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Chapter (1)

Introduction to Heat Transfer


And Heat Exchangers
1.1 General classifications of
heat exchangers
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
• According to constructional details heat
exchangers are classified as:
– Tubular heat exchangers- double pipe, shell and
tube, coiled tube
– Plate heat exchangers- gasketed, spiral, plate coil,
lamella
– Extended surface heat exchangers-tube-fin, plate-
fin
– Regenerators-fixed matrix, rotary
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Double Pipe
Exchangers:
• A double pipe heat
exchanger has two
concentric pipes,
usually in the form of
a U-bend design.
• The flow arrangement Double pipe heat exchanger.
is pure countercurrent. (a)Single pass with counter flow;
(b)Multi-pass with counter flow
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:

Double Pipe Exchangers:


• Their usual application
is for small duties
requiring, typically, less
than 300 ft2 and they are
suitable for high
pressures and
temperatures, and
thermally long duties. Double pipe heat exchanger.
(a)Single pass with counter flow;
(b)Multi-pass with counter flow
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Double Pipe Exchangers:
• The advantages of
flexibility since units
can be added or
removed as required,
and the design is easy to
service and requires low
inventory of spares
because of its
standardization.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Double Pipe exchangers:
• Either longitudinal fins or
circumferential fins within
the annulus on the inner pipe
wall are required to enhance
the heat transfer from the
inner pipe fluid to the
annulus fluid.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger:
• In process industries, shell and tube exchangers are
used in great numbers, far more than any other type
of exchanger.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger:
• More than 90% of heat exchangers used in industry
are of the shell and tube type.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger:
• The shell and tube heat exchangers are the“work
horses“ of industrial process heat transfer.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger:
• They are the first choice because of :
1. well-established procedures for design and
manufacture from a wide variety of materials,
2. many years of satisfactory service, and
3. availability of codes and standards for design
and fabrication.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger:
• They are produced in the widest variety of sizes and
styles. There is virtually no limit on the operating
temperature and pressure.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger:
Major Components of Shell and Tube Heat Exchange:
o tube bundle ,
o shell ,
o front end head,
o rear end head ,
o baffles
o tube sheets
o nozzles
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger:
• Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger
Used for Liquefaction
Systems.
• One of the three classical
heat exchangers used today
for large-scale liquefaction
systems is the coiled tube
heat exchanger (CTHE).
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger:
• Construction of these heat
exchangers involves winding a
large number of small-bore
ductile tubes in helix fashion
around a central core tube,
with each exchanger
containing many layers of
tubes along both the principal
and radial axes.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger:
• Tubes in individual layers or groups of layers may be
brought together into one or more tube plates through
which different fluids may be passed in counter-flow
to the single shell-side fluid.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger:
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger:
• The high-pressure stream flows through the small-
diameter tubes, while the low-pressure return stream
flows across the outside of the small-diameter tubes in
the annular space between the inner central core tube
and the outer shell.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger:
• Pressure drops in the coiled tubes are equalized for
each high-pressure stream by using tubes of equal
length and varying the spacing of these in the different
layers.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger:
• Because of small-bore tubes on both sides, CTHEs do
not permit mechanical cleaning and therefore are used
to handle clean, solid-free fluids or fluids whose
fouling deposits can be cleaned by chemicals.

• Materials are usually aluminum alloys for cryogenics,


and stainless steels for high-temperature applications.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger:
• Chief Limitations:
Its manifolds are usually small making the repair of
leak at tube-to-manifold joint difficult (do not
occur frequently(
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.1Tubular Heat Exchanger:
Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger:
• Chief Limitations:
Limited to services that do not require mechanical
cleaning of the inside of tubes (It can be cleaned
mechanically on shell-side & chemically for tube-
side (For some sizes spacers are required to
maintain a uniform shell-side flow area (spacers
increases pressure drop)
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:

Gasketed Type

Spiral Plate Type

Lamella Type
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:
• Plate heat exchangers are less widely used than
tubular heat exchangers but offer certain important
advantages. Plate heat exchangers can be classified in
three principal groups:
1. Plate and frame or gasketed plate heat
exchangers used as an alternative to tube and
shell exchangers for low- and medium-pressure
liquid-liquid heat-transfer applications.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:
• Plate heat exchangers are less widely used than tubular
heat exchangers but offer certain important advantages.
Plate heat exchangers can be classified in three principal
groups:
2. Spiral heat exchanger used as an alternative to
shell and tube exchangers where low maintenance is
required, particularly with fluids tending to sludge
or containing slurries or solids in suspension.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:
• Plate heat exchangers are less widely used than
tubular heat exchangers but offer certain important
advantages. Plate heat exchangers can be classified in
three principal groups:
3. The Lamella Type exchanger; is a form of
welded heat exchanger that combines the
construction of a plate heat exchanger with that of
a shell and tube exchanger.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:

• Plate Heat Exchanger:


• A plate heat exchanger (PHE)
essentially consists of a
number of corrugated metal
plates in mutual contact, each
plate having four apertures
serving as inlet and outlet
ports, and seals designed to
direct the fluids in alternate
flow passages.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:
• Plate Heat Exchanger:
• The plates are clamped together in a frame that
includes connections for the fluids. Since each plate is
generally provided with peripheral gaskets to provide
sealing arrangements, the plate heat exchangers are
called gasketed plate heat exchangers.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:
• Plate Heat Exchanger:
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:
• Plate Heat Exchanger:
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:

• Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger:


• Spiral plate heat exchangers (SPHEs) have been
used since the 1930s, when they were originally
developed in Sweden for heat recovery in pulp
mills. Spiral plate heat exchangers are classified
as a type of welded plate heat exchanger.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:

• Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger:


• Spiral plate heat exchangers
(SPHEs) have been used since
the 1930s, when they were
originally developed in Sweden
for heat recovery in pulp mills.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:

• Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger:


• Spiral plate heat exchangers are classified as a
type of welded plate

heat exchanger.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:

• Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger:


• An SPHE is fabricated by rolling a pair of
relatively long strips of plate around a split
mandrel to form a pair of spiral passages.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:

• Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger:


• Channel spacing is maintained uniformly
along the length of the spiral passages by
means of spacer studs welded to the plate
strips prior to rolling.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:

• Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger:


• For most applications, both flow channels are
closed by alternate channels welded at both
sides of the spiral plate.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:

• Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger:


• In some services, one of the channels is left
open, whereas the other closed at both sides of
the plate.

• These two types of construction prevent the


fluids from mixing.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:

• Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger:


The SPHE is intended especially for these applications:

1. To handle slurries and liquids with suspended


fibers, and mineral ore treatment where the
solid content is up to 50%.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:

• Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger:


The SPHE is intended especially for these applications:
2. The SPHE is the first choice for extremely high
viscosities, say up to 500,000 cp, especially in
cooling duties, because of mal distribution, and
hence partial blockage by local overcooling is less
likely to occur in a single-channel exchanger.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.2 Plate Heat Exchangers:

• Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger:


The SPHE is intended especially for these applications:

3. SPHEs are finding applications in reboiling,


condensing, heating or cooling of viscous
fluids, slurries, and sludge.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.3 The Lamella Type Heat Exchanger:

• The lamella is a form of welded heat exchanger that


combines the construction of a plate heat exchanger
with that of a shell and tube exchanger.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.3 The Lamella Type Heat Exchanger:

• In this design, tubes are replaced by pairs of


thin flat parallel metal plates, which are edge
welded to provide long narrow channels, and
banks of these elements of varying width are
packed together to form a circular bundle and
fitted within a shell.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.3 The Lamella Type Heat Exchanger:

• Lamella heat exchangers can be fabricated


from carbon steel, stainless steel, titanium,
Incolly, and Hastelloy.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.4 Extended Surface Exchangers:

• In a heat exchanger with gases or some liquids, if the


heat-transfer coefficient is quite low, a large heat-
transfer surface area is required to increase the heat-
transfer rate.

Extended surface
heat exchanger
(a) Tube-fin ;
(b) plate-fin
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.4 Extended Surface Exchangers:

• This requirement is served by fins attached to


the primary surface. Tube-fin and plate-fin
geometries are the most common examples for
extended surface heat exchanger.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.5 Regenerative Heat Exchangers:

• Regeneration is an old technology dating back


to the first open hearths and blast furnace
stoves.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.5 Regenerative Heat Exchangers:

• Manufacturing and process industries such as


glass, cement, and primary and secondary
metals account for a significant fraction of all
energy consumed.

• Much of this energy is discarded in the form of


high-temperature exhaust gas.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.1Classification According to Construction
1.1.1.5 Regenerative Heat Exchangers:

• Recovery of waste heat from the exhaust gas


by means of heat exchangers known as
regenerators can improve the overall plant
efficiency.
Comparison between PHE & STHE

Traditional PHE Shell &tube heat


exchanger

Temperature approach 1 C 5 C
Piping connections From one From several
direction directions
( on frame plate)
Hold up volume Low High
Welds None Welded
Gaskets On every plate On each bonnet
Detection of leakage Easy to detect on Difficult to detect
exterior
Comparison between PHE & STHE
Traditional PHE Shell &tube heat
exchanger

Access for inspection On each side of Limited


plate
Time required for opening 15 minutes ( with 60 –90 minutes
pneumatic
tightener)
Repair Easy to replace Require tube
plate and /or plugging =
gasket decreased capacity
Modification Easy by adding or Impossible
removing plates
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.2 Classification According to Flow Arrangement:

The basic flow


arrangements of the fluids
in a heat exchanger are

1. Parallel flow

2. Counter flow

3. Cross flow
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.2 Classification According to Flow Arrangement:
The choice of a particular
flow arrangement is
dependent upon the required
exchanger effectiveness,
fluid flow paths, packaging
envelope, allowable thermal
stresses, temperature levels,
and other design criteria.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.2 Classification According to Flow Arrangement:
1.1.2.1Parallel Flow Exchanger:
• This flow pattern produces a more uniform
longitudinal tube wall temperature distribution
and not as high or as low a tube wall temperature
as in a counter-flow.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.2 Classification According to Flow Arrangement:
1.1.2.1Parallel Flow Exchanger:
• It is preferred when there is a possibility that
the temperature of the warmer fluid may reach
its freezing point.
Specific Heat
• The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit
mass required to raise thetemperature by one
degree Celsius.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.2 Classification According to Flow Arrangement:
1.1.2.1Parallel Flow Exchanger:
• It provides early initiation of nucleate boiling
for boiling applications.
• The application allows piping only suited to
parallel flow.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.2 Classification According to Flow Arrangement:
1.1.2.2 Counter Flow Exchanger:
• In this type, , the two fluids flow parallel to
each other but in opposite directions, and its
temperature distribution may be idealized as
one-dimensional.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.2 Classification According to Flow Arrangement:
1.1.2.2 Counter Flow Exchanger:
• Ideally, this is the most efficient of all flow
arrangements for single-pass arrangements
under the same parameters.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.2 Classification According to Flow Arrangement:
1.1.2.2 Counter Flow Exchanger:

• It produces minimum
thermal stresses in the
wall for equivalent
performance compared to
other flow arrangements.
• In certain type of heat
exchangers, counter-flow
arrangement cannot be
achieved easily.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.2 Classification According to Flow Arrangement:
1.1.2.3 Cross-Flow Exchanger:
In this type, the two
fluids flow normal to
each other. Important
types of flow arrangement
combinations for a single-
pass cross flow exchanger
include:
1. Both fluids unmixed
2. One fluid unmixed and
the other fluid mixed
3. Both fluids mixed
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.2 Classification According to Flow Arrangement:
1.1.2.3 Cross-Flow Exchanger:
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.3 Classification According to Pass Arrangements:

• These are either single


pass or multi-pass. A
fluid is considered to
have made one pass if it
flows through a section
of the heat exchanger
through its full length
once.

(a) 1–2 TEMA heat exchanger


(one shell pass and two tube passes);
(b) corresponding temperature distributions.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.3 Classification According to Pass Arrangements:

• In a multi-pass
arrangement, a
fluid is reversed
and flows through
the flow length two
or more times.

(a) 1–2 TEMA heat exchanger


(one shell pass and two tube passes);
(b) corresponding temperature distributions.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
1.1.3 Classification According to Pass Arrangements:

Exchangers:
(a)series coupling or
over-and-under pass
arrangement;
(b)parallel coupling or
side-by-side pass
arrangement;
(c)compound coupling.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
Classification According to Heat Transfer Mechanism:

(1)single-phase convection, forced or free,


(2)two-phase convection (condensation or
evaporation) by forced or free convection, and
(3)combined convection and radiation. Any of
these mechanisms individually or in
combination could be active on each side of
the exchanger.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
Classification According to Heat Transfer Mechanism:

Based on the phase change mechanisms, the heat


exchangers are classified as
( 1 ) condensers and
(2) evaporators.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
Classification According to Heat Transfer Mechanism:

Condensers
 Condensers may be liquid (water) or gas (air) cooled.
The heat from condensing streams may be used for
heating fluid.

 Normally the condensing fluid is routed:


1. outside the tubes (water-cooled steam condenser)
2. inside the tubes (air-cooled condensers of
refrigerators and air conditioners).
 Fins are normally provided to enhance heat transfer on
the gas side.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
Classification According to Heat Transfer Mechanism:

Evaporators
• This important group of tubular heat exchangers can be
subdivided into two classes: fired systems and unfired
systems.
• Fired Systems:
• These involve the products of combustion of fossil
fuels at very high temperatures but at ambient
pressure (and hence low density) and generate steam
under pressure. Fired systems are called boilers.
• A system may be a fire tube boiler (for small low-
pressure applications) or a water tube boiler.
1.1 General classifications of heat exchangers
Classification According to Heat Transfer Mechanism:

Evaporators (Cont.)
Unfired Systems:
 These embrace a great variety of steam generators
extending over a broad temperature range from high-
temperature nuclear steam generators to very-low-
temperature cryogenic gasifiers for liquid natural gas
evaporation.
 Many chemical and food processing applications
involve the use of steam to evaporate solvents,
concentrate solutions, or dehydrate compounds.
Classification According to Heat Transfer
Mechanism
Nitrogen Vaporizer
1.2 Codes & Standard
Design codes and standards
(TEMA & ASME)
The Objectives Of Codes And Standards

• Fixing dimensional values


• Achieve minimum requirements for safe
construction (to provide public protection )
• Reduce the probability of disastrous failure to
the extremely low level necessary to protect life
and property by suitable minimum
requirements and safety factors.
• Suitable precautions
Design Standards
ASME Pressure Vessel Code :
• All heat exchangers are typically built in
accordance with a pressure vessel code
(American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,
Section VIII, Division 1 or 2).
Design Standards
ASME Pressure Vessel Code (cont.) :
• This compliance with the ASME Code ensures
that the equipment is designed, fabricated,
inspected, and tested in accordance with a
widely accepted industry standard.
• Heat exchangers can therefore be considered as
special purpose pressure vessels.
Design Standards
ASME Pressure Vessel Code (Cont.):
• However, the design rules that are contained in
the ASME Code are not sufficiently specific for
the many types of heat exchangers that are in
use.
Design Standards
ASME Pressure Vessel Code (Cont.):
• Therefore, a number of industry, manufacturer,
and Company standards have been developed to
clarify the design requirements for specific
applications and environments (TEMA).
Design Standards
TEMA Standard:
• The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers
Association, Inc. (TEMA) is trade association of
leading manufacturers of shell and tube heat
exchangers, who have pioneered the research
and development of heat exchangers for over
sixty years.
Design Standards
TEMA Standard:
• The TEMA Standards have achieved worldwide
acceptance as the authority on shell and tube
heat exchanger mechanical design.
Design Standards

API Standard 660:


• In addition to the ASME Code and the TEMA
standard, the American Petroleum Institute
(API) has published a standard that is entitled
API Standard 660, Shell and- Tube Heat
Exchangers for General Refinery Service.
1.3 Shell & Tube HE

STANDARD OF THE TUBULAR


EXCHANGER MANUFACTURERS
ASSOCIATION
1.3.1 TEMA Classifications

• Most process services in refineries require


heavy-duty heat exchangers in order to
achieve high reliability.
1.3.1 TEMA Classifications

• Some process services are less severe and


do not require such robust designs;
therefore, the TEMA Standard specifies
requirements for three different heat
exchanger classifications, designated as
Classes R, C, and B.
1.3.1 TEMA Classifications

• These classifications cover a broad range


of industrial services.
1.3.1 TEMA Classifications

• TEMA Class R - TEMA Class R


specifies design and fabrication
requirements for shell-and tube
heat exchangers that are in the
severe service environments of
petroleum refineries and related
industries. Class R is generally
selected by designers for
applications where durability and
safety are the primary concerns.
1.3.1TEMA Classifications
• TEMA Class C –

• TEMA Class C specifies design and


fabrication requirements for shell-
and tube heat exchangers that are in
the generally moderate service
environments of commercial and
general process industries.
1.3.1 TEMA Classifications

• TEMA Class C – (cont.)


• Equipment that is fabricated in
accordance with the Class C
requirements are designed for
maximum economy and overall
compactness, and are, therefore,
consistent with moderate safety and
service requirements.
1.3.1 TEMA Classifications
• TEMA Class B - TEMA Class B
specifies design and fabrication
requirements for shell-and tube heat
exchangers that are in the chemical
process industry.
• Class B is similar to Class R with
respect to design requirements,
but Class B is closer to Class C
than to Class R with respect to
minimum thickness and
corrosion allowance.
1.3.1 TEMA Classifications
1.3.1 TEMA Classifications

*Schedule 5S is permissible for 6 inch (152 mm)


and 8 inch (203 mm) shell diameters.
1.3.1 TEMA Classifications

*Schedule 5S is permissible for 6 inch (152 mm)


and 8 inch (203 mm) shell diameters.
1.3.2 TEMA Designations

• TEMA designations for


shell-and-tube heat
exchangers are used in the
petroleum refining and
chemical processing
industries to identify
exchanger sizes and types.
1.3.2 TEMA Designations

• The TEMA designation


is usually made up of a
two-part size designator
and a three-letter type
designator.
1.3.2 TEMA Designations

• The TEMA size designator consists of two


numbers that are separated by a hyphen (-). The
first number indicates the nominal shell diameter
in inches, rounded to the nearest integer. The
second number indicates the nominal tube length
in inches. The three letters ('AES' in the
example) indicate that the heat exchanger has a
front-end type A, a shell type E, and a rear end
type S.
1.3.2 TEMA Designations
1.3.2 TEMA Type Designations

1.3.2.1 TEMA Type Designations


• The first letter of the three-letter
TEMA-type designation describes
the heat exchanger front-end or
stationary head type. The first letter
is selected from the five types that
are illustrated in the first column of
the attached Figure.
1.3.2 TEMA Type Designations
1.3.2.1 TEMA Type Designations

• The second letter of the three letter


TEMA-type designator describes the
heat exchanger shell, and it is
selected from the seven types that are
shown in the middle column of the
Figure.
1.3.2 TEMA Type Designations
1.3.2.1 TEMA Type Designations
• The second letter (cont.)
• This letter may be omitted in a
specification or proposal if a shell is
not included in the equipment that is
to be purchased (for example, if the
specification or a proposal is to be
used for the purchase of a replacement
tube bundle with tube sheet [s], only).
1.3.2 TEMA Type Designations
1.3.2.1 TEMA Type Designations
• The third letter of the three letter
TEMA-type designator describes the
heat exchanger rear-end or floating-
head type, and it is selected from the
eight types that are shown in the
right-hand column of the Figure.
TEMA Type
Designations
Illustration Example

Rear Head
Front Head Shell
1.3.2.2 Considerations for Selecting Exchanger
Component Options – Stationary Head
1.3.2.3Types of Front Headers

Channel

Bonnet

High pressure head


Channel Channel
(A,C,N)
It can easily be
integrated with
the shell or
bolted to.
It has a cover that
permits access
to the tubes
without
disturbing the
piping
connections
Bonnet
Bonnet (B)
– It is bolted to shell but
has no separate cover.
Hence it has to be
removed to have access
to the tube. This disturb
the piping connections
– It is cheaper than a
removable channel with
cover.
High Pressure Header

High pressure header (D).


– It is specially made for very high pressure. The
channel barrel and the tube sheet are generally
forged
1.4Introduction to Heat Transfer
1.4Introduction to Heat Transfer
• Heat transfer is the flow of thermal energy
driven by thermal non-equilibrium (i.e. the
effect of a non-uniform temperature field),
commonly measured as a heat flux (vector),
i.e. the heat flow per unit time (and usually
unit normal area) at a control surface.
1.4Introduction to Heat Transfer
• Heat transfer and the different laws
governing heat transmission are very
important in the design and operation of
equipment like steam generators,
furnaces, pre-heaters, heat exchangers,
coolers, evaporators and condensers in
different industries.
1.4Introduction to Heat Transfer
• The primary objectives of any heat transfer
operation are:
Obtain the maximum heat transfer rate per
unit surface compatible with economic
factors.
Recovery of heat as in heat exchangers and
regenerators.
Minimizing heat losses by use of insulation.
1.4.1Factors Affecting Heat Transfer

• Type of Fluid

• Flow rate of Fluid

• Turbulence of Flow

• Temperature Difference

• Corrosion & Contaminates


1.4.2 Heat Transfer Modes

Conduction

Convection

Radiation
1.4.2.1 Conduction
• Conduction is heat transfer by
means of molecular agitation
within a material without any
motion of the material as a
whole.
1.4.2.1 Conduction
• If one end of a metal rod is at a
higher temperature, then energy will
be transferred down the rod toward
the colder end because the higher
speed particles will collide with the
slower ones with a net transfer of
energy to the slower ones.
1.4.2.1 Conduction

• The simplest conduction


heat transfer can be
described as “one
dimensional heat flow“.
1.4.2.1 Conduction

• In this situation, the heat


flows into one face of the
object and out the
opposite face with no
heat loss (flow) out the
sides of the object.
1.4.2.1 Conduction

• The surfaces 1 and 2 are


held at constant
temperature.
1.4.2.1.1 Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction

• Clearly, “in one dimensional heat flow,“ the


temperature of an object is a function of only one
variable, namely the distance from either face of
the object (face 1 or 2).
Conduction

where,
• A – cross-sectional area of
the object
• L – wall thickness
• ΔT12 – temperature
difference between two
surfaces (ΔT12 = T1 – T2)
• k – thermal conductivity of
object’s material (W/mK)
Conduction
• The heat transfer rate can be considered as a
flow, and the combination of thermal
conductivity, thickness of material and area as
a resistance to this flow.
• Considering the temperature as a potential or
driving function of the heat flow, the Fourier
law can be written as:
Conduction

• From the above equations it can be observed


that decreasing the thickness or increasing the
cross-sectional area or thermal conductivity of
an object will decrease its thermal resistance
and increase its heat transfer rate..
Thermal
Conductivity of
Various
Materials
Conduction
• If more than one material is present, as in a
multi-layered wall, the heat flow equation
becomes:
1.4.2.1.2 Conduction Electrical Analogy
• This is analogous to Ohm’s
Law in Electric circuit
theory.
• The heat conduction can
then be represented as an
electric analogy:

 where RA , RB , and RC represents the three


resistances in series.
1.4.2.1.3 Conduction
Radial Systems (Cylinders)
• When heat is flowing through
the sides of a cylindrical body
of circular cross section (e.g.
a pipe) the direction of heat
flow is at all points radial and
perpendicular to the axis; the
cross section of the path of Inner Radius = ri
Outer Radius = ro
heat transfer is proportional Length = L
to the distance from the Inner wall temperature = Ti
center of the cylinder. Outer wall temperature = To
1.4.2.1.3 Conduction
Radial Systems (Cylinders)
• Fourier’s Law for heat
conduction for radial systems
can be written as:
qr = -k Ar dT/dr
• The area for heat flow in the
radial path is given as: Ar = 2πrL
Inner Radius = ri
qr = -2πrLk dT/dr Outer Radius = ro
Length = L
• By integration : Inner wall temperature = Ti
Outer wall temperature = To
1.4.2.1.4 Conduction
Radial Systems – Multi Layers
Conduction
Example (1)
A composite three-layered wall
is formed of a 0.5 cm thick
aluminum plate, a 0.25 thick
layer of sheet asbestos, and a 2.0
cm thick layer of rock wool; the
asbestos is the central layer. The
outer aluminum surface is at
500oC and the outer rock wool
surface is at 50oC.
Determine the heat flow per unit
area.

The thermal conductivities of the three materials are: kal = 268.08


W/(m oK) ; kasb = 0.166 W/(m oK); krw = 0.0548 W/(m oK)
Conduction
Example (1) - Solution
• The heat flow per unit area can be written as:
T1 - T4
q/A = -----------------------------------------
(Δx1/k1 + Δx2/k2 + Δx3/k3 )

(500 - 50) oC
q/A = -----------------------------------------------------------
(0.5x 10-2)m 25x 10-2)m (2.0 x 10-2)m
---------------------- + --------------------- + ----------------------
268.08 W/(m oK) 0.1660 W/(m oK) 0.0548 W/(m oK)

= 1184.08 W/m2 (answer)


Conduction
Example (2)
A 8 cm outer diameter (o.d.) steel pipe is covered with
a 5 cm layer of asbestos, that is covered in turn with a
5.0 cm layer of glass wool. Determine:

A. the steady state heat transfer rate per linear meter of pipe,
and
B. the interfacial temperature between the asbestos and the
glass wool if the pipe outer surface temperature is 250 0C
and the glass wool outer temperature is 40 0C. Given:
kasb = 0.2 W/(m oK) and kgw = 0.055 W/(m oK)
Conduction
Example (2) - Solution
Since this is an example of a radial system, the equation heat
flux can be written as:
2πL (T1 – T3)
q = ---------------------------------------------
ln(r2/r1)/kAsb + ln(r3/r2)/kgw
The heat transfer rate per linear foot is q/A. Thus the above
equation can be written as:
2π (250 – 40)
q/L = ----------------------------------------------------------
ln(5.5/4.0)/0.2 + ln(10.5/5.5)/0.055
1319
= ------------------------ = 98.84 W/m (answer, a)
1.592 + 11.757
Conduction
Example (2) - Solution
Since the heat transfer rate per linear foot (98.84 W/m)
is known, the equation can be written for a single layer
(the glass wool layer):

T2 = 225 0C (answer, b)
Note: we could also have chosen the asbestos layer to
find T2 since q/L is the same
1.4.2.2 Convection
• The convection heat
transfer mode is
comprised of two
mechanisms:
 random molecular
motion (diffusion),
 and energy transferred
by bulk or macroscopic
motion of the fluid.
1.4.2.2 Convection
• The fluid adjacent to the body forms a thin
slowed down region called the boundary layer.
• The velocity of the fluid at the surface of the
body is reduced to zero due to the viscous
action.
• Therefore, at this point, the heat is transferred
only by conduction.
1.4.2.2 Convection
• The moving fluid then carries the heat away.
• The temperature gradient at the surface of the
body depends on the rate at which the fluid
carries the heat away.
1.4.2.2.1 Convection - Newton’s Law

• Newton’s law of cooling expresses the overall effect


of convection:
Q = h A (Tw - T∞ )
where,
• A – surface area
• Tw – wall (surface) temperature
• T∞ - fluid temperature
• h- convection heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)
1.4.2.2.1 Convection - Newton’s Law

• As in the case of conduction, thermal resistance is also


associated with the convection heat transfer and can
be expressed as:
Rconv = (Tw - T∞ ) /Q
=1/hA

• The convection heat transfer may be classified


according to the nature of fluid flow. Forced
convection occurs when the flow is caused by external
means, such as a fan, a pump and similar.
Convection Heat Transfer Process

a) Forced Convection b) Natural Convection


Convection Heat Transfer
Coefficients
1.4.2.3 Radiation

• All bodies emit energy by


means of electromagnetic
radiation.

• The electromagnetic radiation


propagated as a result of a
The Sun at 5800K gives off
temperature difference is radiation at a rate proportional
to the 4th power of the
called thermal radiation. temperature.
1.4.2.3.1 Stefan-Boltzmann Law
of Thermal Radiation
• A black body (called an ideal radiator) emits energy at a
rate proportional to the fourth power of the absolute
temperature of the body.
• When two bodies exchange heat by radiation, the net heat
exchange is then proportional to the difference in T4

q = σ (T1 4- T2 4)

• The symbol σ is called the Stefan Boltzmann constant and


has a value of 5.669 x 10-8 w/(m2 K4).
1.4.2.3.2 Stefan-Boltzmann Law of Thermal
Radiation – View Factor
In addition, it must be taken into account that not all
radiation leaving one surface will reach the other
surface. Therefore, for two bodies at temperatures T1
and T2, the radiation heat exchange can be expressed
as:

where,
Fε - emissivity function
FG – geometric “view factor“ function
1.4.2.3.2 Stefan-Boltzmann Law of Thermal
Radiation – View Factor
1.4.2.3.2 Stefan-Boltzmann Law of Thermal
Radiation – View Factor
1.4.2.3.2 Stefan-Boltzmann Law of Thermal
Radiation – View Factor
1.4.2.3.3 Stefan-Boltzmann Law
of Thermal Radiation – Emissivity

• The emissivity of a surface represents the


ratio of the radiation emitted by the surface
at a given temperature to the radiation emitted
by a blackbody at the same temperature.
1.4.2.3.3 Stefan-Boltzmann Law
of Thermal Radiation – Emissivity

• The emissivity of a surface is denoted by ε, and


it varies between zero and one, 0 <= ε <= 1.

• Emissivity is a measure of how closely a


surface approximates a blackbody, for which
ε=1.
1.4.2.3.3 Stefan-Boltzmann Law
of Thermal Radiation – Emissivity

Absorptivity, Reflectivity, and Transmissivity

The absorption,
reflection, and
transmission of
incident radiation by
a semitransparent
material
1.4.3 OVERALL HEAT
TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
1.4.3 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
• In industrial processes, heat transfer usually takes
place by a combination of conduction and convection
mechanisms.

• Where
– (ΔT(overall is the overall temperature difference
– A is the area through which heat flows, and
– U is the overall heat transfer coefficient
• The units of U are the same as the units of (h) i.e
W/(m2 0C)
1.4.3.1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Plan Wall
Plane wall, made up of a
homogeneous material with
a thermal conductivity k.
One side of the wall is
exposed to a fluid A at
temperature TA, and the other
side to fluid B at temperature
TB (TA > TB). The thickness
of the wall is Δx. The wall
temperatures on the two
sides of the wall are T1 and
T2 (T1 > T2).
1.4.3.1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Plan Wall
If we apply Newton’s law of cooling at the two
surfaces gives the heat transferred per unit area:
q/A = hA (TA - T1) = hB (T2 - TB)
The equality holds because the heat transferred
from one side of the wall is equal to the heat
transferred to the other side.
Rearranging the equation,
1.4.3.1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Plan Wall
The terms 1/(hA A) and 1/(hB A) are thermal
resistances due to the convective boundary layer
at the two surfaces of the wall. The conductive
resistance being Δx/kA from the conductive heat
transfer equation.
1.4.3.1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Plan Wall
The heat transfer rate through each layer of
resistance of a plane wall is:

The conductive heat flow is exactly equal to


convective heat flow on either side of the plane
wall.
1.4.3.1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Plan Wall
Thus the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) for a
plane wall becomes:

having units of W/ m2 * 0K
1.4.3.2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Radial System
The cylindrical system (e.g.
pipe) : Ti and To are the
temperature of the fluids
flowing on the inner and
outer sides of the system and
ri and ro are the inner and
outer radii; T1 and T2 are the
surface temperatures.
1.4.3.2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Radial System

Ri = inner convective thermal resistance = 1/(hiAi) = 1/ (2π riL hi)


Ra = conductive thermal resistance = ln (r2/r1) / 2πka L
Ro = outer convective thermal resistance = 1/(hoAo) = 1/ (2πroL ho)
L = the length of the cylindrical system (pipe)
1.4.3.2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Radial System

The overall heat transfer coefficient for a cylindrical


system is based on either the inner surface area (Ai) or the
outer surface area (Ao) of the cylinder (or pipe).
1.4.3.2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Radial System

Uo and Ui are the overall heat transfer coefficients


based on the outer and inner surface areas
respectively.
1.4.3 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Examples
• Example (1): rectangular steel tank is filled with a
liquid at 700C and exposed along the outside to air at
200C. The inner and outer heat transfer coefficients
are hi = 23 W/(m2 K) and ho = 8 W/(m2 K). The tank
wall is 1 cm thick mild steel with thermal
conductivity k = 45 W/(m*K) and this is covered with
a 3 cm layer of glass wool insulation ( k = 0.04
W/m.K).
Determine: (a) the overall heat transfer coefficient
and (b) the heat transfer rate per square meter area.
1.4.3 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Examples
• Solution: the overall heat transfer coefficient
for plane surfaces with two conductive layers:
1.4.3 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Examples
• Solution: (Cont.):
Note that the thermal resistance of the steel
wall is negligible and that of the glass wool is
predominant)
The heat transfer rate per square meter:

Q/A = U * ΔT = (1.08( (70 - 20)


= 54 W/ m2 (answer b)
1.4.3 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Examples
• Example (2): Water at 980C flows through a 2 inch
schedule 40 horizontal steel pipe (k = 54 W/(m 0C)
and is exposed to atmospheric air at 20 0C.
Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for
this situation, based on the outer area of the pipe.
The inner and outer convective heat transfer
coefficients are: hi = 1961 W/(m2 0C) and ho =
7.91 W/(m2 0C). Given: the I.D. and O.D. of the
pipe are 0.0525 m and 0.06033 m respectively.
1.4.3 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Examples
• Solution:
1.5 Vibration
1.5 Vibration
• Vibration of tubes in heat exchangers is an
important limiting factor in heat exchanger
operation.

• The vibration is caused by nonstationary fluid


dynamic processes occurring in the flow.
1.5 Vibration
• These are turbulent pressure pulsations, vortex
initiation and separation from tubes in
crossflow , hydroelastic interaction of heat
transmitting element (tubes) assemblies with
the flow, and acoustic phenomena.
1.5 Vibration
• The greatest effect of nonstationary
hydrodynamic forces is observed in tubes in
flows with separation.

• Flow separation from tube surfaces occurs


where there is a transverse velocity component
of the flow and mainly affects the vibration
strength of the tubes in heat exchangers.
1.5 Vibration
• The dynamic effect of the flow on a vibrating
tube depends on the flow velocity and the
vibration characteristics of the tube.

• Vortex excitation of tubes depends on periodic


hydrodynamic forces originating in vortex
formation and separation from tubes.
1.5 Vibration
• The tube is subjected to the periodic
hydrodynamic forces which are capable of
rocking an elastically mounted tube.

• Vortices are separated in turn, from one side,


then the other side of the tube.
1.5 Vibration
• Therefore, the transverse hydrodynamic force
continuously changes direction and is a source
of energy for excitation of tube vibrations.
1.5 Vibration
• The hydrodynamic force brought about by
separation of vortices varies sinusoidally. It is
obvious from that, in the longitudinal
direction, its frequency is twice as high as in
the transverse one.
1.5 Vibration
• This means that the component of the
nonstationary hydrodynamic force acting
across the flow varies both in magnitude and
direction.

• At the same time, the component of this force


along the flow changes only in magnitude,
while its direction remains the same.
1.5 Vibration
• Nonstationary hydrodynamic forces, arising
due to vortex separation, can excite high-
amplitude vibrations of tubes if the natural
frequencies of their vibrations coincide with
the frequency of vortex separation or are twice
as high.
1.5 Vibration

Vortex shedding in a tube bank


1.5 Vibration
• The number of flow-induced vibration
problems in shell-and-tube heat exchangers
has grown dramatically in recent years.

• These include tubes and tube joints that leak,


increased shell side pressure drop, and
intolerably loud noise.
1.5 Vibration
• The result is that exchangers must be taken out
of service for repair and modification.

• This report presents an overview of the


problems, the methods for predicting their
occurrence, comparisons of predictions with
field experience, and some procedures for
preventing them.
1.5 Vibration
• For bundles with the narrower pitch ratio, there
was a sharp rise in vibration amplitude with a
modest increase in flow, characteristic of
"classic" fluidelastic instability vibration.
1.5 Vibration
• The vibration always started in tubes with the
lowest natural frequency and in the same
region of these bundles with the baffles of the
same cut orientation.
1.5 Vibration
• In contrast, for bundles with the wider pitch
ratio, the start of vibration for water-flow tests
was more difficult to identify.

• "Classic" fluidelastic instability was not


always the type of vibration first observed.
Sometimes, vibration started in tubes with
more support and higher natural frequencies.
1.5 Vibration
• In addition, the orientation of the baffle cut
relative to the axis of the nozzles was found to
produce significant differences in the flows
when vibration started, in which tubes vibrated,
and at which mode.
1.5 Vibration
• The possibility of flow-induced vibration adds
a significant constraint to the design of shell-
and-tube heat exchangers along with the
obvious process considerations of providing
the required heat transfer within allowable
pressure drop.
1.5 Vibration
• For many designs, the shell side flow
conditions will not create a vibration problem.

• However, heat exchangers will experience


serious tube vibration and/or acoustic vibration
if the combination of flow and geometry is
such as to excite fluid/structure or standing
wave resonance.
1.6 Pressure
drop
1.6 Pressure drop
• Pressure drop is an important issue in design of
a heat exchanger network (HEN), which has
yet to be addressed properly.

• To overcome pressure losses incurred when


streams flow through heat exchangers,
pumps/compressors must be installed.
1.6 Pressure drop
• The total cost for a system of pumps and
compressors consists of the purchase cost of
equipment and the electricity cost to run these
equipment.

• This cost could occupy a significant part of the


overall cost for a HEN design.
1.6 Pressure drop

• Therefore, the pressure drop aspect


should be considered together with the
costs for heat exchanger area and utility
consumption.
1.6 Pressure drop
• A new approach is proposed to consider the
pressure drop aspect in the overall context of a
HEN design.

• Firstly, the optimal ΔTmin is determined


through three-way trade-offs between area,
utility and pressure drop at the targeting
stage.
1.6 Pressure drop
• As a result of targeting, targets for area, utility
and pressure drops can be established ahead of
the network design.
1.6 Pressure drop
• Then a network structure is initialized at the
determined ΔTmin and optimized to achieve a
final design.

• In this procedure, the pressure drop is


considered at both the targeting stage and the
design stage in a systematic manner.
1.6 Pressure drop
• The design of the heat exchanger, as well as
the maintenance, is important so the internal
pressure does not drop substantially, causing
the device to fail.
1.6 Pressure drop
Design prevention

1. Reduce the amount of tube passes during the


design phase. Instead of designing a heat exchanger
with 20 attached lengths, reduce the quantity to 10
lengths. The exchanger's liquid can retain a steady
pressure with less volatile movement between
lengths to prevent a substantial pressure drop.
1.6 Pressure drop
Design prevention

2. Increase the tubes' lengths. A straight tube has


fewer disturbances during liquid movement to
hamper any pressure differences. This design
also makes it easier to clean manually, if
necessary, since there will be fewer twists and
turns to maneuver around.
1.6 Pressure drop
Design prevention

3. Set the liquid's velocity between 3 to 8 feet


per second during the design phase of the
exchanger. This speed will prevent pressure
drop by deterring a settling of debris, or
fouling, within the tube that can impede
liquid movement.
1.6 Pressure drop
Prevention through cleaning

1. Turn the heat exchanger off at its electrical


source. Each exchanger's design is different;
refer to the owner's manual to verify the
location of the device's power source.
1.6 Pressure drop
Prevention through cleaning
2. Open the access door to the heat exchanger.
Depending on the device's design, it may be
necessary to remove screws with a
screwdriver to open the door. Consult the
owner's manual to locate the specific access
door point since each exchanger differs in
shape and design.
1.6 Pressure drop
Prevention through cleaning
3. Slide a wire brush into the heat exchanger's
tubing. Carefully scrape buildup, called
"fouling," from the internal walls with the
wire brush using the hands, allowing the
debris to fall to the tube's bottom area.
1.6 Pressure drop
Prevention through cleaning
4. Remove the wire brush from the internal
tubing. Insert the nozzle of a high pressure
water jet pump. Turn the pump on. Wash
away all the fouling that fell to the bottom of
the heat exchanger's tubing.
1.6 Pressure drop
Prevention through cleaning
5. Remove the pump from the internal tubing
and close the access door. Secure it with the
screws using a screwdriver, if applicable.

6. Turn the heat exchanger on and test its normal


functioning.
Installation, Operation
& Maintenance
1.7 Installation
of
Heat Exchangers
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.1 HEAT EXCHANGER SETTINGS
• E-2.1.1 CLEARANCE FOR DISMANTLING
• For straight tube exchangers fitted with removable
bundles, provide sufficient clearance at the
stationary head end to permit removal of the
bundle from the shell and provide adequate space
beyond the rear head to permit removal of the
shell cover and/or floating head cover.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.1 HEAT EXCHANGER SETTINGS
• E-2.1.1 CLEARANCE FOR DISMANTLING
(cont.)
• For fixed tubesheet exchangers, provide
sufficient clearance at one end to permit
withdrawal and replacement of the tubes, and
enough space beyond the head at the opposite
end to permit removal of the bonnet or channel
cover.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.1 HEAT EXCHANGER SETTINGS
• E-2.1.1 CLEARANCE FOR DISMANTLING
(cont.)
• For U-tube heat exchangers, provide sufficient
clearance at the stationary head end to permit
withdrawal of the tube bundle, or at the opposite
end to permit removal of the shell.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.1 HEAT EXCHANGER SETTINGS
• E-2.1.2 FOUNDATIONS
• Foundations must be adequate so that
exchangers will not settle and impose excessive
strains on the exchanger. Foundation bolts
should be set to allow for setting inaccuracies.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.1 HEAT EXCHANGER SETTINGS
• E-2.1.2 FOUNDATIONS (cont.)
• In concrete footings, pipe sleeves at least one
size larger than bolt diameter slipped over the
bolt and cast in place are best for this purpose, as
they allow the bolt center to be adjusted after the
foundation has set.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.1 HEAT EXCHANGER SETTINGS
• E-2.1.3 FOUNDATION BOLTS
• Foundation bolts should be loosened at one end
of the unit to allow free expansion of shells.
Slotted holes in supports are provided for this
purpose.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.1 HEAT EXCHANGER SETTINGS
• E-2.1.4 LEVELING
• Exchangers must be set level and square so that
pipe connections may be made without forcing.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.2 CLEANLINESS PROVISIONS
• E-.2.2.1 CONNECTION PROTECTORS
• All exchanger openings should be inspected for
foreign material.

• Protective plugs and covers should not be


removed until just prior to installation.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance

E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS


• E-2.2 CLEANLINESS PROVISIONS
• E-2.2.2 DIRT REMOVAL
• The entire system should be clean before starting
operation.

• Under some conditions, the use of strainers in the


piping may be required.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance

E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS


• E-2.2 CLEANLINESS PROVISIONS
• E-2.2.3 CLEANING FACILTIES
• Convenient means should be provided for
cleaning the unit as suggested under
"Maintenance of Heat Exchangers," Paragraph E-
4.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.3 FITTINGS AND PIPING
• E-2.3.1 BY-PASS VALVES
• It may be desirable for purchaser to provide
valves and by-passes in the piping system to
permit inspection and repairs.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.3 FITTINGS AND PIPING
• E-2.3.2 TEST CONNECTIONS
• When not integral with the exchanger nozzles,
thermometer well and pressure gage connections
should be installed close to the exchanger in the
inlet and outlet piping.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.3 FITTINGS AND PIPING
• E-2.3.3 VENTS
• Vent valves should be provided by purchaser so
units can be purged to prevent vapor or gas
binding. Special consideration must be given to
discharge of hazardous or toxic fluids.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.3 FITTINGS AND PIPING
• E-2.3.4 DRAINS
• Drains may discharge to atmosphere, if
permissible, or into a vessel at lower pressure.
They should not be piped to a common closed
manifold.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.3 FITTINGS AND PIPING
• E-2.3.5 PULSATION AND VIBRATION
• In all installations, care should be taken to
eliminate or minimize transmission of fluid
pulsations and mechanical vibrations to the heat
exchangers.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.3 FITTINGS AND PIPING
• E-2.3.6 SAFETY RELIEF DEVICES
• The ASME Code defines the requirements for
safety relief devices.

• When specified by the purchaser, the manufacturer


will provide the necessary connections for the
safety relief devices.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-2.INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-2.3 FITTINGS AND PIPING
• E-2.3.6 SAFETY RELIEF DEVICES
• The size and type of the required connections will
be specified by the purchaser.

• The purchaser will provide and install the required


relief devices.
1.8 Operation
of
Heat Exchangers
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.1 DESIGN AND OPERATING
CONDITIONS
• Equipment must not be operated at conditions
which exceed those specified on the name
plate(s).
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• Before placing any exchanger in operation,
reference should be made to the exchanger
drawings, specification sheet(s) and name
plate(s) for any special instructions.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES (cont.)
• Local safety and health regulations must be
considered. Improper start-up or shut-down
sequences, particularly of fixed tubesheet units,
may cause leaking of tube-to-tebesheet and/or
bolted flanged joints.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.1 START-UP OPERATION
• Most exchangers with removable tube bundles
may be placed in service by first establishing
circulation of the cold medium, followed by the
gradual introduction of the hot medium.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.1 START-UP OPERATION (cont.)
• During start-up all vent valves should be opened
and left open until all passages have been purged
of air and are completely filled with fluid.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.1 START-UP OPERATION (cont.)
• For fixed tubesheet exchangers, fluids must be
introduced in a manner to minimize differential
expansion between the shell and tubes.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.2 SHUT-DOWN OPERATION
• For exchangers with removable bundles, the
units may be shut down by first gradually
stopping the flow of the hot medium and then
stopping the flow of the cold medium.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.2 SHUT-DOWN OPERATION (cont.)
• If it is necessary to stop the flow of cold
medium, the circulation of hot medium through
the exchanger should also be stopped.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.2 SHUT-DOWN OPERATION (cont.)
• For fixed tubesheet exchangers, the unit must be
shut down in a manner to minimize differential
expansion between shell and tubes.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.2 SHUT-DOWN OPERATION (cont.)
• When shutting down the system, all units
should be drained completely when there is
the possibility of freezing or corrosion
damage.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.2 SHUT-DOWN OPERATION (cont.)
• To guard against water hammer, condensate
should be drained from steam heaters and similar
apparatus during start-up or shut-down.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.2 SHUT-DOWN OPERATION (cont.)
• To reduce water retention after drainage, the
tube side of water cooled exchangers should be
blown out with air.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.3 TEMPERATURE SHOCKS
• Exchangers normally should not be subjected to
abrupt temperature fluctuations. Hot fluid must
not be suddenly introduced when the unit is cold,
nor cold fluid suddenly introduced when the unit
is hot.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.4 BOLTED JOINTS
• Heat exchangers are pressure tested before leaving
the manufacturer's shop in accordance with ASME
Code requirements.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.4 BOLTED JOINTS (cont.)
• However, normal relaxing of the gasketed joints
may occur in the interval between testing in the
manufacturer's shop and installation at the jobsite.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.4 BOLTED JOINTS (cont.)
• Therefore, all external bolted joints may require
retightening after installation and, if necessary,
after the exchanger has reached operating
temperature.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-3.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES
• E-3.2.5 RECOMMENDED BOLT
TIGHTENING PROCEDURE
• It is important that all bolted joints be tightened
uniformly and in a diametrically staggered
pattern, as illustrated in Figure E-3.25, except for
special high pressure closures when the
instructions of the manufacturer should be
followed.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
1.9 Maintenance
and
troubleshooting
Installation, Operation & Maintenance

E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS


• E-4.1 INSPECTION OF UNIT
• At regular intervals and as frequently as
experience indicates, an examination should be
made of the interior and exterior condition of the
unit.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1 INSPECTION OF UNIT (cont.)
• Neglect in keeping all tubes clean may result in
complete stoppage of flow through some tubes
which could cause severe thermal strains, leaking
tube joints, or structural damage to other
components.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance

E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS


• E-4.1 INSPECTION OF UNIT (cont.)
• Sacrificial anodes, when provided, should be
inspected to determine whether they should be
cleaned or replaced.
Galvanic Corrosion
Galvanic corrosion, Bimetallic Corrosion or
Dissimilar Metal Corrosion, as sometimes called,
is defined as the accelerated corrosion of a metal
because of an electrical contact (including
physical contact) with a more noble metal or
nonmetallic conductor (the cathode) in a corrosive
electrolyte.
Galvanic Corrosion
Galvanic corrosion, Bimetallic Corrosion or
Dissimilar Metal Corrosion, as sometimes called,
is defined as the accelerated corrosion of a metal
because of an electrical contact (including
physical contact) with a more noble metal or
nonmetallic conductor (the cathode) in a corrosive
electrolyte.
Anodic index
Metal Index (V)
Most Cathodic
Gold, solid and plated, Gold-platinum alloy -0.00
Rhodium plated on silver-plated copper -0.05
Silver, solid or plated; monel metal. High nickel-copper alloys -0.15
Nickel, solid or plated, titanium an s alloys, Monel -0.30
Copper, solid or plated; low brasses or bronzes; silver solder;
German silvery high copper-nickel alloys; nickel-chromium -0.35
alloys
Brass and bronzes -0.40
High brasses and bronzes -0.45
18% chromium type corrosion-resistant steels -0.50
Chromium plated; tin plated; 12% chromium type corrosion-
-0.60
resistant steels
Anodic index
Metal Index (V)
Tin-plate; tin-lead solder -0.65
Lead, solid or plated; high lead alloys -0.70
2000 series wrought aluminum -0.75
Iron, wrought, gray or malleable, plain carbon and low alloy
-0.85
steels
Aluminum, wrought alloys other than 2000 series aluminum, cast
-0.90
alloys of the silicon type
Aluminum, cast alloys other than silicon type, cadmium, plated
-0.95
and chromate
Hot-dip-zinc plate; galvanized steel -1.20
Zinc, wrought; zinc-base die-casting alloys; zinc plated -1.25
Magnesium & magnesium-base alloys, cast or wrought -1.75
Beryllium -1.85
Most Anodic
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1 INSPECTION OF UNIT
• E-4.1.1 INDICATIONS OF FOULING
• Exchangers subject to fouling or scaling should be
cleaned periodically.
• A light sludge or scale coating on the tube greatly
reduces its efficiency.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance

E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS


• E-4.1 INSPECTION OF UNIT
• E-4.1.1 INDICATIONS OF FOULING (cont.)
• A marked increase in pressure drop and/or
reduction in performance usually indicates
cleaning is necessary.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance

E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS


• E-4.1 INSPECTION OF UNIT
• E-4.1.1 INDICATIONS OF FOULING (cont.)
• The unit should first be checked for air or vapor
binding to confirm that this is not the cause for the
reduction in performance.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance

E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS


• E-4.1 INSPECTION OF UNIT
• E-4.1.1 INDICATIONS OF FOULING (cont.)
• Since the difficulty of cleaning increases rapidly
as the scale thickness or deposit increases, the
intervals between cleanings should not be
excessive.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1 INSPECTION OF UNIT
• E-4.1.2 DISASSEMBLY FOR INSPECTION OR
CLEANING
• Before disassembly, the user must assure himself
that the unit has been depressurized, vented and
drained, neutralized and/or purged of hazardous
material.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1 INSPECTION OF UNIT
• E-4.1.2 DISASSEMBLY FOR INSPECTION OR
CLEANING
• To inspect the inside of the tubes and also make
them accessible for cleaning, the following
procedures should be used:
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
• (1) Stationary Head End
(a) Type A, C, D &N, remove cover only
(b) Type B, remove bonnet
• (2) Rear Head End
(a) Type L, N &P, remove cover only
(b) Type M, remove bonnet
(c) Type S &T, remove shell cover and
floating head cover
(d) Type W, remove channel cover or bonnet
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1.3 LOCATING TUBE LEAKS
• The following procedures may be used to locate
perforated or split tubes and leaking joints
between tubes and tubesheets.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1.3 LOCATING TUBE LEAKS (cont.)
• In most cases, the entire front face of each
tubesheet will be accessible for inspection.

• The point where water escapes indicates a


defective tube or tube-to-tubesheet joint.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1.3 LOCATING TUBE LEAKS (cont.)
• (1) Units with removable channel cover: Remove
channel cover and apply hydraulic pressure in the
shell.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1.3 LOCATING TUBE LEAKS (cont.)
• (2) Units with bonnet type head: For fixed
tubesheet units where tubesheets are an integral
part of the shell, remove bonnet and apply
hydraulic pressure in the shell.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1.3 LOCATING TUBE LEAKS (cont.)
• (2) (cont.)For fixed tubesheet units where
tubesheets are not an integral part of the shell and
for units with removable bundles, remove bonnet,
re-bolt tubesheet to shell or install test flange or
gland, whichever is applicable, and apply
hydraulic pressure in the shell. See Figure E-4.13-
1 for typical test flange and test gland.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1.3 LOCATING TUBE LEAKS (cont.)
• (3) Units with Type S or T floating head: Remove
channel cover or bonnet, shell cover and floating
head cover.
• Install test ring and bolt in place with gasket and
packing.
• Apply hydraulic pressure in the shell. A typical
test ring is shown in Figure E-4.13-2.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1.3 LOCATING TUBE LEAKS (cont.)
• (3) (cont.) When a test ring is not available it is
possible to locate leaks in the floating head end by
removing the shell cover and applying hydraulic
pressure in the tubes.

• Leaking tube joints may then be located by


sighting through the tube lanes.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1.3 LOCATING TUBE LEAKS (cont.)
• (3) (cont.) Care must be exercised when testing
partially assembled exchangers to prevent over
extension of expansion joints or overloading of
tubes and/or tube-to-tubesheet joints.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.1.3 LOCATING TUBE LEAKS (cont.)
• (4) Hydrostatic test should be performed so that the
temperature of the metal is over 60° F

(16 C) unless the materials of construction have a


lower nil-ductility transition temperature.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.2 TUBE BUNDLE REMOVAL AND
HANDLING
• To avoid possible damage during removal of a
tube bundle from a shell, a pulling device should
be attached to eyebolts screwed into the
tubesheet.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.2 TUBE BUNDLE REMOVAL AND
HANDLING (cont.)
• If the tubesheet does not have tapped holes for
eyebolts, steel rods or cables inserted through tubes
and attached to bearing plates may be used.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.2 TUBE BUNDLE REMOVAL AND
HANDLING (cont.)
• The bundle should be supported on the tube
baffles, supports or tubesheets to prevent damage
to the tubes.

• Gasket and packing contact surfaces should be


protected.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.3 CLEANING TUBE BUNDLES
• E-4.3.1 CLEANING METHODS
• The heat transfer surfaces of heat exchangers
should be kept reasonably clean to assure
satisfactory performance.

• Convenient means for cleaning should be made


available.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.3 CLEANING TUBE BUNDLES
• E-4.3.1 CLEANING METHODS (cont.)
• Heat exchangers may be cleaned by either
chemical or mechanical methods.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.3 CLEANING TUBE BUNDLES
• E-4.3.1 CLEANING METHODS (cont.)
• The method selected must be the choice of the
operator of the plant and will depend on the type of
deposit and the facilities available in the plant.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.3 CLEANING TUBE BUNDLES
• E-4.3.1 CLEANING METHODS (cont.)
• Following are several cleaning procedures that
may be considered:
(1) Circulating hot wash oil or light distillate through
tubes or shell at high velocity may effectively
remove sludge or similar soft deposits.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.3 CLEANING TUBE BUNDLES
• E-4.3.1 CLEANING METHODS (cont.)
• Following are several cleaning procedures that
may be considered:
(2) Some salt deposits may be washed out by
circulating hot fresh water.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.3 CLEANING TUBE BUNDLES
• E-4.3.1 CLEANING METHODS (cont.)
• Following are several cleaning procedures that
may be considered:
(3) Commercial cleaning compounds are available
for removing sludge or scale provided hot wash oil
or water is not available or does not give
satisfactory results.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.3 CLEANING TUBE BUNDLES
• E-4.3.1 CLEANING METHODS (cont.)
• Following are several cleaning procedures that
may be considered:
(4) High pressure water jet cleaning.
(5) Scrapers, rotating wire brushes, and other
mechanical means for removing hard scale, coke,
or other deposits.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.3 CLEANING TUBE BUNDLES
• E-4.3.1 CLEANING METHODS (cont.)
• Following are several cleaning procedures that
may be considered:
(6) Employ services of a qualified organization that provides
cleaning services. These organizations will check the
nature of the deposits to be removed, furnish proper
solvents and/or acid solutions containing inhibitors, and
provide equipment and personnel for a complete cleaning
job.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.3 CLEANING TUBE BUNDLES
• E-4.3.2 CLEANING PRECAUTIONS
(1) Tubes should not be cleaned by blowing steam
through individual tubes since this heats the
tube and may result in severe expansion strain,
deformation of the tube, or loosening of the
tube-to-tubesheet joint.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.3 CLEANING TUBE BUNDLES
• E-4.3.2 CLEANING PRECAUTIONS
(2) When mechanically cleaning a tube bundle,
care should be exercised to avoid damaging the
tubes.
(3) Cleaning compounds must be compatible with
the metallurgy of the exchanger.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance

E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS


• E-4.4 TUBE EXPANDING
• A suitable tube expander should be used to tighten
a leaking tube joint. Care should be taken to ensure
that tubes are not over expanded.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.5 GASKET REPLACEMENT
• Gaskets and gasket surfaces should be thoroughly
cleaned and should be free of scratches and other
defects.

• Gaskets should be properly positioned before


attempting to retighten bolts.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.5 GASKET REPLACEMENT (cont.)
• It is recommended that when a heat exchanger is
dismantled for any cause, it be reassembled with
new gaskets.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.5 GASKET REPLACEMENT (cont.)
• This will tend to prevent future leaks and/or
damage to the gasket seating surfaces of the heat
exchanger.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.5 GASKET REPLACEMENT (cont.)
• Composition gaskets become dried out and brittle
so that they do not always provide an effective seal
when reused.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.5 GASKET REPLACEMENT (cont.)
• Metal or metal jacketed gaskets, when compressed
initially, flow to match their contact surfaces.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance

E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS


• E-4.5 GASKET REPLACEMENT (cont.)
• In so doing they are work hardened and, if reused,
may provide an imperfect seal or result in
deformation and damage to the gasket contact
surfaces of the exchanger.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.5 GASKET REPLACEMENT (cont.)
• Bolted joints and flanges are designed for use with
the particular type of gasket specified.

• Substitution of a gasket of different construction or


improper dimensions may result in leakage and
damage to gasket surfaces.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.5 GASKET REPLACEMENT (cont.)
• Therefore, any gasket substitutions should be of
compatible design.

• Any leakage at a gasketed joint should be rectified


and not permitted to persist as it may result in
damage to the gasket surfaces.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.5 GASKET REPLACEMENT (cont.)
• Metal jacketed type gaskets are widely used. When
these are used with a tongue and groove joint
without a nubbin, the gasket should be installed so
that the tongue bears on the seamless side of the
gasket jacket.
Installation, Operation & Maintenance
E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
• E-4.5 GASKET REPLACEMENT (cont.)
• When a nubbin is used, the nubbin should bear on
the seamless side.
Plugging of Tubes
• In U-tube heat exchangers, and other
exchangers of special design, it may not be
feasible to remove and replace defective tubes.
• Defective tubes maybe plugged using
commercially available tapered plugs with
ferrules or tapered only plugs which may not
be seal welded.
Plugging of Tubes
• Taper Plugs

Taper plugs have an included angle of 5-1/2 degrees or less.


Plugging of Tubes
• Power Fect Removable Plug

The Power fect plug is used to plug leaking tubes in


Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers. It is fully
removable and reusable.
Plugging of Tubes
• TWO-PIECE PLUGS

Designed to minimize damage


to the tube sheet while sealing
off leaky Condenser and
Exchanger tubes
Plugging of Tubes

•Excessive tube plugging may result in reduced


thermal performance, higher pressure drop, and/or
mechanical damage.
•It is the user's responsibility to remove plugs and
neutralize the bundle prior to sending it to a shop
for repairs.
1.10 Inspection and cleaning
of Heat Exchanger
Reasons for Inspection
1- GENERAL
• The basic reasons for inspection are to
determine the physical condition of the heat
exchanger and to determine the type, rate, and
causes of deterioration.
• This information should be carefully
documented after each inspection.
Reasons for Inspection
1- GENERAL (cont.)
• With such data, safety can be maintained, the
period of operation without a shutdown can be
extended, the rate of deterioration can
sometimes be reduced, and future repair and
replacement requirements can be estimated.
Reasons for Inspection
2 - SAFETY
• Periodic scheduled inspections can reveal
conditions that might result in an emergency or
unscheduled shutdown, a leak or even a heat
exchanger failure if not corrected.
Reasons for Inspection
3 - CONTINUITY
• Periodic inspection can lead to a well-planned
maintenance program.

• Corrosion rates and remaining corrosion


allowances determined by inspection are the
normal bases for predicting replacement or
repair needs.
Reasons for Inspection
3 – CONTINUITY (cont.)
• These predictions provide for planned
maintenance and continuity of operation and
help to ensure a safe, reliable plant.
Reasons for Inspection
4 - RELIABILITY
• External inspections performed while the
equipment is in operation using acoustic,
ultrasonic, or radiographic instruments or other
nondestructive techniques may reveal important
information without requiring entry inside of the
equipment.
Reasons for Inspection
4 – RELIABILITY (cont.)
• Defects such as leaks, cracks, improper
installation of parts, plugged lines, undue
vibration, unusual noises, and other evidence
of malfunctioning may be found.
Reasons for Inspection
4 – RELIABILITY (cont.)
• If these symptoms are properly analyzed and
corrective steps are taken, the overall
reliability of operations will improve.
Severe Graphitic Corrosion of Floating-Head Cover
Tube Sheet Fouled
Internal Shell Corrosion
Grooving of Tube in Area Adjoining Tube Sheet
Inspection Methods and Limitations
GENERAL
• Before starting the inspection of a pressure
heat exchanger, especially one in severe
service, the inspector should determine the
pressure, temperature, and service conditions
under which the heat exchanger has been
operated since the last inspection.
Inspection Methods and Limitations
GENERAL (cont.)
• The inspector should also be aware of
equipment construction details including
materials of construction, the presence of
internal attachments, and weld details.
Inspection Methods and Limitations
GENERAL (cont.)
• He should also confer with operations to
determine whether there have been any
abnormal operating conditions or disturbances
such as excessive pressures or temperatures.
Inspection Methods and Limitations
GENERAL (cont.)
• This data may offer valuable clues to the type
and location of corrosion and to other forms of
deterioration that may have occurred such as
scaling, bulging, and warping.
Inspection Methods and Limitations
GENERAL (cont.)
• The inspector should develop and exercise
sound judgment on the extent and kinds of
inspection required for each heat exchanger.
Inspection Methods and Limitations
GENERAL (cont.)
• Careful visual inspection of every heat exchanger
is of paramount importance to determine other
forms of inspection that may need to be made.

• Appropriate surface preparation is essential to all


inspection methods.
Inspection Methods and Limitations
GENERAL (cont.)
• The extent to which special surface preparation
may be required depends on the particular
circumstances involved.
Inspection Methods and Limitations
GENERAL (cont.)
• Wire brushing, sandblasting, high-pressure
water blasting, chipping, grinding, or a
combination of these operations may be
required in addition to routine cleaning.
Inspection Methods and Limitations
GENERAL (cont.)
• If external or internal coverings such as insulation,
refractory linings, or corrosion-resistant linings are
in good condition and without evidence of an
unsafe condition behind them, it may not be
necessary to remove them for inspection of the heat
exchanger.
Inspection Methods and Limitations
GENERAL (cont.)
• However, it may sometimes be advisable to
remove small portions to investigate their
condition and the condition of the metal
behind them, particularly if previous
inspections have indicated corrosion.
Inspection Methods and Limitations
GENERAL (cont.)
• When any covering is found to be defective, a
sufficient amount of the covering in the vicinity
of the defect should be removed to find out
whether the base metal is deteriorating and to
determine the extent of the deterioration.
Inspection Methods and Limitations
GENERAL (cont.)
• Where operating deposits such as coke are
normally permitted to remain on a heat
exchanger surface, it is important to determine
the condition of the heat exchanger surface
behind the deposits.
Inspection Methods and Limitations
EXTERNAL INSPECTION
• Ladders, Stairways, Platforms, and Walkways.
• Foundations and Supports.
• Anchor Bolts.
• Concrete Supports.
• Steel Supports.
• Nozzles.
• Grounding Connections.
• Protective Coatings and Insulation.
• External Metal Surfaces.
Severe Deterioration of Anchor Bolts
Inspection Methods and Limitations
INTERNAL INSPECTION
Pitting in Channel
Crack in Shell Weld
Hydrogen Blistering
Strip-Liner Deterioration
Tubes Thinned at Baffles
Hydrogen attack
• Hydrogen attack can result in brittle fracture of
a steel component during high-temperature
service.
• It has also been referred to as “hydrogen
damage.“
• Carbon steels or low-alloy steels can suffer
severe hydrogen attack during high-
temperature service, resulting in brittle failure
due to severe loss in tensile and rupture
strengths as well as ductility.
Hydrogen attack
• Hydrogen attack should not be confused with
hydrogen embrittlement.
• Hydrogen attack occurs only when steel is in
service at elevated temperatures, while
hydrogen embrittlement occurs near or at room
temperature.
Hydrogen attack
Hydrogen attack
Hydrogen embrittlement
• Hydrogen embrittlement is the process by
which various metals, most importantly high-
strength steel,become brittle and fracture follo
wing exposure tohydrogen.
• Hydrogen embrittlement is often the result of
unintentional introduction of hydrogen into
susceptible metals during forming or finishing
operations.
Hydrogen embrittlement
• The mechanism starts with lone hydrogen
atoms diffusing through the metal.
• At high temperatures, the elevated solubility of
hydrogen allows hydrogen to diffuse into the
metal (or the hydrogen can diffuse in at a low
temperature, assisted by a concentration
gradient).
Hydrogen embrittlement
• When these hydrogen atoms re-combine in
minuscule voids of the metal matrix to form
hydrogen molecules, they create pressure from
inside the cavity they are in.
• This pressure can increase to levels where the
metal has reduced ductility and tensile strength
up to the point where it cracks open (hydrogen
induced cracking, or HIC).
End of
Article