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Building a Coalition

Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology


A Term Paper
Building a Coalition
Submitted To:
Professor Dr. M. Mahmodul Hasan
Course: MBA-610, Organizational Behavior
School of Business, AUST

Submitted By:

Banger Chata

Date of submission: 13th September, 2018

Building a Coalition

Letter of Transmittal

Professor Dr. M. Mahmodul Hasan

School of Business
Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology (AUST)
141 & 142, Love Road, Tejgaon Industrial Area, Dhaka-1208
Subject: Submission of a Term Paper titled as “Building a Coalition”.
Dear Sir,

Good Day.

We would like to thank you for assigning us this topic to prepare the term paper. This task
has been given us the opportunity to discover one of the most important aspects of
Organizational Behavior. We, the Team “Banger Chata” completed the Term paper on
“Building a Coalition” under the supervision of Professor Dr. M. Mahmodul Hasan,
Faculty of EMBA/MBA Program, Department of SOB, AUST. We tried our best to put
particular effort for the preparation of this term paper.

We hope this term paper will attract your kind appreciation and frankly welcome to you
for any clarification and suggestion about any view and conception dispersed in our paper.

Yours Sincerely,
Team “Banger Chata”

Name ID Signature
Suchona mannan
Md. Kamruzzamn Bhuiyan
Sakibur Rahman Rifat
Biprash Kumar Roy 17-01-51-022

Building a Coalition

Letter of Acknowledgement

At first, we would like to express our gratitude to almighty Allah who given us the
opportunity to go through the total process of term paper and to write a report in this
regard. We would like to acknowledge our deepest thankfulness to the honorable course
teacher Professor Dr. M. Mahmodul Hasan, School of Business Administration,
AUST who has given us suggestions regarding the writing of the term paper and to go
through the process, which has become an excellent way of understanding the topic of our

We would like to thank Stephen P.Robbins, Timothy A.judge and NeharikaVohra for their
wonderful creation ‘Organizational Behavior’. None of this could have been possible
without the assistances of this mesmerizingly well explained book.

Finally, our appreciation and thanks to all our friends who have helped and supported us
all the way, while doing the paper.

For & on behalf of

Banger Chata

Suchona Mannan Shuchi
Building a Coalition

Executive Summary
In simplest terms, a coalition is a group of individuals and/or organizations with a
common interest who agree to work together toward a common goal. That goal could be
as narrow as obtaining funding for a specific intervention, or as broad as trying to improve
permanently the overall quality of life for most people in the community. For the same
reason, the individuals and organizations involved might be drawn from a narrow area of
interest, or might include representatives of nearly every segment of the community,
depending upon the breadth of the issue.

Coalitions may be loose associations in which members work for a short time to achieve
a specific goal, and then disband. They may also become organizations in themselves, with
governing bodies, particular community responsibilities, funding, and permanence. They
may draw from a community, a region, a state, or even the nation as a whole (the National
Coalition to Ban Handguns, for instance). Regardless of their size and structure, they exist
to create and/or support efforts to reach a particular set of goals. Often, community
problems or issues are too large and complex for any one agency or organization to tackle.
In these circumstances, putting together a coalition of groups and individuals can be an
effective strategy for changing the programs and policies - in schools, business,
government, and other relevant sectors - that are needed to solve the problem or achieve
the goal. This section discusses what a community coalition or partnership is, why and
when it can be a good strategy, which should be included, and how to implement it. There
are a number of reasons why developing a coalition might be a good idea. In general
terms, it can concentrate the community's focus on a particular problem, create alliances
among those who might not normally work together, and keep the community's approach
to issues consistent.

Consistency can be particularly important in addressing a community issue, especially if

there are already a number of organizations or individuals working on it. If, on the other
hand, they can work together and agree on a common way to deal with the issue and on
common goals, they're much more likely to make headway.

Building a Coalition


Sl. Name of Contents Page No

A Letter of Transmittal 1
B Acknowledgement 2
C Executive Summary 3
D Table of Contents 4

1 Introduction
2 Organizational Behavior 5
3 Building a Coalition 6
4 Introduction 8
5 8
Group Development
6 Problem Identification
7 10
Retrospective Evaluation
8 10
9 13-15
10 17-21
11 23-25
12 27-32
13 33-35
14 36-38
15 39-41
17 41-42
18 42
19 43
20 44

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1.1. Organizational Behavior:
Organizational behavior (OB) is the study of the way people interact within groups.
Normally this study is applied in an attempt to create more efficient business
organizations. The central idea of the study of organizational behavior is that a
scientific approach can be applied to the management of workers.

Figure 1.1: A basic Model of Organizational Behavior.

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1.2 Building a Coalition:

Coalitions are powerful. A coalition is a network of organizations (and sometimes just
regular people) that work together to achieve a greater goal. Here are just a few of the
major perks of a strong coalition:

 More people and groups help to broaden the promotion of events and push
 A diverse coalition speaks in many voices to different audiences.
 It is the perfect place for brainstorming ideas and exchanging breaking news.
 It’s powerful! A coalition letter with dozens or hundreds of different
organizations signed on will show strength.

A review of the business and behavioral science literature on coalitions suggests the
following are common characteristics found in most coalitions:
1. Members act as a group.
2. They are formed for a specific purpose.
3. They contain a group of interacting individuals.
4. They are independent from the organization's formal structure.
5. They have no formal structure.

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The public school system in Washington D.C. is dealing with issues of truancy, low
student performance, crime, and high teacher turnover. The Woodson Foundation, a
large nonprofit social service agency, has agreed to partner with the public school system
as a means for developing an after school program. This program will bring together the
Woodson Foundation’s expertise in fundraising which will aid in funding the program
and the organization’s community leaders as a source for support to the public school
system’s educational staff. The goal is not only to develop this after school program, but
to do so by developing a new agency that will be formed by the sources of both the
Woodson Foundation and the Washington D.C. public school system. Members from the
National Coaliltion for Parental Involvement in Education will also be a major partner in
the program, serving as representatives for the parents and PTA.

This paper will address the stages of group development, discuss the primary and
secondary problems the Woodson Foundation is facing, and provide some tools for
addressing these problems.

Group Development

The team is very much in the preliminary stages of forming a team. Candidates have been
selected for the development team but no hiring or placement has taken place. Once the
candidates are chosen the team will begin development. The first stage of group
development is forming. During this stage the members of the team will be uncertain
about their purpose, structure, and leadership. Members will seek to determine their
limits and acceptable behaviors within the group (Robbins & Judge, 2012, p. 275). It is
apparent that many of the candidates for the development team hold a variety of different
positions and views about parent involvement in program development. Many can agree
however that there is a strong need for change within the public school system. These
differences of opinion will begin to emerge during the forming stage. Once the
development team candidates are selected and have gone through the forming stage, they
will begin to experience intragroup conflict. The storming stage of group development

Building a Coalition

brings about the group dynamics of role assignment, getting to know one another,
understanding each member’s strengths and weaknesses, likes and dislikes. A “clear
hierarchy of leadership” will develop in this stage (Robbins & Judge, 2012, p. 275). Once
roles within the group have been clearly defined, a norming stage will begin. This is the
third stage of group development and involves members of the team building
relationships and a strategy for working together cohesively toward a common goal. The
norming stage is complete when the group is working together effectively, everyone has
settled into their positions and the “group energy has moved from getting to know and
understand each other to performing the task at hand” (Robbins & Judge, 2012, p. 275).

Problem Identification

Once the development team has been selected some problematic issues will arise. It is
evident that the need for an after-school program to turn around the public school system
means that the school system is failing. A primary problem for the Woodson Foundation
seems to be the strong feelings the school district representatives have about the Woodson
Foundation. Faculty and staff from the school system may be apprehensive to team up
with the Woodson Foundation in an effort to correct the problem of truancy, high faculty
turn around, and low student performance. A secondary problem the Woodson
Foundation may face is one of diversity and or discrimination concerns. The Woodson
Foundation is staffed by predominantly Caucasian employees, while the school district is
predominantly African American.

Retrospective Evaluation

Managing conflicts within the organization may become difficult because each of the three
parties involved hold a strong position and belief system, not to mention organizational
cultural differences. It would be wise for the development team to strategize about the
possible conflicts they foresee occurring and determine ways in which to deal with these
conflicts. A strict conflict resolution strategy should be put in place to address these
problems (Robbins & Judge, 2012, p. 450)

Building a Coalition


Understanding that the perceptions we have of those around us may not always hold true.
This is a key element to being respectful of different cultures and races. One way to have
the team begin to think about diversity is to set in place a non-discrimination policy, one
that will address diversity issues and set standards for how people should be treated.
Developing strong mission and vision statements for the organization and make sure the
staff understands those statements and holds some of the same values for themselves. It
will also be important for the organization to have a diverse staff because the constituents
that the agency is serving is also a very diverse group.

Installing the proper leadership for the agency will also help to improve the team’s
performance. If the leader of the agency provides common goals that are inspirational to
its members, teams can become more creative and therefore work together more
effectively. The diversity issues can be managed if they are practiced by the leaders of the
organization (Robbins & Judge, 2012, p. 318)

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Episode: One

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In this circumstance, we observed that team would be more effective if every group
members have some idea about group and team typically operate. They are sharing their
idea, thought, belief in group. A group interact primary to share information and to make
decision to each other.

Why Teams?
 Teams typically outperform individuals.
 Teams use employee talents better.
 Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment.
 Growing leadership of each member
 Teams are an effective way to democratize an organization and increase

Comparing work groups and work team

Figure 1.1: Comparing work Group and Work Team

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Stage of team Formation

Model No. 1: Formation of Team and group

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The Team performance curve

Figure 1.2: Team Performance

Comparing work Group and Work Team

Group VS team

Figure 1.3: Group VS team

Successful teams also have assertive, courageous leaders who can invoke authority even
when the team resists direction. It is often necessary to bring together and coordinate

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individuals with a diverse set of skills and abilities to solve a problem. It would be
impossible for all the management tasks of a complex organization. And often there is
more work to be done in a compressed time period than any one individual can possibly
accomplish. In these cases, it is wise to consider how to best heed the advice provided
above and ensure the team isn’t less than the sum of its parts.

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Episode: Two

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In this instance, we are discussing the effective and good group member and their profiles
from the development team who are typically operate the team.

For small groups to function effectively in a course context, students must attend to both
the climate within their group and the process by which they accomplish their tasks.
Critical to a healthy climate and an effective process are strong communication skills.
Below you will find the basic characteristics of effective communicators, plus tips to help
students with group climate and process.

1. Honest and Straightforward.

A good team member is up front. He/she doesn’t play games, or lead others on. You
can count on a good team member to tell you what’s what, regardless of whether it is
good news or bad news.

2. Shares the Load.

A good team member does his or her fair share of the work. There is a sense of equity and
fairness in the good team member. A sense of equity is critically important for team
members’ collective motivation.

3. Reliable.

The good team member can be counted on. She or he meets deadlines and is on time.

4. Fair.

A good team member takes appropriate credit, but would never think of taking credit for
someone else’s work.

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5. Complements Others’ Skills.

An important characteristic of effective work teams is the shared capacity. Every member
has areas of strength and some weak spots. A good team member provides some unique
skills and/or knowledge that move the team forward.

6. Good Communication Skills.

Teamwork is social, so good team members need to be skilled, and tactful,


7. Positive Attitude.

No one would ever follow a pessimistic leader, and the same goes for team members. A
positive, “can-do” attitude is critical for the good team member.

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Figure 2.1: Team Key Roles model.

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Figure 2.2: Quality of good member

On the other hand…

1) Inconsideration
Inconsideration takes many forms. Poor team members miss deadlines for projects,
leaving their teammates to fend for themselves. They also completely miss or show up late
for meetings, which can cause anger and frustration to surface.

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2) Rudeness
Poor team members use profane or otherwise offensive language in their communication
with their teammates. They also question minute details and impolitely reject the ideas
or opinions of others.

3) Domination
Poor team members tend to dominate team activities -- seeking control over every aspect.
They do as many of the tasks that they can, without seeking input or support from their

4) Irresponsibility

A poor team member won't ask questions, and then when he fails, he will blame the failure
on his teammates or boss. Also, if a mistake occurs as a result of a decision or action on
the part of the team, a poor team member will deny his responsibility.

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Episode: Three

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In this portion we are discussing about the groups and teams that will advise the team to
manage the conflict situation effectively.

Conflict refers to some form of friction, or discord arising within a group when the beliefs or
actions of one or more members of the group are either resisted by or unacceptable to one or more
members of another group. Conflict can arise between members of the same group, known as
intragroup conflict, or it can occur between members of two or more groups, and involve violence,
interpersonal discord conflict.

Group Development Stages

Tuckman first described four distinct stages but later added a fifth. Groups go through
these stages subconsciously but the understanding of the stages can help groups reach the
last stage effectively. The five stages are forming, storming, and norming, performing and
adjourning. Although groups go through these stages in the order listed, a group can be
at a later stage and go back to a previous stage before continuing forward. For example, a
group might be working efficiently in the performing phase, but the arrival of a new
member might force the group back into the storming stage.

The communication network is another characteristic of group dynamics. An informal
group uses communication processes that are simpler than those of the formal
organization. In the informal group, the person who possesses the most amount of vital
information frequently becomes the leader. Knowing about this group dynamic allows
supervisors to provide this strategically placed leading individual with information that
the group needs. Giving the group and its member’s relevant information encourages
harmonious relationships between the supervisor and the informal group.

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Rotational Leadership Dynamic

In informal group dynamics, rotational leadership is a specific attribute that is less
common in formal organizations. An informal leader generally arises when a team
member shows leadership qualities that others see as critical for a specific situation.
Unlike a formally appointed group leader, the informal leader can only guide the group
toward the completion of a project’s objectives. The informal leader does not possess any
formal power, and the group can replace such a person if the need arises. This group
dynamic phenomenon often happens subconsciously and constantly evolves during the
lifetime of the group.

Group Norms

Another characteristic of group dynamics is the presence of group norms and values.
Defined norms, established during the norming phase, assist the group in clarifying
thinking and determining which behavior patterns are acceptable. Norms also keep the
group functioning as a system and measure the performance of group members.

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Formation of Conflict:

Fig. 3.1 Formation of Conflict

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Episode: Four

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When a negotiation is integrative, it means that negotiation is based on interest or

otherwise negotiation strategy which lay emphasis on win-win situation. The goal of
Integrative Negotiation is to make the parties’ interest compatible, so that both sides can
win. That is, reach an agreement that satisfies their need. The goals of the parties are
integrative. Negotiations are not mutually exclusive. If one party achieves its goals, the
other is not precluded from achieving its goals as well. The fundamental structure of
integrative negotiation situation is such that, it allows both sides to achieve their
objective. While Integrative Negotiation Strategies are preferable, they are not always
possible. Sometimes parties’ interests really are opposed as when both sides want a larger
share of fixed resources.


Figure: 4.1 Negotiation process and outcomes

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Negotiation Elegance

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Influencing and Negotiation Skill

Figure 4.2: Influencing and Negotiation Skill


Ø It focus on commonalties rather than differences
Ø It attempt to address needs and interests, not positions
Ø It commit to meeting the needs of all involved parties
Ø Exchange information and ideas
Ø Invent options for mutual gain
Ø Use objective criteria for standard of performance.

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There are four major steps in the Integrative Negotiation Process:

Ø Identify and define the problem
Ø Understand the problem and bring interests and needs to the surface
Ø Generate alternative solution to the problems
Ø Evaluate those alternatives and select among them.

Increasing Value to Seller

the first three steps of the Integrative Negotiation process are important for “Creating
Value”. While the fourth step of the Integrative Negotiation Process, the evaluation and
selection of Alternatives INVOLVE “CLOUMING Value”. Claiming value involves many
of the distributive bargaining skills discussed earlier.


The problem identification step is often the most difficult one and it is even more
challenging when several parties are involved. Negotiator need to consider five aspects
when identifying and defining the problems.

a) Define the problem in a way that is mutually acceptable to both sides.

b) State the problem with an eye toward practicality and comprehensiveness
C) State the problem as a goal and identify the obstacles to attaining this goal.
d) Depersonalize the problem
e) Separate the problem definition from the search for solution.

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Identify interest needs – Many writers have stressed that a key step in achieving an
Integrative Agreement is the ability of the parties to understand and satisfy each other’s
interest. Identifying interest is a critical step in the Integrative Negotiation Process.
Interests are the underlying concerns, need or desires that motivate a negotiator to take
a particular position. However, in as much as satisfaction may be difficult and
understanding of the underlying interest may permit them to invent solutions that meet
their interest. More so, several types of interests may be at stake in a negotiation and
that type may be intrinsic (the parties value it in and of itself) or instrumental (the
parties value it because it helps them derive other outcomes in the futures.

i. Redefining the Problem or Problem Set:

This technique call for the parties to define their underlying needs and develop
alternatives to meet them.

ii. Expand the pier:

This involves beginning negotiations with shortage of resources, this is not possible for both parties to satisfy
their interests or obtain their objectives under current condition. A simple solution is to add resources – expand
the pie.



In addition to the techniques mentioned above, there are several other approaches to
generating alternative solution. These approaches can be used by the negotiators
themselves or by a number of other parties. Several of these approaches are commonly
used in small groups.

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The fourth stage in the Integrated Negotiation Process is to evaluate the alternatives
generated during the previous phase and to select the best ones to implement.

In conclusion, whether a negotiation is distributive or integrative, negotiation should

focus on substance which will produce a mutually beneficial agreement at lower cost and
also focus on relations in which the parties maintain civil relations of mutual
recognition and respect and improve their joint problem solving ability.

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Episode: Five

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In this case, we experimental leader should play vital role of a organization. We observed
that the leaders of the combine organization should have a good idea about the
organizational culture, managing the relationship among them.

Stakeholder Organizational culture is underlying beliefs, assumptions, values and ways

of interacting that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of
Stakeholder organization.

Figure: 5.1 Organization Culture

Following I describe cultures of the various stakeholder organization. The various

stakeholder organization depends many characters. Such as:

1) Adaptive culture and adhocracy culture

2) Power culture and hierarchy culture

3) Role culture

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4) Task culture and clan culture


The extent to which freedom is allowed in decision making, developing new ideas and
personal expression are vital parts of adaptive cultures and adhocracy cultures of
stakeholder organization. Adaptive cultures value change and are action-oriented,
increasing the likelihood of survival through time.


How power and information flow through the organizational hierarchy and system are
aspects of power cultures, role cultures, and hierarchy cultures. Power cultures have one
leader who makes rapid decisions and controls the strategy in Stakeholder organization.

Role cultures are where functional structures are created, where individuals distinguish
their jobs, report to their superiors, and value efficiency and accuracy above all else.

How committed employees are towards collective objectives are parts of task cultures and
clan cultures. In a task culture, teams are formed with expert members to solve particular
problems of stakeholder organization.

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Episode: Six

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In this case, we found that a leader of a new program how could generate a
transformational message and encourage the employees and parent trust. Leadership:
The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Leadership is both a
research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or
organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations. Specialist
literature debates various viewpoints, contrasting Eastern and Western approaches to
leadership and also US vs. European approaches.

Fig. 6.1 Leadership Process

Management: Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain

compliance from organizational members.

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Fig. 6.2 Comparison of Leadership & Management

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Episode: Seven

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Group fault line literature suggests that subgroups impede group functioning. We
propose that team conflict may buffer the detrimental effects of fault lines on group
performance. We draw on social categorization and group process theories suggesting
that the negative effects of fault‐lines are due to increased competition and decreased
communication across subgroups and can be diminished with cross‐subgroup
information exchange and elaboration.
In Study 1, using student groups we found that relationship, task, and process conflict
buffered the negative effect of demographic fault line strength on group performance.

In Study 2, we manipulated conflict and group fault lines (ethnic fault lines vs. no fault
lines) and found that group conflict buffered the negative effect of fault lines performance.
Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed on groups

1. Learn a few key phrases.

Because clear communication is essential for effective functioning, it is necessary that

each of employees understand what our clients and customers need.

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2. Learn your client’s culture.

Taking the time to research or inquire about another’s culture can go a long way to make
them feel comfortable. Learn about the things our clients and customers like and value:
their food, their customs and protocol, business practices and what they do for fun.

3. Promote appreciation of cultural differences.

Set aside a special day where we ask a few employees or co-workers to share aspects of his
or her culture or a client’s culture with everyone. Make it fun. Ask the employees to give
a “Lunch-and Learn” presentation featuring the foods, ceremonies and other aspects of
that culture.


 Making essential relationship with partners and participants

 Implement mechanisms to ensure the smooth functioning of the coalition, such as

clarifying roles and resources of each partner, having a budgeted work plan,
regular update meetings and appointment of a chair (possibly on a rotation basis).

 To be identify group member main skill, experience and sphere of influence for
building a coalition

 Build trust and faith of group member

 Sharing information between partners building a common website, sending

regular e-blasts to members, Twitter feed, etc.), creating immediate “quick-win”
opportunities to work together to demonstrate added value of the coalition,
ensuring reciprocal

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Transparency, and supporting each other’s initiatives.

 Recognized the challenges of working in coalition; for instance, disagreements on

specific policy solutions, need to reach a broad consensus, and conflicts on
branding of the coalition.

 Promote accountability by developing monitoring and transparency tools and

mechanisms (for example, to monitor the actual flow and utilization of budgeted
funds), and space for greater dialogue with civil society.


This Case holds several allegation for extension education. Firstly, the model can explain
that when view are properly understood and opinions are identified, coalition building
can be facilitated. It’s a very easy way to know about the report. Second, contributors
complicated in controversial issues can be brought together most successfully after
common agenda items have been recognized and when the information engendered can
be used to establish a positive mind-set. Third, in order to keep the coalition impetus, an
agenda for action should be industrialized.

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1. Formation of Group formation Report of McDonald Bangladesh Ltd. 2014-2015

2. Organizational Behavior (a Book by Stephen P.Robbins, Pearson Book)

Others such as:

Adelaja, A., Derr, D., & Rose-Tank, K. (1989). Economic and equity implications of land-

Zoning in suburban agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Ethics, 2, 97-122.

Chess, C., Hance, B. J., & Sandman, P. M. (1990). Improving dialogue with
communities: A short guide for government risk communication. A report submitted
to the New Jersey Department of Environment Protection, Trenton.

Goodwin, J. (1993). Contrasting viewpoints about controversial issues. Journal of

Extension, XXXI, 25-27.

Hartley, M. (1985). Leadership style and conflict resolution: No (man) ager is an island.
The Journal of Cooperative Education, XXI(Winter), 6-23.

McGranahan, D. (1992, January/February). Thriving rural economy in the 1990's?

Agricultural Outlook, pp. 35-37.

Stevens, G. (1990). A process for building coalitions (NebGuide G90-988). Lincoln:

University of Nebraska, Cooperative Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural

Stevens, G. (1990). A process for building coalitions (NebGuide G90-988). Lincoln:

University of Nebraska, Cooperative Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural

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