employ gallium nitride (GaN) substrates. Panasonic will intro-
at 1000 mA instead of 350 mA produces a much higher light output, duce three types of white LED to meet the diverse needs of power
but at much lower efficacy. For example, the Lumileds’ Luxeon K2 and size. These are a 3 W lighting LED, measuring 7.7×4.2×1.5 mm,
has a light output of 100 lm at 700 mA, with an efficacy of 40 lm/W. At with an output of 100 lm at 1000 mA, as well as a reflector type LED
1500 mA, the light output is 140 lm but the efficacy is 24 lm/W. best suited for flash applications, and a point light source for use in
Lumileds has memorably named the problem “droop”, and has ultra-compact lights.
announced a chip-level solution that will be implemented in commer- The company says that the use of GaN substrates, which have very
cial Luxeon LED products during 2007. The new technology, relating high thermal and electrical conductivity, substantially improves LED
to the epitaxial growth of the LED layer structures, enables efficacy performance in the high current range. At an emission wavelength
values that remain high as the drive current increases. Lumileds says of 460 nm, the new blue GaN-based chips on GaN substrates have a
that the new technology will enable it to deliver power LEDs that total radiative flux of 355 mW at a forward current of 350 mA, with
deliver 70 lm/W or higher at drive currents of 1000 mA and higher. an external quantum efficiency of 38%.
 More details:  More details:

aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 

Optimize With LightTools

Design, Analyze, Refine and Deliver
L ightTools illumination design

software provides a complete

design environment, where you
can experiment, create and
visualize designs, and launch Skinned Solids
superior products faster. LightTools skinned solids are a
highly versatile class of geometrical
objects whose size and shape are
Design defined by multiple cross-sections
• Interactive point-and-shoot ray along their length. These fully
tracing optimizable objects are ideal for
• Libraries of systems, sources, creating efficient LED couplers
and color-mixing optics.
surface finishes, coatings, and
• CAD software interoperability
• Customization using Visual
Basic macros

• Modeling of real-world effects

including polarization, scattering,
surface reflection and refraction,
and thin film coating and color
filter performance

• Fast and reliable
Monte Carlo ray trace
• Full suite of simulation
and stray light analysis
tools, including CIE
colorimetric analysis
• Sobol sampling, the
most sophisticated and Photorealistic Rendering
accurate method for Photorealistic images of an
random ray generation optical system’s lit appearance
help designers assess how the
human eye will react to an
Optimize User-Defined 3D Textures illuminated system.
• Fully integrated illumination LightTools enables the design
optimization automatically refines and analysis of arrays of
model performance complex shapes on a surface for
backlights and microlens arrays.
• Hold exact constraints while
varying native system geometry,
source power, texture size and

• Deliver accurate designs
every time w w w. o p t i c a l r e s . c o m

Corporate Headquarters: 3280 East Foothill Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107-3103 USA +1 626 795 9101
Fax +1 626 795 0184 E-mail: Web:
Offices: Tucson, AZ | Westborough, MA
© 2007 LightTools is a registered trademark of Optical Research Associates. Visual Basic is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation
in the United States and/or other countries.
>CI:GK>:L A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :
Many organizations around the world are looking nal quantum efficiency, better phosphors (espe-
at ways to facilitate the entry of solid-state lighting cially for warm light and better color rendering),
(SSL) into the general illumination market. One of and incremental improvements in light extrac-
these is the Optoelectronics Industry Development tion and packaging.” New technical approaches
Association (OIDA), a Washington DC-based that move towards these goals, such as thin-film
not-for-profit group whose members include the flip-chip LED designs, are likely to become
leading providers of optoelectronic components more prevalent.
and systems enabled by optoelectronics, as well Lebby suggests that the efficacy of white LEDs
as universities and research institutions. could reach 220 lm/W by 2016, while recognizing
OIDA is actively developing a solid-state light- that lm/W is not an all-encompassing measure but
ing roadmap from a packages, devices and mate- does provide a useful “stake in the ground”. To
rials standpoint. “We focus mainly on packaging get to this point, it will be necessary to push wall-
downwards, although we are also roadmapping plug efficiencies to 65–70%, to increase extrac-
the module/luminaire segment, i.e. packages tion efficiencies to around 90% and to achieve
that include ICs and associated electronics,” 70–80% internal quantum efficiency.
says OIDA president and CEO Michael Lebby. Efficient use of RGB illumination (and also
“However, it’s clear that for SSL to make the leap RGB backlighting for LCD displays) will need
into mainstream lighting, several key develop- significant improvements especially in the effi-
ments still need to happen.” ciency of green nitride materials.
Lebby recently gave a plenary talk at the
Third Asia Pacific Workshop on Wide Bandgap gdVYbVe[dghda^Y"hiViZ EVX`V\^c\
Semiconductors on 12 March in Chonju, Korea. Packaging is another interesting area, and one
“We saw huge interest in the SSL field, and wide- a^\]i^c\!B^X]VZaAZWWn where the roadmap might change direction in
spread support from local funding bodies,” he future. As high-current LEDs progress towards
says. “There is an incredible amount of innovation
]^\]a^\]ihi]ZiZX]c^XVa 150 lm/W, more light and less heat is produced,
going on to improve the performance of LEDs.” VcY^cYjhignVYkVcXZh and this reduces the thermal load on the package.
In turn, says Lebby, this might remove the need
@ZnVgZVhd[gZhZVgX] cZZYZYidWg^c\HHA to use expensive ceramic packaging materials.
Key areas covered at the workshop included ther-
mal issues in device design, methods to improve
iZX]cdad\nid\ZcZgVa “I’m sticking my neck out,” says Lebby, “but I
can see a move from ceramics to transfer-molded
wavelength control, and improvements to warm- ejgedhZ^aajb^cVi^dc# packaging [a type of packaging widely used in
white LEDs. “For example, people are looking the semiconductor industry] in the future.”
at UV LEDs in combination with new phosphors, to avoid patent Lebby says the industry needs to think about this trend and look at
issues,” says Lebby. other aspects of LED manufacturing, to take advantage of the incred-
In presenting OIDA’s Solid State Lighting Roadmap, Lebby ible performance gains that are taking place at the lm/W level. 
detailed the evolution that OIDA sees coming in the next five to
ten years. “The efficiency needed to achieve widespread market ,INKS
acceptance will be in the order of 150 lm/W in production,” he says. /)$!¬
“This will require significant improvements in internal and exter-

aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 
B6G@:IH A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :
The use of high-brightness (HB) LEDs for lighting applications is
receiving increased attention, particularly as the performance (lumen
output, efficiency) of HB LEDs has progressed dramatically in the past
year, enabling a wider variety of lighting applications to be addressed.
In recent years, the phrase “solid-state lighting” has become a gener-
ally accepted description for the use of LEDs for lighting, and this is
the definition that will be used here (rather than the broader definition
which is sometimes used to encompass all HB LED applications).

In the late 1990s, LED technology began to penetrate limited light-

ing applications, including a few that required white light. In the period
2001–2006, a wider variety of niche lighting applications became
accessible, in part due to the development of high-power LEDs that
provide much higher lumen output than LEDs in standard (e.g. 5 mm,
SMD) packages. In the coming years, much larger lighting market
penetration, buoyed by the dramatic progress that has been made and
continues to be made in LED technology, is envisioned. LEDs will
begin to penetrate the general illumination market, including home
and retail lighting, outdoor area lighting, and off-grid lighting.

HB LEDs have penetrated a variety of niche lighting applications and
are also beginning to be used in several white-light applications that
could be considered to be part of the general illumination market. The
market for HB LEDs in lighting amounted to $205 million in 2006, or
approximately 5% of the overall HB LED market of $4.2 billion.
In spite of its small share of the overall HB LED market, lighting &IG¬¬#URRENTLY ¬THE¬LARGEST¬LIGHTING¬APPLICATION¬FOR¬("¬,%$S¬IS¬
was the fastest growing segment in 2006, and is forecast to grow to ARCHITECTURAL¬LIGHTING ¬WHERE¬THE¬ABILITY¬OF¬,%$S¬TO¬PROVIDE¬COLORS¬
approximately $1 billion in 2011, corresponding to an average annual AND¬COLOR CHANGING¬EFFECTS¬IS¬A¬MAJOR¬MARKET¬DRIVER¬4HE¬USE¬OF¬
growth rate of 37%. The largest application is architectural light- WHITE¬,%$¬LIGHTING¬AT¬PRESENT¬IS¬MAINLY¬LIMITED¬TO¬APPLICATIONS¬
ing, where the ability of LEDs to provide colors and color-changing WHERE¬LOW¬LUMEN¬OUTPUT¬IS¬REQUIRED ¬AND¬WHERE¬RELIABILITY¬AND¬LOW¬
The use of HB LEDs in lighting happened initially in architectural THE¬0EARL¬2IVER¬IN¬#HINA¬n¬SEE¬WWWLEDSMAGAZINECOMNEWS¬
as well as other applications that use color, such as channel letters, exit "OTTOM ¬7HITE¬,%$S¬IN¬A¬PEDESTRIAN¬SUBWAY¬IN¬'ATESHEAD ¬5+¬
signs and entertainment. With conventional lighting technologies the n¬SEE¬WWWLEDSMAGAZINECOMNEWS
use of color is expensive and inefficient, and color-changing applica-
tions often use moving parts that need maintenance. With RGB LEDs, path lighting, accent lighting, flashlights and small spot lights – and
it is possible to produce a wide range of saturated colors, and with the various other applications where lighting has to be reliable and have
use of appropriate control technologies, color changing has become a long life to reduce the cost of maintenance. The total use of white
readily available. However, the concept of using color and color chang- LEDs in such applications has become a significant part of the solid-
ing is not ubiquitous; it is generally limited to high-end applications state lighting market. Thus, although the use of colored lighting was
such as first-class hotels, restaurants, casinos and retail venues. an early focus for LEDs, white light has grown to become a large
General illumination is closely associated with white light. The percentage of the LED lighting market, as shown in figure 2.
use of white LED lighting at present is mainly limited to applica- The path to general illumination will depend on the improvements
tions where low lumen output is required, such as machine vision, in efficiency and lumen output of white LEDs. Efficiency is important

aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 
A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : B6G@:IH
 Channel Letter/Contour Lighting  Retail Display  Entertainment: rock concerts, TV
 Architectural: building exterior and Display case lighting studios, theaters
interior lighting to create special effects General merchandise lighting Theater step lights
(not general illumination), including color Refrigerated display case lighting Stage lighting, including permanent and
changing (e.g. hotel, restaurant, casino,  Residential rental spot lights
fountain, landmarks); landscape lighting for Recessed can lights Color-changing effects lighting in discos,
gardens, parks, pools, and spas Reading lights bars, and clubs
Wall washers Under-cabinet  Safety/Security
Floodlights Pendants Exit signs
Strip lights Decorative Emergency lighting
Accent lights  Consumer Portable (battery-powered)  Outdoor Area Lighting
Cove lighting Flashlights Parking lots
Festoon lights Headlights Street lights, highway lights, etc.
Small spots Bicycle lights  Off-Grid: primarily remote villages and
Path lights  Machine Vision: light sources for cameras dwellings in developing countries; powered
In-ground and underwater lights used in machine vision applications by solar, wind, micro-hydro, etc.

in consumer portable applications (e.g. flashlights) to reduce battery

drain, and white LEDs long ago surpassed the efficiency of incandes-
cent lamps. The best white LEDs available in the market in early 2007 total market $205 million
white 43% red–orange–yellow 22%
are competitive with compact fluorescent lamps and lower wattage
linear fluorescent lamps, i.e. in the 50–70 lm/W range.
However, fixture performance is paramount in lighting and by early
2007 there were no commercially available fixtures beyond 30–40 lm/
W, with a number of fixtures offering measured performance of less
than 20 lm/W – barely more than their incandescent counterparts.
Thus, there is a strong need for fixture designs that optimize the per-
formance of this new generation of high-efficiency LEDs.

A wide variety of applications, coming under the broad definition of
blue–green 35%
lighting have already been addressed by LEDs, or will soon begin to
be addressed. Some have already achieved significant market penetra- &IG¬¬7HITE¬,%$S¬REPRESENTED¬¬OF¬THE¬¬M¬MARKET¬FOR¬,%$¬LIGHTING¬
tion (e.g. exit signs, channel letters, machine vision), while others, IN¬ ¬BUT¬ARE¬FORECAST¬TO¬BECOME¬¬OF¬A¬¬BN¬MARKET¬BY¬¬
such as residential lighting, are still in the very early stages of market
development. The most significant applications for LED lighting, into the mainstream of general illumination applications, high effi-
currently or in the near future, are shown in table 1. ciency in combination with long lifetime will be the primary attributes
Each application listed in table 1 has associated with it a set of drivers that drive their adoption. In other aspects, such as the availability of
that have caused LEDs to be adopted. Clearly, for LEDs to be adopted warm-white colors, high color rendering index etc, they must at least
in lighting applications in preference to competing light sources, they be on par with other sources.
must provide some advantages over those sources, especially because As a new and unique lighting technology, LEDs compete in the
they are almost always more expensive on a first-cost basis. Some of lighting market with a variety of well-established and less-expensive
the beneficial attributes of LEDs for lighting applications include: incumbent light sources. The properties of these sources are well
 Long lifetime understood among the vast community of lighting end users, rang-
 Design flexibility ing from consumers to lighting designers and architects, whereas the
 Saturated colors properties of LEDs have only recently begun to be understood.
 Directional light To date, LEDs have been adopted in lighting applications because
 Energy efficiency of a combination of some of the attributes noted above. For example,
 Robustness lifetime considerations can be important in certain applications, such
 Dynamic color control as architectural and accent lighting installations in which light sources
 Dimmability without color shift are placed in hard-to-reach locations. The absence of heat in the light
 Absence of regulated toxic substances (e.g. mercury) emitted by LEDs can be an important factor in some high-end retail
 Absence of heat or UV in emitted light applications. However, efficiency has generally not been a major con-
 Low-voltage DC operation. sideration, except for a few select applications such as flashlights,
In most LED lighting applications developed to date, a combination where battery lifetime is a significant cost issue, and exit signs, which
of some of these attributes has been responsible for the adoption of are subject to government certification for energy consumption.
LEDs. However, as LEDs – particularly white LEDs – begin to move While the long lifetimes of LEDs are well established (although

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,


Warm. Neutral. Cool.

Cree XLamp® Lighting-Class LEDs.

Bright + Efficient
Luminous flux up to: Leading the lighting revolution. Cree continues to deliver the
210 lumens at 1A industry’s highest performance power LEDs. Available in production
95 lumens at 350mA
quantities, Cree’s XLamp family of LEDs provides high brightness and
Efficacy up to
85 lumens per watt efficiency for a broad range of general illumination applications – from
50,000 hours lifetime at warm white indoor to cool white outdoor.
>70% lumen maintenance

2,600K to 10,000K CCT

To discover the future of LED lighting for yourself,
visit or call +1 919 313 5300.

Cree XLamp LED Visit Cree at Lightfair Booth #2721

A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : B6G@:IH
often exaggerated with claims of 100 000 hours), the efficiencies of
white LEDs are only now reaching levels at which they are becoming
interesting relative to the highest efficiency conventional light sources
available in the market. Efficiency is of interest not only because of
its impact on lower operating costs, but also in terms of a variety of
regulatory requirements that are being established regarding energy
efficiency (e.g. Energy Star, Title 24 in California).

Over the next five years, LEDs will move beyond niche applications
and into the general lighting market, including residential, retail dis-
play outdoor, and off-grid applications. Although niche applications
will continue to be important, general lighting applications will pro-
vide much of the growth, and consequently white LEDs will become
a more important part of the market. In 2011, white LEDs are forecast
to be 61% of a $1 billion market, compared with 43% of a $205 mil-
lion market in 2006.
As noted previously, most of the growth in general illumination will
be driven by the high efficiency and long lifetimes of white LEDs, and
their ability to compete head-to-head with conventional light sources
on a life-cycle cost basis.
In order to grow the solid-state lighting market successfully, LEDs
will have to penetrate the well-established design, manufacturing,
marketing and sales infrastructure of the lighting industry. Displacing
a well-established incumbent technology is always a challenge for
any new technology and solid-state lighting is no exception. In par-
ticular, several hurdles will have to be overcome to make this market
happen. Some of the major challenges include:
 Improved price/performance for HB LEDs
 Need for high-efficiency light engine/fixture design
 Other available alternatives for energy efficiency
 Consistency of color/binning issues
 Need to provide a complete lighting solution with ease of installation
 Adapt to standard electrical interfaces and controls
 Need realistic claims of performance
 Development of standards for solid-state lighting
 Need widespread base of lighting fixture designers and engineers
who understand LEDs.
Fortunately, the first and most significant hurdle is being addressed
aggressively by the LED industry. Recent improvements in white
LED efficacy have been dramatic, with major achievements
announced in the past year by Nichia, Cree, Philips Lumileds and
Seoul Semiconductor, among others. From typical top-tier perfor-
mance of 40–50 lm/W in 2005, efficacies have increased to 70 lm/W
and above in 2006 and early 2007. While these performances refer to
cool-white LEDs (CCT > 5000 K), warm-white LEDs (CCT < 4000 K)
have shown similar improvement, although efficacies are still some-
what lower than for cool-white. Roadmaps for white LEDs indicate
continuing improvement in the next five years. Prices can be expected
to continue to decline through a combination of manufacturing effi-
ciencies and competitive pressure. Moreover, when expressed as dol-
lars per lumen, price declines will accelerate as the lumen output per
packaged device continues to improve.

A major challenge for the solid-state lighting industry is not at the
device level but at the fixture level. As the US Department of Energy’s
LED fixture test program has indicated (see LEDs Magazine February
2007, p8), solid-state lighting products currently in the market are not
translating the high performance of commercially available white

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
B6G@:IH A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :
Efficient design Inefficient design
Start with one-watt white LEDs at 70 lm/W Start with one-watt white LEDs at 70 lm/W
(measured at 25 °C junction temperature) (measured at 25 °C junction temperature)
Assume: 90% electrical efficiency Assume: 80% electrical efficiency
90% optical efficiency 80% optical efficiency
Operate at 65 °C junction temperature. Operate at 100 °C junction temperature.
Fixture efficacy = 70 × 0.9 × 0.9 × 0.85 = 48 lm/W Fixture efficacy = 70 × 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.75 = 34 lm/W

LEDs into efficient fixtures. Careful attention needs to be paid to fun- 8dcXajh^dch
damental design processes to ensure that electrical conversion (120 or The solid-state lighting market is still at an early stage of development
240 V AC to DC, and DC to appropriate LED drive current and volt- and the market is highly fragmented. Hundreds of companies are both
age) is efficient, that LED light emission is not lost due to poor optical offering and developing LED-based lighting fixtures, but volumes are
design, and that good thermal management techniques are applied to low and so manufacturing costs are high. However, as white LED
maintain acceptable LED junction temperatures. Table 2 indicates price/performance improves and the technology attracts the attention of
the difference in light output from the same high-performance white the larger lighting companies, LED-based fixture designs will become
LEDs using efficient and inefficient fixture designs. more efficient, higher fixture manufacturing volumes and efficiencies
Several of the other challenges on the list above are also being will be achieved, and solid-state lighting products will greatly increase
addressed by industry groups. In particular, regarding standards their penetration of the mainstream general illumination market. 
development, the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
(IESNA) is working with the American National Standards Institute 6Wdjii]ZVji]dgh
(ANSI) to develop standards for solid-state lighting. Representatives Robert Steele is Director of Optoelectronics and Vrinda Bhandarkar is a
from the LED industry and the lighting industry have formed com- Senior Market Analyst at Strategies Unlimited (,
mittees to develop a broad set of standards which should be available a market research firm based in Mountain View, California. This article
later this year. Other participants include the DOE, Energy Star and was derived from the company’s recent report “The Market for High-
the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). Brightness LEDs in Lighting: Application Analysis and Forecast”.






å å

aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 
A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : HIG::IA><=IH



An installation of 1 6 LED streetlights, the largest in Canada, has been HPS lamps themselves are rated at 250 W. In contrast, the LED fix-
unveiled in Exhibition Place in Toronto, Ontario. The pilot project tures have a power efficiency of 90% or greater.
is intended to show how LED lighting can dramatically reduce city The LED fixtures were built by Leotek Electronics, and contain
lighting costs. “LED street lighting is one of the options we are enthu- 117 one-watt LEDs from Nichia. John McKinness from Leotek said
siastically examining in order to bring Toronto another step closer to that these LEDs provide “the highest efficacy (lm/W) among produc-
becoming the greenest city in North America,” said the city’s mayor tion LEDs, and very good reliability”. Leotek’s luminaires contain
David Miller. “This one step will reduce costs, increase safety and a built-in heat sink to deal with thermal issues, and have a five-year
improve our environment.” warranty.
The LED luminaires were manufactured by Leotek Electronics, The LED luminaires are designed as direct replacements for con-
and were supplied by electromega, a Canadian distributor. The initial ventional cobra-head fittings, and provide a type-II roadway dis-
investment needed to cover the cost (approximately $1200 per lumi- tribution. IES files for Leotek’s SL-250 luminaire, the type used in
naire) and installation of the new LED streetlights is expected to be Toronto, show a downward flux distribution of 1202 lm on the house
recouped from electricity savings as well as reduced replacement and side and 3505 lm on the street side for a total of 4708 lm, which puts
maintenance requirements. the overall fixture efficacy at around 32 lm/W. Very significantly, the
A total of 12 LED streetlights have been installed at Exhibition upward flux distribution is zero, while cobra-head fittings containing
Place on unique, bow-style streetlight poles surrounding the perim- other types of lamp can typically waste as much as 30% of their light
eter of the Automotive Building. An additional four LED streetlights output in the upwards direction.
are positioned in the parking lot south of the Direct Energy Centre. McKinness says that Leotek currently uses one-watt class LEDs
The street-lighting poles were fitted with electricity meters to mea- since these have been around longer and there is more life-testing data
sure precisely the power draw of the lighting fixtures. The result: the available. “Using a smaller number of LEDs driven at higher power
LED fixtures drew 146 W compared with 314 W for the HPS fittings. would change the arrangement of LEDs and require a different reflec-
The HPS ballast consumes a significant amount of power since the tor to meet the light distribution pattern,” he says.

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
HIG::IA><=IH A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :
A^\]idjiejiVcYfjVa^in and are excellent for reducing wasted light,” says Strasser. “They also
The launch ceremony on 28 February provided an excellent opportu- provide very good cut-off at the edge of the distribution.”
nity for observers to study and compare lighting from LED fixtures
on one side of a street and conventional HPS fixtures on the other. :cZg\nXdchZgkVi^dc
Peter Strasser of the International Dark-Sky Association was there, Toronto’s LED project was organized by greenTbiz, a program devel-
and reported a very positive response to the new lights. “All the observ- oped by the Toronto Association of Business Improvement Areas
ers said that the LED lighting appeared brighter, and enabled people (TABIA) to assist businesses and property owners with energy con-
and objects to be viewed much more clearly,” said Strasser. “In fact, servation and environmental improvement.
I took measurements with The City of Toronto has about 160 000 streetlights and if these were
a simple light meter, and all converted to LEDs the city could save $6 million a year in electric-
the LEDs produced a little ity costs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 18 000 tonnes, the
under half the number of equivalent of removing more than 3600 cars from the streets. The
foot candles that came pilot program will continue through 2007 to test public acceptance,
from the HPS lamps.” durability, light performance and weather resistance. “This is the first
So, while drawing less of several more pilots that will be introduced throughout the City of
than half the power of the Toronto, testing various LED product applications on the streets of
HPS fixtures, and produc- Business Improvement Areas and in parks and parking garages,” said
ing half the measured light Brian Owen, Program Advisor to greenTbiz and TABIA. 
output, the LEDs provide
improved light quality as
far as the observers were
concerned. ,EOTEK¬%LECTRONICS¬
relates to the spectrum of GREEN4BIZ¬
nificant blue content (most THE¬STREET¬LIGHTING¬MARKET¬,%$S¬-AGAZINE¬/CTOBER¬¬¬
HIGH PRESSURE¬SODIUM¬(03 ¬LAMP ¬AND¬ tured by combining a blue-
,EOTEKS¬,%$¬STREETLIGHT¬ emitting LED chip with a
yellow-emitting phosphor
material). “In dim lighting conditions, the eye is more sensitive to the
blue end of the spectrum and can detect more light,” explains Strasser.
While LEDs provide a better match with mesopic vision, which is
prevalent under dim lighting conditions, the standards and codes that
determine light distribution patterns are written in terms of photopic
lumens. This favours low-pressure sodium light, which matches the
eye’s photopic response. There are suggestions that the standards
should be revisited and possibly rewritten to take mesopic vision into
account, but, of course, this will take a long time.
Strasser says that LED lighting is of considerable interest to the
Dark-Sky Association, which seeks to reduce light pollution and
preserve dark-sky heritage through good lighting design. By placing
light where it is needed, when it is needed, this approach saves light
and reduces energy expenditure. “LEDs provide very good control,

IMS, a lighting company based in Irvine, CA, has developed a
modular LED luminaire system suitable for street lighting and
other applications. Ron Holder, IMS’s president and CEO, says
that the company’s expertise is in optical design and optimizing
the output from LED sources. Its new LightBar is a white light
engine measuring 10×2 in and containing 10 LEDs with integrated
micro-optics. This approach is cheaper than using an individual
lens for each LED, says Holder. “We’re talking pennies per LED,
rather than dollars for the lensed approach,” he says. “With our
wide-beam optic we can generate a type-III beam pattern with
95% optical efficiency.”
More details:

aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 
A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : 8DC;:G:C8:

>c^ihZ^\]i]nZVg!i]ZHigViZ\^Zh^cA^\]i 30%

Xdc[ZgZcXZXdci^cjZYidVYYgZhh`Zn^hhjZh 25%

^ci]ZA:9bVg`ZieaVXZ# 20% new applications

professional outdoor
Opening the annual Strategies in Light event, held 12–14 February 15%
professional indoor
in San Jose, California, Bob Steele reported that the high-brightness 10%
LED market reached $4.2 billion in 2006. “The market will begin to
move away from its current low-growth-rate phase in the next one-to- 5% residential lighting
three years as new markets emerge,” he said. These market segments, 0%
including lighting, display backlights and automotive applications, 2007 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
will push the overall LED market to $9 billion in 2001, said Steele.
For full details of Steele’s presentation, see our article in the March &IG¬¬-ARKET¬PENETRATION¬OF¬SOLID STATE¬LIGHTING¬IN¬THE¬GLOBAL¬
Ruedi Hug, managing director of Ledon Lighting GmbH in Austria, 0.18 120
discussed success factors in accelerating the adoption of solid-state 6 lm(eff)/¤
lighting into professional lighting markets. Ledon is a wholly owned 100
subsidiary of the Zumtobel Group and was established to focus solely
0.12 80
on LED lighting.

Perhaps unsurprisingly for someone who runs an LED lighting 0.10

company, Hug was positive about the prospects for SSL and esti- 0.08
mated that, by 2021, SSL could replace up to 25% of the conventional 0.06 40
lighting business (see figure 1). 0.04
With this level of penetration, the market for LED lighting fixtures 20 lm(eff)/¤ 20
could potentially reach €16 billion in 2021, compared with €585 mil-
0.00 0
lion in 2007 (note that Bob Steele’s figures are for packaged LEDs, 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2013 2016 2021
not fixtures). Currently, professional indoor lighting dominates the year
SSL market with a 55% share. However, residential lighting will grow
rapidly in importance and will account for 45% of the market by 2021, &IG¬¬3YSTEM¬EFlCACY¬AND¬LIGHTING¬COST¬TRENDS¬FOR¬,%$¬LIGHTING¬
with professional indoor at 32% and new applications at 21%. SHOW¬THAT¬¬LM7¬lXTURES¬AND¬COSTS¬OF¬¬LMå¬CAN¬BE¬EXPECTED¬
The penetration of LED lighting implies the substitution of LEDs BY¬¬
for other lighting technologies, based on a model that looks at total
cost of ownership. Hug suggested that LEDs could replace almost LED lighting fixtures, and establish compatibility over lifetime.”
5% of halogen applications by 2008, growing to almost 25% by 2021. Because the lighting industry is very conservative, and looks at
Incandescent and fluorescent substitution will start slowly, but incan- LEDs as a disruptive technology, there is less investment by lighting
descent replacement is likely to accelerate rapidly after 2015, reach- fixture manufacturers in LED fixture development, explained Hug.
ing around 23% by 2021. Fluorescent replacement will reach about Also the industry requires more governmental initiatives like the
14%, while HID substitution will be much lower. “ban the bulb” legislation announced in Australia, and subsequently
Hug identified lm/W and lm/€ as the biggest barriers to penetration echoed around the world.
facing LEDs in the general lighting industry. Figure 2 looks at values
of system efficacy and fixture costs – the value of lm(eff) refers to ;dXjhdca^\]ifjVa^in
the number of lumens from the fixture/luminaire and not from the Unlike many other speakers, Michael Siminovitch was not too con-
LED itself. The prediction is that system efficacy will increase from cerned about efficacy but stressed that high CRI was vital for many
about 40 lm(eff)/W in 2007 to more than 100 lm(eff)/W by 2021. emerging opportunities for LEDs. “An efficacy of 30 lm/W is excel-
Conversely, fixture cost is at about 6 lm(eff)/€ in 2007 and will lent when compared with a ‘heater’ at 10 lm/W,” he said, referring
decrease to about 20 lm(eff)/€ by 2021. to the amount of heat produced by an incandescent bulb. “There are
Hug also identified several other barriers to penetration, includ- enormous opportunities even at 20 lm/W.”
ing a lack of standardization, and poor color-rendering performance. Siminovitch is a professor at UC Davis and director of the
“Also, LED lighting tends to be a project-specific business with low California Lighting Technology Center, which has the mission to
volumes,” he said. “There is a need to clarify maintenance issues of “advance the application of efficient lighting technologies in the State

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
8DC;:G:C8: A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :








aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 
A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : 8DC;:G:C8:
¬™¬¬FEET¬¬™¬¬M ¬AND¬

7),,¬0)#+%2).' ¬02/*%#4¬%.').%%2
"%.¬25"). ¬!24)34


of California”. He explained that California utility companies are Companies were also asked to evaluate perceived system-level
desperate to save energy and have millions of dollars to invest in design challenges. The design of power and control electronics were
energy-efficient lighting. The Title 24 regulations, requiring all new thought to require the most significant design effort, probably reflect-
homes in California to have energy-efficiency lighting, have been ing the lack of familiarity of lighting companies with such technolo-
“the single biggest sea change in lighting”, said Siminovitch. gies. Eskow said that in his opinion the challenges associated with
For commercial office lighting, Title 24 in 2005 defined a light- thermal modelling and design should have been rated higher than they
ing power density of 1.2 W/sq.ft. Moving down towards a level of were in the survey.
0.5 W/sq.ft requires the use of new technologies, rather than making a
knee-jerk reaction to reduce the overall light levels, said Siminovitch. >;8Éhd[["\g^Ya^\]i^c\egd_ZXi
“Very high performance task lighting, using a combination of light- In the December 2006 issue of LEDs Magazine, we described a proj-
ing technologies and occupancy sensors, is the best approach,” he ect launched by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) to bring
said, describing a personal lighting system with an individual power LED-based lighting to areas of the globe that lack electrical power
supply, under-shelf luminaires and free-standing task lights that con- (see “IFC project stimulates LED market for off-grid lighting”: www.
sumes around 20 W per person. Siminovitch also stressed that the key At Strategies in Light, IFC’s
to good lighting design is to start with light quality, rather than starting Fabio Nehme provided an update on recent progress: “We have more
by focusing solely on energy efficiency. than 200 organizations from more than 35 countries that expressed
In relation to the residential market, Siminovitch said that cost interest in participating in the project. Also, we are currently setting
remains a major issue for LEDs, and home builders are very cost- up some of the basic infrastructure of the project. For example, we are
driven even when trying to focus on energy efficiency. He said that, preparing a comprehensive web portal that will enable participating
because of the cheap cost of conventional lighting, it is difficult for companies to network, promote their lighting products, and access
consumers to take on the cost of ownership calculation for LED fix- international and African partners that are also considering entering
tures. “In future, to benefit from energy-efficient technologies such the off-grid lighting market in Africa.”
as LEDs, consumers will need to accept more expensive lighting fix- Also, IFC has short-listed companies to undertake the market
tures,” he said. research, focusing in this first round on two segments: households
and micro-businesses (night vendors, kiosks). “The short-listed
9^hig^Wji^dc companies are leading international market research companies with
Cary Eskow of Avnet LightSpeed, a global distributor, said that his established operations in Africa and extensive experience in the seg-
company and competitors such as Arrow and Future are vying to ments we will be looking into. We will look into other segments as the
provide the “last mile” link – the most difficult and expensive part of project advances and based on the interests of the lighting industry.
the supply chain – between component suppliers and customers. Prior to commencing the market research, we will circulate the market
LightSpeed recently carried out an HB-LED market study, profiling research plan to participating companies to obtain feedback and sug-
more than 500 customers involved in HB-LED lighting applications. gestions for improvement, in order to make it as relevant as possible
Among the questions was one concerning selection criteria for HB- to the marketing and engineering/product development teams.”
LEDs. Recognizing the name of the LED supplier was a very low Nehme says that IFC is also hiring an Africa-based team to sup-
priority, while top of the list was total lumens; this rated much higher port participating companies. In addition, while the project started
than efficacy. As Eskow put it, “if you can’t get enough light out, then in Kenya and Ghana, it will now be expanded to an additional 8–10
efficacy doesn’t matter”. Product availability, cost and color binning countries in Africa, currently under selection. This will allow lighting
all rated highly. companies to reach a much larger market more rapidly.

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : 8DC;:G:C8:
Cree’s Mark McClear described the company’s cool-white roadmap,
starting with the introduction of a new XLamp power LED, the XR-C
(see This device has the same
package footprint as the current XR-E but incorporates a smaller chip
and occupies a lower price/performance segment of the power LED
market. McClear said that the XR-C is optimized for lowest $/lumen,
while the XR-E is optimized for maximum lm/W or (when driven at
currents up to 1000 mA) for maximum lumens.
The next imperatives, said McClear, are “lighting class” warm-
white LEDs (subsequently announced by Cree – see page 9), higher
brightness and lower $/lumen, and application-specific LEDs. “There
are many different markets with separate requirements,” he said, “One
example might be an indoor lamp that lacks sufficient robustness for
outdoor operation. We see fragmentation and LED lamp specializa-



 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
8DC;:G:C8: A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :
tion, going forward.” &IG¬¬/SRAM¬
With continued investment Cree is confident of meeting DOE /PTO¬AIMS¬TO¬GET¬
targets for 50 000 hours lifetime at 70% lumen maintenance and ¬LUMENS¬FROM¬
150 lm/W in a 1 W power LED, as well as hitting the required $/lumen ITS¬LATEST¬/STAR
goals. However, asked McClear, are we (as an industry) missing
important opportunities in the rush to the future? “There are applica-
tions that can be realized and real economic value that can be created
– now,” he said, citing the example of Raleigh, NC, which has made
a broad commitment to deploying LED lighting throughout the city
infrastructure (see figure 4).

Frank Steranka gave a rare, but very welcome, overview of some of
Philips Lumileds’ recent technology developments. Looking at the achieve a figure of 90% for both internal quantum efficiency (IQE)
DOE roadmap for high-power LEDs, he said that production units and light extraction efficiency. In turn, this sets a limit to the output of
of Luxeon LEDs will shortly surpass the 2007 roadmap numbers. a white LED in a Dragon package with lens to 135–250 lm at 350 mA.
“Production devices will achieve the 2012 numbers by 2010,” he To move further, the possible approaches are higher current density
said. These numbers are 1000 lumens from a device driven at 6.7 W, in the same chip, or a larger chip size. At high current density, the
equivalent to 150 lm/W, with a lifetime of 100 000 hours. key issue is that efficiency drops sharply. Osram’s preferred route
Among the technologies that Lumileds will push into production in is to increase the chip area by combining multiple chips in the same
2007 are its new thin-film flip-chip (TFFC) device; an improved epi- Ostar package.
taxial structure for increased efficacy at high current (see “Lumileds A new six-chip version of Ostar Lighting is expected to launch in
reduces high-current ‘droop’ ”, p9); small format, high-power LED summer 2007 ( Osram Opto
packaging (see “Luxeon Rebel redefines dimensions of power Semiconductors told LEDs Magazine that with a drive current of
LEDs”, p9); and phosphor advances that expand the offerings in around 1000 mA, the new device (with lens) has produced around
white to include “neutral” white as an intermediate between warm and 1100 lm with an input power of around 22 W, equating to efficacy of
cool. Steranka said that Lumileds has received input on real lighting around 50 lm/W. At 700 mA and 350 mA, the efficacy was 65 lm/W
requirements from Philips and is targeting CCT variations of +/–50 at and 75 lm/W, respectively.
3000 K (higher variations are acceptable at higher CCT).

Nichia America’s Dan Doxsee started by revealing that the 100 lm/W
barrier will shortly be broken for commercial products: Nichia will
begin mass production in Q3 2007 of 5 mm LED lamps with efficacy
of 100 lm/W (20 mA drive current).
In the lab, Nichia has already demonstrated 150 lm/W from a Raiko
package that delivered 9.4 lm at 20 mA. At this efficacy level, Doxsee
estimated that 46% of the input power is converted into visible light,
while 54% is lost as heat.
In Q2, Doxsee said that Nichia plans to launch a high CRI power
LED (at a color temperature of 5000 K) with a color rendering index
of 90. In fact, an Ra value as high as 97 has been demonstrated for the
new phosphor blend, compared with 75 for standard YAG phosphor
blends. However, the very high CRI comes at the price of approxi-
mately 20% reduction in light output.
For power LEDs, Nichia plans to increase the output of its NS6x083
power LED from the current level of 60 lm and 53 lm/W (at 6500 K)
to 85 lm and 80 lm/W by the third quarter. A similar increase is
expected in warm white (3500 K) from 52 lm and 46 lm/W to 74 lm
and 70 lm/W. Doxsee admitted that at current levels, luminaires con-
taining warm-white LEDs may struggle to exceed Title 24 minimum
requirements for efficacy. “However, with the improved devices,
even a poor system design will hit Title 24,” said Doxsee.

For Osram Opto Semiconductors, Volker Härle described how the
company is moving towards developing a 1000-lumen LED. In fact,
since the show, Osram announced that its latest Ostar multi-chip LED
would indeed reach that barrier.
By optimizing a 1 mm2 chip, said Härle, it should be possible to

aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 
A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : 8DC;:G:C8:
The keynote speaker at Strategies the test was at thermal equilibrium,
in Light did not hold back in his and whether third-party testing was
view that the LED industry needs used. Chip size is relevant because,
to address urgently the inaccurate said Hunter, “it is possible to make
representation of LED performance a large chip and operate it at a low
in the industry. Neal Hunter, CEO drive current – the results look good
of LED Lighting Fixtures (LLF), on paper, but this is not a viable
entitled his talk “Truth in lighting” approach based on cost”.
and proceeded to discuss ways in At the fixture level, Hunter
which LED component and fixture advocated an industry-standard
manufacturers have provided Fixture Performance Certification
misleading performance data. that would be verified by third-party
“There’s a gap between data and testing or by a standard testing
reality,” he said. “Bad data causes procedure. Data should, he said,
confusion in the marketplace, and can include performance measured after
result in a loss of credibility for LED two hours operation or at thermal
technology.” equilibrium, as well as wall-plug
As the DOE commercial product power input, color temperature/
testing program has demonstrated coordinates, CRI and projected
(see LEDs Magazine February 2007, lifetime and cost.
p8), many commercial LED fixtures As one might guess, this is
fall far short of their stated values the approach taken by LLF for
of efficacy and lumen output. One measuring the performance of its
very obvious error is that a fixture 6-inch downlight products that were
datasheet may quote the efficacy unveiled in early February and will
value for an individual LED. Within ship in the second quarter. LLF
the fixture itself, depending on the 7ARM WHITE¬DOWNLIGHTS¬FROM¬,%$¬,IGHTING¬&IXTURES has a 6-foot diameter integrating
quality of its design, optical and sphere that it uses to measure the
electrical losses can easily reduce the efficacy by 30%. The new lumen output of its fixtures at thermal equilibrium. The results
Energy Star ratings for LED fixtures are all based on luminaire are impressive; the downlight produces 650 lm at 11 W wall-
(rather than LED or LED system) efficacy. plug power, corresponding to an efficacy of almost 60 lm/W (see
Hunter criticized companies (both LED and fixture makers) for These are warm fixtures
producing figures that are driven by marketing, and also criticized with a color temperature of either 2700 K or 3500 K, and a color
the press for being willing participants/victims of the hype. “A rendering index of 92. (Interestingly, LLF’s press release stated
result [for LED performance] might be reported in lumens/watt, they were using Cree’s XR-E warm-white LEDs. According to
but the price, package type, chip size or measurement technique is Cree’s datasheet, XR-E LEDs in the CCT range of 2600–3700 K at
not disclosed,” he said. “Such results set up false expectations, and 350 mA have a typical luminous flux of 65 lm, equivalent to 56 lm/
have made some traditional light-fixture manufacturers sceptical W. And the typical CRI is listed as 80.)
of stated performance. As a result, the industry suffers.” Since the conference, LLF has announced its first order for 6-inch
Invariably, LED measurements are made by rapid testing, recessed down lights, received from Loyd Builders, a custom home
effectively instantaneously, before the device has reached thermal builder located in North Carolina. “The LLF LR6 product not only
equilibrium. As a result, datasheet values are quoted at an LED has a clean concealed look, but greatly reduces the energy required
junction temperature of 25 °C, but of course this can never be to produce a better light,” said the company’s owner, Tripp Loyd.
achieved in a real-life fixture. LED performance reduces as the “The minimal payback time versus the added expense is an easy sell
junction temperature increases. Unfortunately there is no easy for our homeowners.” As Hunter puts it, “green” builders looking
answer here – if LEDs were measured at thermal equilibrium then for energy and maintenance savings “won’t blink at the extra cost
the measured value would be strongly dependent on the thermal of these fixtures”. Typically the cost of an LED downlight is about
characteristics of the heat sink and other factors, just as it is in a 2.5× that of an equivalent incandescent fixture, and less than 2× the
real-life fixture. cost of a fluorescent fixture. Hunter says that the payback is less
Another problem is that many properties of LEDs are than two years, without even considering maintenance.
intrinsically dependent on one another. As an example, it is Custom home builders are an interesting specialist market,
possible to make warm-white LEDs with a very high CRI, but this but LEDs are aiming for the mainstream. Hunter says that LED
typically requires additional or less efficient phosphors, resulting lighting is ready for many general illumination applications, but
in lower efficacy. Hence, Hunter suggested a set of data that should warns that there is no long-term benefit from releasing “tricked”
always be provided for LED performance: lumens per watt, input numbers or unreliable products. “LED lighting isn’t guaranteed,”
power (or both voltage and current); lumens; chip size; correlated he concluded. “We can either become mainstream, or we can be
color temperature (CCT); color rendering index (CRI); whether regulated to niche status.” You have been warned.

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
Glow at sea.

Rescue is near.

Saved by the light.

NuSil Technology.

Bold and bright. New LED technology. Shining in places where

light never went before. That’s the imagination and innovation
that NuSil Technology is bringing to designers and engineers
in a rapidly changing competitive environment. Our advanced
chemical engineering helps create the most efficient and
stress-free packaging. So you can provide the most powerful
and reliable LED light transmission possible.
Whatever your scientific needs, look to NuSil for innovative
solutions. From LEDs to fiber optics, large batches to small,
our Lightspan brand of products delivers precise, custom
formulations and the most complete line of high-refractive
index-matching adhesives, encapsulants and thermosets
available. All backed by more than 25 years of engineering
expertise. Follow the light to NuSil.
What’s your challenge?
What? When? Where? If it’s NuSil, it’s no problem.
Europe +33 (0)4 92 96 93 31
©2007 NuSil Technology LLC. All rights reserved. LED0207-PH2 USA +1-805-684-8780
A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : HI6C96G9H

I]Zhda^Y"hiViZa^\]i^c\^cYjhignjg\ZciancZZYh 520

flux (lumens)
hiVcYVgYhidVhh^hi^ih\gdli]VcYidVkd^Y 480

]neZVcYcZ\Vi^kZgZVXi^dch#I]Z\ddYcZlh! 460
hVnh@Zk^c9dla^c\!^hi]VihiVcYVgYhldg`^h 420
15 30 45 60 75 90 120
egdXZZY^c\gVe^Yan^cVcjbWZgd[Y^gZXi^dch# operating times (minutes)

Without standards, nothing would fit, things wouldn’t connect; it APPROXIMATELY¬ ¬IN¬LIGHT¬OUTPUT¬OVER¬TIME¬BEFORE¬THE¬,%$S¬
would be a miserable state of affairs. Lack of standards in any field or REACH¬THE¬STEADY STATE¬TEMPERATURE¬,%$S¬ARE¬TYPICALLY¬MEASURED¬
industry can slow adoption, growth and innovation. A lack of stan- INSTANTANEOUSLY¬AT¬ROOM¬TEMPERATURE ¬GIVING¬RESULTS¬THAT¬DO¬NOT¬
dards in a fast growing industry such as LED illumination has already RELATE¬TO¬ACTUAL¬lXTURE¬PERFORMANCE¬
resulted in confusion, hype and frustration. While lighting, as a whole,
already has many standards for mechanical forms, electrical connec- what people expected.
tions and measurement, LED lighting has many different character- The good news is that many LED applications continue to grow
istics from lighting predecessors, making it different and requiring in spite of a lack of standards because the performance is considered
new standards development. perceptible – one doesn’t necessarily need a measuring instrument to
The wonderful trends in LED lighting include increasing growth tell whether light output is useful or not. But standards are necessary
and adoption in the marketplace. One negative aspect, causing confu- to ensure consistency, to ensure we have metrics for fair comparison,
sion to customers and manufacturers alike, relates to the specifica- and to keep the dimensions and condition of measurement equivalent
tions of LEDs, LED sub-assemblies and LED lighting systems. In so that we’re not comparing apples and rocks.
many cases, these specifications are misleading.
A specific bewildering aspect is that of light output specifications. I]ZeVi]idhiVcYVgYh
The light output, or luminous flux, of LED devices is typically evalu- Efforts to emplace standards began several years ago. The National
ated using a pulse measurement at room temperature, whereas LED fix- Electrical Manufacturing Association’s (NEMA) Solid State Lighting
tures should use steady-state measurements. Thus, the announcements Section was founded with standards in mind and there are now many
by LED manufacturers regarding efficacy values in excess of 100 lm/W organizations working with each other to create a new family of stan-
(up to 150 lm/W) over the past months, while very encouraging, are dards. The network of standards organizations is an alphabet soup of
unrealistic levels for LED lighting systems with these same devices. acronyms: IESNA, ANSI, UL, CIE and more (see “Links” box). The
Figure 1 shows the decrease in light output of an LED fixture in DOE is also pressing for standards since energy efficiency criteria are
the 400–500 lumen range over time. Steady-state light output is not needed for the Energy Star program to set thresholds for LED lighting
reached until approximately two hours of operation. This is approxi- systems (see “DOE accelerates Energy Star program for SSL” box).
mately 85% of initial light output. This test was performance under More recently ANSI Working Group C78-09 was formed in
the auspices of the Lamp Testing Engineers Conference (LTEC), an December 2005, and the IESNA Testing Procedures Committee (TPC)
industry metrology group. This asymptotic decrease is due to thermal solid-state lighting subcommittee was formed in April 2006. These two
considerations; as LEDs heat up, light extraction diminishes. This is organizations have worked closely together to create LED standards.
why realistic testing methods are required.
The recent US Department of Energy (DOE) product tests (see <ZcZgVahiVcYVgYhegdXZhh highlighted the sizeable Each standards development organization (SDO) has a detailed pro-
gap between manufacturers’ published measurements and measure- cess for creating and administering standards. The process is methodi-
ments under more realistic conditions. Fixture manufacturers are cal, which for many is a euphemism for slow. However, the LED
using nominal LED values for lumen output and simply summing standards process is proceeding quite rapidly. Additionally, these
those values over the number of LEDs used in their system. This type developments are not happening in a vacuum and we are able to build
of specification game is disingenuous. The whole does not equal the upon existing lighting standards by adapting structure and format
sum of its parts, especially when it comes to light output. from existing standards.
Some measurements can be made with existing equipment and The process for such standards development is generally an open
standards. But we need numbers, we need methods and we need them one. People and companies can join these organizations and partici-
soon. The bad news in the world of solid-state lighting is that there pate in the process. Each organization has its own policy but they are
are few, if any, standards specifically applying to LEDs and LED similar. When complete drafts are voted on by the respective commit-
systems. Conversely, there are examples of existing performance tees, then the standards are released for public review. There are many
standards being applied to LED systems where the result is not quite conference calls and meetings resulting in a document submitted to the

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
HI6C96G9H A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :
0.46 full committee and, at some point, voted
$RAFT¬SUBJECT¬TO¬CHANGE upon by the members of the committee
2700 K and later, submitted to the board of the
0.44 3000 K
respective organization.
3500 K
CT 4000 K HiVcYVgYh^cYZkZadebZci
0.40 min There are several standards under
no 4500 K development, as listed below, and
5000 K many are in committee review right
0.38 seven-step
5700 K now:
y MacAdam ellipses

 Chromaticity (color): ANSI WG-

C78 (C78.377A) – see figure 2


6500 K

 Luminous flux (light output):

4000 IESNA LM-79
5000 K

illuminant A  Lumen depreciation (lifetime):

0.32 IESNA LM-80
6000 K

 SSL definitions

Planckian locus
0.30  Photobiological safety: CIE S009

 Color quality
0.28  Electrical safety: ANSI C82.XX
0.26 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.52
LAMP¬STANDARDS¬THE¬OVALS¬SHOW¬THE¬SEVEN STEP¬-AC!DAM¬ELLIPSES¬FOR¬#&,S¬3IX¬OF¬THE¬EIGHT¬,%$¬ in an integrating sphere and measure it
QUADRANGLES¬HAVE¬THE¬SAME¬NOMINAL¬##4¬AS¬%NERGY¬3TAR¬#&,S ¬AND¬TWO¬##4S¬¬AND¬¬+ ¬ or use a goniometer and integrate the


But placement, mea-
BINNING¬CAPABILITIES¬OF¬,%$¬MAKERS surement techniques and stabilization









aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 
A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : HI6C96G9H
7nI^bL]^iV`Zg regardless of correlated color temperature (CCT). In version 1,
The DOE has made further progress with its draft requirements for lower efficacy targets were set for lower CCT values. Also, color
SSL luminaires to be incorporated into its Energy Star program, rendering index (CRI) requirements are 75 or above for indoor
which identifies and promotes energy-efficient products (see LEDs luminaires, with no CRI requirements for outdoor products.
Magazine February 2007, p9). Some lighting manufacturers have criticized the Energy Star
After releasing version 1 in December 2006, DOE received a program for setting the bar too low for SSL. However, says
great deal of constructive feedback from industry stakeholders Karney, “we cannot set levels that only one company would meet”.
and from its workshop in February, according to Richard Karney The purpose of the category B criteria is to acknowledge the rapid
of the Energy Star program. Version 2 has now been released (see predicted increase in SSL performance during the coming years. “Feedback is required by “LED technology is improving every moment, and we will need
4 May, before the final specifications are released,” says Karney. to be more flexible [with criteria for SSL luminaires] than we have
“The criteria will come into force in nine months’ time, which been with CFL technology,” says Karney. This will mean regular
allows manufacturers to gear up for production.” reviews of the SSL criteria, possibly as often as every year.
There are two categories of SSL luminaires considered by The fact that the criteria refer to luminaire efficacy is crucially
Energy Star. Category A covers near-term niche applications, important. Luminaire efficacy relates to the effective light
while Category B looks further ahead and sets high targets for SSL output from the SSL fixture, i.e. the usable light delivered to the
luminaires that are linked with the expected LED performance point of use. It is measured as the luminaire light output (from
gains in the next two to three years. photometric measurements) divided by the driver input power. An
Category A focuses on currently available products such as IESNA procedure (LM-79) is being developed for photometric
recessed cans, task lighting, under-cabinet task lighting and more. measurements. Lighting manufacturers have been known to quote
“The purpose is to guide consumers to buy products that are more efficacy values provided by the LED makers, but the luminaire
energy-efficient,” says Karney. “There are a lot of SSL products efficacy will always be lower by a significant percentage due to
on the market that are really not very good, as the DOE testing fixture losses and other factors. In contrast, product qualification
program has highlighted.” for CFLs relates to CFL system performance (i.e. the performance
In version 2, the luminaire efficacy requirements for products of the lamp and ballast), and does not take into account typical
qualifying under Category B have been increased to 70 lm/W, fixture losses that can often amount to around 50%.

of measurements are all very important and much care is required in around solid-state lighting.
measuring any lighting system. Many of the factors covered in existing It’s important to delineate such terms so that when safety stan-
IES LMs do not apply to LEDs. Thus a new standard, IES LM-79, is in dards and listing standards are applied to such systems, it is clear
process and under committee review at this time. where those subsequent standards apply. These definitions will be
adopted into IESNA RP-16, “Nomenclature and Definitions for
A^[Zi^bZÄajbZcYZegZX^Vi^dcAB"-% Illuminating Engineers”, which will now be updated on a regular
“Lasts forever!” was how an enthusiastic LED lamp sales person basis. Harmonization between ANSI/IESNA and the IEC definition
greeted me at one trade show. While LEDs do last a long time, any lists are also in process.
LED is unlikely to live up to the “forever” label. One complicating
issue regarding lifetime is that the definition of lifetime is not the same E]didW^dad\^XVahV[Zin
for traditional lighting sources and LEDs. The primary reason for this Are LEDs considered eye-safe? They are narrow band sources but
is that traditional filament-based sources usually fail completely; fila- LEDs used for general illumination are entirely within the visible
ment breach results in no light. Since LEDs do not have filaments they spectrum and do not emit UV or IR, which would seem even safer than
do not fail in the same manner, but they do slowly fade over time. This traditional sources. There have been active discussions over safety and
fading is termed lumen depreciation. The end-of-life criterion is then LEDs. Until recently LEDs were treated similarly to lasers in IEC 60825
determined by a percentage of initial light output. Today two num- but this standard now refers to CIE S009, now under development to
bers are used in this upcoming standard, L70 or 70% of initial light address the general issues of eye safety and LEDs. ANSI/IESNA RP
output and L50 or 50% of initial light output. Selection of L50 or L70 27.1-3 will be referenced; this addresses many of these issues as well.
depends on the application. Methods of modeling and providing early
measurements in the range of several thousand hours are required to :aZXig^XVahV[Zin
determine lumen depreciation to L70 or L50 levels. IESNA LM-80 Although at an early stage compared to other standards work, ANSI
is under process and in committee review at this time. C82.XX is focused on drivers and electrical safety issues regarding
LEDs. A draft is in development.
This standards activity may appear to be the simplest to put in place 8dadgfjVa^in
but this topic has resulted in many long discussions. This activity has Color rendering index (CRI) has several known limitations. It uses an
focused on about two dozen definitions of terms related to solid-state obsolete non-linear color space, color samples used in the calculation
lighting and LEDs. It includes such terms as module, assembly and are of low saturation (unlike most LEDs), and CRI uses an outdated
so forth. In cooperation with the IEC, the IES, ANSI and NEMA, this adaptation formula. It’s very non-linear in the red region and also
smaller but important effort is aimed at clarifying the use of terms unfairly penalizes LED sources in the way it is calculated.

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
HI6C96G9H A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :
While many efforts have been made to improve CRI, noth-
ing has persevered but a new color quality metric is needed.
This issue has come to the forefront and color quality was
the focus of a 2006 Color & Light Symposium, led by the
Lighting Research Office (LRO). One outcome of that gath-
ering was the formation of a new technical committee, TC
1-69, within the CIE and headed by Wendy Davis of NIST
to address a new color quality metric. While new color qual-
ity metrics have already been formulated and proposed to &IG¬¬#OMMUNICATION¬OF¬COLOR¬TEMPERATURES¬COULD¬USE¬LETTERS¬AS¬FOR¬OTHER¬
address CRI issues, this standards development will require CONSUMER¬GOODS ¬AS¬SHOWN¬IN¬THIS¬PROTOTYPE¬MERCHANDISING¬DISPLAY
additional substantial human factors testing.
Committee and the IES sub-committee on Solid-State Lighting, and
8dadgXdbbjc^XVi^dc past Chairman of the NGLIA. In his spare time he works in the areas
Color temperature of lighting sources is not well understood outside of new product development, IP, technology developments and leads
part of the lighting community and the notion of colors of white light government programs at Color Kinetics.
is not well addressed by lighting companies either. An ad-hoc group
within the lighting industry has also examined means to communicate ,INKS
the color of white light sources to end-users and consumers. This
group, working with the environmental protection agency (EPA) and
the Lighting Research Center at RPI has done market research and #)%¬n¬)NTERNATIONAL¬#OUNCIL¬ON¬)LLUMINATION¬¬
focus group studies that show communicating color can be a useful $/%¬n¬$EPARTMENT¬OF¬%NERGY¬
and productive measure. While this is not currently a proposed stan- )%#¬n¬)NTERNATIONAL¬%LECTROTECHNICAL¬#OMMISSION¬
dard, it is likely to be a widely accepted means of communicating )%3.!¬n¬)LLUMINATING¬%NGINEERING¬3OCIETY¬OF¬.ORTH¬!MERICA¬¬
color to users (see figure 3).
There are other standards that are on the list but not active at this time
until some of those under development are completed. These include
Photometric Testing of Indoor SSL Luminaires, Photometric Testing of
Outdoor SSL Luminaires and finally, an ANSI document, Specifications
for Performance of SSL devices, which will be a consolidated text.

An oft-forgotten aspect of standards and measurement criteria is the
means to accredit those who measure to such standards. Accredited
laboratories are critical to the adoption and use of such standards.
Equipment must be traceable to national laboratories such as NIST in
the US, or NPL in the UK, and the laboratory personnel must be well
versed in the actual measurement procedures. Laboratory accredita-
tion procedures must be in place before standards can be used.
The National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Procedure
(NVLAP) led by NIST does exactly this. It provides third-party
The best choice for Osram
accreditation to testing and calibration laboratories. NVLAP is in Opto Semiconductors
full conformance with the standards of the International Organization
for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC), including ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO/IEC 17011
(see for more details). This NVLAP
accreditation process is underway as well.

If you have experience in standards development or in various areas
such as photometry, you are welcome to join these organizations and O Displays and Lasers O SMT LEDs
participate in the standards development process. If you are interested
in actively participating, please contact me at Kevin@ colorkinetics. O IR Emitters and Detectors O OLEDs
com and I will put you in touch with the right folks (do not contact O LEDs and accessories O Solid State Lighting
me to simply get copies of the latest drafts, most are available on the
appropriate websites). 
08457 201201
Kevin Dowling is Chairman of the NEMA Solid-State Lighting

aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 
meets simplicity.
the next generation of LED illumination is upon us.

unique designs and illumination solutions

for all types of lighting applications.

specialty LED lamps designed for the lighting,

electronic signage and transportation industries.


The Dynasty High Flux LED
has completely redefined the
traditional LED packaging.
This unique design provides
solutions in LED integration
without the hassle of a sec-
ondary heat sink. Cut down
Distributed By: your R&D time by using the
most versatile LED on the

Light Fair Interntional Booth #2675 1-877-877-9778

8DADGB>M>C< A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :
Lighting designers have always used colored light to add emphasis or
provide atmospheric effects. This was done using colored lamps or
luminaires with color filters, but thanks to electronically controlled
RGB color mixing luminaires it is now possible to produce any color
of light with LEDs. Using color compensation, the luminaire manu-
facturer is able to compensate for the deviations in luminous flux and
hue due to the manufacturing tolerances of LEDs, and thus to satisfy
the highest demands of designers for uniformity, e.g. for colored wall-
washing (see figure 1).

High color saturation is one of the characteristic properties of LEDs.
However, the actual color of the individual LEDs is determined by
two factors that are subject to certain manufacturing fluctuations: the
luminous flux and the dominant wavelength. In practice this means
that the colors of light from two identical LED luminaires can in fact &IG¬!CHIEVING¬COLOUR¬CONSTANCY¬BETWEEN¬SEVERAL¬LUMINAIRES¬WHEN¬
deviate from one other. Semiconductor manufacturers classify every WASH LIGHTING¬A¬WHITE¬WALL¬n¬ESPECIALLY¬WITH¬AN¬AMBER¬OR¬CYAN¬HUE¬n¬
LED according to these two criteria, sorting them into different cat- IS¬ONE¬OF¬THE¬MOST¬DEMANDING¬CHALLENGES¬FACING¬LIGHTING¬ENGINEERS
egories called “bins”.
Some luminaire manufacturers demand that their suppliers pro- 527
0.8 530
vide bins that are particularly stringently selected with respect to the
dominant wavelength. There is a good reason for this: the greater the 80
accuracy with which an individual light source emits a certain wave- 555
length from the outset, the more exact the match between light colors 0.6
of several luminaires. But even with the most stringent selection, 500 40 575
deviations in both the luminous flux and the dominant wavelength
between individual LEDs of one color still have to be accepted. 20
0.4 600
EZgXZei^dcd[XdadgY^[[ZgZcXZh 490 20 40 60 80 622
20 780
The problem of the manufacturing deviations of LEDs is aggravated 40
when mixed colors of light are used. In RGB color mixing, the toler- 0.2 60
ances of two of three LEDs are compounded together. On the one 480
hand, the dominant wavelength can deviate by 5 nm or more within 465
one bin, depending on the manufacturer; on the other, fluctuations of
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
20 to 30% can arise for one luminous flux bin. This means that the
mixed color of two LED luminaires can differ by more than 10 nm in &IG¬¬#OLOR¬MIXING¬#)%¬COLOR¬DIAGRAM¬SHOWS¬LIGHT¬COLORS¬WITH¬HUE¬
The eye, however, can detect differences starting from 1–3 nm, LIGHT¬SOURCES¬OF¬2'"¬COLOR MIXING¬LUMINAIRES¬GIVES¬A¬TRIANGLE¬THAT¬
depending on the wavelength and the background. Therefore, high- CONTAINS¬ALL¬THE¬COLORS¬THAT¬CAN¬BE¬PRODUCED¬#OLORED¬,%$S¬HAVE¬
quality color mixing for architectural lighting with several luminaires HIGH¬SATURATION¬AND¬THEREFORE¬ALLOW¬A¬LARGE¬NUMBER¬OF¬MIXED¬COLORS¬
cannot be implemented reliably on this basis. Achieving color con- TO¬BE¬PRODUCED¬4HE¬LINE¬FROM¬THE¬CENTRAL¬WHITE¬POINT¬TO¬THE¬2'"¬
stancy between several luminaires when washlighting a white wall POINTS¬SERVES¬AS¬A¬SCALE¬FOR¬SATURATION¬4HE¬NUMERIC¬VALUES¬ON¬THE¬
– especially with an amber or cyan hue – is one of the most demanding OUTER¬EDGE¬OF¬THE¬CURVE¬INDICATE¬THE¬WAVELENGTH

aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 
A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : 8DADGB>M>C<


figure 4). The set values are adjusted at certain production cycles to
keep them up to date with technological progress. This will enable
dominant adjustment to suit the increasing luminous flux of future LEDs.
measuring The resulting product versions are identified on the label of the
device luminaire to ensure that it can be reordered or reproduced as and
flux when required. Color compensation technology comes into play on
PC with interface luminaires featuring their own control gear where the compensation
to measuring
device and factors can be stored individually. Color compensation, control gear
Light Server for and LED module are seen here as a single unit and can be replaced as a
control gear coding DALI control
single unit in a luminaire as and when necessary. Color compensation
&IG¬¬#OLOR¬COMPENSATION¬PROCESS¬DIAGRAM is used, for instance, for spotlights or wallwashers in the indoor area
or for outdoor luminaires such as projectors, in-ground luminaires or
challenges that lighting engineers have to face. The eye has a very facade luminaires.
high sensitivity for these wavelengths and therefore detects even fine
differences in color. :cXdYZY96A>Xdcigda\ZVg
On the technical side, fluctuations in luminous flux are more seri- The Light System DALI uses encoded DALI control gear, which
ous than fluctuations in dominant wavelength for the perception of enables the central DALI controller to identify automatically the
the color differences. Without color compensation technology, this luminaires and their properties and enable user-friendly functions.
could cause the light colors produced by RGB color mixing to devi- Various data (including the article number, a unique luminaire ID
ate visibly from one luminaire to the next for the same DALI (Digital and an index for identifying the lamp type and lamp color) is saved
Addressable Lighting Interface) control values. in the 16-byte memory of the DALI control gear to provide unique
Conversely, lighting users require lighting products that will identification within the system.
always reproduce exactly the same light color from a given DALI The advantage of the encoded DALI control gear is particularly
control value – even in difficult applications such as strip lighting apparent when implementing colored lighting installations with lumi-
or a row of LED luminaires acting as wallwashers (see figure 3). To naires featuring RGB color mixing technology. These luminaires
ensure reliable color precision, ERCO has introduced color compen- have three addresses with which the light colors red, green and blue
sation technology, whereby LED luminaires with RGB color mixing are already assigned to the respective control gear. Compared with
capability (also known as varychrome luminaires) are individually conventional DALI systems, this does away with the time-consuming
measured and calibrated at the factory. task, performed on-site, of assigning the addresses to the luminaires
with their respective color channels and control gear. A light color can
8dadgXdbeZchVi^dcegdXZhh now be selected and assigned to several luminaires via the software.
Color compensation is performed in four steps: (i) the luminaires are The LED compensation factors stored in the control gear are used to
operated for a certain time period; (ii) their actual values are recorded; compensate for the deviations in the LEDs, due to their manufacturing
(iii) compensation values are entered; and (iv) the compensation is process, so that the user always receives a uniform color of light.
checked. To achieve a reliable and constant value for the measure-
ment, the luminaires are operated continuously for about two hours DjiejiXdbeVg^hdcd[G<7ajb^cV^gZh
under reproducible temperature conditions until the luminaire reaches The prerequisite for color mixing luminaires is to have lighting tools
thermal saturation. Following this, a computer-aided measuring with individually dimmable light sources in the primary colors of
instrument records the luminous flux and the dominant wavelength red, green and blue as components of additive color mixing. Colored
for each of the luminaire’s RGB channels. fluorescent lamps, as well as LEDs in particular, are suitable for this
In the third step, the measured values are compared with the set task. The saturation of the individual primary colors will determine
values. The software then calculates the compensation factors from the usable color space.
these figures and permanently stores the result in the control gear (see Due to their operating principle, LEDs have one advantage over

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
S (%)
S (%)


  A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :


50 506

0  (nm)  (nm)
380 480 490 500 510 530 555 575 600 780 –493 –569




300  (lm)  (lm)

    ! "   ! #

150 –561



 (nm)  (nm)


380 480 490 500 510 530 555 575 600 780 -493 –569


%  $    


color mixing luminaires with fluorescent lamps: their very high color &'( )((( &(( *((
saturation produces a large color space, which also includes highly
saturated mixed colors. A quantitative output comparison of LED   % )+ 
color mixing luminaires should therefore not be based on the maxi- % (+

mum luminous flux for white mixed light, but on the entire spectrum 

 % ,!

and the saturation. Color compensation allows the luminaire manu-
facturer to ensure that the user obtains the same hue on several adja- % " 

cent luminaires; however, the trade off for this is that, in practice, the 

luminous flux can be slightly below the LED module’s maximum
possible level.
Color compensation technology for color mixing luminaires with  
LEDs makes it possible to compensate for the luminaire’s manufac- 

turing tolerances and to achieve optimum lighting quality for the user.
Even when LED bins of the highest grade are sourced, the variation
of both the maximum luminous flux and the dominant wavelength
still represents a real problem for discerning architectural lighting
solutions. Compensation factors stored in each luminaire’s own con-
trol gear ensure a uniform color of light for luminaires of the same

type during operation. In addition, the version control also takes the
technical progress of the increasing luminous flux into account and
improves the reordering process for subsequent deliveries. 

Thomas Schielke is an architect and lighting designer with ERCO

Leuchten ( ERCO is headquartered in Lüdenscheid,

Germany, and specializes in engineering hardware and software for
architectural lighting.

aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 
A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : 768@A><=I>C<

LCD modules are not self-emissive but require an independent light 500 100
source in the form of a backlight unit (BLU). Among the available or large-size BLU market (units)
emerging BLU technologies, LEDs offer numerous advantages based 450 LED BLUs (units) 90
on their light-source characteristics, suggesting that LEDs will achieve
LED BLUs (%)

widespread adoption in medium and large display segments. However, 400 80
price wars in the display market and resultant cost reductions have
emerged as the crucial problem for LED-based BLUs. Despite numer- 350 70

shipments (million units)

LED BLU % penetration

ous advantages, LED-based BLUs have not been widely adopted in
larger LCD panels, and need to reach attractive cost levels. 300 60
Figure 1 shows the overall BLU market for large LCDs (10-inch
diagonal and larger) including applications such as LCD TVs, LCD 250 50
monitors and notebook PCs. The total BLU market in these applica-
200 40
tions will increase from 337 million units in 2007 to 481 million units
in 2010. Penetration of LEDs in the BLU market will increase rapidly
150 30
from 1.5% in 2007, equivalent to 5.1 million units, to 14% in 2010,
equivalent to 67.8 million units. 100 20
Considering that only about 1% of large products (10-inch and
bigger) have LED-based BLUs as of March 2007, we foresee a tre- 50 10
mendous growth through 2010. Even on the assumption that OLED
displays become available with larger designs, LED BLU technology 0 0
is predicted to continue to take the lead before this happens. 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
The first LED-based BLUs for LCD TV appeared in the second half
of 2004, as 40- and 46-inch models from Sony. Due to problems product launches. Although there have been few commercial products
with cost and various manufacturing processes, only a small number (some of which failed to sell), monitor-sized displays are often manu-
of commercial TV models have been developed, including products factured as prototypes in the review stage of TV BLU development.
from Samsung, Sharp and LG.Philips. NEC, Sony, Mitsubishi and Samsung have all introduced LED-back-
All major TV manufacturers as well as LCD panel makers and sup- lit monitors in the past two-to-three years.
pliers of BLUs and LEDs are working on development of LED BLUs Prices for conventional (CCFL-backlit) 17- and 19-inch monitors are
for televisions. In addition, there are joint studies between manufac- between $200 and $300, meaning that the adoption of LED BLUs in
turers, academia and research firms. monitors will not happen in the near future unless LED prices plunge.
RGB LEDs are the most popular choice for development of TV Recent attention has been focused on premium-range monitors for spe-
BLUs, and are also leading the market in technology advances. Sharp cial applications such as graphic design and industrial use (see Box).
has developed a hybrid (CCFL+LED) light source, and white LEDs
are also being evaluated for large panels. CdiZWdd`E8h
Displaybank estimates that BLU module demand for LCD TVs LED BLUs first appeared in notebook PCs in 2005 and have enjoyed
should grow from 80 million units in 2007 to 140 million units in rapid growth, mainly due to the feasibility of building slimmer products.
2010, when the penetration of LEDs into this application should In addition, because color gamut is not usually a strong consideration
exceed 6%. Specifically for TVs with screen sizes of 40-inch and for purchasing a notebook PC, the BLUs are able to use white LEDs,
larger, LED penetration will reach around 15% in a market of about which are more attractively priced than RGB LEDs. Commercial prod-
53 million units. As a consequence, Displaybank has estimated that ucts are now being rolled out, and true mass production of such prod-
the LCD TV market will require 19.5 billion low-power LED chips ucts is projected to commence from the second half of 2007.
and 1.15 billion high-power LEDs in 2010. Sony has already launched 12 LED-backlit notebook PCs, while
Toshiba has launched one and Fujitsu two models. Toshiba has also
Bdc^idgA89h introduced a large number of LCD panels (see Box). Sony’s monop-
LED BLUs for monitors have similar characteristics to those for TVs, oly is likely to continue into the first half of 2007, but from the second
but far more severe pricing pressure in this market has hindered actual half, products made in Korea and Taiwan may enter the market.

 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
768@A><=I>C< A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :
7nI^bL]^iV`Zg at all, since the color reproduction was not
Both Samsung and Toshiba are helping as accurate as conventional CRT displays.
to drive the growing popularity of LED With LED backlighting, the XL-30 provides
backlighting for LCD panels with a new a massive leap ahead in performance.
30-inch professional monitor and new LCD The monitor expresses Adobe RGB color
panels for laptops, respectively. ranges, which allows pictures taken with
At CeBit in Hanover, Germany, Samsung DSLR cameras to transmit emerald green,
Electronics introduced a professional-grade dark red, and other natural colors onto the
30-inch LCD monitor (SyncMaster XL30) monitor in their true form. Users will be able
that incorporates an LED backlight unit. to view detailed, in-depth colors that were
The monitor’s key feature is its ability to previously only available through computer
reproduce 123% of the NTSC standard imaging and printed copies. Also, consumers
color gamut. Ha Yoon-ho, Senior VP of will be able to print photo colors exactly the
Samsung’s Visual Display Division, said: way they see them on the monitors.
“I predict that new Samsung LED BLU Meanwhile, Toshiba Matsushita Display
monitors will create a color revolution Technology has developed new 10.4- and 10.6-inch LCD
leading to a popularization of the products not only panels for notebook PC applications, each incorporating
for experts such as designers and photographers an LED backlighting system to provide low-profile,
but for the desktop publishing field.” lightweight, and low-power consumption features.
Until recently, graphic designers and those TMD now sells seven LCD panels with LED backlights
working in the printing and publishing industries didn’t use LCDs in the 8.9- to 13.3-inch range, and sees strong growth in this area.

8dcXajh^dc dependent on the time when solutions to these issues are offered. 
In the future, products with LED BLUs will continue to gain ground,
providing rich advantages and high added value. However, there 6Wdjii]ZVji]dg
remain challenges to be solved for rapid penetration of LED BLUs, Brian Bae ( is a researcher with Displaybank.
including price, heat dissipation, uniformity and efficiency of LED Contact Sue Chung ( for information on
chips. We believe that the market expansion of LED BLUs will be Displaybank’s LED BLU reports and display-related events.

Join over 500 LED industry leaders October 24 – 26, 2007

at this 8th annual international Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina
business conference and exhibition San Diego, California, US
aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 
A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C : A><=I;6>GEGD9J8I;D8JH
>AAJB6A:9 Ä]^\]"eZg[dgbVcXZ
This ultra-thin (less than 1⁄2 inch), high-efficiency, 12-inch long,
low-voltage light source has been designed, with dimming
capabilities, specifically for under-cabinet, under-shelf, or
display-case lighting. The design uses state-of-the-art thermal
management techniques to produces over 250 lumens using only
7 watts of power with a 50,000-hour lifetime. The low-voltage
wiring makes installation extremely easy. Available in white,
A milestone black, brushed aluminum, and custom colors.
ISO 9001:2000 certified

Contact: Pete Couture

Tel. +1 978-818-6180 x 130

The Enfis QUATTRO (pictured) and Enfis UNO ranges of Solid-
State LED Light Engines provide a complete solution, including
electronic and thermal management plus a simple user interface
– just plug DC power in and you can use some of the brightest and
highest power LEDs on the market! They are available in a range
of wavelengths: UV, visible, white, RGBA, NIR and from 18 W
PLD-C is a Global Lighting Design Convention for to 200 W.
lighting professionals worldwide, organised by
VIA Publishing for the international magazine Tel: +44 (0)1792 485660
Professional Lighting Design in cooperation with Fax:+44 (0)1792 485537
the European Lighting DesignersÕ Association Email:
e.V., ELDA.
Lightfair Booth #2380
Other associations and Universities and manu-
facturers have shown interest
in becoming a strong partner involved in the glo- 69K:GI>H:NDJGEGD9J8I=:G:
bal convention, such as are Lighting Urban EgdbdiZndjgegdYjXi^ci]ZEgdYjXi
Community International, LUCI, and the
Association des Concepteurs Lumire et
Eclairagistes, ACE, The Sociaty of Light and The Product Focus section is a low-cost way to gain high
Lighting, SLL, Lyskultur/N and many more. visibility for your products. The package consists of 75 words of
text, a photo and full company contact details. All you have to do
Save the dates: is send us the text and photo and we will create the advert for you.
26. to the 28. October 2007 in London/UK For further information:

Contact: Joanna Hook

Tel. +44 (0)117 941 5378



 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%,
A><=I;6>GEGD9J8I;D8JH A:9HB 6 < 6 O > C :
A N C @  A 6 7 H  > C 8 # 8DDAEDANB:GH!>C8#
68"A:9iZX]cdad\nVcYI]ZgbVAnc` 8ddaEdanœi]ZgbVaanXdcYjXi^kZ!
eVX`V\^c\hdaji^dch bdaYVWaZedanbZgbViZg^Vah
Lynk Labs Inc is the LED industry’s leading provider of AC-LED CoolPoly® is the LED thermal management SOLUTION!
technology, a patented infrastructure solution that includes AC Cool Polymers is the world’s only dedicated manufacturer of thermally
LED devices, assemblies and drive technology. Lynk Labs’ most conductive plastics. CoolPoly® is the only LED industry standard for an
recent LED innovation, ThermaLynk, delivers advanced LED integrated thermal management solution, the weight/cost of aluminum,
no antenna affect, 3D net shaped molded, UNITIZED LED packaging
packaging solutions from die level to luminaire by integrating
for: die, light engine, PCB substrate for SMT/reflow, Chip on Board,
die directly to thermal conductive, moldable polymers from Cool enclosures or complete luminaire. See Lynk Labs, ThermaLynk™, Chip
Polymers Inc (see CoolPoly® thermal conductive materials from on Luminaire – COL™ solutions on CoolPoly® technology.
Cool Polymers Inc).
Contact: Gary Arnold, Sales Manager
Tel. +1 847-783-0123 Tel. +1 401-450-2496
Fax: +1 847-783-1230 Fax: +1 401-732-6119
Email: Email:
Web: Web:

D8:6CDEI>8H 86G8AD
H^beaZA:9bZVhjgZbZci ;gdhiZYiZX]cdad\nÒc^h][dgGZWZah
Measure relative irradiance – including color temperature and A new range of optics with frosted technology finish complete
color rendering index – of radiant sources and absolute irradiance with holders are available for LUXEON® Rebel LEDs. These
of LEDs with modular optical-sensing tools from Ocean Optics. produce beam widths of between 9 and 22 degrees (FWHM),
Our miniature fiber-optic spectrometers and accessories can also an elliptical beam of 10 × 40. All have efficiency of 85%+,
be configured to measure absolute or relative irradiance of allowing users to make the most of the Rebel’s already good
LEDs, flat-panel displays and other radiant sources; for LEDs in optical efficiency. Particularly impressive for architectural
particular, we offer special optical fixtures, calibrated sources and applications are the two frosted variants that feature integrated
other tools for convenient measurement. diffusers. Other LED manufacturers supported as well.

Tel. +1 727-733-2447 Email:

Fax: +1 727-733-3962
Email: Tel: +44 (0)1753 575011 (UK)
Web: Tel: +1 724-539-6982 (USA)
samplesetups_ledanalysis.asp Web:

A:9hÄA^\]i^cVcZlY^bZch^dc >G>H("^c"&9g^kZg9^bbZg
Conceived in a user-friendly manner, efficiently realized – our ISO 9001:2000 Designers and Manufacturers of LED Driver
LED competence center offers LED system solutions which are Dimmer Power Supplies, for power applications in the Solid State
ready to be assembled at the highest technological level. Lighting industry. Power Vector’s IRIS product is designed for
powering and controlling high-brightness LEDs incorporating
More about the light of the DMX512A control, power isolation and
future can be found at: programmable constant current drivers. Power Vector’s products incorporate
Vossloh–Schwabe: our unique dimming method and
A New Lighting Experience are intended for any High Brightness
LEDs from 350 mA up to 1400 mA.
Visit us at the Lightfair in New
York, 8th to 10th May, 2007 – Tel. +1 888-LED-3IN1 (533-3461)
Jacob Javits Center, Booth 1546 Email:


aZYhbV\Vo^cZ#Xdb6eg^a'%%, 8deng^\]i'%%,8VWdiBZY^VAiY#6aag^\]ihgZhZgkZY 

Potrebbero piacerti anche