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40. (a) a straight line;
through the origin; 2 max

(b) any straight line;


that fits within ALL the error bars; 2 max

1 .4 0
a c c e le ra tio n
/ m s–2 1 .2 0

1 .0 0

0 .8 0

0 .6 0

0 .4 0

0 .2 0

0 .0 0
0 .0 0 0 .5 0 1 .0 0 1 .5 0 2 .0 0 2 .5 0
W e ig h t / N

(c) (i) a systematic error is when every data point deviates from the
“correct” value;
by the same fixed amount as seen by intercept on graph / OWTTE; 2 max

Accept answers that explain by giving an example of a possible


systematic error eg friction.

(ii) 0.3 N; 1

Accept 0.25 N ® 0.35 N. NB Watch for use of wrong axis!

–1
(iii) realization that mass = (gradient) ;

Award this mark for full Newton II equation (with friction)

to give mass = 1.4 kg (Accept 1.2 kg ® 1.6 kg.); 2 max

Use of F = ma for 1 data point receives [0] (unless candidate’s


line is through origin).
Watch for ecf from candidate’s own line.
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41. (a) reasonable scale and axes labelled;
The graph must occupy at least half the grid.
1
plots correct to within 2 square; 3

Award [2] if correct , [1] for one error and [0] for two or more
errors

(b) (i) reasonable curve from 0°C to 10°C; 1

Expect smooth single line within one square of each correctly


plotted point.

(ii) 3800 ± 50;


2630 ± 20; 2

Allow ecf from candidate’s graph.

(c) correct line drawn; 1

(d) (i) value correct from graph, 6.2°C; 1

± 1
Allow 2 square.

(ii) error is 1.0°C;


 1 
 
% error =  5.2  × 100;
= 19%; 3

Allow “bald” correct answers.

 1 
 
Award [2] if  6.2  × 100 = 16% is used – or candidate’s
figures.
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42. (a)

(i) sensible line of fit with reasonable distribution of points either


side of line; 1

(ii) h0 = 16.2 (±0.2)cm; 1

(b) this is a straight-line graph so has equation of the form y = mx + c;

h = h0 (1 - kq) gives h = h0 - h0kq;

m = -h0k;

c = h0; 4

essentially look for:

stating equation of a straight-line graph, showing that h = h0 (1 - kq)


can be written in this form, identifying m and c.

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gradient  If credit for m  - h0 k has not been given in (b)
k ; 
(c)
h0  then it ca n be given if this s tatement i s correct .

gradient = 0.077 (± 0.003);

0.077
k ;
therefore, 16.2
-3 -1
» 4.8 ´ 10 deg C

Or

Allow use of a point on line of best fit ie choice of data point from
line of best fit;

correct substitution into h = h0(1 - kq);

1 h
k  (1 - ) ;
correct rearrangement essentially showing that
θ h0 3
-3
Accept range of answers for the gradient between 4.9 ´ 10
-3
and 4.6 ´ 10 .

(d) estimate:

gradient
h ;
r
-5
gradient = 1.5 (± 0.2) ´ 10 ;

1.5 ´10 -5
r  6.0  ± 0.8 ´10 - 7 m ;
25
comment:

this is very small so it is unlikely that capillary action is the only


mechanism / OWTTE / this assumes that the direct proportion holds
for values of h up to 25m / OWTTE; 4

Accept ecf based on estimate only if comment is reasonable and


consistent. If numerical value is correct, then award the mark for a
plausible explanation (eg reference to molecular forces) as to why
this is a reasonable value.
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