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USER’S MANUAL

August 2000

MALZ USER’S MANUAL

Prepared by:

Safe Engineering Services & technologies ltd.


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errors that may appear in this document.

The software described in this document is furnished under a license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the
terms of such license.

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All Rights Reserved
REVISION RECORD
REVISION NOTES
January 1981 Original Printing of Version 2 at Revision Level 3
August 1983 Original Printing of Version 3 at Revision Level 1
August 1984 Original Printing of Version 3 at Revision Level 2
March 1986 Original Printing of Version 3 at Revision Level 3
January 1987 Original Printing of Version 3 at Revision Level 4
April 1988 Original Printing of Version 3 at Revision Level 5
June 1989 Original Printing of Version 3 at Revision Level 6
July 1991 Original Printing of Version 3 at Revision Level 9
July 1992 Original Printing of Version 4 at Revision Level 1
September 1993 Original Printing of Version 4 at Revision Level 2
November 1997 Original Printing of Version 4 at Revision Level 3
December 1998 Original Printing of Version 7 at Revision Level 0
January 2000 Original Printing of Version 8 at Revision Level 0
August 2000 Original Printing of Version 9 at Revision Level 0

VSS:/Helpdev/Manuals/Malz/Malz.doc
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 1-1


1.1 INTRODUCTION TO MALZ.......................................................................................................................1-1
1.2 PREPARING INPUT DATA........................................................................................................................1-2
1.3 VIEWING, PRINTING AND PLOTTING COMPUTATION RESULTS.......................................................1-2
1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THIS MANUAL ........................................................................................................1-3
2 INTRODUCING PROGRAM MALZ.................................................................................... 2-1
2.1 PERFECT GROUND CONDUCTORS.......................................................................................................2-1
2.2 LARGE GROUND NETWORKS AND HIGH FREQUENCIES ..................................................................2-2
2.3 COMPUTER ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................2-3
3 PRELIMINARY WORK AND MISCELLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS............................. 3-1
3.1 THE GROUND NETWORK........................................................................................................................3-1
3.2 THE POTENTIAL RISE CONCEPT ...........................................................................................................3-2
3.3 EARTH FAULT CURRENT ........................................................................................................................3-3
3.4 SELECTING A COORDINATE SYSTEM ..................................................................................................3-4
3.5 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CURRENT INJECTION LEADS..................................................3-5
3.6 OTHER INPUT DATA ................................................................................................................................3-6
3.7 MALZ COMPUTATIONS ...........................................................................................................................3-7
4 MALZ COMMAND INPUT FILES....................................................................................... 4-1
4.1 WHAT'S IN THIS CHAPTER ? ..................................................................................................................4-1
4.2 THE MALZ INPUT COMMAND LANGUAGE............................................................................................4-1
4.3 MALZ COMMAND HIERARCHY ...............................................................................................................4-1
4.4 OUTLINE OF A TYPICAL MALZ INPUT FILE ..........................................................................................4-2
4.4.1 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................4-2
4.4.2 THE ELEMENTS OF A BASIC MALZ INPUT FILE.......................................................................4-4
4.4.3 A TEMPLATE MALZ INPUT FILE .................................................................................................4-5
4.4.4 A SAMPLE MALZ COMMAND INPUT FILE..................................................................................4-7
4.5 ESSENTIAL MALZ MODULES ...............................................................................................................4-11
4.5.1 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................4-11
4.5.2 CONVENTIONS ..........................................................................................................................4-11
4.5.3 SECTIONS, MODULES, AND COMMANDS OF A TYPICAL MALZ INPUT FILE......................4-11
4.5.4 MALZ STANDARD COMMANDS................................................................................................4-19
4.6 CONDUCTOR SUBDIVISION..................................................................................................................4-19

MALZ Page iii


TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT’D)

Page

4.7 VERTICALLY, SPHERICALLY, AND CYLINDRICALLY LAYERED SOIL MODELS AND FINITE
VOLUME SOIL MODEL...........................................................................................................................4-21
4.7.1 VERTICALLY LAYERED SOIL MODELS....................................................................................4-21
4.7.2 SPHERICALLY LAYERED SOIL MODELS.................................................................................4-22
4.7.3 CYLINDRICALLY LAYERED SOIL MODELS .............................................................................4-23
4.7.4 FINITE-VOLUME SOIL MODEL..................................................................................................4-25
5 SAMPLE MALZ RUN..........................................................................................................5-1
5.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM..........................................................................................................5-1
5.2 MALZ INPUT DATA FILE ..........................................................................................................................5-4
5.3 MALZ OUTPUT ..........................................................................................................................................5-4
5.4 REFERENCES ...........................................................................................................................................5-5
APPENDIX A EQUIVALENT CYLINDRICAL CONDUCTORS ............................................. A-1
APPENDIX B TYPICAL RESISTIVITIES AND PERMEABILITIES ....................................... B-1
B.1 TYPICAL RESISTIVITIES ......................................................................................................................... B-1
B.2 TYPICAL RELATIVE (TO FREE SPACE) PERMEABILITIES ................................................................. B-1
APPENDIX C DEVELOPMENT OF A LIGHTNING CONDUCTIVE INTERFERENCE
COMPUTER MODEL......................................................................................................... C-1
C.1 BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE COMPUTER MODEL................................................................................. C-1
C.1.1 LIGHTNING CURRENT ............................................................................................................... C-1
C.1.2 LIGHTNING PROTECTION DOWN CONDUCTORS.................................................................. C-3
C.1.3 GROUND NETWORK OF THE ENTIRE PLANT......................................................................... C-3
C.2 COMPUTATION RESULTS ...................................................................................................................... C-4
C.3 TOPOLOGICAL SHIELDING AND GROUNDING ................................................................................... C-4
APPENDIX D STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF COMMANDS ................................. D-1
D.1 FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................................. D-1
D.2 COMMAND FORMAT AND SYNTAX....................................................................................................... D-1
D.3 SHORTHAND FORMS.............................................................................................................................. D-2
D.4 HIERARCHY OF COMMANDS................................................................................................................. D-2
D.5 STANDARD COMMANDS ........................................................................................................................ D-2
D.6 SPECIFICATION COMMANDS ................................................................................................................ D-3
APPENDIX E FIXED-FORMAT INPUT FILES....................................................................... E-1

MALZ Page iv
TABLE OF FIGURES

Page

Figure 2.1 Ground Fault ......................................................................................................................................................... 2-1


Figure 2.2 Long Ground Electrodes........................................................................................................................................ 2-2
Figure 3.1 Ground Network..................................................................................................................................................... 3-1
Figure 3.2 Current Injection Segment ..................................................................................................................................... 3-2
Figure 3.3 Overhead Ground Wires ........................................................................................................................................ 3-4
Figure 3.4 Selecting a Coordinate System............................................................................................................................... 3-5
Figure 3.5 Earth Structure....................................................................................................................................................... 3-7
Figure 3.6 Overlapping Conductors........................................................................................................................................ 3-8
Table 4.1 Basic MALZ Modules, Qualifiers, and Specification Commands .......................................................................... 4-3
Figure 4.1Block Diagram of a Complete MALZ Input File.................................................................................................... 4-4
Figure 4.2 Template MALZ Input File..................................................................................................................................... 4-6
Figure 4.3 Conductor Layout for Interference Study .............................................................................................................. 4-8
Figure 4.4Sample MALZ Input File (continued on next page) ............................................................................................... 4-9
Figure 4.4Sample MALZ Input File (continued from previous page)................................................................................... 4-10
Figure 4.5Schematic of a Vertically Layered Soil ................................................................................................................ 4-21
Figure 4.6Sample Vertical Soil Specification ....................................................................................................................... 4-22
Figure 4.7Schematic of a Spherically Layered Soil.............................................................................................................. 4-22
Figure 4.8Sample Spherical Soil Specification .................................................................................................................... 4-23
Figure 4.9Vertical and Horizontal Cylindrical Soils............................................................................................................ 4-24
Figure 4.10 Sample Vertical Cylindrical Soil Specification ......................................................................................... 4-24
Figure 4.11 Sample Horizontal Cylindrical Soil Specification..................................................................................... 4-24
Figure 4.12 Schematic of a Finite-Volume Soil Model ................................................................................................. 4-25
Figure 4.13 Sample Finite-Volume Soil Model Specification ....................................................................................... 4-26
Figure 5.1 Experimental Grounding System ........................................................................................................................... 5-1
Figure 5.2 Measured and Computed Results........................................................................................................................... 5-3
Figure A.1 Equivalent Cylindrical Conductors........................................................................................................................ A-2
Figure C.1 Top and 3-D Views of Plant Site Grounding Network ...........................................................................................C-2
Figure C.2 Zone of Earth Surface Potential Computations .....................................................................................................C-3
Figure C.3 Earth Surface Potentials at 10 Hertz .....................................................................................................................C-5
Figure C.4 Earth Surface Potentials at 100 Hertz ...................................................................................................................C-5
Figure C.5 Earth Surface Potentials at 1 Kilohertz .................................................................................................................C-6
Figure C.6 Earth Surface Potentials at 10 Kilohertz ...............................................................................................................C-6
Figure C.7 Earth Surface Potentials at 100 Kilohertz .............................................................................................................C-7
Figure C.8 Earth Surface Potentials at 1 Megahertz ...............................................................................................................C-7
Figure C.9 Illustration of the Topological Shielding and Grounding Technique ....................................................................C-8

MALZ Page v
Chapter 1 Introduction

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO MALZ


Computer program MALZ is a frequency-dependent earth analysis tool particularly suited to determining
leakage currents, earth potentials, and electric and magnetic fields generated by a network of current-
carrying conductors buried in both simple and complex earth structures. Hence, it is useful for analyzing
the performance of metallic ground networks at frequencies from DC to 1MHz and for studying cathodic
protection installations.

MALZ is similar to the MALT program1, but has some additional features and capabilities. Much
MALT data is compatible with MALZ data.

MALT is most widely used in power system designs of complex ground networks subject to power
frequency fault currents (ac systems), or to direct currents (dc systems). It can also be used to conduct
cathodic protection analysis. Generally, MALT is suited for analyzing all practical problems where dc or
power frequency currents are injected by a ground network into the earth, so long as the longitudinal
impedances of the ground conductors can be neglected. In this situation, the locations of the current
injection points within the ground network do not play a significant role. At higher frequencies or
increased ground network size, the conductors' longitudinal impedances cannot be neglected.
Consequently, MALT is not the program of choice for the evaluation of such system.

The MALZ program was developed as a more accurate model of such problems. MALZ takes into
consideration internal impedances and capacitances of overhead connections and their location on the
ground network.

Unlike MALT, which assumes that all ground conductors are bare, MALZ may be used to analyze
coated ground conductors. The coating resistivity value may range from 0 (no coating), to the highest
readable value by MALZ (insulated). The thickness of the coating is specified by the user.

MALZ also has the capability of analyzing the influence of buried metallic structures which are not in
direct contact with the main ground network. Hence, transferred potentials and diverted earth currents
are easily determined. MALZ can also analyze the effects of return electrodes: these are ground networks
where earth currents return to the system generating sources.

Computer program MALZ can be used to analyze accurately several problems such as:

Large ground networks in low resistivity soils (reactance component is comparable to the
resistance component).
Large HVDC electrodes where the voltage drop along the ground conductors is significant.

1
See MALT User's Manual.

MALZ Page 1-1


Chapter 1 Introduction

Analysis of ground networks subject to high frequency currents (third, fifth and higher-order
harmonics). Also, when Fourier transforms are used, lightning or surge performance of ground
networks can be deduced from the frequency spectrum response.
Investigations related to the presence of pipelines (coated or not) or other metallic paths (rails,
fences, etc.).
Determining the longitudinal (axial) and earth leakage (transversal) currents and potentials (with
respect to remote earth) at each location in the ground network, including return electrodes and
metallic structures. This permits the optimization of the number and location of the current
injection nodes in order to equalize the ground network potential and select a suitable ground
conductor size. This may also be particularly useful in critical cathodic protection studies.
Determining the magnetic field radiated by buried current-carrying conductors (coated or not).
These values are useful to EMI and EMC studies. The magnetic field can be computed at any
point above the earth's surface.
Pipeline cathodic protection studies.

1.2 PREPARING INPUT DATA


For best results, enter your MALZ data using one of the interactive input data processors, i.e., SICL for a
command mode input session and Output Toolbox for a menu-based approach. Each of these programs
provides you with a user-friendly environment, including preliminary error-checking, in which you can
specify the engineering data required by MALZ. SICL and Output Toolbox offer detailed on-line help
and can plot selected data on your screen to help you verify your data entry. Note that, if you prefer to
prepare your data outside of these interactive environments, you can always use a word processor (in
ASCII mode) to create or edit a SICL input file before invoking the SICL input processor, and then use
the OPEN-FILE and READ commands within SICL to process the file you have prepared. SICL and
Output Toolbox create a complete, syntactically correct MALZ input file at the end of the interactive
session.

The Getting Started manual presents examples (in Chapter 6) showing how to prepare input data using
the SICL input data processor. The How To… manuals show how to use the Input Toolbox.

For information on file-naming conventions, consult the Getting Started manual.

1.3 VIEWING, PRINTING AND PLOTTING COMPUTATION


RESULTS
When you run MALZ, computation results are stored in a user-readable printout file and in a machine-
readable database file. If you have requested plots in your input data, then a plot file is also created by
MALZ (note that even if you have not requested plots in your input data, you can still generate them
with the SIRPS report and plot generator, as described below). When MALZ has finished running, you
can view your results in the following ways:

MALZ Page 1-2


Chapter 1 Introduction

i) For most convenience, use the SIRPS report and plot generator or the Output Toolbox (which
uses SIRPS internally) to extract information from the machine-readable database file. SIRPS
can extract a summary of the most important results and display it promptly on your screen or
save it in a report file for subsequent printing. SIRPS can also prepare customized reports and
plots, for immediate display on your video screen or subsequent hardcopy printing. See the
Getting Started manual and the SIRPS User's Manual for details on how to use SIRPS.
Consult a How To… manual for instructions on how to use the Output Toolbox.
ii) Edit or print the user-readable printout file which contains complete computation results. Note
that this file can be quite long, so verify its length before printing it!
Note that no results are automatically displayed on your screen or on your printer when a MALZ run
ends. In order to view your results, proceed as described above.

Note that an additional output file containing the computed current distribution and conductor segment
coordinates is generated by MALZ and can be used as the basis for a HIFREQ input file (for more
details, consult the HIFREQ User's Manual).

For information on file-naming conventions, consult the Getting Started manual.

1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THIS MANUAL


The MALZ User's Manual is structured as follows:

Chapter 2: presents fundamental concepts associated with modelling buried conductor systems
with MALZ.
Chapter 3: describes what considerations must be addressed by the user in preparation for
building a MALZ computer model.
Chapter 4: describes how to prepare a MALZ input file in the SICL-compatible command
language format.
Chapter 5: presents an example problem and, its corresponding input file.
Appendix A: describes how to model non-cylindrical conductors.
Appendix B: presents typical conductor resistivities and permeabilities.
Appendix C: describes how to build a computer model for the analysis of conductive
interference effects due to lightning.
Appendix D: provides a detailed discussion of the command mode structure and syntax.
Appendix E: describes how to process a MALZ input file that has been prepared according to
the fixed-format mode used in the 1991 version of MALZ and earlier versions. Note that this
fixed format does not accommodate features of MALZ introduced in 1992 and in subsequent
years.

MALZ Page 1-3


Chapter 1 Introduction

Note that while Chapter 4 presents a good overview of the MALZ commands, it does not describe all
commands, nor are all available options of each command described. For a complete list of MALZ
commands, showing all available parameters for each command, refer to Appendix E of this manual. For
a detailed description of each command and its parameters, refer to the Help Reference section of your
Getting Started & Input/Output Processing binder.

MALZ Page 1-4


Chapter 2 Introducing Program MALZ

2 INTRODUCING PROGRAM MALZ


During a ground fault at a power generating station, high voltage substation, transmission tower or
industrial plant, the total earth current flowing in the ground network initially circulates in the ground
conductors. This current progressively enters the soil at the conductor-earth interface and returns to the
generating sources via the earth medium (see Figure 2.1).

Figure 2.1 Ground Fault

2.1 PERFECT GROUND CONDUCTORS


If the longitudinal impedance of the ground conductors is zero, i.e., they are perfect conductors, then the
number and locations of the points of current injection will not play any role in the physical process. The
only information then required to predict the ground network performance is the linear current density
distribution function per unit length i(x,y,z) which is dependent on the soil structure and geometry of the
ground network.

Although the actual current circulating in the conductors at a given location could be useful for selecting
different sizes of conductors depending on their locations, in practice, it is more economical (design and
labor) to select one size for all conductors. A suitable size is easily determined by dividing the total
current by twice the number of injection nodes and requiring that the resulting current not fuse the
conductors. In most cases however, mechanical performance considerations and/or earth corrosion
activity dictate larger conductor sizes than those dictated by fusing considerations.

Finally, if the conductors are assumed to be perfect conductors, there are no potential differences
between different parts of the ground network. This implies that it is safe to ground equipment located
within a substation through neutral leads terminating at the equipment; even if the neutral leads are
connected to the ground network some distance away from the locally grounded structure on which the
equipment is mounted.

MALZ Page 2-1


Chapter 2 Introducing Program MALZ

The concept of perfect ground conductors is certainly valid when the ground network has a small or
moderate size. In contrast to earth resistivity, which varies from several ohm-meters to thousands of
ohm-meters, conductor metal resistivity (even when steel conductors are used) is very small and is
expressed in microhm-meters. Of course, this assumes dc or low frequency ac currents (0 - 1000 cycles).
This assumption is implicitly made in program MALT.

2.2 LARGE GROUND NETWORKS AND HIGH FREQUENCIES


When ground network size is very large or when the current injected in the ground network contains
high frequencies (harmonics or surge currents), it is inaccurate to neglect the longitudinal impedances of
the ground conductors.

For example, the resistance to ground of a large ground network is usually a fraction of 1 ohm (except in
very high resistivity soils) and may be comparable to, if not less than, the overall reactance of the
metallic paths of the ground network. The real performance of such grounds may be drastically different
from the one which is determined on the basis of perfect ground conductors.

The voltage drop between two points of the ground network some distance apart, may often be of the
same order of magnitude as the average potential rise of the station with respect to remote earth (which
is at a zero potential). This voltage drop will depend on a number of factors such as ground network
configuration, earth structure, current frequency as well as number and location of current injection
nodes.

It is also quite possible that, above a certain frequency, the current does not reach the edge of the ground
network which therefore appears to be smaller than it really is (from an electrical point of view) to the
power system. One particular example of this phenomenon is clearly illustrated by a long ground
conductor often used to build HVDC ground electrodes or transmission line counterpoises (Figure 2.2).

The current I entering the ground conductor starts to flow axially in both directions while,
simultaneously, a leakage current flows to earth transversally along the conductor's length. Due to the
finite impedance of the conductor, the fault current will not reach its extremities unless the conductor's
length is below a value "le", called the effective length.

Figure 2.2 Long Ground Electrodes

MALZ Page 2-2


Chapter 2 Introducing Program MALZ

Similarly, all ground networks have an effective area "Se" which is less than or equal to the real
geometrical area. This area depends on many parameters and is not easily determined through
approximate methods.

2.3 COMPUTER ANALYSIS


Computer program MALZ has been specifically designed to handle cases in which the physical
characteristics of the conductors and the fault current frequency cannot be neglected as they are in
program MALT.

Note only are problems such as those described in the foregoing section accurately modelled, but also
other types of problems can be investigated thanks to additional capabilities not implemented in MALT.
For example, ground conductors with semi-conductive coatings (or partially coated & insulated) may be
described. These coated conductors can be connected to, or isolated from, the ground network.

This new capability offered by MALZ makes possible the analysis of corrosion-sensitive grounds which
require this form of protection at selected areas. It also permits the electrical or corrosion engineer to
evaluate the consequences of the presence of power circuits in the vicinity of other buried facilities (such
as pipelines), be they bare, isolated or protected through semi-conductive jackets. Insulating flanges and
open sections along buried structures are also easily modelled using program MALZ.

MALZ can be used to determine the response of ground networks to transient currents such as lightning
or surge currents. The current wave is initially decomposed into its Fourier series (an operation not
performed by MALZ). A suitable and representative sample of frequencies are then used to generate a
number of MALZ results which are combined (using the inverse Fourier transformation) to generate the
transient ground network response.

Finally, MALT and MALZ input data files have similar commands and a similar structure. This
important feature makes for advantageous and efficient use of the capabilities of both programs, without
duplication of the problem data.

MALZ Page 2-3


Chapter 3 Preliminary Work and Miscellaneous Considerations

3 PRELIMINARY WORK AND


MISCELLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS
The user must complete some preliminary work before editing the input data file. This initial work is
very similar to that described in the MALT user's manual, since most data are similar in both programs.
The experienced MALT user will shortly discover that MALZ requests additional data related to the
ground conductor characteristics, current frequency and method of current injection.

3.1 THE GROUND NETWORK


First, the user must define the ground conductors which form the ground network at the fault site. This
network generally consists of the interconnected ground conductors which inject or collect the fault
current, and all other metallic conductors or structures (coated or not) which are not tied to the ground
network, but which, according to engineering judgment, may influence or are influenced by the ground
network. Assume, for instance, that the problem is as illustrated in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1 Ground Network

Assume further that a fault current Ie enters the ground network via three overhead leads (connected to
three different locations on the ground network) and exits the network at four other locations of the
ground network. These locations are called current injection nodes. For practical reasons, the injection
nodes can be specified anywhere on the ground conductors except at a ground conductor node, i.e., at the
junction point of two or more conductors or at the extremities of a conductor. This rule, however, is not
truly a restriction since it is always possible to locate the injection node as close to the conductor node as
desired. Program MALZ places the injection node at the center of a conductor segment identified (by the

MALZ Page 3-1


Chapter 3 Preliminary Work and Miscellaneous Considerations

user) as a "current injection segment" (see Figure 3.2). The position and length of this segment should be
suitably selected to locate the injection node appropriately.

Figure 3.2 Current Injection Segment

Each injection node is the terminal point of a current lead originating from a "current source" bus
common to all current leads belonging to that particular bus. The total earth current at this bus k is Ik.
The value of Ik is a complex number in Cartesian form; the phase shift of each current is relative to that
of the reference bus (highest numbered bus) which is a real number (0 degree phase shift).

At this stage it is important to draw attention to an important difference between the MALT and MALZ
programs. This is discussed in the following section.

3.2 THE POTENTIAL RISE CONCEPT


In the MALT program, all ground metallic paths are assumed to be perfect conductors. Consequently, all
ground conductors are at the same potential with respect to remote earth and this potential is referred to
as the potential rise of the ground network (GPR) and is expressed as:

GPR = Vr = RI e (3-1)

Where R is the resistance-to-ground of the ground conductor network and I e is the current injected into
the earth by the ground network. This resistance R represents the resistance of the earth medium
surrounding the ground network and is essentially a function of the soil structure and of the geometry of
the ground network.

MALZ Page 3-2


Chapter 3 Preliminary Work and Miscellaneous Considerations

The preceding "potential rise" concept cannot be used in MALZ, since by virtue of the longitudinal
impedances of the ground conductors, each point of the ground network is at a different potential.
Hence, the potential rise cannot refer to the entire ground network, but rather, refers to a specific location
in the ground network. By convention, the potential rise (GPR) is defined as the difference of voltage
which exists between the power system current source reference bus (assuming that the reference bus is
the only current source bus of the system) and remote earth (assumed to be at zero potential). This
general definition is consistent with the implicit assumptions made in MALT program. However, when
voltage differences exist between various points within the ground conductors, the general form of
equation 3-1 becomes:

GPR = Vr = ZI e (3-2)

Where Z is now defined as the ground impedance of the ground network as seen from the reference
current source bus. This impedance consists of the resistances and reactances of the metallic ground
conductor paths and the resistance of the soil volume surrounding the ground network. At low current
frequencies and for ground networks which are small to moderate in size, the resistance of the soil
volume is significantly larger than the metallic path impedance. Therefore, this last value can be
neglected and the MALT program can be used advantageously to model the problem.

Note that the ground network performance is proportional2 to the currents flowing in the source busses.
This is an important observation which is very useful to solve the following problem.

3.3 EARTH FAULT CURRENT


When a ground fault occurs on a power system, the total fault current (It) can often flow back to the
generating sources directly through the earth medium, as well as via metallic paths, isolated from earth,
at least for some distance away from the fault point (see Figure 3.3).

Examples of such alternative paths are the overhead ground wires of a transmission line or the neutral
conductors and sheaths of a power cable. The portion of the fault current Ie which enters the ground
network and is diverted into the earth depends not only upon the characteristics and configuration of the
power network, but also upon the ground network impedance Z. Consequently, it appears that since the
analysis of the ground network (including the computation of Z) requires the knowledge of Ie which in
turn depends upon Z, the solution of the problem cannot be obtained without use of an iterative process.

2
It is assumed that there are no saturation and other non-linear processes which are current-dependent.

MALZ Page 3-3


Chapter 3 Preliminary Work and Miscellaneous Considerations

Figure 3.3 Overhead Ground Wires

Fortunately, this cumbersome iterative process is seldom required because of the approximate
proportionality which exists between the potentials and the earth current Ie. A current Ia is arbitrarily
assumed to enter the ground network and the performance of the ground network is determined for that
base current Ia. Once Z is determined, its value is used as an input to the SPLITS computer program3 to
compute the actual total fault current It and earth current Ie. Thereafter the actual ground network
performance is adjusted by a simple multiplication by the proportionality factor Ie/Ia. The same rule
applies if more than one current source bus are present. However, all bus currents must be scaled up or
down according to the same factor. It is important to note that if the internal voltage drop within the
conductors is a significant part of the total system potential rise, then the approximate rule of
proportionality becomes inaccurate. In such cases, it is advisable to run MALZ twice to quantify the
effects of different current magnitudes.

3.4 SELECTING A COORDINATE SYSTEM


The configuration of the ground network must be described to the program using Cartesian coordinates.
Each conductor of the ground network is described as a vector with respect to the coordinate system. The
vectors are parallel to the axes of the conductors which are assumed to be cylindrical4, and are defined
by the coordinates of the conductors' extremities, i. e., origin (Xo, Yo, Zo) and end (Xe, Ye, Ze) and by
their radii.

The orientation of the coordinate system is not strictly defined. However, it is necessary that the XY
plane be the soil surface and that the Z axis be directed downward. For example, a portion of the ground
network shown in Figure 3.1 is shown again in Figure 3.4 with respect to the coordinate system selected.

3
See SPLITS User's Manual.

4
When the conductors are not cylindrical an equivalent cylindrical conductor should be devised. Appendix A suggests some useful
empirical formulas.

MALZ Page 3-4


Chapter 3 Preliminary Work and Miscellaneous Considerations

When possible, X and Y axes parallel to the ground conductors should be selected. This is not
mandatory but is, of course, very convenient.

In the MALT program, the preceding data suffice to fully describe the ground network. In the MALZ
program, additional data are necessary.

3.5 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CURRENT


INJECTION LEADS
The characteristics of the ground segments, i.e., series impedance and capacitance values, characteristics
of the coating (if any) and the type of segment must also be specified.

As described earlier, there are two types of segments. The current injection segments which are
connected at their center to an overhead current lead, and those which are not. Each segment is identified
by an integer value k = 1, 2, ....., m, where k designates the current source bus to which the segment is
connected and m represents the total number of such source busses, with source bus m being the
reference bus. To indicate that no such connection exists for a given segment, the current injection lead
type (see below) is specified as a negative value.

In order to avoid repetition of data, the segment impedance values are grouped into n categories. Each
category (1, 2, ....., n) is defined by a single impedance value given on a per unit length basis (km or
1000 feet). When a conductor is specified, an integer value (1, 2, ....., n) is used to define its series
impedance and capacitance values. A similar categorization process is used to identify the type of
coating existing on the segment. The 0 code is used to identify the default (or standard) category type.
The defaults for coating and conductor characteristics are determined by the user. Refer to the Help
Reference for additional details.

Figure 3.4 Selecting a Coordinate System

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Chapter 3 Preliminary Work and Miscellaneous Considerations

Finally, the impedance and capacitance of the current injection leads (designated in MALZ as bus-to-
conductor connections) must be specified, since these connections may have significant length and are
usually subject to noticeable voltage drops. Specifying a negative injection lead category for a given
segment indicates that the segment is not directly connected to any current source bus.

Note that the current leads are assumed to be perfectly insulated. Therefore, no conduction current flows
from the surface of the leads directly to earth. The function of these connections is to provide a direct
path from the current source busses to the buried ground network.

The series impedances and shunt capacitances of the current injection leads are also specified using the
categorization procedure.

3.6 OTHER INPUT DATA


It is also necessary to describe the soil structure in which the ground network is installed. MALZ can
model uniform and horizontally or vertically or spherically layered earth structures. Computer program
RESAP5 can be used to determine a suitable equivalent model for complex earth structures.

A uniform soil is described simply by its resistivity ρ in ohm-meters. More complex soil structures are
described by the resistivity and dimensions of earth soil layer (see Figure 3.5).

The user must also specify the currents of the source busses or, if these values are not available, a set of
values which are proportional to the real values as explained earlier.

Finally, if the user wishes to determine the potentials which develop at various locations in the earth or
at the earth's surface he or she can do so by either entering the desired observation points individually, or
by requesting that the computations be carried out at equally spaced points along certain directed lengths
(profiles) or traverses. The user can request that magnetic fields be computed at the same points or along
the same profiles (but with a suitable offset altitude) as well.

5
See user's manual of the RESAP computer program.

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Chapter 3 Preliminary Work and Miscellaneous Considerations

Figure 3.5 Earth Structure

3.7 MALZ COMPUTATIONS


MALZ begins to scan the input data file in search of errors and inconsistencies in the data. Once the data
are judged to be sound, MALZ begins an important segmentation process which further divides the long
ground segments specified by the user into smaller segments defined by the conductor nodes of the
ground network. Subsequently, and depending on the user's input, smaller segments are generated for
improved computation accuracy. However, prior to starting the evaluation of the ground network
performance, MALZ scans the data once more to make sure that different conductors do not entirely or
partially occupy the same location in space, as shown in Figure 3.6. This situation causes the program to
halt.

When MALZ finishes the required input data transformation and preparation, it begins to compute the
currents which circulate in the current leads, in the ground conductor segments (current entering and
exiting the segments) and the current which penetrates the earth medium from each conductor segment.
In addition, the potential at each conductor segment center (on the metal surface and on the coating-earth
interface, if applicable) and at each conductor segment node (origin and end nodes) are also computed

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Chapter 3 Preliminary Work and Miscellaneous Considerations

and displayed in the printout. Finally, the potential rise of each current source bus is determined and
printed.

Figure 3.6 Overlapping Conductors

These computation results are part of the normal printout generated by the MALZ program.

If the user has also requested earth potential and magnetic field calculations at selected observation
points or along profiles, MALZ computes the requested potential and magnetic field values and displays
the results, using both Cartesian and polar representations to print the results.

The user may request plots of the ground network and plots of both earth potential and magnetic field
profiles. Both plotter and printer plots are available.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

4 MALZ COMMAND INPUT FILES

4.1 WHAT'S IN THIS CHAPTER ?


This chapter describes how MALZ commands are used to create MALZ input files. Section 4.2 of this
chapter presents an overview of the MALZ command language. Section 4.3 describes the hierarchy of
MALZ commands, while Section 4.4 presents an outline (or template) file structure which describes the
majority of MALZ input files, as well as a typical example of a complete MALZ input file. Section 4.5
gives more detail about the role and function of the commands used in typical MALZ input files, such as
those included in Section 4.4. Section 4.6 presents an important discussion of conductor subdivision,
which is crucial in ensuring that MALZ produces accurate results.

For best results use the SICL input data processor to enter the MALZ commands described in this
chapter. If you prefer to enter your data on menu-type screens or as part of a question and answer type of
session, then use the SMILS or SIDS input data processors and ship this chapter. Refer to Section 1.2 of
Chapter 1 for further details on the input data processor.

4.2 THE MALZ INPUT COMMAND LANGUAGE


Every MALZ input file begins with the Program Command, which is the program name, i.e. MALZ. The
body of a MALZ command file consists of several groups of interrelated commands or modules. Each
group of commands is introduced by a Module Command. Each Module Command (or module header)
is followed by a series of commands which specify data and parameters for MALZ. These are called the
Specification Commands. A command is made up of the command verb, optional qualifiers, and
optional or mandatory data variables. Variables and qualifiers specified on the same command line are
separated by commas. Real numbers can be entered with exponents, for example 2.1E-09 or 0.7E+11
(note that no spaces are allowed before or after the "E"). Command verbs can be abbreviated. A MALZ
input file also includes Standard Commands, which are general-purpose commands that are unrelated to
the engineering content of the program, such as comment lines which are used to describe the input file.
Please refer to Appendix D for more information on the structure of the command set and the rules
governing use of commands.

All MALZ commands are listed in Appendix E of this manual, and detailed descriptions and definitions
of each command and its parameters are given in the Help Reference. The entries of this Help
Reference are organized alphabetically and an index to where each command is found is given in these
reference.

4.3 MALZ COMMAND HIERARCHY


The complete list of MALZ commands presented in the Help Reference is organized according to the
hierarchy of MALZ commands. You can see the hierarchy of commands and subcommands in MALZ by

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

observing the nested indenting scheme used in this appendix or in the sample input files given in Figure
4.4 of Section 4.4.4.

At the top of the MALZ command hierarchy is the Program Command ("MALZ") which is unique.
Below this level are the Module Commands, then commands belonging to each module, and then the
subcommands belonging to each command.

It is important to note that if an input file is created interactively using the SICL input preprocessor, or if
a manually prepared input file is to be read by SICL, it is possible to skip certain command levels in the
hierarchy. In SICL, any command which takes no qualifiers or variables, and which only serves to
introduce subcommands can be omitted in the input file. SICL will prompt the user to resolve any
ambiguities, or SICL will fill in the command itself. If the input file is to be read directly by MALZ (or
any other engineering program), it must include all commands in the hierarchy.

Note also that it is possible to specify the different modules of a MALZ input file in any order, but
certain error and warning messages may be adversely affected if a logical order is not respected for
certain commands. Consider, for example, the command UNITS of the OPTIONS module; any data
specified before the UNITS command will be assumed to be in METRIC units for the purposes of error
checking, whether metric or British units are specified by the UNITS command. Within a given module,
commands which are logically independent, for example the commands RUN-IDENTIFI and UNITS of
the OPTIONS module, can be specified in any order. In general, however, you should follow the order
set out in Appendix E and the sample input files of this chapter when specifying most types of data,
since many commands within a module must follow each other in a specific order.

Note that if a non-cumulative command such as UNITS is specified more than once, then the setting
specified by the last appearance of the command in the input file will be retained.

4.4 OUTLINE OF A TYPICAL MALZ INPUT FILE

4.4.1 Introduction
MALZ input files can consist of up to 5 modules and dozens of different commands. This reflects the
complexity and variety of grounding systems and interference situations which MALZ can tackle.
However, most MALZ input files use only a subset of the modules and commands available in MALZ.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

The Basic Command Set

A short list of the most useful MALZ modules and commands is given in Table 4.1. This table includes
all the modules, qualifiers, and specification commands used in the majority of MALZ input files. In
Table 4.1, commands one level below the module commands in the MALZ command hierarchy are
marked by a dash (-). Subcommands belonging to a higher-level command are marked by indenting.

MODULE QUALIFIERS SUBCOMMANDS

- RUN-IDENTIFI
OPTIONS -
- UNITS

- CHARACTERISTics
LEAD
CONDUCTOR
COATING
SYSTEM -
- BUSS

- NETWORK
MAIN-GROUND
CONDUCTOR

- LIMITED-LAYER - UNIFORM
- MULTI-LAYER - HORIZONTAL
SOIL-TYPE - EQUAL-LAYER LAYER
- SPHERICAL-LAYER - VERTICAL
ANGLE
LAYER
TRACE-POINT
- DETERMINE
POINT
PROFILE
COMPUTATIONS - SURFACE
OFFSET
- OBSERVATION-
POINT
PROFILE
SURFACE
VOLUME

- FREQUENCY

Table 4.1 Basic MALZ Modules, Qualifiers, and Specification Commands

Although Table 4.1 contains all the commands used in the great majority of MALZ input files, more
modules and many more commands are available in MALZ. Figure 4.1 presents a block diagram
showing all the MALZ modules, including the comments section. For a complete description of all
MALZ modules, qualifiers, and commands, including detailed explanations, see the Help Reference.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

PROGRAM COMMAND

COMMENTS SECTION

OPTIONS MODULE

GRAPHICS MODULE

SYSTEM MODULE

SOIL-TYPE MODULE

COMPUTATIONS MODULE

Figure 4.1 Block Diagram of a Complete MALZ Input File

4.4.2 The Elements of a Basic MALZ Input File


A MALZ input file includes 6 essential elements:

the configuration of the ground network


a model of the soil in which the grounding network is buried (this can be produced by the
RESAP program)
the complex currents injected into the buried conductors or grounding system
the characteristics of the conductors, their coatings, and the current injection leads
the frequency of the excitation current

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

the locations at which earth potentials and/or the magnetic fields in air are to be computed
Additionally, the user can supply computation algorithm control data, comments, and option
data.
MALZ can calculate the following:
Leakage current, longitudinal current, and potential rise in each conductor segment
Potential values at any points in the soil
Magnetic field values at any points in the air

4.4.3 A Template MALZ Input File


A typical MALZ input file has the structure shown in Figure 4.2. The commands shown result in the
calculation of soil potentials and the potential rise, leakage currents and longitudinal currents of all
conductor segments. This file outline introduces the most common MALZ commands, qualifiers, and
variables and the order in which they would appear in a full input file, but it does not include specific
data. Instead, Figure 4.2 is a template, which can be filled with data to represent almost any grounding or
conductive interference problem.

The labels and comments included in Figure 4.2 briefly describe the essential elements of a MALZ input
file. Note that it is possible to specify the electrical characteristics of each conductor and coating (if any)
and the current injected (if any) into each conductor.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

Figure 4.2 Template MALZ Input File

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

4.4.4 A Sample MALZ Command Input File


The template MALZ input file of Section 4.4.3 is a guide to how MALZ input files are constructed. This
section provides additional details and presents a typical example of a grounding grid analysis and the
MALZ input files used to model it.

Description of the Physical Situation

Suppose that we want to model a conductive interference problem involving the grounding systems of a
power system substation, an industrial plant, a set of transmission line poles, and a nearby buried gas
pipeline. Figure 4.3 is a plan view of the system being modelled. It shows the size and location of the
grounding systems and the gas pipeline, as well as the currents injected into the grounding systems
during fault conditions (calculated by program SPLITS).

The grounding systems of the substation and the industrial plant consist of rectangular grids of
conductors buried 1.5 feet deep. The conductors are exponentially spaced with an increasing conductor
density towards the perimeter of the grid. An additional conductor is added at the lower left corner of
each grid to serve as the current injection segment. The grounding system of each transmission line
tower is represented by a single ground rod. The pipeline is coated, has a diameter of 8 inches, and is
buried with 3.5 feet of cover. The soil in which the conductors are buried is uniform and has a resistivity
of 168.5 ohm-m.

The objective of this example problem is to study the interference between the various grounding
systems and the pipeline. We wish to calculate the potential rise of the pipeline due to the currents
injected by the various grounding systems. We also wish to calculate the soil potentials and the potential
rise of the grounding grids at each current injection point. To make these calculations, the coordinates of
the grounding network and pipeline shown in Figure 4.3, the appropriate soil model, and the injected
ground currents must be entered into MALZ. We also enter appropriate specifications for the electrical
properties and geometry of the grounding system conductors and the pipeline conductor, including the
coating of the pipe. In addition, we enter instructions on how the calculations should be carried out, the
points where we want to evaluate the soil potentials, and what kind of units we want to use. All this
information is contained in a MALZ command file, which is presented and explained in the following
section.

File Listing

Using the basic commands given in Table 4.1 and MALZ Standard Commands, we can build the MALZ
input file shown in Figure 4.4, which describes the grounding grids, transmission line tower grounds,
and the pipeline of Figure 4.3. This file demonstrates almost all the commands given in Table 4.1. For
readability, some CONDUCTOR and PROFILE commands have been omitted, as indicated in Figure
4.4. The use and function of the MALZ commands and Standard Commands used in this input file are
explained in Sections 4.5.3 and 4.5.4 respectively.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

Figure 4.3 Conductor Layout for Interference Study

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

MALZ
COMMENT, Conductive Analysis Using Program MALZ
TEXT,---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TEXT, MALZ FREQUENCY DOMAIN GROUND IMPEDANCE PROGRAM
TEXT, SES_Substation + SES_Plant + Transmission Line Pole + Pipeline
TEXT,---------------------------------------------------------------------------

OPTIONS
RUN-IDENTIFI,CONDUCTIVE_STUDY
UNITS,BRITISH
ENDMODULE

SOIL-TYPE,LIMITED-LAYE
UNIFORM,168.5
ENDMODULE

SYSTEM

SUBDIVISION,PRESUBDIVI

CHARACTERISTICS
LEAD,0.0001,0.0001
CONDUCTOR,0.0,0.0,0.0
CONDUCTOR,17.0,200.0,0.306
COATING,9600000.0,0.01
TOLERANCE,0.001

ENERGIZATION, -14.82, 61.90


ENERGIZATION, -11.78, 57.25
ENERGIZATION, -8.99, 52.71
ENERGIZATION, -6.43, 48.30
ENERGIZATION, -4.07, 44.01
ENERGIZATION, -1.90, 39.83
ENERGIZATION, 0.11, 35.77
ENERGIZATION, 1.99, 31.81
ENERGIZATION, 3.75, 27.95
ENERGIZATION, 5.42, 24.19
ENERGIZATION, 7.01, 20.53
ENERGIZATION, 8.54, 16.95
ENERGIZATION, 10.03, 13.46
ENERGIZATION, 11.49, 10.04
ENERGIZATION, 12.95, 6.70
ENERGIZATION, 14.42, 3.42
ENERGIZATION, 15.93, 0.21
ENERGIZATION, 17.47, -2.94
ENERGIZATION, 31.62, -459.95
ENERGIZATION, REFERENCE, -417.00, 1633.1
NETWORK
MAIN
!, Transmission Line Pole Ground Rods
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,1, 530.0, 100.0, 0.021, 530.0, 100.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,2, 530.0, -173.0, 0.021, 530.0, -173.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,3, 530.0, -446.0, 0.021, 530.0, -446.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,4, 530.0, -720.0, 0.021, 530.0, -720.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,5, 530.0, -990.0, 0.021, 530.0, -990.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,6, 330.0, -1300.0, 0.021, 330.0, -1300.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3

Figure 4.4 Sample MALZ Input File (continued on next page)

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,7, 330.0, -1560.0, 0.021, 330.0, -1560.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3


CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,8, 330.0, -1820.0, 0.021, 330.0, -1820.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,9, 570.0, -1820.0, 0.021, 570.0, -1820.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,10, 810.0, -1820.0, 0.021, 810.0, -1820.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,11, 1050.0, -1820.0, 0.021, 1050.0, -1820.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,12, 1290.0, -1820.0, 0.021, 1290.0, -1820.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,13, 1530.0, -1820.0, 0.021, 1530.0, -1820.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,14, 1770.0, -1820.0, 0.021, 1770.0, -1820.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,15, 2010.0, -1820.0, 0.021, 2010.0, -1820.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,16, 2010.0, -2053.0, 0.021, 2010.0, -2053.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,17, 2010.0, -2286.0, 0.021, 2010.0, -2286.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
CONDUCTOR,1,0,0,18, 2010.0, -2490.0, 0.021, 2010.0, -2490.0, 40.02, 0.02, 3
ENDREAD

!, SES_Plant
CONDUCTOR,1,0,-1,19, -736, -4246, 1.5, -735, -4245, 1.5, 0.017, 1
CREATE,LINEAR,-735,-4245,-735,-3595,165,-3595,1.5,0.017,7,5,10
ENDREAD
!, SES_Substation (Ground Rods Ignored)
CONDUCTOR,1,0,-1,20, -1.0, -1.0, 1.5, 0.0, 0.0, 1.5, 0.017, 1
CREATE,EXPO,0,0,0,200,350,200,1.5,0.017,9,7
ENDREAD
!, Pipeline
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 166, -3920, 3.8, 466, -3920, 3.8, 0.333, 10
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 466, -3920, 3.8, 2340, -3920, 3.8, 0.333, 10
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 2340, -3920, 3.8, 2340, -2820, 3.8, 0.333, 5
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 2340, -2820, 3.8, 2010, -2520, 3.8, 0.333, 5
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 2010, -2520, 3.8, 2010, -1850, 3.8, 0.333, 7
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 2010, -1850, 3.8, 300, -1850, 3.8, 0.333, 14
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 300, -1850, 3.8, 300, -1300, 3.8, 0.333, 6
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 300, -1300, 3.8, 500, -990, 3.8, 0.333, 3
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 500, -990, 3.8, 500, 300, 3.8, 0.333, 13
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 500, 300, 3.8, 500, 1525, 3.8, 0.333, 6
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 500, 1525, 3.8, 1100, 2550, 3.8, 0.333, 5
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 1100, 2550, 3.8, 1440, 3215, 3.8, 0.333, 2
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 1440, 3215, 3.8, 1440, 4320, 3.8, 0.333, 2
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 1440, 4320, 3.8, 2350, 4320, 3.8, 0.333, 3
CONDUCTOR,-1,2,1,0, 2350, 4320, 3.8, 2350, 5200, 3.8, 0.333, 4

COMPUTATION
FREQUENCY,60.0
DETERMINE,POTENTIAL
PROFILE,100,-9.0,206.,0.,6.0
GENERATE,25,3,-20.0,LINEAR
PROFILE,100,150,-3860.,0.,6.0
GENERATE,10,3,-10.0,LINEAR
ENDMODULE
ENDPROGRAM
EXIT

Figure 4.4 Sample MALZ Input File (continued from previous page)

Note that the input file can be created in a number of ways. It can be prepared interactively using one of
the user-friendly input preprocessors available in CDEGS: SICL, SMILS and SIDS. Alternatively, it can
be prepared using a text editor and then read into MALZ. For more information on how to carry out a
MALZ interference study, and on how this file was produced using the SICL input preprocessor, refer to
the Getting Started manual.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

An inspection of the input file confirms that it is composed using only modules and commands listed in
Table 4.1 and Standard Commands. Section 4.5 of this chapter explains in detail the role and function of
each of the commands used in the sample input file and the template input file, including Standard
Commands, which are explained in Section 4.5.4. The Help Reference gives full definitions of the
syntax, action, and variables, for the commands included in the sample input file, and their alternatives.
It also gives full details on MALZ Standard Commands.

4.5 ESSENTIAL MALZ MODULES

4.5.1 Introduction
This section describes the most important modules and commands which are used to prepare MALZ
input files. For most applications, no other commands are required. The function of each module is
explained, and for each module, the commands belonging to that module are listed and explained. You
should refer to the sample input file presented in Figure 4.4 and the template input file of Figure 4.3 as
examples of the usage and syntax of the basic modules and commands explained in this section.

A complete list of all MALZ commands and parameters is presented and described in detail in the Help
Reference.

4.5.2 Conventions
Modules listed in this section appear at the far left of the page, in bold capital letters, and are underlined.

Commands listed in this section appear in bold capital letters, for example the command LAYER.
When a command is an abbreviation of a longer word, the missing letters are included for clarity, but
they are printed in lower case characters. An example of such a listing is the command RUN-
IDENTIFIcation.

4.5.3 Sections, Modules, and Commands of a Typical MALZ Input File


MALZ Program Command

When a command input file is read by MALZ (or any other CDEGS program) interpretation of the
commands in the file does not begin until the Program Command is encountered. Preceding lines are
treated as comments. For this reason it is customary to have the Program Command as the first line
of the input file. The program command consists of the program name, i.e., MALZ.

Comments Section

A maximum of 10 comment lines to be written to the output file can be specified at the top of the
input file using the command TEXT.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

OPTIONS Module

This module includes commands which affect the contents and presentation of a MALZ output file.
Some commands in this module also serve to specify how the conductor systems are handled by
MALZ. The OPTIONS command itself only marks the beginning of the module and does not cause
any action on behalf of MALZ. This command must be specified in order for its subcommands to be
processed, but it takes no variables or qualifiers.

Key Commands:

UNITS:

This command specifies the system of units used to specify input data. The choices are
British, Metric, or Inch-Radius. If you choose Inch-Radius, the British system of units is
invoked and conductor radii are specified in inches instead of feet.

RUN-IDENTIFIcation:

This command is used to specify a label string which is included in all printouts and plots
produced during a run.

PRINTOUT:

This command selects the degree of detail in the printout.

LARGE-RADIUS:

This command enables/disables MALZ warnings issued when conductor radii larger than 1
meter or 3.3 feet are specified.

SYSTEM Module

This module is used to enter data about the configuration of the buried conductors and how they are
energized. The data includes the electrical properties of the conductor types, lead types and
conductor coating types used in a particular run. It also includes the current carried by the Source
Busses (which in turn energize the conductors), and the geometry of the grounding system(s) and
buried conductors. The SYSTEM command must be specified in order for its subcommands to be
processed, but it does not take any variables or qualifiers.

Key Commands:

SUBDIVISION:

This command enables and disables the presubdivision process, which subdivides conductors
according to the number of segments specified with the CONDUCTOR command. See
Section 4.6 for details on how conductor subdivision is carried out and on how subdivision
affects the results obtained with MALZ.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

TOLERANCE:

This command informs the program how close two conductors must be before they are
considered as having established an electrical connection (node). It also specifies the
minimum acceptable ratio of conductor length to radius. This command normally does not
need to be specified as the program's default values are satisfactory for most simulations.

CHARACTERISTics:

This command identifies the command subgroup with which the user species different lead,
conductor, and coating categories. This command must be specified in order for its
subcommands (i.e., LEAD, CONDUCTOR, COATING) to be processed by MALZ.

LEAD:

Each time this command is issued, it defines a new connection lead type with the impedance
specified by the command's variables. Each conductor specified subsequently with the
CONDUCTOR subcommand of MAIN-GROUND must refer to a lead type, if it is energized.
A lead establishes a connection between a conductor and a bus.

CONDUCTOR (subcommand of CHARACTERISTICS):

Each time this command is issued, it defines a new conductor type with the electrical
characteristics and inner radius (this is useful for pipelines) specified by the command's
variables. Each conductor specified subsequently with the CONDUCTOR subcommand of
MAIN-GROUND must refer to a conductor type.

COATING:

Each time this command is issued, it defines a new conductor coating type with the
resistivity, thickness, and permittivity specified by the command's variables. Each conductor
specified subsequently with the CONDUCTOR subcommand of MAIN-GROUND must refer
to a coating type.

IMPEDANCE:

This command introduces the subcommands METHOD and DATA-TYPE, which define the
type of impedance data specified with the CONDUCTOR command of the
CHARACTERISTICS command group, and the computation method used to calculate the
longitudinal impedances of conductor segments. The default setting for DATA-TYPE defines
conductor impedances in terms of relative resistivities (the real part) and relative
permeabilities (the imaginary part). The default computation method (invoked by the EXACT
qualifier) specifies that MALZ automatically calculates both the internal and external
impedances of the conductor. The conductor impedance is the sum of these two values. The
default settings for these commands are normally appropriate, so these commands are usually
not present in the MALZ input. The IMPEDANCE command must be specified if its
subcommands, are specified, but it takes no qualifiers or variables.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

BUSS:

Each time this command is issued, it defines a new bus or current source supplying the
complex current (i.e., resistive and reactive components) specified by the command's
variables. The current supplied by a given bus is distributed among the conductors defined to
be connected to it (via the CONDUCTOR subcommand of MAIN-GROUND).

NETWORK:

This command identifies the command subgroup with which the user enters the network
description. All conductors, including those conductors such as pipes, rails, and return
electrodes, which are separate from the main grounding system, are entered in the same way.
The MALZ program recognizes which conductors form distinct structures by examining their
coordinates. The NETWORK command must be specified in order for its subcommands to
be processed, but it does not take any variables or qualifiers.

MAIN-GROUND:

This command introduces the commands specifying the conductor locations and must be
specified in order for its subcommands to be processed, but it does not take any variables or
qualifiers.

CONDUCTOR (subcommand of MAIN-GROUND):

This command specifies the starting and ending coordinates of a conductor, its radius, the
number of segments into which it is to be presubdivided, the conductor type, its coating type,
and how it is energized (if at all). If energized, the number of the bus which energizes the
conductor and the number of the lead type which makes the connection are specified. The
current is assumed to be injected into the conductor segment closest to the starting end (first
coordinates specified) of the conductor. The CONDUCTOR command must be repeated for
each straight-line conductor in the buried network. Note that all conductors must be buried at
least one conductor radius beneath the earth's surface. Note also that the positive z-axis is
directed downward.

SOIL-TYPE Module

This command and its subcommands are used to specify the soil model data. Four types of layering
are available: uniform, horizontal, vertical, and spherical. The earth model specified in MALZ is
often generated by RESAP.

The SOIL-TYPE command has the following qualifiers, which select the soil type category and
computation algorithm:

LIMITED-LAYer: Corresponds to a uniform soil, 2-layer horizontal soil, or a 2 to 3-layer vertical


soil. This is the default soil type.

MULTILAYER: Corresponds to a horizontal soil model with 3 or more layers.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

SPHERICAL: This soil model consists of 3 layers or regions delineated by two concentric
hemispherical interfaces. The soil characteristics are specified with the
LAYER subcommand of the HORIZONTAL command. The x and y
coordinates of the center of these hemispherical interfaces are specified with
the variables following the SPHERICAL qualifier of the SOIL-TYPE module
command.

CYLINDRICAL: There are two types of cylindrical soil models: Horizontal semi-cylindrical soil
model and Vertical cylindrical soil model. The horizontal semi-cylindrical soil
model consists of two regions delineated by a horizontal semi-cylindrical
interface (see Figure 4.9b). The Vertical cylindrical soil model consists of two
regions delineated by a vertical semi-infinite long cylindrical interface (see
Figure 4.9a). The soil characteristics are specified with the LAYER
subcommand of the HORIZONTAL command for horizontal cylindrical soil
and VERTICAL command for vertical cylindrical soil. The x and y
coordinates of the center of the vertical cylinder are specified with the
variables following the CYLINDRICAL qualifier of the SOIL-TYPE module
command. For horizontal cylindrical soil, x and y coordinates of the trace
point (see TRACE-POINT command) and the angle of cylinder axis with x-
axis (see ANGLE command) have also to be specified.

FINITE-VOLUME: The soil model consists of one or a few finite volumes with arbitrary
resistivities buried in the native soil. Each finite volume is defined by eight
vertices or six surfaces. The soil characteristics are specified for each volume
separately using VOLUME, FACE and VERTEX commands. Resistivity of
the native soil is defined by NATIVE-SOIL command.

NOTE: The default "LIMITED-LAYER" qualifier results in the use of a computation


algorithm which is noticeably faster, generally, than that used when the
"MULTILAYER" is used. If the "MULTILAYER" qualifier is specified and a two-
layer soil structure is entered using the LAYER command, the results will be
accurate, but computation time will be increased unnecessarily.

Key Commands:

UNIFORM:

This command indicates that a uniform soil model is to be used. A UNIFORM soil of 100
ohm-m resistivity is the default soil model when no specific soil model is designated.

HORIZONTAL:

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

This command readies the program to accept the description of a horizontally or spherically
layered soil model. This command must be included for its subcommands to be processed,
but it does not have any variables or qualifiers.

LAYER (subcommand of HORIZONTAL):

For horizontally layered soils, this command specifies the resistivities and thicknesses of the
layers making up the earth model. For spherically layered soils, this command specifies the
resistivities of the layers and the distance of the concentric hemispherical interfaces from
their common center. The command must be repeated once for each layer in the soil model.

VERTICAL:

This command readies the program to accept the description of a vertical soil model. Vertical
soil models can have either two or three layers and should be specified as LIMITED-LAYER
types. For detailed information on how vertical soil models are interpreted by MALZ, please
refer to Section 4.7.1 of this chapter. This command must be included for its subcommands
to be processed, but it does not have any variables or qualifiers.

ANGLE:

This command specifies the angle between the positive x-axis and the interface planes of the
layers in a vertical soil model .

NOTE: The line at the intersection of the interface plane and the earth's surface is referred
to as the interface's trace.

LAYER (subcommand of VERTICAL):

This command specifies the resistivities and thicknesses of the layers making up the vertical
earth model. The LAYER command must be repeated once for each layer in the soil model.
There can be at most one each of the LEFT, CENTRAL, and RIGHT layers.

TRACE-POINT:

This command specifies the x- and y- coordinates of a representative point on the line formed
by the intersection of a soil-layer interface plane and the earth-surface plane. The line defined
by this intersection is referred to as a "TRACE"; hence the command name.

VOLUME:

This command specifies the name, resistivity, and number of surface elements for a finite-
volume.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

COMPUTATIONS Module

The COMPUTATIONS module is used to indicate the points where soil potentials and/or magnetic
fields should be evaluated, to specify the frequency of the power source(s), and to control the
accuracy and speed of the computations. The COMPUTATIONS command must be included for its
subcommands to be processed, but it does not have any variables or qualifiers.

Key Commands:

DETERMINE:

This command identifies a group of subcommands which initiate the computation of earth
potentials and/or magnetic fields and specifies which of these calculations are desired. It is
possible to calculate soil potentials, magnetic fields, or both, at one or more frequencies, in a
single run. Note that magnetic fields can only be calculated in the air by MALZ. Use the
HIFREQ program to calculate electric and magnetic fields in both air and soil, due to both buried
and above-ground conductors.

OINT:

This command can be issued as many times as desired to specify points in earth or at the earth's
surface at which potentials are to be computed and/or above which (at a height specified by the
OFFSET command) the magnetic field in air is to be computed.

PROFILE:

This command defines a series of uniformly spaced profile points in earth or along the earth's
surface at which potentials are to be computed and/or above which (at a height specified by the
OFFSET command) the magnetic field in air is to be computed. The command can be repeated to
define several profiles.

SURFACE:

This command instructs the program to generate a series of profiles parallel to a root profile, with
the origin of each successive profile being displaced from the preceding profile by a vector
defined by the SURFACE command

OFFSET:

This command specifies the height offset of profiles for magnetic field calculations relative to
previously defined profiles for soil potential calculations. This number is typically used to
specify a new profile in the air just above a previously defined soil potential profile on the earth's
surface. Since the positive z-axis is directed downwards, a negative value must be entered to
specify an upwards offset.

REFERENCE:

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

This command specifies the value of the reference magnetic field.

ACCURACY:

This command specifies the desired accuracy for potential calculations in layered soils. The
default value selected by MALZ for this parameter is adequate in most situations.

TERMS:

This command specifies the maximum number of series terms to be used in the series
development of the potential function for layered soil cases. The default value selected by MALZ
for this parameter is adequate in most situations.

BASE-LAYER-Tolerance:

This command specifies the tolerance value used in determining the common layer thickness in
the multilayer option. A larger tolerance value may speed up the computation with some loss of
accuracy. The default value should be used in most cases.

USER-CONTROL:

This command instructs the program whether or not to allow the user to control the computations
with the TERMS, REACH, and JUMP parameters in the case of a multilayer soil. It is
recommended that the default setting (OFF) always be used.

FREQUENCY:

This command specifies the frequency of the current supplied by all busses (e.g. 50 or 60 Hz). It
also specifies the frequency at which the impedances of the current injection lead types and
conductor types were determined if the METHOD command has been issued with a qualifier
other than EXACT (this is rarely the case). This latter value is not normally specified since
MALZ by default calculates the impedances of conductors itself based on their dimensions and
electrical characteristics.

VARY:

This command is specified when the MALZ simulation is to be repeated at several bus supply
current frequencies.

ACCELERATION:

This command and its subcommands specifies parameters used by the series acceleration
routines of MALZ. The default settings are usually satisfactory, so these commands need not be
specified in most cases.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

LARGE-DISTANce:

This command allows you to speed up the program by allowing it to use a faster simplified
expression every time an observation point is far enough from a conductor. This option is on by
default, so you need not specify the LARGE-DISTANCE command unless you wish to modify
its control parameter value or turn off this option.

PRE-COMPUTATion:

This command invokes the acceleration scheme based on pre-computation in the multilayer soil
case. It is extremely effective when most conductors have a common depth and/or most earth
potential profile points have a common depth. It also depends on the specified accuracy. For a
MALT run with many conductors and many potential profile points, a larger accuracy value (e.g.
0.1, i.e., 10%) can be specified for preliminary results. For the final results, it should be 5% or
1%. This way, the run time can be reduced substantially.

4.5.4 MALZ Standard Commands


COMMENT:

This command allows the user to insert comment lines wherever desired in the MALZ command
input file and the session save file. These comments do not appear in the output file. The
exclamation mark "!" can be used as a synonym for COMMENT.

ENDPROGRAM or EXIT or ENDFILE:

This command signals the end of the input file.

ENDMODULE:

ENDMODULE instructs MALZ to exit the module to which the most recently specified command
belongs. Specification of this command is optional.

TEXT:

This command is used to insert comment lines at the beginning of the output file. A maximum of ten
TEXT commands may be issued and they must immediately follow the MALZ Program Command.

4.6 CONDUCTOR SUBDIVISION


To the extent that leakage current density varies along each conductor segment, the accuracy of MALZ
results is improved as the conductors specified by the user are more finely segmented. However,
increasing the number of segments increases the computation time and memory required, so accuracy
must be balanced against reasonable run times and available storage space.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

Part of the subdivision process is performed automatically by the program, while other parts are
controlled by the user - either by specifying the total number of segments desired, or by
enabling/disabling presegmentation procedures.

Conductors are subdivided according to the following four-step procedure:

1. The original conductors specified by the user are automatically subdivided at all soil layer
boundaries. This is done unconditionally.
2. Each conductor is subdivided into equal length segments according to the number of segments
indicated by the user (if any) for that conductor using the CONDUCTOR subcommand of
MAIN-GROUND. The last variable of this command, which specifies the number of segments,
is referred to as the presubdivision number. Presubdivision is enabled and disabled using the
SUBDIVISION command of the SYSTEM module.
3. Next, the automated subdivision process subdivides the largest conductors until the total number
of segments specified with the SUBVISION command is reached. This is done using an
optimized subdivision algorithm.
4. Finally, the automated subdivision process further subdivides conductors at locations where
conductors touch or intersect each other (i.e., at "nodes").
Notes: If the program's arrays are completely filled at any time during the subdivision process, no further
subdivision takes place.

Whether or not presubdivision is invoked, the automated subdivision process is always activated
and subdivides the original conductors into smaller segments. This subdivision is optimized
based on the originally specified ground conductors. The presubdivision process can be used to
modify the initial conditions of the automated process.

Guidelines for the Size of Presubdivision Segments

Two important guidelines should be followed when specifying the number of segments into which a
conductor will be subdivided:

In the case of a grounding system, where the conductors' lengths are relatively similar, the
segmentation of the different conductors should keep all the segment lengths within the same
order of magnitude.
In the case of very long conductors, such as pipelines, segmentation should be fine wherever the
current distribution is likely to vary rapidly. This would be the case, for instance, whenever two
conductors approach each other and current may flow between the two conductors. Similarly, it
is important to have fine segmentation in any structure near a grounding system which is
injecting current into the soil. A fine segmentation improves the sampling of the potential rise or
decay and provides a better estimate of the actual behaviour of the potentials in the conductors.
In sections of a long conductor far from other conductors or from current injection points much
more coarse segmentation can be used.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

4.7 VERTICALLY, SPHERICALLY, AND CYLINDRICALLY


LAYERED SOIL MODELS AND FINITE VOLUME SOIL
MODEL

4.7.1 Vertically Layered Soil Models


The specification of an earth structure model consisting of vertical layers requires the understanding of
various definitions and conventions used in program MALZ. This section discusses some of the most
important of these definitions and conventions.

Figure 4.5 shows an earth model consisting of three vertical layers with resistivities ρι, ρ and ρr
respectively. The reference layer resistivity is always the center layer resistivity ρ (for horizontally-
layered soils, the reference resistivity is that of the top layer). If the earth structure consists of two
vertical layers only, then the reference layer resistivity is the left layer (also assumed to be a very thick
center layer).

Examination of Figure 4.5 reveals that the interface plane between two adjacent vertical planes can be
uniquely defined by: the angle θ of the interface trace on the x-y plane (earth surface) with respect to the
positive direction of the ox axis; and by the x and y coordinates of one point on the interface trace. For
example, the interface plane separating the right and central layers (Sr) is defined by the angle θ and the
coordinates of point Mr.

Figure 4.5 Schematic of a Vertically Layered Soil

It is clear now that one needs to know how to distinguish the left layer from the right layer because
firstly, one does not necessarily have to orient the x-axis from left to right (arbitrary choice of the
coordinates system) and secondly, there are ambiguous situations (such as interface planes parallel to x-
axis) for which distinction between the left and right layers becomes blurred. To resolve such cases,
MALZ assumes always that the observation point Mo defined by the coordinates x = ∞, y = 0, z = 0 is in

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

the right layer. If Mo happens to be located exactly on the interface plane, then the point Mo is defined
by x = ∞, y = ε, z = 0, where ε is a small positive number. An example of a typical vertically-layered soil
specification is given in Figure 4.6.

SOIL-TYPE,LIMITED-LAY
VERTICAL
LAYER,LEFT,100.
LAYER,CENTRAL,150.
LAYER,RIGHT,200.
ANGLE,90.
TRACE-POINT,LEFT,-2.,0.
TRACE-POINT,RIGHT,0.,0.
ENDMODULE

Figure 4.6 Sample Vertical Soil Specification

In this sample command file entry, the LAYER command specifies the position and resistivity (in ohm-
m) of a given layer, while the ANGLE command specifies the angle (in degrees) between the leftmost
layer and the positive x-axis. The TRACE_POINT command specifies the (X,Y) location of a point at
the earth's surface on the interface plane between two layers. For more details on these commands,
consult the Help Reference.

4.7.2 Spherically Layered Soil Models


A spherical soil model is composed of three soil regions delineated by two concentric hemispherical
interfaces, as shown in Figure 4.7. Spherical soil models are useful in modelling grounding systems
located in finite soil heterogeneities. Typically, these soil structures are artificial. For example, a
spherical soil model can be used to represent a building foundation buried in a given volume of backfill,
and surrounded by native soil.

Figure 4.7 Schematic of a Spherically Layered Soil

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

When the spherical soil model is specified in the input file, it is entered in essentially the same way as a
horizontal 3-layer soil. The qualifier "SPHERICAL" is added to the SOIL-TYPE command to
distinguish the spherical soil model from the horizontal soil and the geometrical center of the
hemispherical interfaces is specified by its x and y coordinates after this qualifier. A typical command
file entry specifying a spherical soil is given in Figure 4.8.

SOIL-TYPE,SPHERICAL, 0.0,0.0
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP,50.,8.
LAYER,CENTRAL,100.,12.
LAYER,BOTTOM,200.
ENDMODULE

Figure 4.8 Sample Spherical Soil Specification

When a spherical soil is specified, the qualifier "TOP" in the LAYER command refers to the innermost
region, while "CENTRAL" means the middle region, and "BOTTOM" means the outer region. The
LAYER command specifies the resistivity of the region designated by the qualifier and the radius from
the center of the soil model to the hemispherical outer boundary of that region. For example, in Figure
4.8 the command LAYER,TOP,50.,8. describes the innermost hemispherical region as having a
resistivity of 50 ohm-m and a radius of 8 feet or 8 meters (depending on what system of units was
chosen). Similarly, the resistivity and outer radius of the middle region are 100 ohm-m and 12 feet or
meters respectively. Note, however, that the thickness of the middle region is 4 feet or 4 meters (i.e., 12
- 8 = 4).

4.7.3 Cylindrically Layered Soil Models


There are two types of cylindrical soil models: Horizontal semi-cylindrical soil model and Vertical
cylindrical soil model. The horizontal semi-cylindrical soil model consists of two regions delineated by a
horizontal semi-cylindrical interface (see Figure 4.9b). The Vertical cylindrical soil model consists of
two regions delineated by a vertical semi-infinite long cylindrical interface (see Figure 4.9a). Cylindrical
layer of resistivity ρ1 is embedded in the native soil of resistivity ρ2. Cylindrical soil models are useful in
modeling grounding systems located near deep wells, rivers, valleys and so on.

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

Figure 4.9 Vertical and Horizontal Cylindrical Soils

To specify the cylindrical soil type, use the qualifier “CYLINDRICAL” with SOIL-TYPE command.
First let us consider a vertical cylindrical soil model specification. A typical command file entry
specifying a vertical cylindrical soil is given in Figure 4.10. A geometrical center of the cylindrical
interface is specified by its x and y coordinates after qualifier “CYLINDRICAL”. Then VERTICAL
command follows. Resistivity inside the cylinder and the radius of the cylinder are specified by the
LAYER command after qualifier “INSIDE”. Resistivity outside the cylinder is specified by LAYER
command after qualifier “OUTSIDE”.
SOIL-TYPE, CYLINDRICAL,0,0
VERTICAL
LAYER,INSIDE,10.,5.
LAYER,OUTSIDE,100.
ENDMODULE

Figure 4.10 Sample Vertical Cylindrical Soil Specification

Specification template for the horizontal cylindrical soil model is similar to a vertical cylindrical soil
model template. A typical command file entry specifying a horizontal cylindrical soil is given in Figure
4.11. HORIZONTAL command defines the horizontal cylindrical soil model.
SOIL-TYPE, CYLINDRICAL
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,INSIDE,10.,5.
LAYER,OUTSIDE,100.
TRACE-POINT,,10,80
ANGLE,110
ENDMODULE

Figure 4.11 Sample Horizontal Cylindrical Soil Specification

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

Note that for the horizontal cylindrical soil model, two more commands should be introduced. The first
command is TRACE-POINT, which defines x and y coordinates of the trace point on the center axis of
the horizontal semi-cylinder. Trace point should always lie on the earth surface. The second command
ANGLE defines the angle between the axis of the semi-cylinder and the x-axis of selected coordinate
system.

4.7.4 Finite-Volume Soil Model


Finite volume soil model consists of one or more finite volumes of different resistivities buried in a
uniform soil. This soil structure may particularly be useful when finite heterogeneities may have a major
influence on the performance of a grounding system. There are many practical structures which
correspond to this type of soil model, such as swimming pools, transformer sumps, depression in the
soil, insulating membranes, lakes, open mines, etc.

Each finite volume (of rectangular or trapezoidal shape) is defined by eight vertices or six surfaces(see
Figure 4.12). In order to define a finite volume, two opposite surfaces should be specified, for example
top and bottom ones. Each surface is defined by four points – four vertices.

Finite-volume soil model will be invoked by specifying the corresponding qualifier of the SOIL-TYPE
command as shown in Figure 4.13. NATIVE-SOIL command specifies the resistivity of native soil.
VOLUME command and its subcommands define each finite volume separately.

Figure 4.12 Schematic of a Finite-Volume Soil Model

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Chapter 4 MALZ Command Input Files

SOIL-TYPE,FINITE-VOLUME
NATIVE-SOIL,500.
VOLUME,Lake,20.,1000
FACE,1,2,3,4
FACE,5,6,7,8
VERTEX,-10.,-10.,0.
VERTEX, 10.,-10.,0.
VERTEX, 10., 10.,0.
VERTEX,-10., 10.,0.
VERTEX,-10.,-10.,2.
VERTEX, 10.,-10.,2.
VERTEX, 10., 10.,2.
VERTEX,-10., 10.,2.
ENDMODULE

Figure 4.13 Sample Finite-Volume Soil Model Specification

VOLUME command specifies finite-volume name, resistivity and number of surface elements. The
FACE commands are used to define two opposite surfaces by enumeration of its vertices numbers.
For example, the top surface of finite volume in the Figure 4.13 is constituted by vertices numbers 1,2 3
and 4.
Important Note: The vertices, constituting the face should lie in the same plane and follow either in a
clockwise or counterclockwise manner. The order of the vertex consecution should be the same for all
FACE commands for a given volume. The vertex sequence should be consistent, i.e. each pair of
vertices, occupying the same position in the FACE commands should form a volume edge.
The eight VERTEX commands that follow the FACE command specifie x, y, z coordinates of each of
the eight vertices.

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Chapter 5 Sample MALZ Run

5 SAMPLE MALZ RUN


The sample case described in this chapter represents a real grounding installation which was constructed
especially to evaluate the influence of the longitudinal impedance values of long conductors upon the
performance of grounding systems. The reader will find detailed information regarding this experimental
installation in [5.1].

5.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM


The configuration of the experimental grounding system is shown in Figure 5.1.

Figure 5.1 Experimental Grounding System

As Figure 5.1 shows, the dimensions of the grounding system are moderate, and since earth resistivity is
relatively low (almost uniform soil; average resistivity 104 ohm-meters), and the test current frequency
is 50 Hz, one should not expect any significant effects due to the impedances and capacitances of copper
ground conductors.

However, this experimental grounding system is made of steel conductors, which have an internal
resistance about ten times larger than copper conductors. The reactance of steel conductors is also
significantly larger than that of copper.

Consequently, this grounding system is equivalent to a system made of copper but several times the size
of the steel grounding system.

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Chapter 5 Sample MALZ Run

A test current of 100 A is injected at one single injection node located at the center of ground conductor
1, defined by interconnection nodes 1 and 2.

It should be noted immediately that conductor 1 has been specified as shown in Figure 5.1, in order to
satisfy the MALZ requirement that the injection node of a conductor always be at its center. The length
of conductor 1 has been kept small (with respect to the dimensions of the grounding system) in order to
achieve a better accuracy during the computation of the voltage drop within this first conductor 1, and
also because the potentials (with respect to remote soil, assumed at zero potential) at nodes 1 and 2 were
measured during the experiment.

During the field tests the following values are measured.

Impedance of the grounding system.


Potential values (with respect to remote earth) at each node shown in Figure 5.1.
The measured potential values are given in reference [5.1] as a percentage of the potential at the current
injection point, which is assumed to be at a potential of 100 %.

In order to compare the MALZ computed values with the measured values, MALZ computations have
been translated into percent values and plotted in Figure 5.2.

The values of the ground conductor impedances and capacitances are given in the MALZ input file in
Section 5.2.

As can be seen in the MALZ input file, only 12 ground conductors are needed to specify the complete
grounding system. Of course, in normal problems, only 9 conductors need have been specified, i.e., the
following:

1. From node 22 to node 11


2. From node 3 to node 12
3. From node 5 to node 15
4. From node 15 to node 8
5. From node 7 to node 10
6. From node 11 to node 12
and, in order to better define the injection node:

7. From node 1 to node 2


8. From node 2 to node 5
9. From node 1 to node 4.

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Chapter 5 Sample MALZ Run

However, because it was desired to duplicate all the experimental observation nodes used to monitor the
potential along the grounding system (the observation nodes are indicated by the small circles shown in
Figures 5.1 and 5.2), it was necessary to select these 12 original conductors in order to force MALZ to
select all the required nodes.

Figure 5.2 Measured and Computed Results

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Chapter 5 Sample MALZ Run

5.2 MALZ INPUT DATA FILE


A MALZ input file corresponding to the example presented in the previous section is as follows:
MALZ
COMMENT,This is a demo
COMMENT,test for SICL input processor.
COMMENT,Test is based on program MALZ
TEXT,------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TEXT, MALZ FREQUENCY DOMAIN GROUND IMPEDANCE PROGRAM
TEXT, SAMPLE GRID MODELLED BASED ON ACTUAL INSTALLATION
TEXT, BUILT IN ORDER TO COMPARE MEASUREMENTS WITH THEORY.
TEXT,------------------------------------------------------------------------------
OPTIONS
UNITS,METRIC
RUN-IDENTIFI,TEST CASE MALZ
ENDMODULE
COMPUTATION
TERMS,5000
ACCURACY,0.001
FREQUENCY,50,50
DETERMINE,POTENTIAL
OFFSET,-0.001
PROFIL,50,-10.,12.,0.,2.5,0.,0.
SOIL-TYPE
UNIFORM,EARTH,104.0
SYSTEM
SUBDIVISION,PRESUBDIVI,1
CHARACTERISTIC
LEAD,DEFAULT,0.001,0.0005
LEAD,0.0010,0.0005,999.0
CONDUCTOR,DEFAULT,7.0,5.0
CONDUCTOR,7.00,5.00,0.0,900.
IMPEDANCE
METHOD,USER-DEFINED
TOLERANCE,0.001
BUSS,REFERENCE,100.
NETWORK
MAIN
CONDUCTOR,1,1,0,1,0.,44.,.5,0.,50.,0.5,0.003,0
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,0,0,0.,0.,0.5,0.,44.,0.5,0.003,0
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,0,0,0.,50.,0.5,0.,70.,0.5,0.003,0
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,0,0,0.,24.,0.5,50.,24.,0.5,0.003,0
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,0,0,20.,0.,0.5,20.,24.,0.5,0.003,0
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,0,0,20.,24.,0.5,20.,70.,0.5,0.003,2
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,0,0,50.,0.,0.5,50.,24.,0.5,0.003,0
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,0,0,176.,0.,0.5,176.,24.,0.5,0.003,0
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,0,0,-24.,0.,0.5,50.,0.,0.5,0.003,0
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,0,0,50.,0.,0.5,176.,0.,0.5,0.003,5
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,0,0,50.,24.,0.5,176.,24.,0.5,0.003,5
CONDUCTOR,-1,1,0,0,0.,70.,0.5,20.,70.,0.5,0.003,0
ENDPROGRAM
Note that all the commands in italics are optional. Satisfactory computation results would have been
obtained without them.

5.3 MALZ OUTPUT


The printout generated by the MALZ program for this example run is included in the file
MALZOUT.PUT, which is shipped with the MALZ program. See Section 1.3 of Chapter 1 for details on
examining results generated by the MALZ program.

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Chapter 5 Sample MALZ Run

5.4 REFERENCES
[5.1] G-A. I. Yacobs, D. I. Petrov, "On Allowing for the Longitudinal Impedance of Horizontal
Elements in Large Earthing", Elektrichestvo, No. 1, pp. 13-18, Jan. 1974.

MALZ Page 5-5


Appendix A Equivalent Cylindrical Conductors

APPENDIX A

EQUIVALENT CYLINDRICAL CONDUCTORS


Program MALZ assumes that the ground network being analyzed consists of cylindrical conductors.

Theoretical considerations and model tests show that non-cylindrical conductors can be represented with
a very good approximation by equivalent cylindrical conductors.

It is possible to determine the equivalent cylindrical conductor of a non-cylindrical conductor quite


rigorously. However, in practice, one can use the concept of "equivalent contact area with soil" in order
to obtain an approximate equivalent cylindrical conductor which will give satisfactory agreement.
Briefly stated, the equivalent cylindrical conductor has the same surface area in contact with the soil as
the original conductor. Note however that in some cases (L, U or T shaped busses for example), this
surface must be derated because the external surface of the ground conductor is not in contact with soil
in an "efficient" manner.

The above comments are illustrated in Figure A.1.

MALZ Page A-1


Appendix A Equivalent Cylindrical Conductors

Figure A.1 Equivalent Cylindrical Conductors

MALZ Page A-2


Appendix B Typical Resistivities and Permeabilities

APPENDIX B

TYPICAL RESISTIVITIES AND PERMEABILITIES


The following values are provided for your convenience.

B.1 TYPICAL RESISTIVITIES


Pure Silver: 1.6289 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 0.94 ρcu)
Annealed Copper: 1.7241 x 10-8 Ω-m (= ρcu)
Aluminum: 2.83 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 1.64 ρcu)
Brass: 6.7 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 3.9 ρcu)
Pure Iron: 9.78 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 5.7 ρcu)
Tin: 11.6 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 6.7 ρcu)
Commercial Galvanized Steel
Siemens-Martin: 16.3 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 9.4 ρcu)
HS: 20.1 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 11.7 ρcu)
EHS: 20.9 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 12.1 ρcu)
Steel Rails: 16.6 - 22.4 x 10-8 Ω-m (= 9.6 - 13 ρcu)

B.2 TYPICAL RELATIVE (TO FREE SPACE) PERMEABILITIES


Silver: 1 p.u.
Copper: 1 p.u.
Aluminum: 1 p.u.
Brass: 1 p.u.
Tin: 1 p.u.
Cast Iron: 60 p.u.
Steel Pipes
Low Current : 10 - 100 p.u.
High Current: 100 - 1000 p.u.

Permeability of Free Space: 1.2566 x 10-6 henries/meter

MALZ Page B-1


Appendix C Development of a Lightning Conductive Interference Computer Model

APPENDIX C

DEVELOPMENT OF A LIGHTNING CONDUCTIVE


INTERFERENCE COMPUTER MODEL
This appendix describes how to build a lightning interference computer model for the analysis of
conductive interference effects. The discussion is based on the example problem depicted in Figures C.1
and C.2, whereby the effects of a lightning strike at the top of a containment unit are of interest.

C.1 BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE COMPUTER MODEL


The main components of the computer model are as follows:

Lightning current magnitude versus time (wave shape).


Points of lightning impact and characteristics of down conductors (leads).
Ground network configuration (plant grounding system) and ground conductor characteristics.

C.1.1 Lightning Current


It is of course impossible to describe exactly lightning current waves. Statistical data on lightning
however provides typical currents which can be used as a first approximation. The value of the current
peak may be selected to be low, average or high for different runs. The current rate of rise may also be
varied from a few kA/µs to several tens of kA/µs. These variations in the time domain represented by the
lightning current function translate into various frequency spectra and energies in the frequency domain,
which is the operating environment of the MALZ program.

The general expression which is used as an approximation for a single pulse (discharge) k in a lightning
stroke is given by:

af c h c h
i t = A k e-at - e-bt  B e-Dt - e-Et (C-1)

where t is in seconds, ia t f is in amperes, and a, b, D, E , A k and B are constants which depend on the
lightning wave shape and magnitude.

MALZ Page C-1


Appendix C Development of a Lightning Conductive Interference Computer Model

Figure C.1 Top and 3-D Views of Plant Site Grounding Network

The general expression for the amplitude of the frequency spectrum of the lightning current is:

a f
I jZ = A k
FG ab  af IJ  BFG ab  af IJ
H ab  w  jwaa  bfK H ab  w  jwaa  bfK
2 2
(C-2)

It can easily be shown from Equation C-2 that lightning is essentially a relatively low frequency problem
(i.e., most frequencies of significant magnitudes in the spectrum are below 1 MHz and typically below
500 kHz).

In practice, one can use as input to the MALZ program, the frequencies determined from a Fast Fourier
Transform algorithm (FFT) applied to a recorded lightning surge or a representative sample of
frequencies as determined from Equation C-2 if the lightning wave is not known. In the example which
follows, a sample of 6 frequencies (10 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 100 kHz and 1 MHz), all of equal
magnitudes (1 kA) were selected and applied to the lightning impact point assumed to be the top of the
containment unit. Figure C.1 shows the lightning ground loop of the base of the containment unit
(approximated here as a square structure).

MALZ Page C-2


Appendix C Development of a Lightning Conductive Interference Computer Model

Figure C.2 Zone of Earth Surface Potential Computations

C.1.2 Lightning Protection Down Conductors


It is assumed that from the top of the containment unit (which constitutes the current source bus in the
MALZ input data), four down conductors (or current leads) are each attached to the center of one
segment of the base square loop (see Figure C.1). Each down conductor is assigned an inductance of 1
µH per meter (a typical value). More leads may be represented and more appropriate values may be
computed if better and more complete data is available.

C.1.3 Ground Network of the Entire Plant


A skeleton representing the main elements of the plant site grounding electrode (safety ground) was
developed as shown in Figure C.1. Many details have been ignored for simplicity and in an effort not to
obscure the concepts illustrated in this appendix. Again, it is possible to expand and refine the ground
network in order to reflect more realistically what is buried in the earth and concrete of the plant site.

All buried ground conductors shown are assumed to be 0.72 inch diameter cylindrical copper elements.
The soil is assumed to be uniform with a 100 ohm-meter resistivity value.

MALZ Page C-3


Appendix C Development of a Lightning Conductive Interference Computer Model

C.2 COMPUTATION RESULTS


Figures C.3 to C.8 show the potentials on the soil surface of the plant site area (this latter is shown as a
grey zone in Figure C.2), when a current of 1000 A at the indicated frequency is injected at the top of
containment unit.

These figures reflect the potential variations which are experienced along the conductors of the ground
network and illustrate very clearly the rapid deterioration of the equipotential properties of the ground
network as frequency increases from the Hertz bands to the Kilohertz and Megahertz bands. This
observation implies also that the equipotentiality of the plant ground will be achieved better for lightning
strokes with slow rise time than for those with sharp wave shapes.

It is of course possible to generate a time domain representation from the earth potential frequency
spectrum represented by Figures C.3 to C.8, by application of the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT)
to each computed potential profile point. Such an exercise would be needlessly time consuming if
attempted on all points shown. In practice, however, only a limited number of points present enough
interest to justify the application of IFFT in order to compute the time domain response to the lightning
stroke as observed at the selected point.

C.3 TOPOLOGICAL SHIELDING AND GROUNDING


The preceding example underlines the importance of the modern principles of topological shielding and
grounding in environments particularly susceptible to ground network noise such as nuclear reactor
control monitors and industrial process controllers. This methodology is also known as the zonal concept
of grounding.

The topological shielding and grounding approach is a coordinated methodology aimed at producing an
optimal lightning protection system by using both diversion and nested shields and grounds together
with appropriate limiting current and voltage devices. Essentially, the principles to follow consist of
identifying shielded structures (buildings, enclosures, cabinets, etc.) that can be nested within each other
and grounding the outside of each shielded structure to the inside of the one enclosing it as illustrated in
Figure C.9. All wires entering a given shield are connected to the outside of that shielded structure
through a suitable protective device. In this way, interference levels are reduced successively at each
inner shielded structure.

MALZ Page C-4


Appendix C Development of a Lightning Conductive Interference Computer Model

Figure C.3 Earth Surface Potentials at 10 Hertz

Figure C.4 Earth Surface Potentials at 100 Hertz

MALZ Page C-5


Appendix C Development of a Lightning Conductive Interference Computer Model

Figure C.5 Earth Surface Potentials at 1 Kilohertz

Figure C.6 Earth Surface Potentials at 10 Kilohertz

MALZ Page C-6


Appendix C Development of a Lightning Conductive Interference Computer Model

Figure C.7 Earth Surface Potentials at 100 Kilohertz

Figure C.8 Earth Surface Potentials at 1 Megahertz

MALZ Page C-7


Appendix C Development of a Lightning Conductive Interference Computer Model

Figure C.9 Illustration of the Topological Shielding and Grounding Technique

MALZ Page C-8


Appendix D Structure and Organization of Commands

APPENDIX D

STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF COMMANDS

D.1 FOREWORD
The command mode allows easier data entry for the user. Each command name is chosen adequately to
identify MALZ data.

The command mode has two principal command types, i.e., Standard (or utility) commands, and
Specification (or engineering specification) commands. The Standard commands along with the
Specification commands constitute the MALZ Command Language, which is used to communicate with
the MALZ program. The Specification commands are occasionally referred to as "nonstandard
commands" or simply, "commands", when no confusion is possible.

Each option is invoked using commands (English words, verbs and composites) consisting of a string of
ASCII characters. It is important that the syntactic rules and conventions governing the MALZ command
language be well understood.

D.2 COMMAND FORMAT AND SYNTAX


Each data line expected by MALZ has the following format:

Command, qualifier_1, ..., qualifier_n, variable_1, ..., variable_m

"Command" and "qualifier_i" are strings of characters, while "variable_i" can be a string of characters,
an integer or a real value. There may be zero, one or several qualifiers and/or variables associated with
the command.

A blank data line is recognized as a "null" command. The following typical data lines are equivalent to a
"null" command:

,b,,bbb,,,bbb (b is a blank)

,,,,b,bb

The comma "," is the data line delimiter. Leading blanks are ignored. Note that blanks embedded
between two strings of nonblank characters are significant. However, such blanks are interchangeable
with the dash "-" and underline "_" characters. For example, the command "RUN-IDENTIFIcation" may
also be entered as "RUN IDENTIFIcation" or "RUN_IDENTIFIcation" because MALZ considers the
underline and dash characters inside of a command to be equivalent to the blank character.

MALZ Page D-1


Appendix D Structure and Organization of Commands

Command qualifiers and variables are optional in the sense that if no qualifier or value is given then
default qualifiers and values will automatically be selected.

D.3 SHORTHAND FORMS


In the MALZ command language, you may use the full names, or short-forms of them. Accepted or
admissible short-forms use the first four or more characters in the corresponding MALZ command. Any
short-form from 4 to 12 characters must match the first of leading portion of a command. Characters in
the 13th position onward, if any, in a command name, or a short-form are cosmetic. They are ignored.
Finally, short-forms for commands must be a substring of the command name.

D.4 HIERARCHY OF COMMANDS


MALZ recognizes Standard and Specification commands. Specification commands are structured in a
hierarchy of five layers. The top or first layer of commands consists of the program name.

The five layers (or levels) of Specification commands are as follows:

Highest I-Program command (Main Command)


Hierarchy
(highest II-Module commands (Access commands)
layer
or level) III-Option commands (Key commands)
|
| IV-Group commands (Block commands)
|
LowestV-Data commands Hierarchy

Appendix E shows the commands and their structure as supported by the MALZ software package. Two
commands at adjacent layers are said to be connected (or linked) if one must be given or specified before
the other. Specification of lower level command requires the specification of a command in the
command level immediately above it. Command levels cannot be skipped. Commands on different
branches of the hierarchy can share the same names while their function and syntax as a rule will differ.

D.5 STANDARD COMMANDS


Standard commands are used by MALZ to carry out standard actions which are usually common to all
CDEGS modules.

Standard commands are those which govern the general operation of MALZ. They may be issued at any
time during the input session. The syntax of a Standard command is:

Keyword, Qualifier_1, Qualifier_2,..., Qualifier_n, value_1, Value_2,...

MALZ Page D-2


Appendix D Structure and Organization of Commands

where the keyword is the actual name of the command, and the qualifiers (of which there may be none,
one, or many) describe which of the command's options are desired. Both the keyword and the qualifiers
must be entered in uppercase if the lowercase option is disabled. Commas are used to separate qualifiers
from the keyword and from each other. If a command which has qualifiers is entered without a qualifier,
then MALZ makes a default choice of its own; i.e., the specification of qualifiers is optional. In some
cases, numerical values may be required to fully specify a standard command.

Standard commands and their synonyms may be abbreviated, just as Specification commands may.

D.6 SPECIFICATION COMMANDS


Specification commands are structured in a hierarchy of five layers. The top or first layer of commands
consists of a module name. As soon as one of these is specified, all subsequent lower-level
(Specification) commands issued are assumed to belong to that module.

The user may specify some commands as many times as necessary. Depending on the command,
repetitions will have a "cumulative" or a "substitutive" effect. Cumulative means that new data
associated with that command is added to the existing set.

The hierarchy of Specification commands can be found in Appendix E of this manual. An index of all
MALZ commands and detailed information on each command and related topics can be found in the
Help Reference. The online help facility of SICL and SMILS also provides this information.

MALZ Page D-3


Appendix E Fixed-Format Input Files

APPENDIX E

FIXED-FORMAT INPUT FILES


Data entry for older versions of MALZ was made by means of fixed-format input files. While this input
mode has been superceded by the more user-friendly command language, it can still be invoked for use
with older input files. Simply insert the following two command lines at the beginning of the fixed-
format file in order to invoke the fixed-format mode:

MALZ
OLD-FASHION

MALZ Page E-1


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MALZ Page U-1