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Segama River Valley

Location:5°00'-5°32'N, 118°00'-118°50'E; a major river system to the south of the Kinabatangan River in eastern
Sabah. Key areas: 5°06'-5°08'N, 118°22'-1 18°25'E, and 5°20'-5°23'N, 1 18°35'-1 18°41'E.

Area:c.140,000 ha key areas about 8,500 ha.


Biogeographical Province:4.25.12.

Wetland type:11, 13, 15 & 21.

Description of site:The lower and middle reaches of the Segama River upstream from the mangrove and nipa
swamps of the delta. The Segama rises in the hills to the northwest of Darvel Bay; the middle reaches flow through
fairly flat or gently undulating land covered by lowland dipterocarp forest and freshwater swamp forest. In the lower
reaches, the river meanders through riverine forest with freshwater oxbow lakes and swamps. The river and
swamps are fresh in their middle reaches and brackish in their lower reaches. There are short-term and seasonal
variations in the level of the river and extent of flooded areas. About 80% of the wetlands are permanently

Climatic conditions:Humid tropical climate.

Principal vegetation:Lowland riverine forest dominated by Octomeles sumatrana in the lower reaches, with
transition to mangrove and Nypa fruticans swamp in the delta area. The main vegetation in adjacent areas is
logged lowland primary dipterocarp forest, secondary forest of Macaranga sp and climbers, agricultural areas and
riverside grassland.

Land tenure:Mostly titled land allocated for agriculture and large-scale plantations. The remainder is State Land,
potentially available for plantations.

Conservation measures taken:None.

Conservation measures proposed:Three deep perennial lakes subject to partial drying out have been proposed
for protection as crocodile breeding areas (Whitaker, 1984). These are Lidong (5°26'N, 1 18°40'E), Munda (5°26'N,
1 18°38'E) and a third area at 5°23'N, I 18°36'E.

Land use:Fishing, agriculture and logging.

Possible Changes in Land use:No information.

Disturbances and threats:The forests continue to be logged and clear-felled for conversion to agricultural land.

Economic and social values:Fisheries, public recreation and flood control.

Fauna:The river supports a variety of freshwater fishes and prawns, and the adjacent forests support populations
of most of the large mammals typical of lowland Borneo, including Tembadau (Banteng), Sambar Deer, Asian
Elephant and Bearded Pig (Bos javanicus, Cervus unicolor, Elephas maximus and Sus barbatus). The Sumatran
Rhinoceros Didermoceros sumatrensis has declined in the Ulu Segama area to only one or two individuals. Over 106
species of birds have been recorded from the Ulu Segama Forest Reserve.A total of 11 Estuarine Crocodiles
Crocodylus porosus were recorded during a survey of 285 km of the river in 1983. The crocodiles were concentrated
in the lower and middle reaches, and were rare in the upper reaches and in the delta. Breeding presumably occurs
at oxbow lakes such as Danau Lidong and Munda.

Special floral values:

No information.

Research and facilities:

Whitaker carried out a crocodile survey in 1983.
Davies & Payne (1982); IUCN (in prep); Payne (1986); Whitaker (1984).

Criteria for Inclusion:

1b, 2a, 2b.

Lamri Ali.