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Cc? we we ceo or oe eOeesnaor Matrices Properties oP. deter minante. Gh.IF two rows or columns of mabix ore identi, then the dleleminant is ze0 4 o,s 2 ‘ : A=~|s 2 3S] -o von = o 4 2 ci) AF two rows or columns of matrix are interchanged then the sign of delominont changes. ry i J 0 2 23 -A=12 1 5 14 23045 Gin af three rows or columns. of mabix ore Thlachanged thin the signs of determinan! is unaltered wo To 5g a dt 2 6 . A=] 4 2 3f =/g 1 ¢ . ra 5 3 eo 41 2 GDN the delerminonl of moirix iP ony col or dilfwonct of hwo elements then difference of hwo deberminanls wren containing sum ib @n be phil info sum or a at aay a ot oP a a 4 b be Bayf =[b Bb? BP ylb gy ce ce Oat cot 3 ce cts ecmamusensnei : on. Om Ons A= : ay Gog an, ’ Oy, 2 as pavnemmun Mayo, aye Q, a; On: a, erat A won) 9 %F]- af Te aig [ Qs, Ox Gy Os aay Op operations for solving mobix ore always 1¢65 Han one the order of matrix upper end lower triongulor -mobix = jl all the clemenls above principal diogonal are 20 then iis sord fo be lower triongulor matnx ond if : oll elements below the principal drogonal are zuo it is uppy imengular Hix. motrix \ 4 °o oO] Lowe ongulor moinx e SOQ g | = ae 4 RN. Sy Depe rengular matin « ; ar Note: af is mobix is tithe lower Piengular or uppo tnongulor deluminoal is product of principe! diggonal demenks -E-B ~p-3-e c ‘ ¢ aan nm anne An aA nas 1 a> ab e rib Be : , 6 - Ry R-R2 ord & —> Rw Oo O-b , 0% b? of db Oo bc) bMe?] 3 (0-bd Cb] 9 54 be rn aoe = Co-b> Cb-0) Cc-a) vA, By Jat slat @: €> Q Find detuminont of - - 3 6 4 1 1 - ec. 1 S403 ®, 3 3 a+b 6. : 6. Re —r Ra= Rt and By—» Pak, 6. > i frog 6 bb > “lo a of “° 6, e. ovo. bh. ©, — Stondand results = es aos xf 5 J © mo |, 5 afaz0 w]e HO FF |e be €> * yd gab 3 & gy at & poy 3 34 @. . - Be << & naa me aeemnont of & . aa 4 ‘ to Sth gq : a i d4c 7 BBR be oe b& sfae bh a . a = abc ° , ad i re 6 Boe a 1 ty © ec te Ry > as CR +R) Shondard. result, J+a 1 J I J teh 4 4 bed = tab y byt Fok ey oved Cs tetety) 4 1 J dtd ‘ zi a gy DR 40, 1 . »oa.2a]7 Pera (sat y « J 7034 2 ‘ “@. Find dd eminant: . 3 ° 2 . 1,208 : J L 7 A 2002-1943 C1499 201-0 . = +2 ‘ + ‘ or Ra—> 2-3 ° d 2 d 2 3 4 ~5 +8 or A= = produc of . 5 . a diagonal elements LK SX 4 . = ni gh ek RO & product oF 24 =04942-12-0-5 diagonol elem ants a) 102 2 deo2 2 4 2 . 2 4 2] = 2 4 22 Fw J++ B44 -4 = 4 22 31 ad 2 12 2 . @ Ja 2°58 J 92 5 4 2 ° 42 42 5 3 4 5 a = 2ASHIB-S 4°12 = i 12 J 12 J 1 -sing - 25.0 sin © ovo| Inverse matrix exists only for non-singular mahrix. Adjoint of Highe order ‘mabix 1s the trans pose of the - factor mahny, Minor of celument The minor of an elunent iP square mabix ig the delerminant of squore sub malrix in which the row ond the coturnn of portieular element lies fo be deleted, ta s o 4 2 o Awly 208 . ‘ Bobo3 ts te o . Miner of ay = 7 Cig) e-8 f- . at Cs Go-Foclor oF on element ~ 6.15! iningr of clement} : = OsyY «a> ‘ -8 s i- no of row g jr no of elumn, ‘ woo " 7 ° —— a oot 7 $ mag a on 9 ° 1 q So + , LF 1 + 1 = 1 + 4 9 * wD o " + a v4 Pow an 1 oa =o 2 Now nos _ owe NaN SSCSCSCSSCL FCC ESSSOSOSeRBeuvesusse ‘ 7 " ~ + 3 + @ + t ° + » » A Ronk of motixt-. — Hall minors of order Cr+4). are zeros; bul thee is * at leost one non-zu0 minor of oder''r’, if i183. 65 cabled the Ronk of he mahix ond 16 indicaled by: gen sar. ‘Properties of rank: . : GF Ais mull matrix or zv0 mahix then ronk of mahix ts 2uo ’ ‘ é o oy f° 2 oy. »{0 © O1.° FY §CAd=0 ° o 0 0 ° ° @ IPA is 0 Non-zw0 mobix then sank of A is qeaber than br equol to one. . a RCA ZI (i) MP J be He unit matrix ch oder nxn then rank of In i6 onecn. 100 | | GCAD=2 . o4 : (i) JE-A be Phe matrix of ode mxn, then, rank of mabix A i6 less than or equal fo mininimum of m ond nh Q@.Find the ronks of following Mabnces a)i 27 3 4 Sea) €2. SCAd=2 20 § : oes CNo sub mabix has deluminan} 200) ofr 2 3 a4 CCAD SR, BCA ay ax squere Sub-mahax are having dterminent =o Coa-diarme @ (eva) cans, amas — a ue 2 3 - 402 eCAd $3 2 € Stays , Rs —— > B~ CR+R) 3 2 3 “ 42]. $s * Sadaz oo 0 fy, (Non. singular square . 6ub- matrix) I ! . 44 Stay ¢ 3 Chom order of mobix) 4 RAD <3 C TAlay =o) SCAd ao Cron Singular Squeve slb . mab x) . -t BS ¢€ ty Fe +R, Pa pp, san du4 Fass 7 | zB 6 “Sta <3 12 o 2 . ! [ | SCA =8 : l4 fa of 5 ; Cron-z00 ddemnant of ¢ . 3X3 mabix exis) ) e* 3 408 / ‘ « J2 3h 3 FAI C3 é ay 4 SCA SB ‘ §CAd = 2 ‘ € 2 3 o 12-30 ‘ 4°35 2 Pe BCR +R HES fo 4 32 ‘ 2b 3 52 ) 0 " 87 Odie, oo 0 6 f QA) 6 4 SAD <4 “ R > P-2B 22 3 07 © . oo 32 : 3 2 13 - @ 0 0 0 SCA=3 — CRON- 200" deberminanh. of 3x3 mabix exists) ‘ , ‘ yoyo ecay< > 222 SCA) $3. € 3x3 matrices 5 zero) 33 Blase SCA) <2 Call 2X2 malrices. cre zero) ‘ ‘ SCA) = 3 Ry —> Ry~ CRAP D Ry —* Ra- Ch + AD BIA <4 1B ‘ SCA) <4 C 44%4-riathx 2 hos o deles ° ° ° €AI< 3 Cdelerminon!) ol o 0 0 . 3x4 jo zero) Lo BCAD =2 “The consislency and inconsislency af eyslon of equ” atthy +ar=d t+ byt GE = dy qx +bsy +E = dy coefticient motix Az % by constonl mohix, 9 = ey " dy yorfoble motix. % = [+] - . z Avgam nied mobix. fob am 5) CAB) = Qn b G a: | a, by .G dy Any sjstem 18 said to be consiston) system, it A has gplubion. Ingonsishent systun hos’ no solbkion ° () IP SCAB = SCA) = n0-.0F UMknoWwNS, then the syslon ie | Said tobe consistant ond haying Unique solubon, : \ \ (iy HF § CABD = SCA) << TO. oF UNknowns the the eysten 18 soid to be consistant ond hoving more than one Solubon or 1 inFinile no. oF soluhions. cay TF S$cAB> # SCA), then ststen is said to “Be” inensislent and hod no solution. ~ @. Phd the no. of solutions for syctem af ‘equobions atyae => . RDP HAZ a4 t+ Ay 49226 . Note: cy SE Augumented moabix CAB) 16 reclangular mahix then Josh column mush. be excluded. C8ecouse it will gove the rank of CAB) only & we will bove to foloulake rank of cA) sepuclely. G JP CAB is squore motrix then lost column must be included. i) Les! column excluded, then represents ranks of bolb CAD ond CAB) a G0 JF last clumn included gives rank oF cA8> only. @ ° Jo1-3 3 cae =f1 2 3 4+ - 14 9 Ody, BR RHR RHR, ' boa ates ’ elo 3 2 43 o 3 8 8 SCAB) = SCA) =B C Non-200 deleminant of BAB mohix exists) The system of equohons is consistond ond have uni, ue solubion. - v BrAysz =0 Jo-2 8 2 Gasy~ | a 0-3 75 . a 7 4000 3CAB) = SCAY=3 Syslem is congishank ond hos unique solulions “Joy +32'=-2 . : @WA-BY+Z = -5 = 3.3.2 3 Abed 4 2 6 4 . o 36 5 7? 2 be 4 5 mo, * ‘ 2 Give preference bo the equation with coe! Bier ot of Wo fo write in at) row, “mes “getty 42ze5 - ate 4 i i ' 4 2.0 4 AB=| 5 5 2 4 o 30 SB -2 2 3 78 : Re —>* 2-3 RF By — B-2R, [ai2 o 4 AB= | oO [= zon . - e110 5-8] Lt Nhe delominont go: ° [-7 181 make oo "2006 in ge 2X3 mabsx é Fo Be t2Ry , Fy Py 43 Ry “ “fa 2 0 4 aan=-]o0 TT 0 <1 ” oo ho en o -7 7 3 Py > Ba- Re Pa +> By ° J ° we a me CH) * Gi) ofa 4 common ou} ° ° SCAB) = SCA) = 5 = t -2y +62 =8 . Ant -24 : - eS a+y-32 1 . Ik By Fare at : > . pod Bray cam =| 2 7 3.4 ~~ 5-3 8 TI BR Rte & ks > Rte hoy apes ‘ s]z olf o —- wo 6 6 ° e “SCAB = SCA) =2 <3 The spslem is consishent and have inhinite’ no. of solubons. a Xs AlB (i) Crammes rule a Ae, ys AR, pe 3 a> a a Gi) Cougs - Seidel 4 ~ 1 0 ° ° oe Lo6 from —~ cb . a4 325-5 axe 3 okey Gure RL Yoon ark F conslant 15 zero F y-32 = 0 y = 32 ted 3 J This is called symmeksical method of solving “2 We are discussing consishency of reol system of equokions gelubions should, be reo! numbers. fo, let oz=k where k 6 Real numbers. yr 3k ‘ i y 2 Sk-2 : / ce zak 6 © i ° rr | ‘ we O For the differen) values of ky we gel diPtoml y velco © o Thus, infinile number of solutions exist. ce Q. check consisterry of gt-ytz=4 BY-Y472=6 At- 442 =7 7 -t+y47 29 “J io-t ga cae =| 9 3 4 4 B 3 3 6 7 Am) x Ra—> Rpt Ri Ra + RatPy .. Py + Bye B ! a tf 09 =!) 6 o 13 2 0 0 155 Bo 6 Fllwoys keep zeros ether al 1% row or column or tosh > & row oF column, * here, dool bring last column inside Ci repress a) 2 Gert | 8, The eystem of equakiens is inconsistent @. 1 ie? @. For whol values of A and” we does the ofslen ob equobvons [@> given below will be having | ° atyp+ze6 7 le? XH 2y ¥B2=10 0; . tay +Are mM ©, ; ca No solution : : ‘ ey > Unique solubon e} > More thon one rumber vl solutions ; . 2 G@se J 1413 ce eS Caw =]. 2.3 Jo 3 12a «a Pa—t Peo Be 1 J 1 6 = 4 2 5 Jo 0 9 AD w-ro oe? CoseJ'- JP A-3 =0 & *-3040 : e, Saad = 4, S CAD =? ®, e; No-gbludion exisls if Aes g m-10 40 Cy Gsew: a A-Bs0 & H-y0 <0 . s : °, SCAB = SCAD = 2X 3-0. oF unknowns @3 Mere thon one ‘solubien exist if A a3, A230 @) e@> msemr: JF A-s +0 Ca » SCAB) = $ CA) &B = nO of ep knowns, ef unique soluhon exisis, if AEB & 4 15 ony real ce number G. Eigen values and Bgen vectore : choratleishe .equolion : lel ‘A’ be the squore matix oF oder unit malix oF oder & ig , 2 Sum of diegonels = gum ap eign ‘ ophions: (a) a 6 Clements values a cb 3,4 ~ G42) a7 : © 64 Product of charodeisiie- wools : 2 determinant "6 Jo- 4) L =6 ®; Gp The eigen volues of sjmmebic’ mahix CAT=AYD) . | are, purely reo : > . . vfs 2 . ge 8, [; :| T e,. . 32 . ey: s-[F.3| 12) (8) * 4 ’ le) G9 The egnen values of skew symmebic mabik be (A'=-A)y ore either perely imaginary or may be Ze0 fe] maf s | FA be ska symmebne sum of eigen yolues = 0. volue of determinant = 4 coy a0 cb) 6,3 coo dnd Dh sien Ans: cd) i,-j are charackeishe rool of matrix Oo]! the matrix is cithe: lowe Hrangular er upper Hangular then principe) diagonal demenls ar called the eigen values 10 of 240 A=15,6 as 6 2 3 De 1-45 QD Atle-iplerchanging the PWS OF Cobumns op ober 4 colsin opeations on mobix, iF we CbIN ower or & Upper hiongular mobix, we may nol necessarily e get the volues of 8192 vector on principal dregong. — & - © i : | Sinda | . ms € | WA io eye value oF A then, 228" Seplunber 215 oe | R15 eigen value of! a2, . € as _. a & _ At & —- A — at 2 °F ep gifs With aos 23 suf2 2773 2 2 | 2 | os 2 ef . [ir al ue Ro ‘ As 37,57 = Las € é ai a]; ‘] Then eigen vaiues of A are é 214 A —» € DP» 4s « Cy gig ch) 5,4, © Ig, 05 chaz 4 : YB) ay ge cay? . & Ps ary @ Find the ergen yolues are corresponding mommy. 54 Jeep. digen vectors of the . & charederishc equetion yA- aI) =o BS 4 ao - =o al I: I a BA 4] 26 4 2m (B-ADC2-Ad-4 =O DOTA eG 70 CAWA-6) = 0 aA 7 = Cie) Eigen veckor for A =4, at [A= ary x = 0 [2 S][z}e? Abe dt, =O 4% 20 wy et as Xe a. a ~7 J T x= : . [| & £9] Also mh ~si Jj -)] oF xs or -Jo3 Cusvoll nol in [P]e fed 1 options given) For Axe - CUE eh rs . X)- $%, 20. By = AR, ‘ ‘ Ba Ae noe a [2]-*[{}euur Normalised eigen veckor [| | vy el . [] 2 a N+ eit Vi a Vary wi @. Find the choracherishe role of mobiy & -6 2 “6 7 ~4 2 4 3 CORTE aati — sreaas 14.9, gums 18 Is 13 4 B -6 2 ge Lg 4 “SF Hm g i a ~ 168 + 48-46-28 99. 108 =o Oo Bu5 a fi? 12 2 Eigen values 2 1 3 cod 1.2.5 O) O24, sum of. eigeh values Produd of eigen values = ‘ a Eigen values ore 99909990000 oy © the eigen vechor poir of imobix ofi][E] [IE Ba + A an ~ ge =e MY =25 “Qe 45 For A= 45 B45 477% : =0 +38 [> “2%, FAY =0 An ep ofe - @ cA) 2,2. Cd AA, = IFS BE Azeé ca i285 TG al of E] CE] > [4 2] [alr° BATE =O oo @ Agen vaiues of Tr 2 5 - & 0 -4°9 é ' 8 oF S © - S “ Bigey values = A= Ci -4, *) © ‘ a . v . For-9 = OP stig & o 6 efi xy °¢@ @ 2% +325 =0% ¢ ~BIn Ma oot © C2,= 06 ee 3D ip digen vectoy SEK IT HO Unknmone hove tye diferent eqetions, tren those heo unknowns have value 2a. *€ . & JT hyo unkneion in tne {9 velo equation ove suo c Chor 3x3 mab) then 34 untrown 3 al O75 MOM reo, CH mey hove ott values olhey phan Eger veckr for Aes £A-AaI7 Txt 20 for Fa _4 fs 2% x oo zi ty tee os % € SLAM & = 6 ¢ 2% ~ 0 & Age 0 € : B% +20, = 6 é oy G 2 $s € - é e”. ° 8) . . ®, ke a - 8, “7 -6 2 Sy]f% ®, . o a 2] | me] 7° . 6, oo oO 2. . ‘ CL, 42 t BX, =O ‘ : a At so e; 2243 ON a, ®> a Aes Ay ® =2. =H i 2 43 8; a . As = 31/, 5 . _ c 6 _ | 8% @> we lg . Q) " % ra ©? @ Ap eigen veckor of mobix fb :| > 02 2 > oo & ; cof-i so)" ep fi ary™ copra? wert" a Fhe eigen volues are -C4,2.4> ¢ Upper trongular matrix) 2» » But fo Find set of eigen vector for pashoulor eigen value, lah > with leost yolue Cie A=yy > for Aza oy OTe 5 oe ‘| [ >o 3 o co alls “%_ 50 Cnol in ony opkion we al fZ}-° Ay 2%=F5 Fy zo Chek in ophor for A=2 eecooaoe tos @eeooonss nn ene ena For Aws [-2 4 olra = ye me, spf peo. : TER “24 +4 +A%=0 - . -2%) 2-2, . ee 5 z Figen wer =f fra A reol nxn mobix. Aa COy3 Is given ‘os Follow: =i, OP je ro Pg; al eigem values. then sum of bur A Eigen values _ JIB BE 7 = PMH 2 & é é & é «€ 230090080 gee wee ey e 8, G3 Gy (Op e> @D > 3 & 3 € © © e © e ® o. @> es °. 6 6 © e° s e Coyl ey Homilton theorem: Every sqpare mabix sabishied iks own sn dnoractenshe cquotion. JF As | 5 2] . 2 2 . charodeiche equotion | . BA 4 | Lo 4 4 aD. M- ACFI+E =0 According. to Hreorem, A FA+ 61 <0 J+ mulhiplicahive Prook ~ Tlenkiy, "TPE 190 [63 oie AT pia) Applicohion : 61= 4A> a2 BLAS HAR. AED CA = 7I-LA =[7 oo) fs 4 Shy Khe a fz -4 © -s 5 D447 0 JF tt be 3x3 mabix. & ths char adbesistie: equation § then 97s . an g cor cb) a co > dat & “ +1 oo e PHTao * & : j= -n3 1 & det s pp 6 rT - 19 For Paxs ie choroclerstie equation is 934 AML ODE ng CaP ap ay PPE ay ey — + peryy Pay pry 2P4I 26 “1 , ‘ TPT = = CPP ay ps, 2P Py pt é ‘ Poe ~ COpy P+2a) e, Tg Ula 2 4 ther di € ol wo er Ne passes Hough, Y 8 | P wy « Doyo4 . ° ‘ ca> ¢0,0) C34 cd Egy a. 4) é x 24 2 4 : a= 4 gy Yo ‘ a er c € = 8A44y ~ 32 ~2y é = 8% 2y-mD < ; € © ©4349 sohisfres the above equahion, « é é Asya teal mahix ond -AX=B 18 on inconsishant syslem of equations then highesl possible rank of & is cay ch? 2 CB ch 4 “1 We add column fo A when we edd a in inahix A a WO AIS 3x4 AB = 3x5 Mox. possible rook scas) =3 Bul given tol, system is inconsistant . SCABD 4 50a) In po cose SCAD > § CAB) a SCAD =2 The volue of ‘o for which the following se} of equotions heve a non-hiviol solubon is . yraz =0 atty4+r -e att 2y FOL = Corn tho 4 oI ody None, For the system of equohons Ax=0,°xX =0 ig always o soluti: ord that solubion is colled o tna)’ solubion For a nen-tnviel soluhon, determinant + of coef Fi cient matrix is olwoys reo. oO ad 2 Asla 4 4 a2 ° 3.2 644 4 29 9 245 20 4 2 = 848-20 os Sia S - Note: / - % O40, x=0 trivial solution a 4 <0, X#0° > non VIO) Solus on. . € | Given on orthogonal mubix € 1404 4 & ant, Joao-+ e ‘ t ‘ , Jo~1 oo o ° At. 1 S [AMT ep : m A mobix A 35 said to be an ortbeg onal mrabix AAT ay i : a, 6a n Paar sy te. dh, - a | ® inverse of the matiy ‘ O22 o ° - ‘ - Aw To 4 6 ° Oo of We know Hat, Inverse of diagonal matrix = Inverse oP each element in dlagonal 5 o o 4 co°o z Ponk of diagonal matrix "S equal to rambey elements in the diagonal. oF ner -2e00 Q. The ronk ond ovllily z + J ; Nulbihy of mobrix VW jAle2 of matrix ts No- of colurnng — Ronk. 4-2 =2 ° 2 7 3 724 yard JAR = tam = A> Avs dA IAs ~ Jedy AD hi | dj Cody AD] JF Agys 18 reel mo the [Ale 2 1B1 64 64 Jal JAt Fadj Ad “Tiarl ls Ad APS tat IAI tar} eet pear? = Cpa coy? = fAL trix ond Big odjoinl of Ag 1Bl=64 = |edjAl par FAI? = Jay = +38 Ho yn f? ee “Pua -2 -0 | & B=2A* they jel=> . a ga]. . Cale cb) 32 ) eg CdD dag ‘B= 2A? . + 1B) = 3242) This is nol modulus bul! “delemingn! D- order ab 4 Leb A.BL.OD be Dxn mabices each with MeN-200 debermrnr ant & i ABCD=1 then gt <9 DON a ade >) CDA 4) doesp'}d exigh CABy' = Br at In modern ola ebra C ABCD: Im I vey Cmatricess De Ch gh yoy AB4 oA DD Oe Ate ny Cele ats ap BAAS opp ‘