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Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

Citation: Applied Physics Reviews 2, 011102 (2015); doi: 10.1063/1.4907345

View Table of Contents: http://aip.scitation.org/toc/are/2/1

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APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS 2 , 011102 (2015)

APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS 2 , 011102 (2015) APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS—FOCUSED REVIEW

APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS—FOCUSED REVIEW

Lina Maigyte 1 and Kestutis Staliunas 1,2

1 Departament de F ısica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Polite`cnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222, Spain 2 Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanc¸ats (ICREA), Pg. Llu ıs Companys 23, Barcelona 08010, Spain

(Received 29 October 2014; accepted 20 January 2015; published online 11 February 2015)

Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configu- ration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering. V C 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION

 

1

II. ONE DIMENSIONAL PHOTONIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURES

 

2

A. Chromatic band-gaps and frequency filtering

 

2

B. Defect layer

 

3

C. Chirped structures

 

4

D. Angular band-gaps

4

III. TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL

 

PHOTONIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURES

 

6

A. Spatial dispersion and angular band-gaps

 

6

B. Gapless angular filtering

 

8

C. Chirped structures to enhance filtering

 

9

D. Three-dimensional photonic crystals for

 

spatial

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IV. CONCLUSION

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I. INTRODUCTION

Many applications in optics require beams of high spa- tial quality (or high spatial coherence), as such beams diverge less, and, consequently, can be focused more sharply in the focal region. Moreover, clean beams are more immune against destructive nonlinear effects, such as self-focusing and filamentation. The beams of the maximally high spatial quality are the Gaussian ones: beams with profiles different

from the Gaussian diverge stronger and are focused to broader spot in the focal plane. Several definitions of the beam spatial quality are used. 1 In laser theories, the spatial beam quality is most commonly characterized by the beam parameter product (BPP), which is defined as the product of a laser beam divergence angle and the radius of the beam at its narrowest point (the beam waist). The larger is the value of the BPP, the lower is the spatial quality of the beam. The diffraction-limited Gaussian beams have the lowest possible BPP, which is equal to k/p , where k is the wavelength. The ratio of a BPP of a given beam to that of the Gaussian one of the same wavelength is denoted as M 2 (“M squared”), the pa- rameter which does not depend on the wavelength. A diffraction-limited Gaussian beam has a minimal M 2 equal to 1. Usually, the beams emitted by single transverse mode lasers in high finesse resonators and by single-mode fiber lasers are of high spatial beam quality of M 2 1. However, the beams emitted by various optical devices, such as multi- transverse mode lasers, semiconductor (diode) lasers in reso- nators of low finesse, and optical parametric oscillators, are often of a poor spatial quality (M 2 1). Moreover, if the beam is propagated through an amplifier, nonlinear material, scattering media, or other optical component, the spatial quality of such beam is usually reduced. For many applications, therefore, the spatial structure of the beams is needed to be improved inside the optical device (amplifier, laser resonator) or outside. A conventional design for a beam cleaner, or for a low-angle-pass spatial filter is shown in Fig. 1, which consists of two focusing lenses in a confocal arrangement. A diaphragm of appropriate diameter

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2015 AIP Publishing LLC

011102-2

L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

011102-2 L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas FIG. 1. A design of conventional spatial filter, consisting of

FIG. 1. A design of conventional spatial filter, consisting of two focusing lenses in a confocal arrangement and a diaphragm located in the focal plane. The “dirty” profile of entering beam is shown on the left side of the figure, while filtered out smooth beam profile is depicted on the right.

in focal plane (which can be sharply edged, or sometimes apodized to enable Gaussian beam profile) blocks undesired angular components of the spatial spectrum. 2 After propaga- tion through such an arrangement, the spatial quality of the beam is improved. The main disadvantage of the conven- tional filter is its relatively large size, of the order of the focal distance of the lenses f, usually of order of centimeters. This conventional technique is therefore unsuitable for intracavity use in micro-lasers as well as for micro-photonic circuits. There have been alternative proposals of mechanisms of spa- tial filtering, e.g., using the interference patterns, 3 multilayer stacks combined with a prism, 4 anisotropic media, 5 liquid- crystal cells, 6 metallic grids over a ground plane, 7 and reso- nant grating systems. 8,9 These techniques, however, did not find a broader application in photonic technologies: being more complex and sophisticated than the conventional con- focal spatial filter, but also maintaining the disadvantage of the relatively large size of the design. Recently, a new, alternative method of spatial filtering has been proposed—spatial filtering based on propagation through the photonic crystals (PhCs). The PhCs are primarily known due to their celebrated band-gaps (BGs) in frequency domain (chromatic band-gaps). 1015 This property of the PhCs enables manipulation of light for various applications such as control of spontaneous emission in quantum devi- ces 1618 as well as frequency (chromatic) filtering. 1921 The less explored property of the PhCs is their angular BGs, i.e., the angular ranges for which the waves of a given frequency cannot propagate. Photonic angular band-gaps, in principle, can be engineered in such a way that for a given frequency only on- and around-axis radiation modes are allowed to propagate, which would, in principle, result in angular (low- angle-pass) filtering. This review article is devoted to the recent development of this novel technique of spatial filtering. For the methodo- logical reasons, we first overview the frequency filtering (due to chromatic BGs) in the one-dimensional (1D) PhCs, also in PhCs including defect layers. Next, from the fre- quency filtering we move to the spatial filtering in such 1D photonic structures. The main part of the review article is devoted to the 2D and 3D PhCs for the spatial filtering. First, we consider the 2D PhC structures with the photonic band- gaps, in the so called Bragg regime, i.e., when the diffracted and reflected light propagate in backward direction.

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

Importantly, it is also possible to achieve the spatial filtering in a configuration without photonic band-gaps, the so called Laue reflection regime, where the light is diffracted and refracted to the forward direction. The latter can be consid- ered as the gapless spatial filtering. Next, the techniques to improve the performance of spatial filtering (to increase the angular range of filtering, as well as to enhance the energetic efficiency) are discussed, amongst them by introducing the longitudinal chirp (dependence of the period of modulation along the crystal). Finally, different geometries of the 3D fil- ters are discussed, including the axisymmetric photonic structure for axisymmetric filtering. In Appendixes, the descriptions of mathematical models and numerical methods for the PhC based spatial filters are shortly described (Appendix A), as well as different kinds of fabrication techniques (Appendix B).

II. ONE DIMENSIONAL PHOTONIC CRYSTAL

STRUCTURES

A. Chromatic band-gaps and frequency filtering

It is known that 1D periodic structures reflect efficiently the waves with the wavelength k 2d, where d stands for the period of the structure. This is the condition of the Bragg reflection for the normal incidence: the waves reflecting from different layers are in phase one with another (Fig. 2(a)) and result in a constructive interference. In this way the BGs appear, 19,2227 which are the frequency ranges where no solutions with real-valued propagation wave-

~

vector k are possible. Waves at those particular frequencies cannot propagate inside the structure, therefore are reflected from the front face of the PhC. The central frequency of the BG is x m ¼ pc m (or the wavelength is, respectively, k m ¼ 2d =m), where m is the order of the band-gap (m ¼ 1, 2, 3…), so the position of the BGs are directly related to the pe- riod of the structure. The width of the photonic BG ( D x m ) generally depends on the refractive index profile. Rough esti- mate of the width of the first band gap is D x 1 ¼ c p D n, 24 i.e., proportional to the refractive index contrast D n between the two materials building the layered structure. Photonic band diagrams (dispersion relation) are usually calculated by the method of plane wave expansion

d

k

usually calculated by the method of plane wave expansion d k FIG. 2. (a) Reflections from

FIG. 2. (a) Reflections from the periodic structures due to constructive inter- ference of waves reflecting from subsequent interfaces (Bragg reflection). (b) Dispersion relation (band diagram) of the periodic structure with the pe- riod d ¼ 0 :16 lm (d 1 ¼ d 2 ¼ 0:082 l m) and refractive indices n ref 1 ¼ 2: 17, n ref 2 ¼ 1:49, n ef f ¼ 1 :86. Yellow areas correspond to the BGs.

011102-3

L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

(PWE). 10,11,28 Fig. 2(b) shows the dispersion relation for the periodic structure consisting of two materials with different re- fractive indices n 1 and n 2 . In this particular case, the period of the structure is taken as k=2 at k ¼ 0: 328 l m (as averaged inside the composite material). In the example d l 1 ¼ d l 2 (d l 1 — thickness of the layer of the first material and d l 2 —thickness of the layer of the second material). The effective refractive index n ef f , which represents the average refractive index of the sys-

tem can be calculated as n ef f ¼

For a simplified calculation of transmission and reflection spectra for 1D PhC at the normal incidence, the harmonic index profile can be considered: n(z) ¼ n 0 þ Dncos(qz); q ¼ 2 p , which allows to derive an analytically tractable coupled mode model for forward- and backward-propagating waves. Considering only these two modes, the electric field in such medium can be described by the following expression:

ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

p

ð d 1 n 2 þ d 2 n 2 2 Þ = ð d 1 þ d 2 Þ .

1

d

~

E

¼

A ð z Þ e i ðx t kz Þ þ B ð z Þ e i ðx t þkz Þ ;

(1)

where Að z Þ and Bð z Þ are the (spatially dependent) amplitudes of the forward and backwards propagating modes, respec- tively. The evolution of these amplitudes along the structure is governed by the following coupled-mode equations: 29

dB

dz

dz

dA

¼

¼

i D kA iX B ;

iD kB þ i X A :

(2)

(3)

Here, Dk ¼ k p =d corresponds to the wave-vector detuning from the edge of the first Brillouine zone (or, equivalently, from the Bragg wavenumber), and X is the normalized cou- pling between the two counterpropagating waves. Diagonalization of the coupled-mode equations (2) and (3), and the use of proper boundary conditions A ð z ¼ 0Þ ¼ 1 and Bð z ¼ LÞ ¼ 0 brings to transmission T ¼ j Að z ¼ LÞj 2 , and the reflection R ¼ j B ð z ¼ 0Þj 2 spectrum (as a function of detuning D k)

 

2n

2

 

(4)

e n L ð k þ i D k Þ þ e n L ð k iD k Þ

;

R

¼ 1 T ;

(5)

and n ¼ n 1 ¼ n 2

T ¼

where L is

¼ 6

diagonalization of the coupled-mode equations (2) and (3). In Fig. 3, the transmission/reflection spectra calculated from coupled mode model are shown. Transmission is marked with blue colour and reflection with red. As the nor- mal incidence case of the wave is considered here, the results are the same for both TE and TM polarizations. Coupled mode theory for two forward-backward propa- gating modes is convenient for simplified analytical study and estimations. It describes correctly the behavior around the first BG only, due to the simplified field expansion into only two field harmonics. To obtain full reflection/transmis- sion diagram containing all the BGs, usually a multiple scat- tering technique is used for the finite length 1D PhC. 30 Fig. 4

are the eigenvalues resulting from the

the length of the 1D PhC,

q

ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

D k 2 þ j X j 2

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

k 2 þ j X j 2 Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015) FIG. 3.

FIG. 3. Transmission and reflection spectra of 1D PhC of a finite length, calcu- lated from the coupled mode model with the parameters d l 1 ¼ d l 2 ¼ 0:082 l m:

(a) n 1 ¼ 1:7, n 2 ¼ 1:49, N ¼ 26; (b) n 1 ¼ 2: 17, n 2 ¼ 1:49, N ¼ 12. Blue line corresponds to transmission, red line corresponds to reflection. The diagram is centered on the band-gap, due to corresponding definition of frequency.

shows the full reflection/transmission spectra as calculated by multiple scattering method. The BGs in periodic materials can be applied for fre- quency filtering, i.e., for blocking the waves at frequencies within the BG. 24 For many applications, the filtering out of a very narrow line is needed. This can be achieved either by using a low-refractive index contrast structure (say Brag mir- rors written in glass 31 ), or introducing a defect in higher index-contrast structure.

B. Defect layer

Periodicity of the PhC can be broken by introducing a defect into the structure, 24 which can create a narrow trans- mission line in the BG frequency range. 3236 There are sev- eral possibilities to introduce the defect in the periodic structure. One can either modify the width of one layer of

structure. One can either modify the width of one layer of FIG. 4. Transmission-reflection spectra calculated

FIG. 4. Transmission-reflection spectra calculated by scattering matrix method. The structure for this simulations was used with the period of d ¼ 0:164 lm, where d 1 ¼ d 2 ¼ 0:082l m. The refractive indices for the materials were n ref 1 ¼ 2:17 and n ref 2 ¼ 1 :49.

011102-4

L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

one material (Fig. 5(a)), or can use material with different re- fractive index in one layer. If the thickness of the defect layer is increased, the resonant wavelength of the defect mode increases (frequency decreases) (Fig. 5(b)). The same occurs when the refractive index of the defect layer is increased. 35 In the other case, if the thickness (or the refrac- tive index) of the defect layer is decreased, then the resonant wavelength of the defect mode decreases. Additionally, if one would keep increasing the thickness or refractive index of the defect layer, after some point, it would result into appearance of several defect modes (the defect would become a multimode). Depending on the width of the defect layer (as well as the width of the BG), it can sustain several defect modes (which have to be the integer multiple of the fundamental frequency). The position of the defect layer in the structure is impor- tant. If the defect is in the middle of the structure, the transmis- sion for the defect modes is maximized (Fig. 5(c)). 35 PhCs with the defects are technologically interesting to filter out the narrow ranges of spectra from emission of light-emitting diodes and other kinds of lasers. 3739 There could be several defects introduced into the periodic structure, which lead to the increased number of the defect modes in the BG. 3

C. Chirped structures

Another technique to manipulate the BGs of 1D PhC is the use of chirped (or graded) structures. These are structures with gradually increasing or decreasing period along the structure (Fig. 6(a)). 4043 If the defects are used to obtain narrow transmission lines, then the chirped structures are used to obtain broad reflection regions. Chirping of the pe- riod can also be combined with slowly varying refractive

pe- riod can also be combined with slowly varying refractive FIG. 5. (a) PhC structure containing

FIG. 5. (a) PhC structure containing defects, i.e., with one or several layers of the width different from that of embedding layers. (b) Numerical simula- tions by scattering matrix method, where the wavelength of the defect mode (in vacuum) is presented depending on the thickness of the defect layer. The parameters of the structure are d l 1 ¼ d l 2 ¼ 0: 082 l m, d ¼ 0:164 l m, n 1 ¼ 2:17, n 2 ¼ 1:49, N ¼ 14, and the defect of changing width is introduced in the middle of the PhC. (c) Reflection spectra of the PhCs with the defect layer of the width of d l 3 ¼ 0 :02 lm. Blue line corresponds to transmission, red line corresponds to reflection.

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

to reflection. Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015) FIG. 6. Chirped 1D PhCs: (a) linear

FIG. 6. Chirped 1D PhCs: (a) linear increase of the period from left to the right. Calculations with scattering matrix method, transmission/reflection spectra for unchirped crystals (all parameters are the same as used in simulation for Fig. 4, except periods): (b) for period d ¼ 0.164 l m; (c) for period d ¼ 0.2 lm (d 1 ¼ d 2 ¼ 0:1 l m). Transmission/reflection spectra for a chirped PhC (d) pe- riod gradually increasing from d 1 ¼ 0.164 l m, to d 2 ¼ 0.2 lm, N ¼ 40.

index gradient, 44,45 resulting into so-called double-chirped structures. Here, we present an example of a chirped struc- ture of varied period. As the central frequency of the BG depends on the pe- riod of the structure, in a chirped PhC, where the period is gradually increasing (Fig. 6(a)), the local BG frequency range varies along the structure, thus the total BG can increase. In Fig. 6(b), for unchirped structure one of the BGs appears around k ¼ 600 nm. In Fig. 6(c), BG appears around k ¼ 750 nm. Smaller (larger) period results in BG at smaller (larger) wavelengths. Therefore, introducing chirp into the structure, which results in gradually changing period, one broadens the BG, as it is shown in Fig. 6(d). The larger is the difference between the first and last periods, the broader is the bandwidth of the total BG. Obviously, the length of such crystal must be increased too, until the reflection in the BG reaches 100%. A too fast variation of the period along the structure (too strong chirp) can result in a “jump” through the BG—the so-called Landau—Zener transition (non-adia- batic effect). 46 The chirped mirrors are frequently used for the manipu- lation of chromatic dispersion in order to compensate disper- sive broadening of pulses, 47,48 also for manipulation of spatial (angular) dispersion in order to compensate diffrac- tive broadening of beams, i.e., to focus the reflected beams, 49,50 rather than for the frequency filtering. We shortly revised the basic techniques of manipulation of frequency BGs. Very similar physical principles work for the engineering of angular BGs for spatial filtering.

D. Angular band-gaps

The principles of frequency filtering in 1D PhC can be applied to spatial, or angular, filtering. We recall that even in 1D periodic structures the frequency BGs occur at different frequencies for different propagation directions (Fig. 7). The Bragg condition for the central wavelength of the band gap k BG for the oblique incidence reads

011102-5

L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

011102-5 L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas FIG. 7. Schematic illustration of appearance of angular BG in

FIG. 7. Schematic illustration of appearance of angular BG in 1D PhC structure.

2k k ¼ q;

2

2

p

k

BG

cos a ¼ 2p ;

d

k BG ¼ 2d cos a:

(6)

(7)

where k k is the longitudinal component of an incident

~

wave-vector k (k ¼ 2 p=k ), q ¼ 2p =d is the reciprocal period

of the 1D structure, and a is the incidence angle of the inci-

~

dent wave k. In this way, propagation and reflection of waves

at an incident angle a are equivalent to those of waves of smaller frequency x 0 at normal incidence (apart from the modification of reflection coefficient)

x 0 ¼ k k c ¼ x 0 cos a;

(8)

where k k ¼ k cos a :

If the 1D PhC is illuminated by a monochromatic

Gaussian beam, which can be Fourier decomposed into a

~

set of k vectors with different a values, the Bragg condition for waves at oblique incidence Eq. (7) will apply for the longitudinal components of the wavevector with k k ¼ k cos a. The transmission/reflection spectrum then can be calculated directly. For illustration, in Fig. 8, we represent the BG as a 2D map in terms of angle and wavelength (cal- culated from the Bragg condition for oblique incidence, Eq.

(7) by scattering matrix method). The structure is a 1D PhC with the same parameters as in Fig. 4. On the left side of Fig. 8, the frequency transmission-reflection spectra for

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

normal ( a ¼ 0 ) and oblique ( a ¼ 25 ) incidences are shown indicating the frequency shift of the BG, depending on the plane wave incidence angle. The plots on the right side are horizontal cuts of the 2D map at the wavelengths of k ¼ 600 nm (top) and k ¼ 532 nm (bottom), which show transmission-reflection spectra for different angular compo- nents for these particular wavelengths. For particular fre- quencies (in the example in Fig. 8 this correspond to k ¼ 532 nm in vacuum), one can obtain transmission win- dow in the central part of the distribution, which, in princi- ple, could be used as a low-pass spatial filter. However, such kind of angular filtering is of a little practical use, as the transmission band in the center is too broad ( 10 in this particular realistic example).

Again, similarly as for frequency filtering, one can either

introduce defects or to decrease the refractive index contrast to obtain narrower angle spatial filters. It was shown indeed that the 1D PhC with the defect layer can, in principle, work as a 2D low-pass spatial filter. 5154 To illustrate that we have calculated the angle dependent transmittance by a 1D PhC with a defect layer (Fig. 9). The parameters of the 1D PhC are identical to the ones described for Fig. 8, except for the defect of d l 3 ¼ 0: 023 l m introduced in the middle of the structure which in total contains 14 periods (N ¼ 14). Due to the defect layer, a defect mode (marked by a white arrow) appears within the angular BG, which can also be seen for the vertical cuts of the 2D map at angles of a ¼ 0 (bottom) and a ¼ 25 (top) (left side). For the case of a ¼ 25 , the defect mode appears at k ¼ 565 nm, whereas for the case of a ¼ 0 , the defect mode is at k ¼ 620 nm. On the right side of Fig. 9, the horizontal cuts of the 2D map at wavelengths of k ¼ 621 nm (top) and k ¼ 600 nm (bottom) are shown. Similarly, as in the case of 1D PhC without the defect (Fig. 8 right (bottom)), at k ¼ 621 nm there is a transmission win- dow at a ¼ 0 , with an angular width of 10 . In addition to this, from the 2D map with the defect it can be observed that, for various wavelengths, appears a relatively narrow trans- mission window with the central angle a 0 within the angular BG region. In the considered example, the transmis- sion window appears for k ¼ 600 nm, at a ¼ 15 (Fig. 9 right (bottom)), with an angular width narrower as compared to

(bottom)), with an angular width narrower as compared to FIG. 8. Center-2D map of transmission spectra

FIG. 8. Center-2D map of transmission spectra depending both on angle of incidence a and on the wavelength k (in vacuum), where BG is clearly observed (red area); left: (top) vertical cut at a ¼ 25 ; (bottom) vertical cut at a ¼ 0 , right: (top) horizontal cut at k ¼ 600 nm; (bottom) horizontal cut at k ¼ 532 nm. The parameters of the structure: d ¼ 0:164l m, where d l 1 ¼ d l 2 ¼ 0:082 lm and refractive indices n 1 ¼ 2 :17 and n 2 ¼ 1:49, number of periods N ¼ 20.

011102-6

L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

and K. Staliunas Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015) FIG. 9. Center-2D map of transmission

FIG. 9. Center-2D map of transmission spectra (depending on a and k in vacuum) with the defect mode within the BG; left: (top) vertical cut at a ¼ 25 ; (bottom) vertical cut at a ¼ 0 , right: (top) horizontal cut at k ¼ 621 nm; (bottom) horizontal cut at k ¼ 600 nm.

the previous cases (when the transmission window is located at a ¼ 0 ). The narrower angular widths for the higher angles (and, respectively, for smaller wavelengths) compared to the smaller angles are compatible with relation (7) as for the higher angles cos function is more sensitive. However, the practical use of 1D PhCs with defects for spatial filtering is very limited. Usually, the filtering angles of a < 1 are of practical interest, which is practically impossible to achieve with 1D structures, either with or with- out defects. As it was shown from Ref. 54, the experimen- tally measured central transmitted angular width of the defect mode is 3 times larger compared to numerical calcula- tions. This disagreement is due to the fabrication errors in layer thickness. The problem is that in fabrication even a small discrepancy of the width of defect moves the angular characteristics very strongly. Nowadays, technologies allow to fabricate the angular filters with an angular width range of 10 in 1D PhCs.

III. TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTONIC

CRYSTAL STRUCTURES

A. Spatial dispersion and angular band-gaps

The position and the width of the angular BGs can be much more precisely controlled in 2D or/and 3D PhCs, where the refractive index is modulated not only in longitu- dinal direction but also in transverse direction. Fig. 10(a) shows an example of a 2D PhC of a square symmetry with the circular rods positioned at the lattice points. Using PWE method, we plot the band diagram of such structure for TE polarization (electric field is parallel to the rods) in Fig. 10(b). As follows, there is no complete fre- quency BG between the two lowest bands for this specific structure. To explore more in detail, the surroundings of the lowest bands frequency region, we plot the iso-frequency contours of the spatial dispersion x ð k x ; k y Þ . Figs. 11(a) and 11(b) represent the iso-frequency contours of the first two bands. If we illuminate the PhC structure at a normalized fre- quency a= k ¼ 0.55, the Bloch modes lying on equifrequency lines will be excited for this particular frequency both for the first and the second bands (these particular equifrequency

lines are marked in dark red in Fig. 11(a) and dashed dark red in Fig. 11(b). To illustrate this, we plot iso-lines from both of the bands together in the Fig. 11(c). The appearance of angular BG can be illustrated by sim- ple terms, in Fig. 11(c): there are angles for the frequency of 0.55 (marked in red triangles) corresponding to the Bloch waves for which the dispersion relation does not appear, i.e., there is a BG, in particular, angular range. Therefore, the corresponding plane wave components inside the angular band gap cannot propagate, being reflected back and conse- quently disappear from the angular spectrum of forward propagating beam. An alternative interpretation of the spatial filtering effect is by the resonant interaction of modes lying on spatial dis- persion curve. The appearance of the frequency BGs and the frequency filtering in 1D PhCs is related to the resonant back-scattering of the plane waves of particular frequencies. The spatial filtering, in the similar manner, can be explained by the resonant backwards reflection of the particular angular components of the light beam (Fig. 12). The spatial disper- sion curve for a monochromatic wave of particular wave- length propagating in the homogeneous material in reciprocal space is a circle with the radius of k ¼ 2p =k (Fig. 12). For the waves propagating in the PhC, the periodicity of the crystal plays the key role: the wave vector of refractive index modulation ~q (in Fig. 12 marked with black arrows)

modulation ~ q (in Fig. 12 marked with black arrows) FIG. 10. (a) The structure of

FIG. 10. (a) The structure of the 2D PhC. (b) Band diagram. The inset shows the irreducible Brillouin Zone of the structure. The lattice constant is a ¼ 0 :6 lm, the host medium is air, the rods of the radius r ¼ 0 :2a are made from the material with refractive index n ¼ 1.5.

011102-7

L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

011102-7 L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas FIG. 11. Iso-frequency contours of the first (a) and the

FIG. 11. Iso-frequency contours of the first (a) and the second bands (b). (c) Iso frequency contours of both first and second bands plotted simultaneously.

couples the forward propagating mode with the mode propa- gating backwards at a particular angle to the incidence direc- tion (the first lying on the top part of the circle, while the latter on the bottom part). Therefore, due to this resonant coupling particular angular components at around the for- ward propagating mode are being backscattered and the angular band gap in the forward direction appears. In Fig. 12, two possible cases of the described effect are shown.

12 , two possible cases of the described effect are shown. FIG. 12. Illustration of the

FIG. 12. Illustration of the spatial filtering in a 2D PhC, in spatial Fourier domain (k x , k y ). Interpretation through the resonant scattering in PhC config- uration with angular BGs for two cases (a) and (b) were the difference is in the length and direction of ~q vector.

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

Here a marks the angular distribution of the beam in front of the crystal. In the crystal, some angular components, at reso- nance with the periodic structure, are scattered into the back- ward propagating modes marked by thick red arrows. The angular bandwidth of the modes passing through the PhC without the resonant backscattering is marked with the bright triangle and indicated by angle b. For the angular band gaps to appear at particular wave- length, the condition on the longitudinal period d k < k (or

~

j~q k j > j k j , where ~q k is the longitudinal wave vector compo-

nent) must be fulfilled. This kind of filtering was proposed and considered in optics. 5559 In Fig. 13(a), the numerical results from Ref. 57 are presented, where the map on (k 0 a, angle) is shown for 2D square symmetry PhC. Here, a broad range of angular band gap is obtained. With these results a spatial filter with sharp boundary between the total transmis- sion and total reflection can be obtained. The angular filter- ing range is, however, very large. Fig. 13(b) demonstrates the numerical and experimental results for angular filtering from Ref. 55, where angular band-gap at the incidence angles of 20 –30 is obtained. Here, 2D crystal of a square symmetry with similar parame- ters of Ref. 57 was used. The experiment was performed with a horn antenna of microwave wavelength. Spatial filtering was also demonstrated in acoustics, for sonic crystals. 60 Fig. 14(a) shows numerically simulated angular intensity distribution of the narrow acoustic beam

angular intensity distribution of the narrow acoustic beam FIG. 13. (a) Zero-order transmittance at varying k

FIG. 13. (a) Zero-order transmittance at varying k 0 a and h (angle) for a 2D square symmetry PhC, where k 0 is wave vector of incident wave and a is the lattice vector. Reproduced with permission from Serebryannikov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181101 (2009). Copyright 2009 AIP Publishing LLC. (b) Transmittance for different illuminations at frequency f ¼ 21:763 GHz (a= k ¼ 0:5078) for Gaussian-beam excitation (solid blue line), horn-antenna excitation in the experiments (dotted red line), and plane-wave excitation (dashed green line). Reproduced with permission from Colak et al., J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113106 (2010). Copyright 2010 AIP Publishing LLC. Both (a) and (b) are for square symmetry lattices.

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L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

behind the 2D sonic crystal in the far field domain depending on frequency. The angular distribution experiences a signifi- cant narrowing, in the region of 130 kHz–150 kHz. Moreover, the filtering angles decrease with the increase of frequency. Figure 14(b) shows spatial filtering effect at par- ticular frequency of f ¼ 140 kHz (Ref. 60) on the beam propagation inside and behind the structure. The reflection of acoustic beam at the entrance into the sonic crystal is clearly observed, which indicates the presence of the angular BGs. The beam behind the sonic crystal is evidently better colli- mated than the reference beam, which confirms the spatial filtering effect. Moreover, in acoustics the spatial filtering with angular BGs was recently demonstrated experimentally, 61,62 as shown in Fig. 15. It shows the angular sound field distribution at a distance R ¼ 1 m behind the output face of the crystal at the particular frequencies of 5158 Hz and 5543 Hz. The spatially filtered angular regions are shaded. The transmission through the crystal is compared with the free propagation (shown by dashed line), where evident spatial filtering at h ¼ 30 for Fig. 15(a) and at h ¼ 15 for Fig. 15(b) can be seen. 61 In optics for visible frequencies, the realization of such kind of the spatial filtering experimental is still a challenging technological task, as the longitudinal period must be of the order of the wavelength. However, as recently suggested 63 and experimentally demonstrated 64 spatial filtering can be realized also without angular BGs.

spatial filtering can be realized also without angular BGs. FIG. 14. Numerical simulations with sonic crystal

FIG. 14. Numerical simulations with sonic crystal built from steel cylinders with r ¼ 0:6 mm immersed in water. The crystal has a triangular symmetry,

defined by lattice parameters a ¼ ja~ 1 j¼ja~ 2 j ¼ 6 mm. Filling fraction is

3 ðr =aÞ 2 ¼ 0 :03. The material parameters are q h ¼ 10 3 kg m 3

and B h ¼ 2:2 10 9 N m 2 for the host medium (water) and q s ¼ 7:8 10 3 kg m 3 , B s ¼ 160 10 9 N m 2 , with corresponding sound velocities c h ¼ 1483 m s 1 and c s ¼ 4530 m s 1 . The source is a Gaussian beam. (a) The far field (angular) distribution of the acoustic intensity transmitted through the crystal depending on the frequency in the configuration with angular band gaps. (b) A Gaussian beam propagating inside and behind SC for fre- quency of f ¼ 140 kHz. Reprinted with permission from Pic o et al., “Spatial filtering of sound beams by sonic crystals,” Appl. Acoust. 73, 302–306 (2012). Copyright 2012 Elsevier.

f ¼ 2 p=

p ffiffiffi

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

¼ 2 p = p ffiffiffi Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015) FIG. 15. Experimental

FIG. 15. Experimental results evidencing the spatial filtering. The experi- ment was performed using SC of 9 10 matrix of cylindrical (methacrylate) scatterers of radius r ¼ 1 cm, in square lattice with lattice constant a ¼ 4.7 cm, surrounded by air. The filling fraction of the crystal f ¼ p ðr =aÞ 2 ¼ 0 :14. The emitter was broad band loudspeaker emitting white noise, a microphone was used as a receiver. (a) and (b) The sound pressure level, with (continuous line) and without crystal (dashed line) for frequen- cies of f ¼ 5158 Hz and f ¼ 5543 Hz, correspondingly. 61 Reprinted with permission from Pic o et al., “Evidences of spatial (angular) filtering of sound beams by sonic crystals,” Appl. Acoust. 74, 945–948 (2013). Copyright 2013 Elsevier.

B. Gapless angular filtering

Strictly speaking, the BG is defined as a condition when no forward propagating radiation is possible. The corresponding Bloch mode is decaying evanescently (exponentially) along the structure. As illustrated above in Fig. 12, the periodic structure of the PhC scatters the waves to the backward direction. In the case of the spatial filtering without angular BGs, there is no backscattering of the radiation, rather its deflection to the forward direction. In Fig. 16, the idea of gapless spatial filtering is illustrated in two cases of it. The description of the spatial dispersion diagrams in Fig. 16 is analogous to that in Fig. 12, except of the important differ- ence: there is no backscattering of the particular forward propagating angular beam components, but instead, occur their deflection, i.e., the resonant interaction appears for two modes propagating in forward direction. The mode to which the energy is scattered is at larger angles, i.e., the angles of

energy is scattered is at larger angles, i.e., the angles of FIG. 16. Possible configurations for

FIG. 16. Possible configurations for a spatial filtering without the angular band gap (compare with the Fig. 12).

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L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

and K. Staliunas Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015) FIG. 17. Numerical calculations of angular

FIG. 17. Numerical calculations of angular profiles of filtered radiation depending on the length of the PhCs (in terms of number of periods n). (a) In condition of gapless filtering, where deflection of particular angular components is obtained. Reprinted with permission from Purlys et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 033805 (2013). Copyright 2013 The American Physical Society. (b) In condition of filtering with angular BGs, where particular angular components are reflected back. Here, blue color marks transmission, while red-reflection. The parameters of PhC are transverse period d ? ¼ 1 lm, refractive index of the material n ref ¼ 1:52, and the contrast of refractive index modulation D n ¼ 10 3 . Longitudinal period for (a) is d k ¼ 6 lm, while for (b) is d k ¼ 0:35 l m.

the first diffraction maxima are still directed forwards. The central position of the angular band gap follows from geo- metrical considerations and corresponds to a resonant inter- action between field harmonics. 65 This kind of filtering is possible for the larger longitudi- nal periods of the refractive index modulation d k > k (or

~

j~q k j < j k j ), therefore it is much simpler to fabricate such kind

of structures. The gapless filtering was predicted not only for optics but also for the matter waves in Bose-Einstein conden- sates. 66 As just mentioned above, gapless spatial filtering is more convenient from the fabrication point of view, however, the efficiency of filtering is restricted. The reason for that is the deflected wave components propagate in forward direction, therefore they can be scattered back into the modes of initial radiation. The process is summarized in Fig. 17(a) from Ref. 65 where the gapless filtering depending on the number of periods n of nonchirped PhC is shown (the calculation method is explained in Appendix A). For the numerical simulation, a Gaussian beam of wavelength k ¼ 633 nm was used. Initially, just after entrance of beam into the crystal, the “dips” in the angular spectrum (the filtered out angular regions) increase in depth with the crystal length (Fig. 17(a), n ¼ 8, 14). However, at larger propagation distances, when the area of angular wave components is depleted to zero, the reverse pro- cess starts, and the efficiency of the filtering decreases (Fig. 17(a), n ¼ 20, 22). Moreover, the filtered out area appears to be not a smooth dip, as needed for most of applications, but devel- ops oscillatory character. This is in strong contrast with the spa- tial filtering in PhCs with angular BGs, where the filtered out radiation propagates in backward direction (Fig. 17(b), all parameters for simulation are the same as 17(a), except of lon- gitudinal period d k ¼ 0 :35 lm)), and therefore, cannot be re- versely scattered into forward propagating beam. As Fig. 17(b) shows, the increase of the length of the PhC does not initiate the reverse scattering process. In Fig. 17(b), the red profiles mark the reflected angular components.

In order to achieve efficient angular filtering in the gap- less case, the reverse scattering process is to be suppressed, i.e., the interaction between modes is to be allowed for a lim- ited propagation distance, and interrupted just at the distance when reverse process starts. For the parameters of Fig. 17(a), the optimum length providing maximum dip of filtered out components is approximately 14 periods. However, at the optimal distance the filtering dip is just of a limited width. The possibility to increase the efficiency of spatial filtering in gapless configuration is to use the chirped structures, 63 where the longitudinal period varies along the photonic structure.

C. Chirped structures to enhance filtering

The central angle of filtered out radiation follows from the simple geometric considerations

sin ð aÞ ¼ 2k q ? 0 ð q 1 Þ ¼

k

2d

? ð q 1Þ :

(9)

is the wavenumber of transverse modulation,

k 0

venient geometry factor where n is the average refractive index. As follows from Eq. (9), the angle of filtering depends on the longitudinal period of the structure, among others; therefore, the chirp of longitudinal period, while keeping other parameters constant, would result into the sweep of the filtering angle along the PhC. Consequently, the chirp results in (1) filtering efficiency and the angular range of filtering can be increased and (2) the reverse scattering process can be suppressed as the angular components efficient interaction length can be limited by the velocity of the sweep. Fig. 18(a) shows the numerical calculations, 65 where the positive chirp- ing effect was shown for the case of spatial filtering without

is the con-

Here q ? ¼

2

p

d

?

¼ 2 p

k

is the wavenumber of wave, and q ¼

k

d k

2d

2

? n

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L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

and K. Staliunas Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015) FIG. 18. Angular transmission profiles for

FIG. 18. Angular transmission profiles for varying chirp parameter C for PhC sample with n ¼ 50 periods. Numerical results (a) for the spatial filtering in gap- less configuration. 65 (b) For the spatial filtering in the configuration with angular band gaps. (c) Experimental results for the spatial filtering in gapless configu- ration. Reprinted with permission from Purlys et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 033805 (2013). Copyright 2013 The American Physical Society.

the angular BGs. The parameters of the PhC here are the same as in the case of 17(a), except here longitudinal period is linearly incremented by D d for every new period d k ;j ¼ d k ;B þ jD d, where j counts periods i ¼ 1 ; ; n: The

adimensional chirp parameter is defined by C ¼ D d =d k ,

distance

where

between layers with d z ¼ 6 lm. Fig. 18(b) shows spatial fil- tering in case of the angular band gap configuration, where the chirping effect improves quality of spatial filtering. In Fig. 18(b), efficiency of filtering is slightly better but remains similar compared to the filtering in the gapless configuration (Fig. 18(a)). In Fig. 18(b), the difference from Fig. 18(a) is the average distance between layers, where in Fig. 18(b) it is

d z ¼ 0: 35 l m. Fig. 18(c) represents the experimental results 65 with exactly the same parameters of PhCs as calculated numerically in Fig. 18(a). Numerical and experimental results have a very good correspondence and prove the constructive role of chirp for the gapless case.

d z ¼ ð d k ;Begin þ d k; End Þ =2

is

the

average

g i n þ d k ; E n d Þ = 2 is the average

FIG. 19. Numerically obtained field profiles for spatial filtering in chirped struc- tures with higher number of periods (a) and for higher refraction index contrast (b). The parameters for (a) n ¼ 120, s ¼ 0.05, C ¼ 0.24%, d k ¼ 7.44 l m; for (b) s ¼ 0.1, n ¼ 50, C ¼ 0.53%, d k ¼ 7.2 lm. The dashed line indicates angular pro- file of incident beam. Dashed arrows indicate diffractive scattering of the field components. Reprinted with permission from Purlys et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 033805 (2013). Copyright 2013 The American Physical Society.

Chirping of the structure improves the spatial filtering significantly; to improve it even more there are several possi- bilities: (1) to increase the length of the structure or (2) to increase the refractive index contrast. Fig. 19 shows the fil- tering performance for the both of the cases, where the filter- ing performance reach up to 80% of efficiency. 65 Spatial filtering with 2D PhCs is more controllable and robust compared to 1D PhCs. However, the spatial filtering obtained by 2D crystals is only 1D (Fig. 20). 1D filtering can be useful in some particular applications, e.g., where only one quadrature of the beam is noisy and the filtering is needed only in the transverse direction; nevertheless, for most applications the full 2D filtering is required. To per- form a full 2D spatial filtering 3D PhCs should be used.

D. Three-dimensional photonic crystals for spatial filtering

3D PhCs have refractive index modulation in x, y, and z directions (Fig. 21). As was mentioned in Sec. III C 3D PhCs can perform 2D spatial filtering. With 3D PhC case similarly as with 2D PhC, both kind of filtering mechanisms can be achieved: with angular BGs and without angular BGs, since the same relations d k < k, d k > k hold for the corresponding cases. The gapless filtering, where particular angular

cases. The gapless filtering, where particular angular FIG. 20. (a) A schematic representation of 2D PhC.

FIG. 20. (a) A schematic representation of 2D PhC. (b) 1D spatial filtering by 2D PhC obtained by numerical simulation. Reprinted with permission from Purlys et al., Opt. Lett. 39, 929 (2014). Copyright 2014 The Optical Society of America.

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L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

011102-11 L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas FIG. 21. Schematic examples of 3D PhCs: (a) red and

FIG. 21. Schematic examples of 3D PhCs: (a) red and grey colors signify different refractive indices of the material. (b) Taken from Ref. 64, where ellipses represent different refractive index from the host material. Reprinted with permission from Maigyte et al., Phys. Rev. A 82, 043819 (2010). Copyright 2010 The American Physical Society. (c) and (d) Taken from Ref. 67, where (c) represents 3D woodpile structured PhC and (d) represents numerically calculated far field filtering distribution for the structure, where the 2D filtering is obtained. Reprinted with permission from Purlys et al., Opt. Lett. 39, 929 (2014). Copyright 2014 The Optical Society of America.

components are deflected to the first diffraction maxima, was already demonstrated with 3D PhCs. 64 Figs. 22(a) and 22(b) show numerical simulation (method is explained in Appendix A) of the spatial filtering with the 3D PhC for the geometry shown in (Fig. 21(b)). The numerical results are proven by the experiment, which con- firmed the effect (Figs. 22(c) and 22(d)). However, the dem- onstrated spatial filtering is of a relatively low efficiency. To increase spatial filtering efficiency, for 3D PhC, the same methods, as in 2D case, can be applied: the increase of the refractive index contrast or the introduction of a chirp. The profile shape of the filtered our angular components depends on the geometry of the 3D crystal. The above described PhC structure 64 consists of a square lattice in xy plane; therefore, the filtering window is of a square shape (Figs. 22(a) and 22(c)). To change the shape of the filtering window, the symmetry of the PhC lattice in xy plane has to be changed. For instance, if instead of a square filtering the circular (axisymmetric) filtering is needed (which is a usual situation for most applications), then PhC should have the axisymmetric shape in xy plane as well (Fig. 23(a)). Fig. 23(b) shows the example of axisymmetric filtering, per- formed by the axisymmetric photonic microstructure and calculated by split step method (see Appendix A). In the cen- tral part of the far field distribution, a dark ring can be observed, which stands for the angular components coher- ently scattered to the first diffraction maxima (bright circle surrounding the central beam distribution). The filtering angle approximately follows the expression in Eq. (9), the same as for 1D filtering. The axisymmetric filtering has been demonstrated experimentally (Figs. 23(c) and 23(d)). 67

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

and 23(d) ). 6 7 Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015) FIG. 22. The 2D

FIG. 22. The 2D transmission profile (a) as well as the distribution on a hori- zontal cut (b), obtained by numerical simulations with the crystal parameters of: transversal period d ? ¼ 1 :5 l m, longitudinal period d k ¼ 11:6, refractive index of material n ref ¼ 1 :52, contrast of refractive index modulation D n ¼ 10 3 . This is the Gaussian beam of k ¼ 633 nm. Experimental results (for the same parameters): (c) CCD camera image of the central part of the beam with angular field components filtered out (dark lines crossing each other and making a square within the central maximum). (d) Intensity distri- bution behind the PC (in the far-field domain) along the horizontal cut cross- ing the center of the beam. The field from central maximum is marked by a solid line and from the first diffraction maxima is marked by dashed, col- oured lines. Reprinted with permission from Maigyte et al., Phys. Rev. A 82, 043819 (2010). Copyright 2010 The American Physical Society.

043819 (2010). Copyright 2010 The American Physical Society. FIG. 23. (a) Schematic representation of an axisymmetric

FIG. 23. (a) Schematic representation of an axisymmetric crystal, where each layer consists from concentric circles with a periodic separation between the rings. (b) Intensity distribution of a far field of the Gaussian beam of k ¼ 633 nm which propagated through an axisymmetric crystal. Experimentally recorded far field distributions behind the axisymmetric structure for N ¼ 12 (c) show the large scale distribution, (d) show the small scale distributions together their vertical cross-sections crossing the center of the beam. Reprinted with permission from Purlys et al., Opt. Lett. 39, 929 (2014). Copyright 2014 The Optical Society of America.

011102-12

L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

011102-12 L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas FIG. 24. Non-chirped axisymmetric PhC: 2D intensity distribution—(a) numeri- cal

FIG. 24. Non-chirped axisymmetric PhC: 2D intensity distribution—(a) numeri- cal simulation, (b) experimental result, (c) cross sections of the intensity distribu- tions; Chirped axisymmetric PhC: 2D intensity distribution—(d) numerical simulation, (e) experimental result, (f) cross sections of the intensity distributions. Reprinted with permission from Gailevicius et al., “Chirped axisymmetric micro- photonic structures for spatial filtering,” J. Nanophotonics 8, 084094 (2014). Copyright 2014 Society of Photo Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

The efficiency of the spatial filtering in axisymmetric crystals can be increased in the same way as in previous cases: by chirping and by the increase of refractive index contrast of the structure. The experimental results with axi- symmetric chirped PhCs 68 are shown in Fig. 24, where con- structive role of chirp can be clearly observed. It should be mentioned that there is one disadvantage of axisymmetric photonic structures compared to the square transverse symmetry PhCs, i.e., they lack the transversal invar- iability due to the presence of the optical axis along the axi- symmetric structure. Therefore, the beam which needs to be filtered must be aligned (which is not needed for the PhCs). 67

IV. CONCLUSION

We have reviewed the recent studies of a novel method for spatial light filtering by using the PhCs, where the mecha- nisms of spatial filtering with BGs and without BGs (gapless filtering) were presented. Spatial filtering can be performed with 1D, 2D, and 3D PhCs. With 1D PhCs, it is hard to con- trol the spatial filtering: nowadays technologies allow to fabri- cate the angular filters of 1D PhCs with angular width of 10 . With 2D or/and 3D PhCs the full control of the spatial filtering can be obtained. However, with 2D PhCs only 1D fil- tering can be performed, which can be useful for very specific applications. With 3D PhCs 2D spatial filtering can be obtained and the shape of the filtering window can be modi- fied, as it depends on the geometry of the transverse plane of the PhC. To enhance the performance of spatial filtering, the PhCs can be chirped. The PhC spatial filters have an advant- age over the conventional ones due to their compactness and translational invariance (not for axisymmetric case). The current review focused on spatial filtering to build the compact stand-alone photonic crystal filter based on dielectric periodic structures. Such structures are most genu- ine and pure to study and to describe the physics of the spa- tial filtering. The applications and the implementations of the physical idea can be also realized in composite materials, and more sophisticated designs. The spatial filtering can be generalized to absorbing periodic structures (metallic

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

photonic crystals) as well, as e.g., predicted in Ref. 69, also in periodically modulated semiconductor amplifiers. 70,71 The latter structures fell into a class of complex photonic crystals, i.e., the structures with the spatially modulated refractive index and gain/loss. 72 Concerning the architectures of the implementation, the intracavity spatial filtering is very prom- ising, as the PhC filters, due to their compact size can be integrated inside the mini- and micro-resonators. The intra- cavity PhCs already provide the modifications of diffraction of the resonators: 73,74 the analogous architectures are expected to show the spatial filtering too.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are grateful to the co-authors of our papers on spatial filtering: M. Peckus, M. Malinauskas, V. Purlys, D. Gailevicius, R. Herrero, M. Botey, J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, T. Gertus, and V. Sirutkaitis, who participated in common research reviewed in this article. Additionally, we would like to acknowledge financial support by Spanish Ministerio de Educaci on y Ciencia and European FEDER (Project FIS2011-29734-C02-01).

APPENDIX A: MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND NUMERICAL METHODS

Different models of different complexity have been used to obtain numerical results on spatial filtering reviewed throughout the article. We present them in the Appendix. The basic model is the set of Maxwell equations for the electric and magnetic fields, which in the absence of charges and currents (dielectric structures) can be written in the form

r

fe ð~r Þ ~

E ð~r ; t Þg ¼ 0 ;

r

~

H ð~r ; tÞ ¼ 0;

~

r E ð~r ; tÞ ¼ l 0

@

@ t

~

H ð~r ; t Þ ;

r

~

H ð~r ; tÞ ¼ e 0 e

ð ~r Þ

@

@ t

~

E ð~r ; tÞ :

(A1)

(A2)

(A3)

(A4)

The form of the Maxwell equations (A1)(A4) already con-

tain the matter response relations, i.e., the relation between

~

~

the electric displacement field D with the electric field E:

D ~ ð~r ; t Þ ¼ e 0 e ð~r Þ ~ E ð~r ; t Þ ;

~

(A5)

~

as well as magnetic induction, B with the magnetic field H,

which for nonmagnetic material is trivial.

B ð~r ; tÞ ¼ l 0 H ð~r ; tÞ :

~

~

(A6)

The Maxwell equation set is usually solved numerically using the so called Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) model. The nu- merical scheme was first developed by Taflove. 75 Nowadays, many different commercial FDTD software packages are avail- able, widely used by engineers of nano- and micro-structures. The FDTD methods are based on discretization of space and time, and substitution of derivatives in (A1)(A4) by fi- nite differences. Typically, a spatial grid should be used with

011102-13

L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

at least 20 grid points per wavelength; therefore, the method becomes very time consuming for the structures extending in space over many wavelength. As an estimation: the use of 10 7 grid points (i.e., the 10 Mega-pixels) which is reasonable for nowadays desktops allows simulation of the structure of (100 100 lm) in case of 2 spatial dimensions (we assume here the visible light of k 0 : 6 l m), or (10 10 7 l m) in case of 3 spatial dimensions. Even the supercomputers that are able to use 10 9 grid points (1 Giga-pixel) are limited to the calculation of the (1 :5 1: 5 mm) in 2D case and (50 50 50 l m) in 3D case. Therefore, the FDTD methods, being a powerful tool for exact calculations of the light propa- gation in several micron size structures, become inconvenient for the studies of light filtering in PhCs of relatively large extent. We note that most of the structures for spatial filtering reviewed in the paper are of dimensions of around 1 mm. On the other hand, the structures used for spatial filter- ing have relatively large periods of spatial modulation (1 10 l m), also relatively small refractive index variation (D n 10 3 ). This offers simplifications of the full model. From Eqs. (A1)(A4) one can obtain

1

Þ r e ð ~r

r E ð~r ; t Þ ¼ 1

~

c

2

@ 2

~

E

ð~r ; t Þ

@ t 2

;

(A7)

where c is the speed of light in free space given by

c ¼

1

p

ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi :

e

0 l 0

(A8)

Assuming relatively large scale modulation of the index:

j@ e ð~r Þ =@~r j j e ð~r Þ =kj the (A7) can be rewritten in the form of wave equation

r 2 E ð r ; t Þ e

ð ~r Þ @ 2 Eð r ; t Þ

c

2

@ t 2

¼ 0:

(A9)

Next one can derive the paraxial equation in the limit j@ E ð~r ; t Þ =@~r j j Eð~r ; t Þ =k j , j @ E ð~r ; t Þ =@ t j j x E ð~r ; t Þj , the so called limit of slowly varying (in space) envelopes

~

(A10)

~

E ð~r ; t Þ ¼

A ð~r Þ e ikz i x t :

Here, one assumes that the field is monochromatic with the frequency x and that the beam propagates paraxially, along the wave-vector k 0 ¼ n x =c, here n is the averaged refractive index (note that the amplitude of modulation of susceptibil- ity, or index is small and is around the average value). Then the paraxial propagation equation is

ð 2ik 0 @=@ z þ r ? 2 þ 2D nð x ; y ; z Þ k

2

0

Þ A ð x ; y ; z Þ ¼ 0 :

(A11)

It is assumed that the beam propagates along the z axis direc- tion, r ? 2 ¼ @ 2 =@ x 2 þ @ 2 =@ y 2 is the Laplace operator in the space transverse to the propagation direction: ~r ? ¼ ð x ; y Þ denotes the space perpendicular to the propagation direction, and k ? ¼ ð k x ; k y Þ denotes the transverse components of the propagation wave-vector. The paraxial model does not take into account the back-reflected wave, nor the waves refracted at relatively large angles to the optical axis. In particular, the spatial dispersion relation in the paraxial model (obtained by

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

substituting @=@ z ! ik z ;

r ! ik ? in (A11)) is a parabola

k z ¼ k ? =ð 2k 0 Þ , which is a parabolic approximation of the

2

precise dispersion relation of (A7) the circle k

The model is convenient to simulate the unidirectional propagation of the fields along the structure, in particular, for the gapless spatial filtering. The integration proceeds in space (not in time as in FDTD), i.e., the field evolution is considered iterating on a grid moving along the structure. Usually, a split-step method is very efficient for the problems of such type: integrating the variation of field phase due to refractive index profile in space domain, and calculation of the diffractive propagation (the Laplace operators) in spatial Fourier domain (Fourier transformation in transverse space). The further simplification of the model is possible, if the field variation is weak in propagation from slice to slice.

~ 2

¼ n x = c.

1. Discretization by layers

If the variation of the field distribution in propagation over one longitudinal period of the structure is small, an additional simplification is possible by setting the size of the split step equal to one longitudinal period (or half-period). Then, the

propagation is considered alternatively: a scattering on a layer

of periodically modulated index and diffractive propagation in

the homogeneous media between the layers. The scattering by one layer is conveniently calculated integrating the (A11) in space domain, and neglecting the diffraction operator

A 1 ð r ; z Þ ¼ Að r ; z Þ e ð i Dn ð r Þ k 0 Dl z Þ A ð r ; z Þð 1 þ i D nð r Þ k 0 D l z Þ :

(A12)

The diffractive propagation between the layers is calculated in transverse Fourier domain, Að r ? ; z Þ ! A ð k ? ; z Þ where the diffractive propagation operator results in a simple multipli-

cation by eigenvalues of the operator

(A13)

The method is applicable for small changes of the fields in

one longitudinal modulation period: jD nð r Þ k 0 D l z j 1 and

2

A 2 ð k ? ; z Þ ¼ A 1 ð k ? ; z Þ e ð i Dl z k ? = ð2k 0 ÞÞ :

j D l z k ? 2 =ð 2k 0 Þj 1.

2. Harmonic expansion

If the profile of the refractive index, which is used in fabrication, is well approximated by a harmonic function:

D nð x ; y ; z Þ ¼ D n o =4ð cos ð q x x Þ þ cos ð q y y ÞÞ cos ð q z z Þ , where D n 0 is the maximum amplitude of the variation of the refrac- tive index (refractive index contrast), the field can be

expanded into spatial harmonic components

Að r ? ; z Þ¼ ð e ik ? r ? A 0 ð k ? ; z Þ

þ X

m x ;m y

A m x ;m y ð k ? ; z Þ e im x q x xþim y q y y iq z z dk ? :

(A14)

In the expansion, one can consider only the most relevant diffracted components A m x ; m y ð k ? ; z Þ with ð m x ; m y Þ¼ð 0; 1 Þ ; ð 0 ; þ 1Þ ; ð 1; 0Þ ; ðþ 1; 0ÞÞ , in addition to the zero component

011102-14

L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

A 0 ð k ? ; z Þ . This particular truncation is justified having in mind the smallness of the index modulation, and also from the experimental observations (described in the review), where only four diffraction maxima are dominating. Inserting Eq. (A14) into Eq. (A11) results

2

?

dz A 0 ¼ ik

d

2k 0

A 0 þ iD n 0 k 0

16

X

m x ; m y

A m x ;m y ;

d

dz A m x ; m y ¼

i k x þ m x q x Þ 2 þ i ð

ð

k

y

þ

m y q y

Þ 2

2k 0

A m x ; m y þ i Dn 0 k 0

16

A 0 :

þ

(A15a)

iq z !

(A15b)

(A15) describes an exchange of the radiation between the central component k ? ¼ ð k x ; k y Þ and the diffracted compo- nents ð k x þ m x q x ; k y þ m y q y Þ . The radiation exchange, and consequently the depletion is most efficient for the angles k ? corresponding to the resonant interaction between the zero component (A15a) and one or several of the diffracted com- ponents (A15b). The resonance condition reads

(A16)

The (A15) is a continuous model describing the evolution and interaction of the field harmonics along the photonic structure, which is periodic in transverse space. Note that the longitudi- nally chirped structure (longitudinal period slowly, adiabatically, varies along the structure) can be simulated using (A15) too. However, the application of (A15) is problematic if the structure in transverse space is not periodic, e.g., consists of concentric rings, or quasicrystal, or is of a limited transverse extent.

APPENDIX B: FABRICATION TECHNIQUES

PhC samples can be assembled by various fabrication methods. Depending on different parameters of required PhC, such as dimensionality, lattice, and material, the most suitable fabrication technique can be applied. 1D PhCs have been produced for a long time, where mainly evaporation techniques are used. 76 To create a 2D PhCs interference lithography, 77,78 electron beam lithogra- phy, 79,80 direct laser writing in photosensitive materials, 81 etc., are implemented. Fabrication of 3D PhC structures for visible spectrum remains a considerable challenge, however such techniques like 3D holographic lithography (multi-beam inter- ference lithography), 8284 layer-by-layer lithography/photoli- thography, 85,86 self-assembly, 87,88 soft lithography, 89,90 auto- cloning, 91,92 micro-manipulation, 93,94 glancing-angle deposi- tion, 95 direct laser writing, 9699 and combination of different fabrication methods 86,93 made great advances in creation of 3D PhC for light. In the following, we briefly describe most common techniques in fabrication of 3D PhCs, as well as, we describe in more detail the fabrication method used to create PhC samples for spatial filtering.

ð k x þ m x q x Þ 2 þ ð k y þ m y q y Þ 2 2q z k 0 ¼ k

2

x

þ

2

k

y

:

1. Self-assembly

Colloidal self-assembly 87,88 methodology emerges from the property that particles self-organize owing to their elec- trostatic or other interaction, which gives rise to crystalline

Appl. Phys. Rev. 2 , 011102 (2015)

structures. Colloidal crystals then can be processed to obtain opals, which can be used as templates into which dielectric materials may infiltrate. After the infiltration process the template can be dissolved, which would leave a lattice of air- filled spheres in dielectric medium. The process is efficient and cheap and can produce large samples of periodic struc- tures, however, using this method lattice symmetries are lim-

ited, in addition to the appearance of random lattice defects.

2. Layer-by-layer lithography and photolithography

With layer-by-layer lithography 85 one layer of PhCs is being built at a time, where the main idea is to etch (for example, by applying focused electron beam) a cross section of the PhC pattern onto a substrate. Then etched holes are filled with the different material and the second layer of sub- strate can be deposited. The process is being repeated until the needed number of layers is reached. When the sample is ready, the filling material can be dissolved. In the case of layer-by-layer photolithography, 86 the photolithographic microstructuring of photosensitive materi- als is applied, where after light exposure and structuring of

one layer it is lowered in a bath of liquid photoresist, and a

second layer is exposed on top of the first. The sequential procedure is being repeated until the needed height of the structure is reached.

3. Holographic lithography

Holographic lithography, 8284 also known as multi- beam interference lithography, can be used for the fabrica- tion of the PhCs, since light distribution resulting from mul- tiple beam interference can have spatial periodicity on the order of wavelength. The interference pattern using photore- sist material can be recorded as volume hologram and then converted into PhC. Using holographic lithography large PhCs samples, with high flexibility in unit cells can be fabri- cated. However, the structures are strictly periodic, therefore additional methods to introduce defects should be applied.

4. Direct laser writing by polymerization

Direct laser writing (DLW) by two-photon or multi- photon polymerization 9699 is a suitable technique for poly- meric PhCs. In DLW by multi-photon polymerization, pho- toresist is illuminated by the tightly focused laser beam at a particular frequency, which initiates the multi-photon absorption in the material and sequentially the polymeriza- tion. The shape of an object can therefore be traced out by the laser. The part of the photoresist which was not polymer- ized by the laser beam can be washed away and the traced solid obtained. This technique is very flexible and convenient for integration of the defect structures.

5. Point-by-point modification

The reported 2D and 3D PhCs for spatial filtering in visible frequency range were fabricated in standard micro- scope soda-lime glass slides (Carl Roth, n ref ¼ 1.52) by a point-by-point modification of refractive index by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam (Fig. 25). The method is

011102-15

L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas

011102-15 L. Maigyte and K. Staliunas FIG. 25. Illustration of fabrication setup and procedure (a). A

FIG. 25. Illustration of fabrication setup and procedure (a). A sample of soda-lime glass is moved in respect to the tightly focused femtosecond laser beam inducing a point-by-point refractive index modification in the bulk of the glass. (b) The view of the produced structure. (c) The magnified view of the produced structure. Optical microscopy image. Reprinted with permis- sion from Purlys et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 033805 (2013). Copyright 2013 The American Physical Society.

widely used for inscription of various micro-optical and pho- tonic components in glass, such as waveguides, 100,101 Bragg gratings, 102 as well as vortex generators. 103 The simplified scheme of the fabrication setup is depicted in Fig. 25(a) and some examples of 2D PhCs are shown in Figs. 25(b) and

25(c).

For this method due to high intensity of focused light, the refractive index at the region of the focal point is locally modified, thus translation of sample results in a desired pro- file of modulation of refractive index in three dimensions. The change of refractive index and its spatial confinement depends on applied laser power and on the focalization. For the fabrication of reported PhCs, it was used a Yb:KGW laser providing 300 fs pulses at 1030 nm. The magnitude of the refractive index change for the material and presented fabrication conditions is generally considered to be of the order of 10 3 . 104106

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