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Wood Handbook

Wood as an Engineering Material

Theuse oftradeorfirmnamesisfor information

only and doesnot imply

ortheForestProducts

endorsement by theU.S. Department

Society of any product or service. This publication reports research

of Agriculture

involvingpesticides. Itdoesnotcontainrecommendations for theiruse,nor

doesit imply that theuses discussed herehave been registered. Allusesof

pesticides

before they canberecommended.

must be

registered by appropriate Stateand/orFederal agencies

Reprinted fromForestProducts Laboratory General Technical

Report

ForestProducts Laboratory.

FPL-GTR-1 13 with the consentofthe USDAForestService,

Printedin 1999 by the ForestProducts Society.

ISBN 1-892529-02-5

Printedin the UnitedStatesofAmerica

FPS

99045000

catalogue no. 7269

Cover photo courtesy ofthe Southern ForestProductsAssociation.

Conteiits

2

3

4

Preface

v

Acknowledgments vii

Contributors

xi

Characteristicsand

Availability of

CommerciallyImportant Wood TimberResourcesand Uses 1—2

SpeciesDescriptions 13

U.S. Wood

Imported

Species

1—3

Woods 1—17

References 1—34

Structure ofWood

Bark,Wood, Branches, and Cambium 2—1

Sapwood and Heartwood 2—2

Growth

Wood Cells 2—3

Chemical

Rings

2—2

Composition

2—3

Species Identification 2-4

References 2—4

PhysicalProperties and Moisture Relations of Wood

Appearance

3—1

MoistureContent 3—5

Shrinkage

3—7

Weight,Density, and SpecificGravity 311

WorkingQualities

Decay

Thennal

Electrical Properties

CoefficientofFriction 3—22

NuclearRadiation 3—23 References 3—23

3—15

Resistance 3—15

Properties 3—15

3—21

Mechanical Properties of Wood

Orthotropic NatureofWood 4—1

Elastic Properties 4—2

Strength Properties 4—3

Vibration

Wood 4—26

4—25

Properties Mechanical Properties ofClearStraight-Grained

Natural Characteristics Affecting Mechanical

Properties

4—27

Effects

Environments 4—34 References 4—44

of Manufacturing and Service

5

6

Commercial Lumber

HardwoodLumber 5—1 SoftwoodLumber 5—7

Purchase ofLumber 5—12

Commonly UsedLumberAbbreviations5—18

References 5—20

LumberStressGradesand DesignProperties

Responsibilities and Standards for Stress

7

8

9

Grading 6—2

Visually

GradedStructural Lumber 6—3

Machine-Graded Structural Lumber 6—'7

Adjustment of Properties for Design Us 6il

References 6—14

Fastenings

Nails 7—2

Spikes 7—8

Staples

7—8

Drift Bolts 7—9

WoodScrews

7—9

Lag

Bolts 7—14

Screws 7—il

Connector Joints 7—18

Multiple-Fastener Metal Plate Connectors 7—25 Fastener HeadEmbedment 7—26 References 7—27

Joints 7—24

StructuralAnalysisEquations

Deformation Equations 8—i StressEquations 8—4

Stability Equations 8—8

References 8—11

AdhesiveBonding ofWood Materials Adhesionto Wood 9—1

Surface Properties ofWoodAdherends 9—2

Properties ofWoodAdherend 9—6

Physical

Adhesives 9—9

BondingProcess 9—15

BondedJoints 9—18

Testing

and Performance 9—20

References 9—23

10 Wood-Based Composites and PanelProducts

Scope 102

Types

ofConventional Composite

Materials 10—3

AdhesiveConsiderations 10—3

Additives 10—4

General Manufacturing

Standards for Wood—BasedPanels 10—4

Plywood

Issues 10—4

10—6

Particleand Fiber Composites 10—13

Wood—Nonwood Composites References 10—30

10—24

11 Glued StructuralMembers

Structural Composite Lumber 11—1 Glulam 11—3 Glued MembersWith Lumberand Panels 11—12 StructuralSandwich Construction 11—16

References 11—21

12

Drying

and Dimensional Changes

and ControlofMoisture Content

DeterminationofMoisture Content• 12—1

RecommendedMoistureContent 12—3

Drying

Moisture Control During Transitand

ofWood 12—5

Storage

12—14

Dimensional

Design Factors Affecting Dimensional

Changes

in Wood 12—15

Change

12—18

Wood Careand Installation During

Construction 12—18

References 12—20

1.3

BiodeteriorationofWood FungusDamage and Control13—1 Bacteria 13—8

Insect Damage and Control 13—8

MarineBorer Damage and

Control 13—13

References 13—15

14 Wood Preservation

Wood Preservatives 14—2

Preservative Effectiveness 14—12

Effect ofSpecieson

Preparation ofTimberfor Treatment 14—17

Penetration 14—12

Application ofPreservatives 14—19

Handling and Seasoning ofTimberAfter Treatment 14—24 AssuranceforTreatedWood 14—25

Quality

References 14—26

15

Finishing of Wood Factors

Affecting

Application

Finish Performance 15—1

15—14

15—19

15—24

ControlofWaterorMoisturein Wood

Types ofExteriorWood Finishes

ofWood Finishes

FinishFailureor Discoloration

Finishing

Finishesfor Items UsedforFood 15—32

of InteriorWood 15—30

Wood Cleaners and Brighteners 15—33

Paint

Strippers

15—33

Lead-BasedPaint

15—35

References

15—36

5--9

16 Use of Wood In Building and Bridges

Light-Frame Buildings 16—1

Post-Frameand

Log Buildings

Pole Buildings 16-4

16-6

16-6

Heavy Timber Buildings

Timber Bridges

16—9

Considerations forWood Buildings References 16—14

16—10

17 Fire Safety

Fire

SafetyDesign

andEvaluation 17—1

FirePerformance Characteristics ofWood 17—6 Flame-Retardant Treatments 17—12 References 17—13

18 Round Timbersand Ties

Standards and

Specifications Material Requirements

18—1

Availability 18—2

Form 18—3

Weight

Durability 18-6

and Volume 18—5

Strength Properties

References

18—8

18—7

19 Specialty Treatments Wood 19—1

Plasticizing

Modified Woods 19-4

18—1

Paper-Based PlasticLaminates 19—12

References 19—14

Glossary G—1

Index 1—1

Preface

Efficientuseofournation's timberresourceisavital concern. Becausea major use ofwoodintheUnitedStatesisin

construction,

particularlyhousingconstruction,

goodpractice inthis endeavor canhavea profound impact ontheresource.This

providesengineers, architects, and

properties are affected by

ofwoodandhowthese

hold promise for widerand moreefficientutilization

aunitoftheresearch organization oftheForest Service,

1910, ismaintainedat Madison, Wisconsin, in cooperation

engineering and allied investigations

construction practices and problems—is thechiefbasis

ofwoodand

handbook isintendedas anaidtomore efficientuse ofwoodas aconstruction material. It

otherswith asource ofinformation onthe

physical andmechanical properties

techniques

industrial, structural, and decorative uses.

preparedby

theForestProducts Laboratory (FPL),

The

Laboratory,

established in

Department of Agriculture.

variations inthewooditself.Continuing researchandevaluation

ofwoodand for moreadvanced

Thishandbookwas

U.S.

withthe University ofWisconsin.Itwasthefirst institution inthe worldtoconduct general researchonwoodand its

utilization.Theaccumulation of infonnationthat has resultedfromits

wood

products overnine decades—along with knowledge of everyday

forthis handbook.

The WoodHandbookwas first issuedin 1935, and

in 1955, 1974, and 1987were

work is a

sI[ightly revised in 1939,

asanunnumbered publication. Furtherrevisions

publishedby theU.S. Department

of Agriculture as Agriculture Handbook No. 72. This current

revisionofthe 1987 edition. Thisrevisionwas necessary toreflectmorerecentresearch accomplishments

complete

and technological changes.

Theaudienceforthe WoodHandbookis fairly broad. Therefore, the

ofthe topic,

approach would nowleave significantgaps

information to provide bettercoverageofimportant topics.

coverage ofeach chapter isaimedat providing a general

discussion

only the findings and applications ofFPL research. Although thehandbook isnotintendedtobeastate-of-the-art review, this

with references included for additional information. Pastversions ofthe WoodHandbooktended to report

insome important areas. Thecurrentedition has broadenedthesources of

The organization ofthis versionofthe WoodHandbookis similarto previousones,with somemodifications:

Plywood(chapter 11 inthe

inthe

previousversion),

previousversion), insulation board,hardboard, medium-density fiberboard

particle panel materials (chapter

22inthe

(part of chapter 21

and wood-based

previousversion) arenow included

inanew chapter onwood-based composites and panelproducts.

Structural sandwichconstruction (chapter 12 inthe previousversion) is nowincludedinthe chapter on glued structural members.

Moisture movementandthermalinsulation in anew chapter onuse ofwood in buildings and

light-frame structures (chapter 20inthe previousversion) arenow part of bridges.

Bentwoodmembers

(chapter

13 inthe

previousversion), modified woods,and paper-based laminates (chapter 23 inthe

chapter on specialty treatments.

previousversion) are nowincludedina

Consistentwith movement bymany U.S. standards

universal

agencies and industry

associations towarduse ofmetricunitsand near-

units ofmeasurement inthis versionofthehsndbook

as secondary units.Allconversions ini;his

implementation ofmetric usage inthe international community,

are providedprimarily inmetricunits,with customary

inch—pound equivalents

handbook to metricunits,including conversions of empirically derived

previously derived inch—pound

of original

research.

values. Atsomefuture

equations, aredirect (or soft) conversions from

time, metric expressions

may needto be derived fromareevaluation

Page blank

in

original

cktww1égments

We

gratefullyacknowledge the extraordinary

effortofthefollowing

clarity,

individuals intheirreview ofthefinal draftofthis

consistency, and coverage ofthe WoodHandbook.

entirevolume.Theirefforthas substantially enhancedthe

DonaldBender WoodMaterials &Engineering Laboratory Washington State University

Thomas McLain Department ofForest Products Oregon State University

Pullman,Washington

Corvallis,Oregon

Arthur Brauner

Russell Moody

ForestProducts Society

Madison, Wisconsin

Madison, Wisconsin

BradfordDouglas American Forest& Paper Association

Washington, DC

DavidGreen USDAForest Service, ForestProducts Laboratory

Madison, Wisconsin

MichaelHunt

Department of Forestry and NaturalResources Purdue University WestLafayette, Indiana

Michael O'Halloran APA—The Engineered Wood Association Tacoma, Washington

ErwinSchaffer

Sun CityWest,Arizona

Contributors tothe WoodHandbookare indebtedtothe following individuals and organizations for their early technical reviewof chapter manuscripts.

TerryAmburgey ForestProducts Laboratory

Mississippi State University

MississippiState, Mississippi

JonArno

Troy, Minnesota

B.

AlanBendtsen

Madison, Wisconsin

A. WilliamBoehner

Trus Joist MacMillan

Boise, Idaho

R.MichaelCaldwell

AmericanInstitute ofTimberConstruction

Englewood, Colorado

DonaldCarr

NAHB—National Research Center UpperMarlboro, Maryland

Richard Caster WeyerhaeuserCompany Tacoma, Washington

Kevin

WesternWoodProductsAssociation

Cheung

Portland, Oregon

Stephen

Clark

Northeastern LumberManufacturersAssociation

Cumberland Center, Maine

RichardCook

NationalCasein Company Santa Ana, California

William Crossman

AtlantaWoodIndustries

Savannah, Georgia

ThomasDaniels

Energy Products ofIdaho

CoeurD'Alene, Idaho

DonaldDeVisser

WestCoastLumber Inspection Bureau Portland,Oregon

Bradford

Douglas American Forestand Paper Association

Washington, DC

Elberg

Stan

NationalOak Flooring Manufacturers Association Memphis, Tennessee

Paul Foehlich Southern Cypress Manufacturers Association Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania

Barry

Goodell

ForestProducts Laboratory

University ofMaine

Orono, Maine

KevinHaile

HP&VA

Reston,Virginia

DanielHare The Composite Panel Association

Gaithersburg, Maryland

R.Bruce Hoadley ForestiyDepartment University ofMassachusetts Amherst,Massachusetts

DavidHon

Department ofForest Resources

Clemson

Clemson, South Carolina

RobertHunt WesternWood ProductsAssociation Portland,Oregon

University

LisaJohnson

SouthernPine Inspection Bureau

Pensacola, Florida

Tom Jones SouthernPine Inspection Bureau Pensacola, Florida

CharlesJourdain

CaliforniaRedwoodAssociation

Novato, California

JohnKressbach Gillette, New Jersey

RobertKundrot

NestleResins Corporation

Springfield, Oregon

Steven Lawser Wood Component Manufacturers Association Marietta, Georgia

Phillip

Line

American Forest & Paper Association

Washington, DC

Joseph

Loferski

Brooks ForestProductsCenter

Blacksburg, Virginia

MapleFlooring

Northbrook,

Manufacturers Association

Illinois

ThomasMcLain

Department

ofForestProducts

Oregon State University Corvallis,Oregon

DavidMcLean

Civil Engineering Department

Washington State University

Pullman,Washington

Rodney

McPhee

Canadian Wood Council Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

MichaelMilota

Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon

Jeffrey Department ofForest Products Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon

National Hardwood LumberAssociation Memphis, Tennessee

Morrell

Darrel Nicholas

ForestProducts Laboratory

Mississippi State University

MississippiState, Mississippi

Michael O'Halloran

APAThe Engineered WoodAssociation Tacoma,Washington

Perry Peralta

Department ofWoodand Paper Science

North CarolinaState

University

Raleigh, NorthCarolina

DavidPlackett

ForintekCanada Corporation

Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

DavidPollock Civil EngineeringDepartment State

Washington

University

Pullman,Washington

Redwood Inspection

Mill Valley,

Service

California

Alan Ross

Kop—Coat Inc. Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania

Thomas Searles American LumberStandards Committee Germantown, Maryland

JamesShaw

Weyerhaeuser Company Tacoma,Washington

BradleyShelley West CoastLumber Inspection Bureau Portland,Oregon

Ramsey Smith

Louisiana Forest

Products Laboratory

Baton Rouge, Louisiana

William Smith

SUNY—ESF

WoodProducts

Engineering Syracuse, New York

Edward Starostovic PFS/TECO Corporations Madison, Wisconsin

Louis

Wagner American HardwoodAssociation Palatine, Illinois

Eugene Wengert Department of Forestry

University of Wisconsin

Wisconsin

Madison,

Michael Westfall

RedCedar Shingle & Handsplit ShakeBureau

Bellevue, Washington

Yeh

Borjen APA—The Engineered WoodAssociation Tacoma, Washington

Page blank

in

original

Coiitributors

The following

staffoftheForestProducts Laboratory contributed tothewriting,revision, and compilation ofinformation

contained inthe WoodHandbook.

MarkA. Dietenberger

Research General Engineer

DavidW. Green

Supervisory Research General Engineer

David E. Kretschmann

Research GeneralEngineer

RolandHernandez

Research General Engineer

Terry L. Highley

Supervisory

ResearchPlant Pathologist(retired)

Rebecca E. Ibach Chemist

Jen Y. Liu

Research General Engineer

Kent A. McDonald ResearchForestProducts Technologist(retired)

Regis

Botanist

B. Miller

Russell C. Moody

Supervisory

Research GeneralEngineer(retired)

Roger

M.Rowell

Supervisory Research Chemist

William T. Simpson

Research ForestProducts Technologist

Lawrence A. Soltis

Research General Engineer

Anton TenWolde

Research Physicist

Ronald W. Wolfe

ResearchGeneral Engineer

Charles B.Vick

Research ForestProducts Technologist

Robert H. White Supervisory WoodScientist

R. Sam Williams

Supervisory ResearchChemist

Jerrold E. Winandy

Research ForestProducts Technologist

John A. Youngquist

Supervisory Research General Engineer

Characteristics and Availability of

Commercially Important

Regis B. Miller

Woods

I Chapter .1(

I

Contents

TimberResourcesand Uses 1—2

HardwoodsandSoftwoods 1—2

Commercial SourcesofWoodProducts 1—2

UseClassesand Trends 1—3

SpeciesDescriptions 13

U.S. Wood Species 1—3

Hardwoods 1—3

Softwoods 1—10

Imported Woods 1—17

Hardwoods 1—17

Softwoods 1—33

References 1—34

hroughouthistory, the unique characteristic; and

comparative

abundance ofwood havemadeita

and decorative

objects. Today,

naturalmaterial forhomesand otherstructures,

furniture,tools,vehicles,

the same reasons,woodis prized foramultitudeofues.

for

Allwoodis

andminoramounts (5%

composed of cellulose,

lignin,hemicelitloses,

matera1s

to 10%) ofextraneous

contained inacellular structure. Variations inthecharacteris-

anddifferences incellu-

lar structure

components

ticsand volume ofthese

makewoods heavy or

may

light, stiffor flexible, and

by spe-

hardor soft. The properties ofa singlespecies arerelatively

constantwithinlimits;therefore, selectionofwood

ciesalone

sometimes beadequate.However, to use

and

woodtoitsbest advantage

ingapplications, specific characteristics or physicalproperties mustbe considered.

most effectively in engineer-

Historically, some species

lessavailable orlessdesirable

needs. For example, becausewhiteoakis tough, strong, and

filled manypurposes, whi[eother

species served only

oneor two

for shipbuilding, bridges,

durable,itwas highlyprized

cooperage, barn timbers, farm implements, railroad c:rossties,

fence posts, and flooring.

cheriy

Woodssuchasblack walnutand

wereused primarily forfurniture and cabinets. Hickory

wasmanufactured into tough, hard, and resilient striking-tool

handles, and blacklocustwas prized forbarn timbers.What

the

early

builderor craftsman learned by trial and errorbe-

thatwoodfromtrees grown incertain loca-

stronger, more durable,

camethebasisfor deciding which species were appropriate

fora given use interms oftheircharacteristics. Itwas com-

monlyaccepted

tionsundercertainconditions was

more easily worked withtools,orfmer grained than'vood

fromtrees inotherlocations. Modernresearchonwoodhas

substantiated that location and growth conditions do significantly affectwood properties.

The gradual reductions inuse

UnitedStateshas reducedthe supply of large clear

of old-growth

the

forestsinthe

logs

for

lumber andveneer. However, the importance of high.•quality

logs has diminished asnew concepts

introduced. Second-growth wood,

ofwooduse have been

remaining old-growth

forests, and imports

qualityrequired.

continuetofilltheneedsforwoodinthe

mate-

Wood is asvaluablean engineering

rialasever, andin manycases,technological advances have

madeitevenmoreuseful.

I

1—1

Theinherent factors that keep woodintheforefrontofraw

materials are many and varied, butachiefattribute is its

every

demand. Wood hasa

high

ratio of

availability in many species,sizes,shapes, and conditions to

suit almost

strength

to weight andaremarkable recordfor durability and perform-

anceas astructural material.

propertiesagainstheat,sound,and electricity.

absorband dissipate vibrationsundersomeconditions of

use, and yet itis an incomparable materialfor suchmusical

instrumentsastheviolin. The

woodmakeitan

Dry

woodhas

good insulating

Ittendsto

and colors of

grain patterns

estheticallypleasingmaterial,and its

appearancemay be easily enhanced by stains, varnishes,

lacquers, and other finishes.Itis easilyshaped

and fastenedwith adhesives, nails,screws,bolts,and dow-

els. Damaged wood is easilyrepaired, andwoodstructures

are

oxidation,acid,saltwater, andothercorrosive agents,

highsalvagevalue,has good

with

withalmost

estheticuses.

any

withtools

easily remodeledoraltered.In addition, woodresists

has

preservatives

shockresistance, canbetreated

and fire retardants, and canbecombined

othermaterialfor both functional and

Timber Resources and Uses

IntheUnitedStates,more than 100

abletothe prospectiveuser,

able in any one locality.

wood species

unlikely

areavail-

tobeavail-

butallare

About60 nativewoodsare of major

commercial importance. Another30 species are commonly

imported intheformof logs,cants,lumber,

industrialuses, the buildingtrade,

and veneerfor

and crafts.

A continuing program

oftimberinventoryisineffectinthe

cooperation ofFederaland State

UnitedStatesthroughthe

agencies, andnewinformation onwoodresources is pub-

lishedin Stateand Federal reports.

sourcebooksareAn Analysisof the Timber Situationinthe

UnitedStates 1989—2040 (USDA 1990)

TimberAssessment Update(Haynes and others 1995).

Currentinformation onwood

imports, and supply and demandis

Twoofthemostvaluable

and The 1993 RPA

consumption, production,

publishedperiodically

andis

by

theForestProducts

Laboratory (Howard1997)

availablefromthe Superintendent ofDocuments, U.S.

Government PrintingOffice, Washington, DC.

Hardwoodsand Softwoods

Trees aredividedintotwo broadclasses,

usually referredto

as hardwoods and softwoods. Thesenames canbeconfusing

sincesomesoitwoodsare actually harderthansomehard-

woods,

and conversely somehardwoodsare softerthan some

softwoods. For example, softwoods such as longleafpine and

Douglas-fir are typically harderthanthehardwoods basswood

and

seedsareenclosedinthe ovary oftheflower.

hardwoodsare porous; that is,they

Avessel elementisawood cell

elementsaresetone above

tube(vessel),which servesasaconduitfor transporting water

Botanically,

hardwoodsare

Angiosperms; the

Anatomically,

aspen.

containvesselelements.

with open ends;when vessel

form acontinuous

another,they

or sap inthetree. Typically, hardwoodsare plants with

broadleaves that, withfew exceptions inthe temperate re-

gion, lose theirleavesinautumnorwinter. Most imported

tropical woods arehardwoods. Botanically, softwoods are

Gymnosperms

or conifers; theseedsarenaked(not enclosed

ofthe

flower). Anatomically,

softwoods are

inthe

ovary

nonporous and donotcontainvessels. Softwoods are usually

cone-bearing plants leaves. Somesoftwoods, suchas larches

losetheirneedles during autunm orwinter.

withneedle-or scale-like

evergreen

and baldcypress,

Major resources ofsoftwood species

UnitedStates, except

areasareforested. Softwood species areoften loosely grouped

are spread acrossthe

fortheGreatPlains where only small

asshowninTable 1—1. Hardwoods

hithree

also occurinall parts ofthe United States,although most

grow

by

generalregions,

eastoftheGreatPlains. Hardwood species areshown

region inTable 1—2.

Commercial Sources

of Wood Products

Softwoodsareavailable directly fromthe sawmill, wholesale

yards, plywood areusedinconstruction for forms,scaffolding,

framing, sheathing, flooring, moulding,paneling,cabinets,

and retail

orlumberbrokers.Softwoodlumberand

poles and piles, and many other buildingcomponents. Soft-

woods may also appear inthe form of shingles, sashes,

round posts.

doors, and other millwork, in addition to some roughprod-

ucts suchastimberand

Hardwoods areusedinconstruction

for flooring,

architectural

woodwork, interior woodwork, and paneling. Theseitems

are usually available from

lumberyards and buildingsupply

dealers. Mosthardwoodlumberand dimensionstockare

remanufactured into

furniture,flooring, pallets,containers,

Hardwoodlumberand dimension

dunnage, and blocking.

Table 1—1. Major resourcesof U.S. softwoodsaccording to region

Western

Incense-cedar

Port-Orlord-cedar

Douglas-fir

Whitefirs

Western hemlock

Western

Lodgepolepine

Ponderosa pine

Sugarpine Western white pine Western redcedar Redwood

Engelmannspruce

Sitka spruce

Yellow-cedar

Northern

Northern white-cedar

Balsam fIr

Eastern hemlock

Fraserfir

Jack pine

Red pine

Easternwhite pine

Easternredcedar

Eastern spruces

Tamarack

Southern

Atlanticwhite-cedar

Baldcypress

Fraserfir

SouthernPine

Eastern redcedar

larch

Table 1—2. Major resources of U.S. hardwoods according to region

 

Northern and

Southern

Appalachia

Ash

Ash

Basswood

Aspen

American beech

Basswood

Butternut

Buckeye

Cottonwood

Butternut

Elm

American beech

Hackberry

Birch

Pecan hickory

Black cherry

True hickory

American chestnuta

Honeylocust

Cottonwood

Blacklocust

Elm

Magnolia

Hackberry

Soft maple

True hickory

Red oaks

Honeylocust

Whiteoaks

Black locust

Sassafras

Hard maple

Sweetgum

Soft maple

American sycamore

Red oaks

Tupelo

Whiteoaks

Blackwalnut

American sycamore

Blackwillow

Blackwalnut

Yellow-poplar

Yellow-poplar

Western

Redalder

Oregon ash

Aspen

Blackcottonwood California black oak Oregon white oak Bigleafmaple

Paper birch

Tanoak

a4A,.,.erican chestnutisno

longerharvested, but chestnut

lumberfrom salvaged timberscanstillbe found on the

market.

stockareavailable directly fromthemanufacturer,

through

wholesalers andbrokers, and fromsomeretail yards.

Bothsoftwoodand hardwood products are distributed

throughout theUnited States. Local

preferences andthe

availability ofcertain species may influence choice,buta

wideselectionofwoodsis generally available for

building

construction, industrialuses,remanufacturing, andhomeuse.

Use Classes and Trends

The

use-classifications for woodare

production and consumptionlevels ofsomeofthe

many

increasing withtheoverall

(veneer), particles andreassemble theelementsto

national economy, and othersare holding aboutthe same.

Themost vigorouslygrowing wood-basedindustries are

thosethat convertwoodtothinslices

(chips, flakes), orfiber puips

produce various types of engineered panels suchas plywood,

particleboard, strandboard, veneerlumber, paper,paperboard,

and fiberboard products. Another

growing wood industry is

the production of laminated wood.Foranumberof years, the

lumber industry

wood

peryear.

has produced almostthe samevolume of

Modestincreases haveoccurred inthe

produc-

tionofrailroadcrossties,cooperage, shingles, and shakes.

Species Descriptions

Inthis

chapter, each species or groupofspecies isdescribed

intermsofits principallocation, characteristics, and uses.

Moredetailedinformation onthe

other species is given invarioustables throughout this

properties

oftheseand

handbook.

Information onhistoricaland traditionalusesis

provided for somespecies. Commonandbotanicalnames

follow the Checklist ofUnitedStates Trees (Little 1979).

U.S. Wood Species

Hardwoods

Alder,Red

Red alder

tweenAlaskaand California. Itisthe principal hardwoodfor

(Alnusrubra)grows along

thePacificcoastbe-

Oregon

and

commercial manufactureofwood products in

Washington

species inthesetwo states.

and the mostabundant commercial hardwood

Thewoodofredaldervariesfromalmostwhiteto

pinkishbrown,

heartwoodand sapwood.

weight

in shock resistance.Ithas relatively low

The principal use ofredalderisfor furniture, butit i also usedforsashand door panel stockand othermillwork.

pale

and thereisno visible boundary between

Red alderismoderatelylight in

strengthproperties

shrinkage.

and intermediate inmost

butlow

Ash (White Ash Group)

Importantspecies ofthewhiteash group areAmerican white

ash (Fraxinusamericana),green ash (F.pennsylvanica), blue

ash

(F. quadrangulata),

species grow

and

Oregon

ash

(F. latfo/ia).

The

firstthree

intheeastern halfofthe United

States. Oregon

ash grows along thePacificCoast.

Theheartwoodofthewhiteash group isbrown, andthe

sapwood is light-colored or nearly white. Second-growth

treesare particularly sought

after becauseoftheinherent

qualities ofthewoodfromthesetrees:itis heavy,strong,

hard,and stiff,andithas high resistancetoshock.

Coast.

Oregon

ashhas somewhat lower

white ash, butit is usedforsimilar purposes onthe West

strengthproperties than American

American whiteash isused

handles,oars,baseballbats, and other

principally for nonstriking

sporting

tool

and athletic

goods.

Forhandlesofthebest

grade, somehandle specifica-

growthrings

tions call fornotlessthan2nor more than7

690 kg/rn3(43 lbfft3)

sures

group

millwork, and crates.

per centimeter(notless than5normorethan 17 growth

ringsperinch).Theadditional weightrequirement of

ormoreat 12% moisturecontenten-

highqualitymaterial. Principal uses forthewhiteash

aredecorative veneer, cabinets, furniture,flooring,

3

1—3

Ash (BlackAsh Group)

Theblack ash group includesblack ash (F. nigra) and

pumpkin ash (F.profunda).

Midwest,

east and

Blackash grows intheNorth-

and pumpkin ash inthe South.

Theheartwoodofblack ash is adarkerbrownthanthat of

American white ash; the

white.Thewood oftheblack ash

(basicspecific gravity of0.45 to 0.48)

ash group(>0.50).Pumpkinash, American white ash,and

green ash that grow

areas

that contain

Principalusesfortheblack ash

cabinets,millwork,furniture,cooperage, and crates.

sapwood is light-colored or nearly

group is lighter in weight

thanthat ofthewhite

insouthernriverbottoms, especially in

longperiods, produce

buttresses

frequently floodedfor

relativelylightweight and brash wood.

group

aredecorative veneer,

Aspen

Aspen isa generallyrecognized namethat is applied to

bigtooth(Populusgrandidentata)

(P. tremuloides)aspen.Aspen

poplar(P. balsamfera)

areincludedinthecottonwoods.Inlumberstatisticsofthe

and

quaking

doesnotincludebalsam

andtheother species of Populus that

U.S. Bureau oftheCensus,however, theterm cottonwood

includesallthe preceding species. Also, the lumberof aspen

and cottonwood may bemixed intradeand soldaseither

popple or cottonwood. The name popple shouldnotbe

confusedwith

knowninthetradeas

principally

production

yellow-poplar(Liriodendrontulipfera), also

poplar. Aspen lumber is produced

with some

intheNortheasternand Lake inthe Rocky MountainStates.

States,

Theheartwoodof aspen is grayish

brown. The

gradually

sapwood

is

lighter

white

to lightgrayish

coloredand

generallymerges

marked.

intotheheartwoodwithout being clearly

Aspen woodis usually straightgrained

with a fine, uniform

texture.Itis easily worked.Well-dried aspen lumber does

not impart odororflavortofoodstuffs. Thewoodof aspen is

andsoft.It islow in

and moderately low inresistance

lightweight

strength, moderatelystiff,

toshockand has moder-

ately highshrinkage.

Aspen iscut for lumber,pallets, boxesand crating, pulp-

wood,particleboard,

strand

panels, excelsior, matches,ve-

Today, aspen isone

neer, and miscellaneousturnedarticles.

ofthe preferred species

foruse inoriented strandboard, a

panel product that is increasinglybeing usedas sheathing.

Basswood

Americanbasswood

(Tilia americana) isthemost important

species; nextin importance iswhite

and no

attempt inlumberform.In com-

ismade to

species

ofthenative basswood

distinguish

basswood (T. heterophylla), betweenthese

mercial

usage, woodor sapwood ofeither

"whitebasswood"isusedto specify thewhite

species.

Basswood grows inthe

provinces