00 mi piace00 non mi piace

4 visualizzazioni49 pagineQuick ref of Calculus formulae

Sep 05, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

Quick ref of Calculus formulae

© All Rights Reserved

4 visualizzazioni

00 mi piace00 non mi piace

Quick ref of Calculus formulae

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 49

real numbers (x, y) in a set D a unique real number denoted by f (x, y).

The level curves of a function f of two variables are the curves with

equations f (x, y) = k, where k is a constant (in the range of f).

arbitrarily close to (a, b). Then the limit of f (x, y) as (x, y) approaches (a, b) is

L,

lim f (x, y) = L

(x,y)→(a,b)

1

if (x, y) ∈ D and 0< (x − a)2 + (y − b)2 < δ then

f (x, y) − L < ϵ

If

(x,y)→(a,b)

(x,y)→(a,b)

actual value of the function at (a, b) We say f is continuous on D if f is

continuous on every point (a, b) in D.

2

Definition of the derivative of a multivariable function

f (a + h, b) − f (a, b)

Partial derivative with respect to x fx(a, b) = lim

h→0 h

f (a, b + h) − f (a, b)

Partial derivative with respect to y fy(a, b) = lim

h→0 h

∂f ∂ ∂z

fx(x, y) = fx = = f (x, y) = = f1 = D1 f = Dx f

∂x ∂x ∂x

∂f ∂ ∂z

fy(x, y) = fy = = f (x, y) = = f2 = D2 f = Dy f

∂y ∂y ∂y

to x.

to y.

3

Clairaut’s theorem for the mixed second-order partial derivative

Suppose f is defined on a disk D that contains the point (a, b). If the

functions fxy and fyx (the mixed second-order partial derivatives) are both

continuous on D, then

fxy(a, b) = fyx(a, b)

plane to the surface z = f (x, y) at the point P(x0, y0, z0) is

or

If the partial derivatives fx and fy exist near (a, b) and are continuous

at (a, b), then f is differentiable at (a, b).

4

Total differential

∂z ∂z

dz = fx(x, y)d x + fy(x, y)dy = d x + dy

∂x ∂y

where x = g(t) and y = h(t) are both differentiable functions of t.

Then z is a differentiable function of t and

dz ∂f d x ∂f dy dz ∂z d x ∂z dy

= + = +

dt ∂x dt ∂y dt dt ∂x dt ∂y dt

where x = g(s, t) and y = h(s, t) are both differentiable functions

of s and t. Then

∂z ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y

= + = +

∂s ∂x ∂s ∂y ∂s ∂t ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂t

General version

x2, ... , xn and each xi is a differentiable function of m variables t1,

t2, ... , tm. Then u is a function of t1, t2, ... , tm and

5

∂u ∂u ∂x1 ∂u ∂x2 ∂u ∂xn

= + +…+

∂ti ∂x1 ∂ti ∂x2 ∂ti ∂xn ∂ti

for each i = 1, 2, …, m.

∂F

dx F

= − ∂x = − x

dy ∂F Fy

∂y

∂F ∂F

∂z ∂z ∂y

= − ∂x =−

∂x ∂F ∂y ∂F

∂z ∂z

vector u = ⟨a, b⟩ is

Du f (x0, y0) = lim

h→0 h

6

if this limit exists.

or

derivative in the direction of any unit vector u = ⟨a, b⟩ and

or

derivative in the direction of any unit vector u = ⟨a, b⟩ and

Du f (x, y) = ∇f (x, y) ⋅ u

where ∇f (x, y) is the gradient of the function and u is the unit vector.

vector u = ⟨a, b, c⟩ is

Du f (x0, y0, z0) = lim

h→0 h

or

7

If f is a differentiable function of x, y and z, then f has a directional

derivative in the direction of any unit vector u = ⟨a, b, c⟩ and

or

derivative in the direction of any unit vector u = ⟨a, b, c⟩ and

Du f (x, y, z) = ∇f (x, y, z) ⋅ u

vector.

function ∇f defined by

∂f ∂f

∇f (x, y) = ⟨ fx(x, y), fy(x, y)⟩ = i + j

∂x ∂y

∂f ∂f ∂f

∇f = ⟨ fx, fy, fz⟩ = i + j+ k

∂x ∂y ∂z

8

Maximizing the directional derivative

maximum value of the directional derivative Du f (x) is | ∇f (x) | and it occurs

when u has the same direction as the gradient vector ∇f (x).

Fx(x0, yo, z0)(x − x0) + Fy(x0, yo, z0)(y − y0) + Fz(x0, yo, z0)(z − z0) = 0

If f (x, y) ≤ f (a, b) when (x, y) is near (a, b), then f has a local maximum at

(a, b) and

which case f has an absolute maximum at (a, b).

If f (x, y) ≥ f (a, b) when (x, y) is near (a, b), then f has a local minimum at

(a, b) and

9

the inequality is true for all points (x, y) in the domain of f, in

which case f has an absolute minimum at (a, b).

center (a, b) and suppose that fx(a, b) = 0 and fy(a, b) = 0 [that is, (a, b) is a

critical point of f]. Let

It can’t be used to characterize the critical point ((a, b), f (a, b))

maximum value f (x1, y1) and an absolute minimum value f (x2, y2) at some

points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in D.

10

Steps to identify global extrema

function f on a closed, bounded set D:

smallest of these values is the absolute minimum value.

constraint g(x, y, z) = k [assuming that these extreme values exist and

∇g ≠ 0 on the surface g(x, y, z) = k]:

g(x, y, z) = k

Evaluate f at all points (x, y, z) that result from the step above. The

largest of these values is the maximum value of f; the smallest is the

minimum value of f.

11

Multiple Integrals

If f (x, y) ≥ 0, then the volume V above the rectangle R and below the

surface z = f (x, y),

m n

∫ ∫R m,n→∞ ∑ ∑

V= f (x, y)d A = lim f (x* , y*)ΔA

ij ij

i=1 j=1

m n

∫ ∫R m,n→∞ ∑ ∑

V= f (x, y)d A = lim f (xi, yi)ΔA

i=1 j=1

m n

∫ ∫R m,n→∞ ∑ ∑

V= f (x, y)d A = lim f (x̄i, ȳi)ΔA

i=1 j=1

b d d b

∫ ∫R ∫a ∫c ∫c ∫a

f (x, y)d A = f (x, y) dy d x = f (x, y) d x dy

12

Double integrals when f(x, y) = g(x)h(y)

When f (x, y) sits above the rectangle defined by R = [a, b] × [c, d] and when

f (x, y) can be factored as the product of a function of x only and a function

of y only, f (x, y) = g(x)h(y), then the double integral of f can be written as

b d

∫ ∫R ∫ ∫R ∫a ∫c

f (x, y)d A = g(x)h(y)d A = g(x) d x h(y) dy

The volume above the region D and below the surface z = f (x, y) is

∫ ∫D ∫ ∫R

V= f (x, y)d A = F(x, y)d A

where F is given by

{0

f (x, y) if (x, y) is in D

F(x, y) =

if (x, y) is in R but not in D

functions of x. If the function f is continuous over a type I region D such

that

13

D = {(x, y) | a ≤ x ≤ b, g1(x) ≤ y ≤ g2(x)}

b g2(x)

∫ ∫D ∫a ∫g (x)

V= f (x, y)d A = f (x, y) dy d x

1

functions of y. If the function f is continuous over a type II region D such

that

d h 2(y)

∫ ∫D ∫c ∫h (y)

V= f (x, y)d A = f (x, y) d x dy

1

Union of regions

volume above the region D and below the surface z = f (x, y) is

∫ ∫D ∫ ∫D ∫ ∫D

V= f (x, y)d A = f (x, y)d A + f (x, y)d A

1 2

For example, if we need to find the volume over the region D, but part of

D is a type I region and the other part is a type II region, preventing us

from finding volume of the entire region at once, then we’re allowed to

14

find the volume of D1 separately from D2, and then add them together to

find total volume over D.

∫ ∫D

m A(D) ≤ f (x, y)d A ≤ MA(D)

r 2 = x 2 + y 2 x = r cos θ y = r sin θ

region

0 ≤ a ≤ r ≤ b and

β b

∫ ∫R ∫α ∫a

V= f (x, y)d A = f (r cos θ, r sin θ)r dr dθ

15

Double polar integrals to find volume over the general region

β h 2(θ)

∫ ∫D ∫α ∫h (θ)

V= f (x, y)d A = f (r cos θ, r sin θ)r dr dθ

1

If a lamina occupies the region D and has density function ρ(x, y), then its

k l

k,l→∞ ∑ ∑ ∫ ∫D

Mass is m = lim ρ(x* , y*)ΔA =

ij ij

ρ(x, y)d A

i=1 j=1

m n

m,n→∞ ∑ ∑ ∫ ∫D

Moment about the x-axis is Mx = lim y*

ij

ρ(x* , y*)ΔA =

ij ij

yρ(x, y)d A

i=1 j=1

m n

m,n→∞ ∑ ∑ ∫ ∫D

Moment about the y-axis is My = lim x*

ij

ρ(x* , y*)ΔA =

ij ij

xρ(x, y)d A

i=1 j=1

My

1

m ∫ ∫D

Center of mass, (x̄, ȳ) is x̄ = = xρ(x, y)d A

m

Mx 1

∫ ∫

ȳ = = yρ(x, y)d A

m m D

16

Moments of inertia

m n

∫ ∫D

)2 ρ(x* y 2 ρ(x, y)d A

m,n→∞ ∑ ∑

Ix = lim (y*

ij

, y*)ΔA =

ij ij

i=1 j=1

m n

∫ ∫D

)2 ρ(x* x 2ρ(x, y)d A

m,n→∞ ∑ ∑

Iy = lim (x*

ij

, y*)ΔA =

ij ij

i=1 j=1

m n

m,n→∞ ∑ ∑

I0 = lim [ (x*

ij

)2 + (y*

ij

)2] ρ(x*

ij

, y*

ij

)ΔA =

∫∫

(x 2 + y 2)ρ(x, y)d A

i=1 j=1 D

Note: The moment of inertia about the origin is also called the polar

moment of inertia, and I0 = Ix + Iy.

To find the area of the surface with equation z = f (x, y) where (x, y) ∈ D and

where fx and fy are continuous, use any of these equations:

m n

m,n→∞ ∑ ∑

A(S) = lim ΔTij

i=1 j=1

17

[ fx(x, y)] + [fy(x, y)] + 1d A

2

∫ ∫D

2

A(S) =

( ∂x ) ( ∂y )

2 2

∂z ∂z

∫ ∫D

A(S) = 1+ + dA

If f (x, y, z) ≥ 0, then the volume V above the box B and below the surface

f (x, y, z),

l m n

∫ ∫ ∫B l,m,n→∞ ∑ ∑ ∑

V= f (x, y, z)dV = lim f (x* , y* , z* )ΔV

ijk ijk ijk

i=1 j=1 k=1

l m n

∫ ∫ ∫B l,m,n→∞ ∑ ∑ ∑

V= f (x, y, z)dV = lim f (xi, yj, zk )ΔV

i=1 j=1 k=1

l m n

∫ ∫ ∫B l,m,n→∞ ∑ ∑ ∑

V= f (x, y, z)dV = lim f (x̄i, ȳi, z̄i)ΔV

i=1 j=1 k=1

18

Fubini’s theorem for triple integrals

s d b

∫ ∫ ∫B ∫r ∫c ∫a

f (x, y, z)dV = f (x, y, z) d x dy dz

-plane, D,

b g2(x) u2(x,y)

∫ ∫ ∫E ∫a ∫g (x) ∫u (x,y)

V= f (x, y, z)dV = f (x, y, z) d x dy dz

1 1

d h 2(y) u2(x,y)

∫ ∫ ∫E ∫c ∫h (y) ∫u (x,y)

V= f (x, y, z)dV = f (x, y, z) dz d x dy

1 1

19

Conversion between cylindrical and rectangular coordinates

y

r 2 = x 2 + y 2 tan θ = z=z

x

β h 2(θ) u2(r cos θ,r sin θ)

f (x, y, z)dV = f (r cos θ, r sin θ, z)r dz dr dθ

1 1

ρ2 = x2 + y2 + z2

20

Triple integrals in spherical coordinates

E = {(ρ, θ, ϕ) | a ≤ ρ ≤ b, α ≤ θ ≤ β, c ≤ ϕ ≤ d}

d β b

∫ ∫ ∫E ∫c ∫α ∫a

f (x, y, z)dV = f (ρ sin ϕ cos θ, ρ sin ϕ sin θ, ρ cos ϕ)ρ 2 sin ϕ dρ dθ dϕ

∂x ∂x

∂(x, y) ∂u ∂v

= ∂y ∂y

∂(u, v)

∂u ∂v

∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

= −

∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u

∂x ∂x ∂x

∂u ∂v ∂w

∂(x, y, z) ∂y ∂y ∂y

=

∂(u, v, w) ∂u ∂v ∂w

∂z ∂z ∂z

∂u ∂v ∂w

21

∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y

∂x ∂v ∂w ∂x ∂u ∂w ∂x ∂u ∂v

= − +

∂u ∂z ∂z ∂v ∂z ∂z ∂w ∂z ∂z

∂v ∂w ∂u ∂w ∂u ∂v

∂u ( ∂v ∂w ∂v ∂w ) ∂v ( ∂u ∂w ∂u ∂w ) ∂w ( ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v )

∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂y

= − − − + −

Change of variable

Double:

∂(x, y)

∫ ∫R ∫ ∫S

f (x, y)d A = f (x(u, v), y(u, v)) du dv

∂(u, v)

Triple:

∂(x, y, z)

∫ ∫ ∫R ∫ ∫ ∫S

f (x, y, z)dV = f (x(u, v, w), y(u, v, w), z(u, v, w)) du dv dw

∂(u, v, w)

22

Vectors

The distance | P1P2 | between the points P1(x1, y1, z1) and P2(x2, y2, z2) is

Equation of a sphere

point of u, then the sum u + v is the vector from the initial point of u to the

terminal point of v.

23

Definition of scalar multiplication

whose length is | c | times the length of v and whose direction is the same

as v if c > 0 and is opposite to v if c < 0. If c = 0 or v = 0, then cv = 0.

Position vector

Given the points A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2), the vector a with representation

AB is

24

Vector formulas

ca = ⟨ca1, ca2⟩

⟨a1, a2, a3⟩ + ⟨b1, b2, b3⟩ = ⟨a1 + b1, a2 + b2, a3 + b3⟩

⟨a1, a2, a3⟩ − ⟨b1, b2, b3⟩ = ⟨a1 − b1, a2 − b2, a3 − b3⟩

Properties of vectors

a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c c(a + b) = ca + cb 1a = a

a + 0 = a (c + d )a = ca + da

25

Standard basic vectors

Dot product

If a = ⟨a1, a2, a3⟩ and b = ⟨b1, b2, b3⟩, then the dot product of a and b is the

number a ⋅ b given by

a ⋅ b = b ⋅ a 0⋅a=0

a ⋅ (b + c) = a ⋅ b + a ⋅ c

a ⋅ b = | a | | b | cos θ

26

Corollary

a⋅b

cos θ =

|a||b|

Orthogonal

Projections

a⋅b

compab =

|a|

( |a| ) |a|

a⋅b a a⋅b

projab = = 2

a

|a|

27

Cross product

If a = ⟨a1, a2, a3⟩ and b = ⟨b1, b2, b3⟩, then the cross product of a and b is the

vector

| a × b | = | a | | b | sin θ

Parallel vectors

a×b=0

parallelogram determined by a and b.

28

Properties of vector products

a×b=−b×a (a + b) × c = a × c + b × c

a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c a × (b × c) = (a ⋅ c)b − (a ⋅ b)c

the magnitude of their scalar triple product,

V = | a ⋅ (b × c) |

r = r0 + t v

where each value of the parameter t gives the position vector r of a point

on L. In other words, as t varies, the line is traced out by the tip of the

vector r.

29

Symmetric equations of the line

x − x0 y − y0 z − z0

= =

a b c

The parametric equations of the line L through the point P0(x0, y0, z0) and

parallel to the vector v = ⟨a, b, c⟩ are

x = x0 + at y = y0 + bt z = z0 + ct

n ⋅ (r − r0) = 0 or n ⋅ r = n ⋅ r0

30

Scalar equation of the plane

The scalar equation of the plane through the point P0(x0, y0, z0) with normal

vector n = ⟨a, b, c⟩ is

a x + by + cz + d = 0

The distance D from the point P1 to the plane is equal to the absolute value

of the scalar projection of b onto the normal vector n = ⟨a, b, c⟩. Therefore

|n ⋅ b| | a x1 + by1 + cz1 + d |

D = | compnb | = or D=

|n| a2 + b2 + c2

component functions, so if r(t) = ⟨ f (t), g(t), h(t)⟩, then

⟨ t→a ⟩

lim r(t) = lim f (t), lim g(t), lim h(t)

t→a t→a t→a

31

provided the limits of the component function exist.

dr r(t + h) − r(t)

= r′(t) = lim

dt h→0 h

If

In other words, to find the derivative of the vector function, just find the

derivative of each component separately.

32

Derivative rules for vector functions

real-valued function. Then

d

[u(t) + v(t)] = u′(t) + v′(t)

dt

d

[cu(t)] = cu′(t)

dt

d

[ f (t)u(t)] = f ′(t)u(t) + f (t)u′(t)

dt

d

[u(t) ⋅ v(t)] = u′(t) ⋅ v(t) + u(t) ⋅ v′(t)

dt

d

[u(t) × v(t)] = u′(t) × v(t) + u(t) × v′(t)

dt

d

[u( f (t))] = f ′(t)u′( f (t)) (chain rule)

dt

b b b b

∫a ( ∫a ) ( a

∫ ) ( a

∫ )

r(t) dt = f (t) dt i + g(t) dt j + h(t) dt k

33

Arc length of a vector function

Suppose that the curve has the vector equation r(t) = ⟨ f (t), g(t), h(t)⟩ with

a ≤ t ≤ b, or equivalently, the parametric equations x = f (t), y = g(t), and

z = h(t) where f ′, g′ and h′ are continuous.

length is any of the following:

2 2 2

L=

( dt ) ( dt ) ( dt )

b 2 2 2

dx dy dz

∫a

L= + + dt

∫a

L= | r′(t) | dt

Unit vectors

r′(t)

Unit tangent vector T(t) =

r′(t)

T′(t)

Unit normal vector N(t) =

T′(t)

34

Curvature

following

κ= = κ= = κ=

ds r′(t) r′(t)

3

r(x) = xi + f (x)j. Then r′(x) = i + f ′(x)j and r′′(x) = f ′′(x)j. Since i × j = k and

j × j = 0, we know that r′(x) × r′′(x) = f ′′(x)k. We also have

1 + [ f ′(x)] and so

2

| r′(x) | =

f ′′(x)

κ(x) =

[1 + ( f ′(x))2]

3/2

Velocity vector

Suppose a particle moves through space so that its position vector at time

t is r(t). For small values of h, the vector

r(t + h) − r(t)

h

35

approximates the direction of the particle moving along the curve r(t). Its

magnitude measures the size of the displacement vector per unit time.

The formula above gives the average velocity over a time interval of

length h and its limit is the velocity vector v(t) at time t:

r(t + h) − r(t)

v(t) = lim = r′(t)

h→0 h

Therefore, the velocity vector is also the tangent vector and points in the

direction of the tangent line.

The speed of the particle at time t is the magnitude of the velocity vector,

that is, | v(t) | . This is appropriate because we have

ds

| v(t) | = | r′(t) | = rate of change of distance with respect to time

dt

1 2

y = (v0 sin α)t − gt

2

we can write

a = aT T + aN N

36

where aT = v′ and aN = κ v 2

In other words,

a = v′T + κ v 2N

Two dimensions

function F that assigns to each point (x, y) in D a two-dimensional

vector F(x, y).

Three dimensions

assigns to each point (x, y, z) in E a three-dimensional vector F(x, y, z).

F = ∇f. The function f is called a potential function for the vector

field. We first saw this definition in the first section of this chapter.

37

∫C ∫C ∫C

2. F ⋅ dr is independent of path if F ⋅ dr = F ⋅ dr for any two

1 2

paths C1 and C2 in D with the same initial points and final points.

3. A path C is closed if its initial and final points are the same point.

As an example, a circle is a closed path.

curve; a figure 8 is not simple.

region with a path that lies completely in D.

holes.

Line integrals

then the line integral of f along C can be calculated using either of the

following.

n

∫C n→∞ ∑

f (x, y) ds = lim f (x*

i

, y*

i

)Δsi

i=1

( dt ) ( dt )

b 2 2

dx dy

∫C ∫a

f (x, y) ds = f (x(t), y(t)) + dt

38

Line integrals with respect to x and y (with respect to arc

length)

n

∫C n→∞ ∑

f (x, y) d x = lim f (x*

i

, y*

i

)Δxi

i=1

∫C ∫a

f (x, y) d x = f (x(t), y(t)) x′(t) dt

n

∫C n→∞ ∑

f (x, y) dy = lim f (x*

i

, y*

i

)Δyi

i=1

∫C ∫a

f (x, y) dy = f (x(t), y(t)) y′(t) dt

vector function r(t), a ≤ t ≤ b. Then the line integral of F along C is

b

∫C ∫a ∫C

F ⋅ dr = F(r(t)) ⋅ r′(t) dt = F ⋅ T ds

39

Relationship between line integrals and vector fields

F = Pi + Qj + Rk, then

∫C ∫C

F ⋅ dr = P d x + Q dy + R dz where F = Pi + Qj + Rk

a differentiable function of two or three variables whose gradient vector

∇f is continuous on C. Then

∫C

∇f ⋅ dr = f (r(b)) − f (r(a))

Independence of path

∫C

F ⋅ dr is independent of path in D if and only if

∫C

F ⋅ dr = 0 for every closed path C in D.

40

Conservative vector fields

∫C

region D. If F ⋅ dr is independent of path in D, then F is a conservative

2. If F(x, y) = P(x, y)i + Q(x, y)j is a conservative vector field where P and Q

have continuous first-order partial derivatives on a domain D, then

throughout D we have

∂P ∂Q

=

∂y ∂x

Suppose that P and Q have continuous first-order derivatives and

∂P ∂Q

= throughout D

∂y ∂x

Then F is conservative.

Green’s theorem

the plane and let D be the region bounded by C. If P and Q have

continuous partial derivatives on an open region that contains D, then

∫ ∫D ( ∂x ∂y )

∂Q ∂P

∫C

P d x + Q dy = − dA

41

Green’s theorem for the area of the region

1

∮C ∮C ∮

A= x dy A=− y d x A= x dy − y d x

2 C

Curl

( ∂y ∂z ) ( ∂z ∂x ) ( ∂x ∂y )

∂R ∂Q ∂P ∂R ∂Q ∂P

curl F = − i+ − j+ − k

curl F = ∇ × F

partial derivatives, then

curl( ∇f) = 0

have continuous partial derivatives and curl F = 0, then F is a conservative

vector field.

42

Divergence

then the divergence of F is the function of three variables defined by

∂P ∂Q ∂R

div F = + +

∂x ∂y ∂z

div F = ∇ ⋅ F

2. If F is a vector field on R3, then the curl F is also a vector field on R3.

Therefore, we can calculate its divergence and say that, if F = Pi + Qj + Rk

is a vector field on R3 and P, Q, and R have continuous second-order partial

derivatives, then

div curl F = 0

∮C ∫ ∫D

F ⋅ n ds = div F(x, y) dA

domain D then the surface area of S is

43

∫ ∫D

A(S) = | ru × rv | d A

where

∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z

ru = i+ j+ k and rv = i+ j+ k

∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂v

( ∂x ) ( ∂y )

2 2

∂z ∂z

∫ ∫D

A(S) = 1+ + dA

Surface integral

m n

∫ ∫S m,n→∞ ∑ ∑

f (x, y, z) dS = lim f (P*

ij

)ΔSij

i=1 j=1

∫ ∫S ∫ ∫D

f (x, y, z) dS = f (r(u, v)) | ru × rv | d A

( ∂x ) ( ∂y )

2 2

∂z ∂z

∫ ∫S ∫ ∫D

f (x, y, z) dS = f (x, y, g(x, y)) + + 1 dA

44

Surface integral for a continuous vector field

normal vector n, then the surface integral of F over S is

∫ ∫S ∫ ∫S

F ⋅ dS = F ⋅ n dS

∫ ∫S ∫ ∫D

F ⋅ dS = F ⋅ (ru × rv) d A

∫ ∫D ( )

∂g ∂g

∫ ∫S

F ⋅ dS = −P −Q + R dA

∂x ∂y

Stokes’ theorem

simple, closed, piecewise-smooth boundary curve C with a positive

orientation. Let F be a vector field whose components have continuous

partial derivatives on an open region in R3 that contains S. Then

∫C ∫ ∫S

F ⋅ dr = curl F ⋅ dS

45

The divergence theorem

Let E be a simple solid region and let S be the boundary surface of E, given

with positive (outward) orientation. Let F be a vector field whose

component functions have continuous partial derivatives on an open

region that contains E. Then

∫ ∫S ∫ ∫ ∫E

F ⋅ dS = div F dV

46

Quadric surfaces

47

48

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.