Sei sulla pagina 1di 25

International Trade and Logistics

CIA – 3

Research Paper on

Impact of IMF, WTO and World Bank on


International Trade

Akash Harlalka (1623505)

Amrit Dasgupta (1623507)

Kirti Sanghi (1623520)

Shrey Jain (1623545)

Siddharth Agarwal (1623546)


Table of Contents:

Sr. No. Particulars Pg. No.

1 Introduction 1-4

2 Literature Review 5-9

3 Impact 10-17

4 Policies 18-20

21-22
5 Conclusion

6
Bibliography 23
Introduction:

The International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the World Trade Organization
(WTO) are highlighted in the financial press or on television nearly every day. From loans to
Greece to trade deals in Asia, these organizations make headlines across the globe.
Understanding these entities and their missions will provide greater insight into how these
organizations help to shape the global economy.

Through this proposal we would aim to analyse and evaluate the roles and the impact on trade of
the three international institutes namely the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank
and the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) started in July 1944 and began its operations on the 1st
of March 1947 in Washington D.C.. The purpose of setting up this institution was to rebuild the
international economy and prevent the economic crisis such as the Great Depression. IMF was
set up because there was a need for a co-operative organisation that would oversee the
international monetary system and also be responsible for promoting a balanced global economic
trade. Currently with a membership of 187 countries the IMF provides systematic mechanisms
for foreign exchange transactions in order to promote balanced global economic trade. The IMF
advises and focuses on member countries' macroeconomic policies to ensure its own wealth and
that of its members are safeguarded. It does surveillance of the member countries policies to
ensure they do not have a negative effect on the exchange rates and trade markets. The IMF also
does periodic consultations to check member countries overall economic positions and advises
them on how to improve their economy. The IMF also provides loans to countries that have
problems with their balance of payments. The loans have conditions attached to them and the
borrower countries must implement the economic reforms as determined by the IMF. These
structural adjustment programmes are meant to help the countries to overcome the problems of
their balance of payments.

The World Bank, established in 1944 plays a role in the reconstruction of post-war Europe. It has
a similar governance structure as the IMF, with a board of Governors with representatives from
all member states as the highest decision-making body and the voting system is the same as that

1
of the IMF. America holds the largest share of votes and the president is also by tradition a US
citizen, (Peet, 2003).

The World Bank group consists of five organisations, the International Bank for Reconstruction
and Development (IBRD), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International
Development Association (IDA), the International Centre for the Settlement of Investments
Disputes (ICSID) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). The IBDR and
the IDA are the two that are usually referred to as the World Bank and for the purpose of this
essay we will restrict our attention to the two. The IBDR provides long term loans and aid for
economic development. The IBDR is financed from the sale of bonds on international finance
markets and fro interest gained from loan repayments. IDA focuses on giving credits and grants
to poor countries. These grants are interest free but have a 0.75 percent administrative charge per
annum. These grants are aimed to assist programmes of economic growth, reduce inequalities
and improvement of living conditions. IDA is funded from contributions from richer member
countries and from income earned from IBDR financing. Like the IMF, the World Bank has
conditions attached its loans.

The bank does not only provide loans but also provides technical assistance on development
issues. It provides knowledge through education and analytical services. Since its establishment,
the World Bank has become more engaged in issues of institutional and policy change in
borrowing countries. The bank defines what would be the best development approach on
different projects at a particular time. Currently the Bank defines its mission as reducing global
poverty and also taking into account the environmental issues by helping member countries
through ensuring economic growth by "capacity building" and helping to create "infrastructure".

Although the IMF and the World Bank are two separate institutions, sometimes the two are often
confused as one or used interchangeably by many people. The governance of the two institutions
is dominated by the industrialised countries mainly the G8 whom due to their voting power act
without much consultation with poor/developing countries who are underrepresented in the two
institutes therefore they hold little voting power to be able to influence change in the policing.
Critiques of the World Bank and the IMF have accused them of promoting the top-down
approach in development which has made them to be regarded as the experts in the field of

2
financial regulation and economic development. Their prescriptive rules are viewed by many as
able to undermine or eliminate alternative perceptions on development to the benefit of the two.

The IMF and the World Bank's policies have had negative economic and social impacts on many
countries that have had financial assistance from them especially the developing countries. They
impose conditions on their loans based on what is termed the "Washington Consensus" which is
criticised by many as a neoliberalist approach of trade liberalisation and development,
investment and the financial sector, deregulation and the privatisation of nationalised industries,
conditions that are not flexible to individual countries circumstances and the prescriptive
recommendations by the World Bank and the IMF fail to address the economic problems within
countries thereby promoting massive global economic inequalities. While it is argued that each
individual country is responsible for its own social and economic policies, national policies are
overridden by the conditions of the structural adjustment programmes thereby leaving such
countries indirectly losing their governance to the World Bank or the IMF. The prescriptive
nature of the structural adjustments has proved to be failing to address the economic problems
within countries leaving them in serious financial and economic problems which many fail to
recover from.

The World Bank has been criticised for they type of projects it funds many of which are said to
have social and environmental implications for the affected areas, eg...... Its emphasis on
privatisation has led to states losing control of providing essential goods and services such as
health care and education resulting in the collapse of such services.

World Trade Organisation (WTO) is another financial body like the IMF and World Bank. The
WTO's function is to promote free and fair trade between member states with a view of
promoting economic prosperity and contributing to international peace. This achieved through
the administration of trade agreements and acting a forum for trade negotiations, helping to settle
trade disputes, reviewing national trade policies, aiding developing countries in trade policy
issues through technical assistance and training programmes and cooperating with other
international organisations such as the IMF and the World Bank.

Unlike the IMF and the World Bank, the WTO is a more member driven organisation where all
major decisions are made by member states by reaching a consensus and the Secretariat has very

3
limited powers. The WTO operates a one country one vote system. Members of the WTO agree
to abide by the rules of the organisation.

Although the WTO appears to be a more democratic organisation, its critiques see it as a more
closed organisation where many meetings are informal. These informal meetings are crucial
before negotiations reach the more formal levels before a consensus can be reached between
member countries. These raises concerns over the transparency of the organisation. Although all
member states are formally equal, the WTO is to a large extent controlled by certain groups of
states while others have very limited influence and ability to keep up to date with all issues.

4
Literature Review:

(Viilup, 2016)

The World Bank is an international financial organisation formed by the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association to promote the
free flow and regulated monetary instruments to promote globalisation, removal of trade and
tariff and finally the easy availability of money supply to the concern countries. The World Bank
has facilitated trade in many ways. It has also helped non-monetary through is various initiatives
and need base programmes to ensure that the organisation has provided a shoulder to the needy.
The author has mentioned this with special emphasis on the EU and its relevant impacts. The
paper has presented various sides of the same organisation to draw the attention and cover all
aspects of international trade and logistics getting covered in the article.

In the current unsure world business setting, all countries got to act to retain capitalist confidence
and avoid the disruption of trade flows and world provide chains. Countries will improve the
quality of future policies by deepening their commitments in trilateral fora like the international
organisation and regional trade agreements. The timely and clear communication of all future
changes in foreign policy square measure vital to reduce policy uncertainty.

The World Bank powerfully supports the creation of a sound three-sided trade system.
Therefore, the aim of its strategy is to supply support and experience to permit Least Developed
Countries (LDCs) and developing countries to push trade-related reforms so as to profit totally
from international trade flows and promote national development.24 this can be done through the
implementation of ‘Aid For Trade’ programmes.25 These programmes aim ‘to facilitate
governments reap the gains from openness to trade and regional integration, and additionally to
manage risks of economic changes, reminiscent of adjustment prices and external shocks’.26
victimization trade additional effectively to expand sources of property financial gain is crucial
to achieving the WBG’s twin goals of ending extreme economic condition and boosting shared
prosperity. Economic integration through trade and improved aggressiveness is central to any
development strategy. The challenges for developing countries ar to grow their economies,
improve productivity, boost real incomes and make additional and higher jobs. to fulfill these
challenges, countries ought to be higher integrated with the planet economy, and policymakers,

5
non-public companies and international partners ar actively seeking support from the WBG to
search out effective ways that of achieving this

(IEO, 2008)

The paper tends to examine the International monetary fund involvement in the he arena of the
international trade with various perspectives and potential impacts. The influence by the IMF on
the International trade and been the regulation of money supply by the organisation. It has
influenced trade decisions across regions. It has been established through the cooperative
agreements and the soft mandate of the international monetary fund. It has substantially affected
the functioning and many times restriction in case of need of emergency. It explains the various
channels through which the IMF has been able to regulate the trade to a large extent and also
provided criticism on the part of IMF for not working in the efficiency and affectability of the
system. It has created sufficient opportunities for international trade along with opening up of
blocked access routes as mentioned in detailed by the author in the passage.

The IMF’s work on trade covers several initiatives that are different in nature and governed by
different internal and external practices. Rather than assessing each trade policy-related activity
and its effectiveness in achieving its own goals, many of these activities have already been
independently evaluated by the IEO.

(Kim)

The research paper talks about the World Trade organisation and the indirect ways to
establishing a touch and impact on the international trade. It is responsible for formulation and
organisation of various policies and frameworks to ensure that the organisations can freely trade
on the international front. This is done to keep intact the regulations and guidelines under which
the trade functions. This paper analyzes the impact of the WTO on international trade. Whether
the WTO has been successful in expanding trade among its members is important for several
reasons. One is that there is a strong presumption that increased trade and trade liberalization
foster growth and development. The work of the UN agency and therefore the WTO is
complementary. A sound international national economy is required to support vivacious
international trade, whereas swimmingly flowing trade helps cut back the chance of payments
imbalances and monetary crisis. The establishments work along to confirm a robust system of

6
international trade and payments that's hospitable all countries. Such a system is crucial for
enabling economic process, raising living standards, and reducing poorness round the globe.
Cooperation and consultation between the United Nations agency and international organization
can still be key, given the raised areas of mutual support and responsibilities between the 2
establishments. Potential areas of heightened interaction embody money services and trade
facilitation. The United Nations agency powerfully supports the role of the international
organization in making certain openness, transparency, and stability within the international
commercialism system, together with its role in imposing trade rules.

(Monineath, 2014)

Studied about institutions helping economies to develop and prosper and that there are 3 major
institutions namely international monetary fund (IMF), World Bank and World trade
Organization (WTO).

International Monetary Fund’s major functions are to help countries/ economies to manage their
monetary policies effectively and efficiently, to maintain appropriate and efficient exchange rate,
to provide stability to balance of payment by providing financial and technical assistances.

World Bank has some important functions like to help countries/ economies to develop their
economic structure by providing them loan with low interest rate together with technical
assistance and guidelines. WTO that was known before as GATT (General Agreement on Tariff
and Trade) is a very prominent organization and has helped countries to open their borders and to
initiate free trade globally. WTO has roles like to facilitate trade agreement between its
members, settle trade disputes and so on. These three are very important international
organizations and play a very significant role in today’s world, they help all countries either poor
countries or rich countries to grow and develop in harmony but as we know from history and
other related information, these organization has helped and benefited poor or developing
countries more than the rich or developed countries. The author found out that these organization
has helped countries prosper but not as much as they promised and therefore have failed to
comply with their expectations. Major reason for this may be that they have had a very hard time
constraining the large or developed countries as most of the time these countries have tried to

7
bargain hard to maximize their advantage and gain more which has been denied by these
organizations but anyway the monitoring has been continuous.

These facts helps the author to conclude by saying that these organization does not provide equal
benefits to every type of countries.

(GITHUA, 2011)

Published a paper on a case study about the impacts of IMF and World Bank on Kenya in which
they talked about how important are these institutions to the countries.

Many scholars have critically examined these institutions by using the idea of responsibility,
power, discourse, etc and have argued that these institutions were set up as US dominated
institutes.

This research paper/ article studies how these institutions help in structural adjustments and debt
burden to developing countries like Kenya. They have argued that these institutions have
increased the dependency of developing nations such as Kenya on the developed and rich
countries. IMF and World Bank has huge influence and controls the economies till a certain
extent.

This study also talks about how these institutions influenced or affected the countries in Africa
during World War and Cold War. This study shows that IMF and World bank doesn’t act out of
love but out of self-interest. Developed countries have a huge impact on these institutions and
thus they seek to satisfy their interest and prosper in expense of developing countries. Structural
adjustments has not helped countries like Kenya much and rather than helping them buy
expensive foreign equipment they give them loan and due to their lack of management capability
they increase their debt rather than reducing it. The attitude of World Bank has changed
regarding reduction of debt as strictly a matter of economic prosperity to a more comprehensive
view of long-term development and sustainability has been a moderate one.

8
(Boockmann & Dreher, 2018)

Published a paper in which they investigated whether or if policies of the international financial
institutions (IFIs), i.e. the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF), add to the
development of economic freedom.

Many countries have opened up their economies over the past decade or so but the major driving
forces which has led to this process are still terribly misunderstood.

The estimates of this research suggests that the role of the IFIs on economic freedom is
ambivalent. The increase in the number of projects increases economic freedom, while the
volume or the magnitude of credits reduces freedom. This finding applies not only to the
compound freedom index, but also to the individual or separate index components, in spite of the
fact that the index pieces cover very contrasting areas of economic policy, such as monetary or
fiscal policy, barriers to trade or the quality of the legal system. In the interpretation of this paper
it can be found out that the number of programmes increases freedom because it increases both
the conditions imposed by the IFIs and the amount of contacts between them and national
politicians, which raises the sharing of knowledge. However, if the level of financing associated
with the programmes rises, this policy constraints for governments, which has a adverse effect on
governments’ willingness to undertake reforms. As the research’s results show, World Bank
projects are more likely to improve economic freedom than the programmes conducted by the
IMF. Programmes conducted by IMF have not led to changes in growth-oriented policies and
structure according to the author’s estimate. This approves of the recent criticism of the IMF
demanding to scale back or reduce the mandating of the use of fund in order to restrain its
activities to key areas of expertise or specialty and providing short term payment credits balance.

9
Impact of these Organizations on internationals trade:

Positive impact:

World Trade Organization:

The WTO has been an indispensable body that has structured out trade in such a way which has
helped economies accelerate their development process and led to their overall growth. However,
this impact of theirs varies from country to country depending upon the prevailing
circumstances.

 The WTO as a global developmental organization has helped and assisted developing
economies in participating and playing a vital role in the world economic arena by
giving sanctions and formulating favorable policies for international trade.
 WTO also allows and makes it possible for nations to compete the quality of their
goods and services with those of others. Therefore, this results in improving the overall
quality of goods and services which in turn improve the quality and standard of life in
a nation.
 It has not only helped trade and development go hand in hand but has also
strengthened the economic relations among nations.
 One of the vital and most important impact that the WTO has had is that it has helped
nations especially developing countries in providing market for their domestically
manufactured goods which has enhanced their rate and volume of exports.
 The WTO has also played substantial role in offering technical help, know-how of new
technology and advanced items, and get access to modern production techniques to the
developing economies.
 With the establishment of multi-lateral rules and disciplines by the WTO, it is expected
that fair trade conditions will be created for nations. Moreover, the dispute settlement
system will help to check the disputes arising out of it.
 The formulation of multi-lateral rules and disciplines and disputes settlement system
has helped the smaller economies to have their own stand and make decisions
independently rather than being suppressed by the comparatively larger and stronger
economies.

10
 The WTO gives the smaller economies a platform, where they can have a collective
bargaining power against the developed countries.
 It gives Least Developed Countries, some amount of market relaxations by formulating
policies in favor of such LDC’s which promote domestic companies and ensure their
long term survival and growth.
 Whenever any important decision is to be taken, it is taken by consensus, hence, this
ensures that no particular region or nation gets an advantage over the other either
through manipulation or by following some tactical approach.
• The WTO, helps growing economies open new markets for its merchandise, based
totally on agreed policies. It also opens up marketplace for foreign items which lets in
customers to get access to better quality products and a wider variety. Furthermore,
developing the economy by giving business to the non-production sectors like the
retail, warehousing, marketing etc.

International Monetary Fund:


The International Monetary Fund is an international organization that aims to promote global
economic growth and financial stability, to encourage international trade, and to reduce poverty
(International Monetary Fund-IMF, n.d.). The main function of the IMF is to regulate exchange
rates and assist the revamping of the international payment system among national currencies
that enables trade to take place between countries. The organization aims to promote economic
stability and prevent crisis. The IMF fosters growth and promotes international trade by:

 Bringing stability in exchange rate: the IMF has established comprehensive policies for
exchange rates. It is these policies that restrict any country to have an undue advantage
over the other by using tools like devaluation to increase their exports. Therefore, such
policies help prevailing exchange rates to remain stable. Therefore no single nation can
have an unfair advantage over the other by manipulating their currency values in order to
have a favorable trade. (important roles of international monetary fund, n.d.)
 The IMF also carries out the function of being a store for the currencies of all the member
nations: a country that is in need of the currency of another nation can borrow it from the
IMF. This helps nations finance their current transactions.

11
 The IMF gives out information regarding monetary and financial matters: this is done by
critically analyzing the global trade and fiscal scenario and by conducting and publishing
researches and journals. This is a major role of IMF that helps in the promotion of
international trade and helps to solve issues of nations with respect to trade.
 Provides the required mechanism for consultation and joint effort on worldwide exchange
and money related issues: Monetary, financial and budgetary issues and furthermore
matters identifying with trade and exchange are studied in depth. This helps countries to
deal with problems of BOP.
 Assists developing nations in formulation of trade policies.
World Bank:
The World Bank is a financial institution that is formed by the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association (IDA). The
main and the very basic function that it performs is that it provides loans through the IBRD, to
the needy countries in order to boost economic development and foster growth (Viilup, 2016).

Through the trade strategy followed by World Bank, named ‘Leveraging Trade For Development
and Inclusive Growth’, the organization has identified four priority themes for their support
activities- trade intensity and broadening; trade assistance, transport coordination and exchange
financing; backing for market access and worldwide exchange collaboration; and overseeing
shocks and advancing more noteworthy consideration (Viilup, 2016).

The World Bank firmly encourages the making of a sound multilateral exchange framework.
Along these lines, the purpose of its system is to offer help and mastery to permit Least
Developed Countries and developing nations to advance exchange related changes with a
specific end goal to profit completely from worldwide exchange streams and promote national
improvement. Which is done through the execution of 'Aid for Trade' programs.

Moreover, the World Bank aims at using trade more effectively to expand sources of sustainable
income to achieve their twin goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity.
For the same, they believe that Economic integration through trade and improved
competitiveness is central to any development strategy hence, they focus on this path of theirs in
order to establish economic integration that eventually helps economies in the long run.

12
The developing economies in order to meet challenges of growth, productivity, job creation and
income levels, need to be better integrated with the world economy. Therefore, World Bank
plays an essential supporting role for such economies. The formation of the Trade and
Competitiveness Global was an imperative turning point towards the accomplishment of this
objective as it united the vast majority of the distinctive parts of the WBG that work on trade
(Viilup, 2016).

The principal areas of the World Bank Group’s work in trade are:

 Improve trade performance: the WBG assists governments of nations in formulating trade
policies and effectively implementing them in order to maximize their trade
competitiveness.
 Formulation and execution of competition policies: Disposing of unfair market policies;
reinforcing antitrust rules; advancing pro-competitive rivalry division arrangements to
debilitate restraining infrastructures of state-possessed endeavors.
 Trade Facilitation and Logistics: World Bank helps in strengthening the trade passage
among nations, supply chains and trade logistics; advancements in boundary
management; enhancing connectivity between organizations, markets and final
consumers.
 Trade Policy and Integration: Analysis and arrangement guidance to enable nations to
dispose of needless non-duty measures, modernize administrations controls, and back
worldwide and territorial integration, including free trade agreements (Viilup, 2016).

13
Negative impact:

World Trade Organization:

The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established in 1995 after the dissolution of the
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and has its headquarters in Geneva. From
March 2013 the WTO has 159 members. The fundamental philosophy of the WTO is open
markets, non-discrimination and global competition in international trade. The WTO
Agreements, negotiated and signed by a large majority of the world's trading countries and
ratified by their parliaments, are at the heart of the system. These agreements are contracts that
guarantee important trade rights to member states and oblige governments to maintain their trade
policies within agreed limits for the benefit of all.

 Research studies by critics of the World Trade Organization (WTO) often argue that
small countries face difficulties in meeting the cost of WTO compliance. Some argue that
inequality in developing and least developed countries after accession to the WTO has
increased.
 The most frequent criticism of the World Trade Organization in the literature is that the
World Trade Organization is undemocratic because the rules are written and by
companies with internal access to negotiations and that the proceedings are held in secret.
 Another impact is that the World Trade Organization (WTO) raises labour and human
rights because it has refused to place free trade on workers 'rights despite the fact that
countries that use workers' rights are deprived of countries that violate international
labour conventions.
 With the liberalization of industries including logging, fishing, water facilities and energy
distribution the World Trade Organization will further exploit these natural resources and
thus destroy the environment.
 The criticism is often that the World Trade Organization increases inequality and hurts
poor and poor countries in favour of rich, rich countries. Critics of the World Trade
Organization also argue that many important decisions are taken in a process that
negotiators from poor countries are not invited to close.

14
 Many countries do not have enough trade people to participate in all negotiations or are
too poor to be able to defend themselves from WTO challenges.
 The WTO is dominated by leading industrial nations. Developing countries have a lower
opinion in this organization.
 Developing countries have fewer human and technical resources, and therefore
negotiations are often less willing than their developed counterparts.
 Tariffs and tariff peaks hinder exports from developing countries and their attempts at
export diversification.
 Through various WTO agreements, developing countries have already blocked a wide
range of development options.
 Supporters of the local economy often face neglect due to better competitive global
goods.
 WTO agendas are often designed for the benefit of developed countries and the
marginalization of the interests of developing and least developed countries.
 Rules that apply uniformly to WTO Members have led to inequality due to the diverse
economic conditions in countries.
 Developing countries have found that finding resources in the dispute settlement system
is expensive and requires legal expertise that may not be available to them.

International Monetary Fund:

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization based in Washington,


DC, consisting of 189 countries working to promote global monetary cooperation, secure
financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment, sustained economic
growth and reduce poverty around the world.

 The dominance of rich countries is a negative impact of the IMF. Although the majority
of IMF members are the least developed countries in Asia, Africa and South Africa, the
IMF is dominated by rich countries such as the United States of America. IMF policies
and operations are said to benefit rich countries. At some point, the IMF was considered

15
the "rich countries" club. These rich countries are partial to the issues faced by poor
countries.
 Despite its lofty status and laudable objectives, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is
trying to achieve an almost impossible economic achievement: optimal timing and
economic scaling at an international level.
 The International Monetary Fund has been criticized for not doing much and for
highlighting it. It has been criticized for being too slow or too eager to help failed
national policies. As the United States, Japan and Great Britain occupy a prominent
position in IMF policies, they have been accused of being a tool for free market countries
only. At the same time, free market advocates are sharply criticizing the IMF for being
too intrusive.
 Some Member States, such as Italy and Greece, have been accused of pursuing
unsustainable budgets because they believe that the international community, led by the
IMF, will come to their rescue. This is no different from the moral hazard created by
government bailouts of major banks.
 Terms of loans. When lending to countries, the IMF makes the loan conditional on the
implementation of certain economic policies. These policies tend to include:
1. Limit government borrowing - higher taxes and less spending
2. Higher interest rates to stabilize the currency.
3. Let failing companies fail.
4. Structural adjustment. Privatization, deregulation, and reduction of corruption and
bureaucracy.
 In addition to criticism of the application of "free market reforms", others criticize the
IMF for being too intrusive. Insurers in free markets claim that it is better to leave capital
markets working without attempts to intervene. They argue that attempts to influence
exchange rates make matters worse - it is better to allow currencies to reach the market
level.
 There is also criticism that saving countries with large debts creates moral risks. Because
of the possibility of bailout, it encourages countries to borrow more.
 High interest rates on its predecessor are major disadvantages of the IMF. Debt servicing
for LDCs is therefore difficult. For example, since 1982, loan interest has been 6.6 per

16
cent. Interest rates on borrowings from borrowed funds amount to 14.56 per cent.
Therefore, developing countries face many difficulties in recovering their borrowings
from the International Monetary Fund.

World Bank:

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to the world's
countries for capital projects. It comprises two institutions: IBRD and IDA.

 The main concern is about the types of funded development projects. Many of the
infrastructure projects funded by the World Bank Group have social and environmental
impacts on the population in the affected areas, and criticism has focused on the ethical
issues of financing such projects.
 Focus on large projects rather than local initiatives. Some critics argue that World Bank
loans give preference to "large infrastructure projects such as building dams and power
stations on projects that benefit the poor, such as education and basic health care."
Projects often destroy the local environment, including forests, rivers, and fisheries.
 The dominance of the G7 countries. The industrialized countries dominate the
governance structures of the World Bank. Decisions and policy implementation are
usually made by these leading countries - the G7 - because they are the largest donors,
and some propose without adequate consultation with poor and developing countries.
 Reward or support countries that are ineffective or corrupt. Bank lending policies often
reward the macroeconomic inefficiency of the underdeveloped world, allowing
inefficient countries to avoid the kinds of fundamental reforms that would eliminate long-
term poverty in their countries.
 Administrative Disability. The World Bank and its lending practices are increasingly
scrutinizing. "The World Bank has shifted from being a" last refuge "to an international
social welfare organization, leading to a bloated, inefficient and even corrupt institution.

17
Policies:

The IMF's command incorporates encouraging the extension and adjusted development of global
exchange, advancing trade security, and giving the chance to the systematic rectification of
nations' adjust of installments issues. The IMF was set up in 1945.

The WTO attempts to enable worldwide exchange to stream easily, typically, and uninhibitedly,
and gives nations a valuable and fair outlet for managing disagreements about exchange issues.
The WTO appeared in 1995, succeeding the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
that was built up in 1947.

A sound global budgetary framework is expected to help lively worldwide exchange, while
easily streaming exchange decreases the danger of installments lopsided characteristics and
money related emergency. The two establishments cooperate to guarantee a solid arrangement of
universal exchange and installments that is available to all nations. Such a framework is basic for
empowering monetary development, raising expectations for everyday comforts, and lessening
neediness around the world.

The IMF and the WTO cooperate on numerous levels, with the point of guaranteeing more
prominent intelligibility in worldwide financial policymaking. A cooperation understanding
between the two associations, covering different parts of their relationship, was marked not long
after the formation of the WTO.

Regular consultation: The IMF has eyewitness status in certain WTO bodies, and may take part
in gatherings of certain WTO councils and working gatherings. The WTO Secretariat goes to
gatherings of the IMF Executive Board or the Board Committee on Liaison with the World Bank
and other International Organizations on issues of normal premium. Large scale basic exchange
issues may highlight in Fund surveillance activities and can be tended to with regards to IMF-
supported programs, when required, to meet the program's targets. Similarly, IMF surveillance
reports are essential contributions to the WTO's intermittent reports on part nations' exchange
policies (Trade Policy Reviews).

18
The WTO Agreements necessitate that it counsel the IMF when it manages issues concerning
money related stores, adjust of installments, and outside trade game plans. For instance, these
understandings enable nations to apply exchange limitations in case of adjust of installments
challenges. The WTO's Balance of Payments Committee bases its evaluations of restrictions in
significant part on the IMF's assurance of a part's adjust of installments circumstance.

Technical assistance and training: The IMF, the WTO, and other worldwide associations and
givers frequently cooperate to enable nations to enhance their capacity to exchange.
The Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) for exchange related specialized help to Least
Developed Countries (LDCs) underpins LDCs to be more dynamic players in the worldwide
exchanging framework by helping them handle supply-side limitations to exchange.

Fund assistance for trade liberalization: The Trade Integration Mechanism (TIM), built up in
April 2004, is accessible to all Fund part nations whose adjust of installments positions may
endure, yet briefly, because of multilateral exchange advancement. It's anything but a loaning
office, but instead an approach went for making Fund assets all the more typically accessible
under existing IMF offices.

High-level coordination: The Managing Director of the IMF and the Director General of the
WTO counsel consistently on a scope of exchange related issues. The First Deputy Managing
Director went to the December 2005 WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong, China, and the
November 2007 WTO General Council Meeting in Geneva. Administration took an interest in
the Fourth Global Review of Aid for Trade, facilitated by the WTO in July 2013. The IMF
Managing Director and the WTO Director-General, together with the President of the World
Bank Group, drove a course "On the most proficient method to Make Trade an Engine of Growth
for All" at the IMF/World Bank Group Annual Meetings in October 2016, and propelled a joint
staff paper on "Making Trade an Engine of Growth for All" in April 2017. Finally,

19
administration of the two establishments every now and again take an interest in the yearly
IMF/World Bank/WTO Joint Trade Workshops.

Looking forward, the collaboration and conference between the IMF and WTO will keep on
being vital, given the expanded regions of common help and obligations between the two
establishments. Potential territories of increased connection incorporate budgetary
administrations and exchange help. The IMF unequivocally bolsters the part of the WTO in
guaranteeing receptiveness, straightforwardness, and steadiness in the worldwide exchanging
framework, incorporating its part in authorizing exchange rules.

20
Conclusion:

World Trade:

Global trade is huge business, at present representing around 55% of worldwide monetary
development, and as much as 75% of GDP in the EU.

Outside direct ventures, currently surpasses $1 trillion every year for tasks, for example, the
privatization of open utilities and the making of saving money frameworks.

500 enterprises control 70% of world exchange. For instance, Cargill, one of the world's biggest
worldwide sustenance exchanging partnerships, announced benefits of $2.1billion in 2005-very
nearly five times those of 2000.

Advantages are additionally insignificant for the representatives of these companies. In 2002, the
best 200 companies had consolidated deals identical to 28% of world GDP, while utilizing under
1% of the worldwide work constrain.

The offer of world exchange for the 50 slightest created nations has declined to 0.6%, not as
much as 33% of what it was 40 years prior.

Economic Growth and Globalization:

Together the arrangements of unhindered commerce, advancement advances, SAPs and


privatization are the key elements of monetary globalization, and have been for as far back as
few decades. There is currently an overabundance of confirmation that backings the way that
these foundations, which are extensively unaccountable and dark, are not compelling at
decreasing neediness and disparity, or in encouraging reasonable exchange or reasonable fund.
They are additionally intensely censured for overlooking human and work rights, and for being
vigorously one-sided for the monetarily prevailing nations which to a great extent control their
task. So broad is the contradiction and feedback against them that Latin America as a landmass
has as of late made an elective method for financing exchange and advancement - The Bank of
the South.

21
It is the basic 'neoliberal' philosophy that these associations engender which needs most cautious
examination - specifically the conviction that financial development and free-markets are the
best methods for producing riches for improvement and destitution decrease. The proof, after the
30 long stretches of financial globalization that these organizations have initiated, is that the
advantages are unevenly disseminated, gathering all the more promptly to companies and the
well off. Furthermore, the fare drove farming approaches that these organizations elevate have a
tendency to diminish local nourishment security and leave.

22
Bibliography
(n.d.). Retrieved from https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_international-business/s10-02-what-is-the-
role-of-the-imf-an.html

Bobek , V., & Maček , A. (2014). Negative effects of the WTO. Research gate.

Boockmann , B., & Dreher, A. (2018). The Contribution of the IMF and. ftp.zew.

FAQ. (2005, August 23). Retrieved from Brettonwoods project:


https://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/2005/08/art-320869/

GITHUA, D. W. (2011). THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) AND THE WORLD.
erepository.

IEO, O. (2008). THE IMF’S APPROACH TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICY ISSUES. Independent evaluation
office of the international monetary fund, 1-15.

important roles of international monetary fund. (n.d.). Retrieved from account learning:
https://accountlearning.com/important-roles-of-international-monetary-fund/

International Monetary Fund-IMF. (n.d.). Retrieved from Investopedia:


https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/imf.asp

Investopedia. (2018, June 1). Retrieved from Investopedia:


https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/061115/what-are-advantages-and-disadvantages-
international-monetary-fund.asp

Kim, S. (n.d.). The Old and The New. Princeton University, 1-32.

Money matters. (2018). Retrieved from money matters: https://accountlearning.com/disadvantages-of-


imf/

Monineath, E. (2014). International Economic Organizations (WTO, IMF and World Bank) don’t
represent the interest of rich and poor countries alike. Research gate.

Pettinger, T. (2016, November 28). Retrieved from economics help:


https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/glossary/imf-criticism/

Saifi, D. (2016, October 23). Retrieved from Quora: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-negative-


and-positive-impacts-of-the-WTO-on-developing-nations-especially-India

Viilup, E. (2016). The role of the World Bank. DIRECTORATE-GENERAL FOR EXTERNAL POLICIES, 1-9.

23