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VII Sem, B.Tech, Computer Science & Enigineering Department, Nehru College Of Engineering and Research Centre,
Pampady, Thiruvilwamala, Thrissur, Kerala

Augmented reality(AR) refers to computer displays that add visual information to
user’s sensory perception.AR allows seeing the real world with virtual objects
superimposed on it.Laproscopic surgery gives surgeon a 3D view of internal spaces.

AR involves overlaying a graphical image on a real object to somehow enhance the
experience of the user in the visuality of objects. Most AR research focuses on see-
through devices, usually worn on the head that overlay graphics and text on the user's
view of his or her surroundings. In general it superimposes graphics over a real world
environment in real time. Getting the right information at the right time and the right
place is key in all these applications. Personal digital assistants such as the Palm and the
Pocket PC can provide timely information using wireless networking and Global
Positioning System (GPS) receivers that constantly track the handheld devices. But
what make Augmented Reality different is how the information is presented: not on a
separate display but integrated with the user's perceptions. This kind of interface
minimizes the extra mental effort that a user has to expend when switching his or her
attention back and forth between real-world tasks and a computer screen. In augmented
reality, the user's view of the world and the computer interface literally become one.
The underlying idea of Augmented Reality (AR) systems is the combination of the real
and virtual world. This is in contrast to Virtual Reality (VR) frameworks, where the
whole surrounding of a user is computer-generated. Augmented Reality (AR)
technology generates a composite view of virtual information and real images in order
to enhance the user’s view. Azuma in provides the following definition AR allows the
user to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed on it.

AR in Laproscopic Surgery
Augmented reality has placed its foot in almost every aspect of the developmental areas
round globe. The eminent of them is the AR in Surgical Training. Of these the main
area in which the AR has been assisting in the recent times is the ‘Augmented Reality
Visualization for Laparoscopic Surgery. The system uses 3D visualization, depth
extraction from laparoscopic images, and six degree-of-freedom head and laparoscope
tracking to display a merged real and synthetic image in the surgeon's video-see-through
head-mounted display. Here AR can be used effectively to overcome the limitations that
reuse program. Through efficient searching, developers can find and understand an asset
prior to reusing it. There are some existing searching mechanisms for the model. have
been existing in the laparoscope surgery. These systems can restore the physician's
natural point of view and head motion parallax that are used to understand the 3D
structure during open surgery. These cues are not available in conventional laparoscopic
surgery due to the displacement of the laparoscopic camera from the physician's
viewpoint. The system can also display multiple laparoscopic range imaging data sets to
widen the effective field of view of the device. These data sets can be displayed in true
3D and registered to the exterior anatomy of the patient. Much work remains to realize a
clinically useful system, notably in the acquisition speed, reconstruction, and
registration of the 3D imagery. The laparoscopic surgery using the augmented reality
helps the surgeon to overcome the limitations that is existing right now. That is the
current surgical technique will build only 2D not the 3D, the laparoscope has a small
field of view and the current procedure requires a lot of hand eye coordination.

Structure of AR system
We want to emphasize that this technology is fundamentally different than coupling a
stereo laparoscope with a stereo display system. AR systems allow the surgeon to view
the medical imagery from the natural viewpoint, use head induced motion parallax
(instead of hand-eye coordination and camera-induced motion parallax), allow the
medical imagery to be visually aligned to the exterior anatomy of the patient, and
incorporate proprioceptive (body-relative) cues. The lack of depth perception in
laparoscopic surgery might limit delicate dissection ie, we cold not get the clear and
accurate view of the delicate organs. An AR display presents objects in correct
perspective depth, assuming that the geometry has been accurately acquired. With an
AR guidance system, a laparoscopic surgeon might be able to view the peritoneal cavity
from any angle merely by moving his head, without moving the endoscopic camera. AR
may be able to free the surgeon from the technical limitations of the imaging and
visualization methods, recapturing much of the physical simplicity and direct
visualization characteristic of open surgery. There are four primary hardware
components to our system. Three are the standard tools of AR systems: an image
generation platform, a set of tracking systems, and a see-through head-mounted display
(HMD) that allows the user to see the real environment. The fourth component required
for this application is a 3D laparoscope that can acquire both color and range data. In
the above system, we needed an image generation platform capable of acquiring
multiple, real-time video streams. We use an Onyx Infnite Reality system from Silicon
Graphics, Inc. equipped with a Sirius Video Capture unit. We use UNC's optoelectronic
ceiling tracker for tracking the physician's head. It offers a high update rate, a high
degree of accuracy, and a large range of head positions and orientations. The depth cue
of occlusion, any organ, is vital to the physician in determining the 3D structure of the
medical imagery. Video-see-through (VST) displays offer the possibility of complete
occlusion of the real world by the computer-generated imagery, which in this case is the
medical image data. The usage of the above is similar to that of a conventional
laparoscopic surging, where we use a projector in order to get the beam of light. To
extract 3D shape, we added a structured light to a conventional laparoscope. Our
structure is a vertical line in the image plane of the projector.

The Augmented Reality have served great wonders even in the medical field combining
the computer graphics and the real imagery in to a single one which helps in diagnosing
the internal diseases of our body. AR allows the user to see the real world, with virtual
objects superimposed on it. This system, the laparoscopic surgery technique, using AR
becomes much more powerful in the aspect of curing and diagnosing.

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