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Gekko Systems

Operations & Maintenance Training


Secondary Concentration –
The InLine Leach Reactor
Hedia Safari Lodge - Feb 2008
Secondary Concentration

ƒ Aims
ƒ Produce a smeltable concentrate
ƒ Maximise recovery from primary concentrate
ƒ Minimise impurities
ƒ Maximise plant recoveries

ƒ Alternatives
ƒ Tabling – Continuous or Batch
ƒ Direct Smelting
ƒ Intensive Cyanidation and Recovery
Characteristics of Alternative Methods

Table Smelt IC

High Recovery N Y Y

Small Bulk to handle N N Y

Low Capital Y Y N

No OH&S Issues Y N Y

Insensitive to gold particle size and shape N Y Y

Complex and sulphide gold recovery N Y Y

Efficient and fast N N Y

Easy to automate N N Y

Minimal labour requirements N N Y

Good accountability N N Y
Typical Table Operation

This is lost back into


the mill circuit in table
operations!!

Sulphide rich middling & tail Gold


Concentrate
Tabling Recovery vs Particle Size

100

80
gold recovery

60

40

20

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
size fraction
Gold Spikes to Leach Feed

3
COF Grade (ppm)

0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Time (min)
Intensive Cyanidation can solve the following …
ƒ Poor Recoveries from gravity conc
ƒ Poor metallurgical accounting due to variable solids
sampling
ƒ Labour intensive gold room operations
ƒ Low concentrate treatment rates
ƒ Gold losses due to sulphides as well as coarse free gold
ƒ Gold losses due to slimes or “surfboards”
ƒ Recovery problems due to chemistry
ƒ Poor fineness due to heavy metals
ƒ Limited recovery methods, can use direct electrowinning,
zinc precipitation, carbon absorption, resin etc
ƒ High smelting costs – e.g. crucibles
ƒ High refinery charges – up to ~US$100/oz recovered
Why is Recovery Important in Secondary
Concentration
ƒ Lower the recirculating load of gold in the CUF and so reduce
gold loss by “misadventure”
ƒ Increase overall gravity recovery by reducing free gold
“bleeding” through to leach circuit
ƒ Prevent Gold Spikes going to leach circuit by reducing grade of
tails returned to the mill circuit

3
COF Grade (ppm)

0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Time (min)
Partially Leached Gold Particle Showing
Diffusion Layer
ƒ This picture shows the diffusion layer created in the leach process

ƒ Continuous removal of this layer significantly improves leach


kinetics

ƒ The ILR is the only Intensive leach unit which attritions this layer
Why The ILR Drum System Is The Most Efficient

HIGH SURFACE AREA PURE OXYGEN ZONE


SOLUTION / OXYGEN
INTERFACE MIXED OXYGEN ZONE
SOLUTION DRAWN OUT
OXYGEN DRAWN IN

SOLUTION SOLID SOLID / SOLUTION


MIXING ZONE HIGH SHEAR MIXING

ILR MIXING SYSTEM


T HE MOST EFFICIENT CHEMISTRY
ILR Safety - Reagents

ƒ Cyanide, Caustic Solutions


ƒ HCN
ƒ Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic)
ƒ Hydrogen Peroxide
ƒ Oxygen

More detail later but Safety is paramount!!!


ILR Operation is improved by …

ƒ High recirculation rate of solution – fresh reagents and


oxygen
ƒ Oxygen supply as required depending on system
demand and availability – usually O2 gas or peroxide
solution, other accelerants as required
ƒ Well mixed system giving even access to gold surface –
ensure direction and speed of rotation correct
ƒ Ensure always open to air so some O2 present –
otherwise risk Au plating on steel scats
SOLIDS
Batch ILR Simplified
REAGENT Flowsheet
ADDITION
FEED

SOLIDS SOLUTION
STORAGE STORAGE

WATER SOLIDS
ADD DISPOSAL

SOLUTION
TO EW
STORAGE
MOTOR REACTOR
2.2KW DRUM

MOTOR
4KW
Batch ILR Description
ƒ Concentrate Feed Cone
ƒ Solution Storage Tank
ƒ Reactor Drum
ƒ Level controlled Sump and
Pump
ƒ Optional Electrowinning Feed
Tank and Pump
ƒ Optional Electrowinning Cell
Batch ILR Description
ƒ Reactor drum
ƒ Feed Seal
ƒ Drum drive
ƒ Drum Rollers
ƒ Discharge
ƒ Drain
ƒ Proximity Switch
Batch ILR Description
ƒ Reactor drum
ƒ Feed Seal
ƒ Drum drive
ƒ Drum Rollers
ƒ Discharge
ƒ Drain
ƒ Proximity Switch
Batch ILR Description

ƒ Sump
ƒ Pump
ƒ Level sensor
ƒ Dump Valve
ƒ Overflow
Batch ILR Description

ƒ Feed Cone
ƒ Overflow
ƒ Discharge valve
ƒ Flush valve
Batch ILR Description
ƒ Solution Storage Tank
ƒ Drain & Decant Valve
ƒ Flush Valve
ƒ Load Cells
ƒ Reagent addition
Batch ILR Operating Steps

ƒ Load Concentrate – mass controlled


ƒ Make up Leach Solution – mass, pH & time
ƒ Leach – time based
ƒ Clarify Solution – time based
ƒ Wash Leached Solids – time based
ƒ Transfer Leached Solids – time based
ƒ Transfer Pregnant Solution – mass based
ƒ Electrowin while leaching next batch of solids –
time and assay based
Batch ILR Material Transfer
Flocculant

Reagent
Addition
Solution
recycle

Wash Solids back


water to to Mill
leach

Preg to
E’winning
Batch ILR Operating Steps
Stored Concentrate Loaded into Drum
FV19
STEP 1 LOADING
OXYGEN
SOLIDS
until FST level reached
WATER
FV12
FEED SOLN
CYANIDE
FV15 TANK TANK
FV16 FV13
CAUSTIC
FV3 FV17
FV02
FV14
FLOC
FV11 FV08
FV01
DRUM
STOPPED FV07 FV06
E'WIN
FV05 FV04
RECIRC TANK
TAILS
PUMP
ON
Batch ILR Operating Steps
Water added to Solution Tank
FV19
STEP 2 ADD
OXYGEN
REAGENT
Feed Empty; SST water level not reached
WATER
FV12
FEED SOLN
CYANIDE
FV15 TANK TANK
FV16 FV13
CAUSTIC
FV3 FV17
FV02
FV14
FLOC
FV11 FV08
FV01
DRUM
STOP FV07 FV06
E'WIN
FV05 FV04
RECIRC TANK
TAILS
PUMP
ON
Batch ILR Operating Steps
Add reagents to Solution Tank (caustic first)
FV19
STEP 2 ADD
OXYGEN
REAGENT
Feed Empty; SST water level reached
WATER
FV12
FEED SOLN
CYANIDE
FV15 TANK TANK
FV16 FV13
CAUSTIC
FV3 FV17
FV02
FV14
FLOC
FV11 FV08
FV01
DRUM
RUN FV07 FV06
E'WIN
FV05 FV04
RECIRC TANK
TAILS
PUMP
ON
Batch ILR Operating Steps
Leach gold by circulating solution through drum
FV19
STEP 3 LEACHING OXYGEN

WATER
FV12
FEED SOLN
CYANIDE
FV15 TANK TANK
FV16 FV13
CAUSTIC
FV3 FV17
FV02
FV14
FLOC
FV11 FV08
FV01
DRUM
RUN FV07 FV06
E'WIN
FV05 FV04
RECIRC TANK
TAILS
PUMP
ON
Batch ILR Operating Steps
Settle solids in drum and flocculate slimes
FV19
STEP 4 DRAIN &
OXYGEN
FLOC

WATER
FV12
FEED SOLN
CYANIDE
FV15 TANK TANK
FV16 FV13
CAUSTIC
FV3 FV17
FV02
FV14
FLOC
FV11 FV08
FV01
DRUM
STOPPED FV07 FV06
E'WIN
FV05 FV04
RECIRC TANK
TAILS
PUMP
ON
Batch ILR Operating Steps
Drain solution from drum and transfer flocculated solids back to drum

FV19
STEP 4 DRAIN &
OXYGEN
FLOC

WATER
FV12
FEED SOLN
CYANIDE
FV15 TANK TANK
FV16 FV13
CAUSTIC
FV3 FV17
FV02
FV14
FLOC
FV11 FV08
FV01
DRUM
STOPPED FV07 FV06
E'WIN
FV05 FV04
RECIRC TANK
TAILS
PUMP
ON
Batch ILR Operating Steps

Wash solids to recover soluble gold and cyanide


FV19
STEP 5 WASH OXYGEN

WATER
FV12
FEED SOLN
CYANIDE
FV15 TANK TANK
FV16 FV13
CAUSTIC
FV3 FV17
FV02
FV14
FLOC
FV11 FV08
FV01
DRUM
RUN FV07 FV06
E'WIN
FV05 FV04
RECIRC TANK
TAILS
PUMP
ON
Batch ILR Operating Steps
Settle wash water in drum; more floc if required
FV19
STEP 6 DRAIN &
OXYGEN
FLOC

WATER
FV12
FEED SOLN
CYANIDE
FV15 TANK TANK
FV16 FV13
CAUSTIC
FV3 FV17
FV02
FV14
FLOC
FV11 FV08
FV01
DRUM
STOPPED FV07 FV06
E'WIN
FV05 FV04
RECIRC TANK
TAILS
PUMP
ON
Batch ILR Operating Steps
Drain wash water to solution tank
Optional further washes transferred to CIP
FV19
STEP 6 DRAIN &
OXYGEN
FLOC

WATER
FV12
FEED SOLN
CYANIDE
FV15 TANK TANK
FV16 FV13
CAUSTIC
FV3 FV17
FV02
FV14
FLOC
FV11 FV08
FV01
DRUM
STOPPED FV07 FV06
E'WIN
FV05 FV04
RECIRC TANK
TAILS
PUMP
ON
Batch ILR Operating Steps
Transfer washed solid tails to mill
If required drain slimes to mill
FV19
STEP 7 EMPTY
OXYGEN
SOLIDS
After delay set mass drained from
bottom of SST
WATER
FV12
FEED SOLN
CYANIDE
FV15 TANK TANK
FV16 FV13
CAUSTIC
FV3 FV17
FV02
FV14
FLOC
FV11 FV08
FV01
DRUM
REVERSE FV07 FV06
after delay
E'WIN
FV05 FV04
RECIRC TANK
TAILS
PUMP
ON
Batch ILR Operating Steps
Drain residual dirty water to mill
FV19
STEP 8 DRAIN OXYGEN

WATER
FV12
FEED SOLN
CYANIDE
FV15 TANK TANK
FV16 FV13
CAUSTIC
FV3 FV17
FV02
FV14
FLOC
FV11 FV08
FV01
DRUM
STOP FV07 FV06
E'WIN
FV05 FV04
RECIRC TANK
TAILS
PUMP
ON
Batch ILR Operating Steps

Transfer clarified pregnant solution to electrowinning


FV19
STEP 9 SOLN TO
OXYGEN
E"WIN

WATER
FV12
FEED SOLN
CYANIDE
FV15 TANK TANK
FV16 FV13
CAUSTIC
FV3 FV17
FV02
optional FV14
FLOC
FV11 FV08
FV01
DRUM
STOPPED FV07 FV06
E'WIN
FV05 FV04
RECIRC TANK
TAILS
PUMP
ON
Continuous ILR Simple Flowsheet

ELECTROWIN
SOLUTION
STORAGE

FEED FROM
CONCENTRATOR RAKE
MOTOR
.55KW

THICKNER CLARIFYER

SOLIDS MOTOR
STORAGE 4KW

DEWATERING
REAGENT SCREEN
ADDITION

WATER
ADD WATER
ADD SOLID TAIL

MOTOR REACTOR
2.2KW DRUM

MOTOR MOTOR
4KW 4KW
Continuous ILR - Control Scheme

ƒ Recirculating solution flow fixed at solution return


ƒ All subsequent vessels on level control
ƒ Drum discharge, tails cone and clarifier together
ƒ Barren Solution tank by overflow
ƒ Tails discharge by water addition and minimum pump speed or fixed
flow
ƒ Dewatering cones controlled to fixed mass
ƒ Solids throughput governed by solids feed
ƒ Reagent addition at constant rate – controlled
by timers on valves or dosing pumps
Typical Plant Leach Kinetics – Sea Level

100

80
Gold Extraction (%)

60 Site 1 low peroxide

Site 1 high peroxide


40
Site 2 Oxygen

Site 2 LeachWell
20

0
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Time (hours)
Typical Dissolution Profile – High Altitude

Fig 2. Modified Leach Profile

2500.0

2000.0
Grades Au g/t

1500.0

25/03/2003

1000.0

500.0

0.0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Time (minutes)
Gaseous Oxygen vs Peroxide (1750m)

M ET A LLU R GIC A L PR OC ESS PLA N T

L EA C H P R OF I L ES

6000

5000
Au in solution (g/t)

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Tim e (m inutes)

O27 O5 O10 HP11 HP6 HP14 HP19


Site Data Kelian ILR2000BA
100 50

90 40

Leach Recovery
Electrowinning Recovery
Mass Gold Recovered

Gold Recovered (kg)


80 30
Recovery (%)

70 20

60 10

50 0
114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123
Batch Number
List of Appendices

1. ILR CA – Start and Stop Sequences


2. ILR Auto – List of Alarms
3. ILR – Typical Checklist for
maintenance and operation
4. ILR Auto - Operator Interface Screens
5. ILR BA – List of Typical Set Points
Continuous ILR Operation – Starting

ƒ Check pumps are not isolated


ƒ Turn on water supply and allow sumps to come to set point.
ƒ Manual ILR
ƒ Start all pumps. If necessary add water to drum discharge sump
ƒ Open clarifier underflow valve
ƒ Open solution recirculation valve
ƒ Start Drum
ƒ Start tails cone underflow and screen. Check setpoint and adjust
ƒ Start feed cone underflow and tails rake
ƒ Start reagents
ƒ Auto ILR
ƒ Switch to REMOTE, go to start page, press START
ƒ Sequence and timing set in PLC
Continuous ILR Operation – Stopping
ƒ Manual ILR
ƒ Stop reagents - Stop Drum
ƒ Close solution recirculation valve
ƒ Stop feed cone and tails cone underflow and tail rake.
ƒ Wait for overflow from drum to stop and tails screen to clear.
ƒ Close clarifier underflow valve
ƒ Stop all pumps
ƒ Auto ILR
ƒ Switch to REMOTE, go to stop page, press STOP
ƒ Sequence and timing set in PLC
ƒ If extended stoppage isolate pumps and water supply and divert
or stop concentrate feed.
ƒ In an Emergency press Emergency Stop.
ILR AUTOMATIC – LIST OF ALARMS
INLINE LEACH REACTOR - CHECKLIST

DATE:

Visual checks Set Point


Drum rolling / Bearings OK.
Pump operating
Pump Gland
Water supply valve ON

Reagent Addition - check and refill if required


Oxygen Supply kPa
Injection L/min @ 200kPa
Sparger L/min
Caustic
Flocculant

Samples Daily Composites to Lab Set Point


Solid Tails
Pregnant Solution
Solution NaCN titration

MAINTENANCE
Daily Grease Rollers and Bearings
Daily Grease pump - check packing
Friday Oil Chain
Friday Clean Air filters on VSD cabinet
3 Month Gearbox and Roller Bearings

COMMENTS
record shutdowns, spills, etc
ILR Maintenance - Mechanical
Frequency Description Comment
Daily Visually check that the unit is working Grease daily
Listen for any abnormal noises. (bearings, air leaks) Oil chain daily
Check that flow rates are within required range
Lubricate drum chain and rollers
Grease pump bearings and packing
Visual check of air fittings and hoses
Visual check for leaks in pipes and pumps

Monthly Visually check for Oil leaks Liners and valves should be
Visually check the Pumps for signs of wear changed if signs of failure
Check valves noticed.
Check Gearbox Oil Level,

3 Monthly Visually inspect the sump and drum lining The Oil should be drained
Check the Oil and replace if necessary and replaced every 2000
Check Gear box sprocket and chain for wear hours.

Yearly Check the pipe work for wear replace if necessary Castors and bearings should
Check drum seals for wear and replace if necessary be replaced if high wear
Check castors and bearings, replace if necessary noticed

2 Yearly A major overhaul of the unit is recommended to ensure


that peak operating efficiency is maintained.
Operator Interface – Set Points
Batch ILR Auto – Monitoring
Batch ILR Automatic Typical Settings
TIME
CONFIGURATION CYCLE STEP SETTINGS STEP 0 MANUAL RESTART
STEP 1 MAX TIME 30
DRUM O'FLOW TO SOLUTION TANK
WATER ADDITION OFF
STEP 2 MAX TIME 90
STEP 3 TIME (HOURS) 50
STEP 4 TOTAL DRAIN DECANT 45
DRAIN DELAY 20
STEP 5 WASH TIME 3
STEP 6 TOTAL DRAIN 15
DRAIN DELAY 5
STEP 7 TOTAL TIME 75
DRUM DELAY 7
SLIMES DELAY 20
SLIMES MASS 800
STEP 8 DRAIN TIME 5
STEP 9 MAX TIME 60
TRANSFER FROM DRAIN

ALARM SETPOINTS pH ALARMS HIGH 14


LOW 11
LOW LOW 10