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JULY 2018

JULY 2018 Summer Welding Projects Fabrication Update Cordless Tools American Welder: Celebrating Welding’s
Summer Welding Projects Fabrication Update Cordless Tools American Welder: Celebrating Welding’s Diverse
Summer
Welding
Projects
Fabrication
Update
Cordless Tools
American Welder:
Celebrating Welding’s
Diverse Population

PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND APPLICATION OF WELDING AND ALLIED JOINING AND CUTTING PROCESSES WORLDWIDE, INCLUDING BRAZING, SOLDERING, AND THERMAL SPRAYING

July 2018 • Volume 97 • Number 7

CONTENTS

FEATURES

34

Evaluating FCAW-G Electrodes

A fabricator discusses what he has learned about gas-shielded flux cored arc welding electrodes

B.

Gulas

38

Projects You Can Do This Summer Use these instructions to help you tap into your creative side — K. Campbell

44

Cordless Tools for Today’s Fab Shops Today’s battery technology provides cordless tools with more power and performance in a lighter, smaller package — A. Derché

THE AMERICAN WELDER

84 Women Who Weld ® : Lighting the Way Out of Poverty Classes through Women Who Weld are a first step

toward well-paying jobs in the Detroit, Mich., area

K. Pacheco

84
84
44
44

88 Women Welders Behind the Arc These female industry veterans offer support, advice, and serve as role models for younger women wanting to enter the welding industry K. Astin

88
88

WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT

207-s

Characterization of P92 Steel Weldments in As-Welded and PWHT Conditions Postweld heat treatment resulted in enhanced ductility of shielded metal arc welded P92 steel joints — N. Saini et al.

214-s

Fiber Laser Welding of 1700-MPa, Ultrahigh-Strength Steel Welding speed was the dominant factor that affected appearance quality in these ultrahigh- strength steel laser welded joints — C. Luo et al.

DEPARTMENTS

6

Editorial

54

Certification Schedule

8

Press Time News

55

Society News

10

International Update

57

Tech Topics

12

News of the Industry

63

Section News

18

Business Briefs

80

Guide to AWS Services

20

Laser Welding Q&A

82

Personnel

22

Stainless Q&A

American Welder

26

RWMA Q&A

92

Learning Track

28

Product & Print Spotlight

96

Fact Sheet

48

Conferences

99

Classifieds

50

Coming Events

100

Advertiser Index

OFFICERS

President Dale Flood TRI TOOL Inc.

Vice President Thomas J. Lienert Los Alamos National Laboratory

Vice President Robert Roth RoMan Manufacturing Inc.

Vice President Richard Polanin Illinois Central College

Treasurer Carey Chen Cincinnati Incorporated

Executive Director and CEO Matt Miller American Welding Society

DIRECTORS

T.

Anderson (At Large), ITW Welding North America

U.

Aschemeier (Dist. 7), Subsea Global Solutions

J.

R. Bray (Past President), Affiliated Machinery Inc.

T.

Brosio (Dist. 14), Major Tool & Machine

J.

Burgess (Dist. 8), General Electric

D.

A. Desrochers (Dist. 1), Old Colony RVTHS

D.

L. Doench (At Large), Hobart Bros. Co.

D.

K. Eck (At Large), Praxair Distribution Inc.

K.

Fogleman (Dist. 16), Consultant

P.

H. Gorman (Dist. 20), Retired

M.

Hanson (Dist. 15), Consolidated Precision Products

S.

A. Harris (Dist. 4), Altec Industries

R.

L. Holdren (At Large), ARC Specialties

T.

Holt (Dist. 18), Tech Corr USA Management

J Jones (Dist. 17), Harris Products Group

M.

Krupnicki (Dist. 6), Mahany Welding Supply Co. Inc.

D.

Lange (Dist. 12), Northeast Wisconsin Tech. College

S.

Lindsey (Dist. 21), City of San Diego

J.

T. Mahoney (Dist. 5), American Arc Inc.

S.

M. McDaniel (Dist. 19), Big Bend Community College

D.

L. McQuaid (Past President), D. L. McQuaid and Associates Inc.

D.

K. Miller (At Large), Lincoln Electric

S.

Moran (Dist. 3), American Hydro Corp.

K.

E. Shatell (Dist. 22),

Pacific Gas & Electric Co.

M.

Sherman (Dist. 10),

SW&E LLC

M.

Skiles (Dist. 9), Airgas Inc.

W.

J. Sperko (At Large), Sperko Engineering Services

K.

Temme (Dist. 2), Matrix NAC

P.

I. Temple (Dist. 11), Energy Wise Consulting LLC

J.

A. Willard (Dist. 13), Kankakee Community College

WELDING JOURNAL

Publisher/Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen Editorial

Sr. Editor Cindy Weihl Features Editor Kristin Campbell Associate Editor Katie Pacheco Assistant Editor Roline Pascal Peer Review Coord. Sonia Aleman Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber

Design and Production

Production Manager Zaida Chavez Assistant Production Manager Brenda Flores Manager of International Periodicals and Electronic Media Carlos Guzman

Advertising

Sr. Advertising Sales Exec.

Sandra Jorgensen

Sr. Advertising Sales Exec.

Annette Delagrange

Manager of Sales Operations Lea Owen Sr. Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson

Subscriptions

Subscriptions Representative Sonia Aleman saleman@aws.org

MARKETING ADVISORY COUNCIL (MAC)

D.

Doench, Chair, Hobart Brothers Co.

S.

Bartholomew, Vice Chair, ESAB Cutting Systems

S.

Samuels, Secretary, American Welding Society

D.

Brown, AGONOW

C.

Coffey, The Lincoln Electric Co.

D.

DeCorte, RoMan Mfg. Inc.

S.

Fyffe, Astaras Inc.

L.

Kvidahl, Ingalls Shipbuilding

D.

Marquard, IBEDA Superflash Compressed

S.

Moran, American Hydro

M.

Muenzer, ORS Nasco

E.

Norman, EDCO Industries LLC

R.

Roth, RoMan Mfg. Inc.

F.

Saenger, Consultant

M.

Smickenbecker, Matheson

S.

Smith, Weld-Aid Products

E.

Stone, Weiler Corp.

A.

Sepulveda, Hypertherm

D.

Wilson, Wilson and Associates

T.

Lienert, Los Alamos National Laboratory

J. Bray, Ex Officio, Affiliated Machinery Inc.

C.

Chen, Ex Officio, Cincinnati Incorporated

M.

Miller, Ex Officio, American Welding Society

M. Miller , Ex Officio, American Welding Society On the cover: Metropolitan Community College Welding Student

On the cover: Metropolitan Community College Welding Student Nora Cobb practices her grinding skills on pipe. (Courtesy of Alex Matzke.)

her grinding skills on pipe. (Courtesy of Alex Matzke.) aws.org 8669 NW 36 St., # 130,

aws.org

8669 NW 36 St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672 (305) 443-9353 or (800) 443-9353

AWS Promotes Diversity

AWS values diversity, advocates equitable and inclusive practices, and engages its members and stakeholders in establishing a culture in the welding community that welcomes, learns from, and celebrates differences among people. AWS recognizes that a commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion is essential to achieving excellence for the Association, its members, and employees.

Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published monthly by the American Welding Society for $120.00 per year in the United States and possessions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50 per single issue for domestic AWS members and $10.00 per single issue for nonmembers and $14.00 sin- gle issue for international. Not available for resale in either print or electronic form. American Welding Society is located at 8669 NW 36 St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672; telephone (305) 443-9353. Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Welding Journal, 8669 NW 36 St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672. Canada Post: Publications Mail Agreement #40612608 Canada Returns to be sent to Bleuchip Interna- tional, P.O. Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2, Canada. Readers of Welding Journal may make copies of articles for personal, archival, educational or research purposes, and which are not for sale or resale. Permission is granted to quote from articles, provided customary acknowledgment of authors and sources is made. Starred (*) items excluded from copyright. Copyright © 2018 by American Welding Society in both printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.

for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users. 4 WELDING JOURNAL /

EDITORIAL

EDITORIAL Sean P. Moran AWS District 3 Director “As the welding industry becomes more focused on

Sean P. Moran AWS District 3 Director

“As the welding industry becomes more focused on operational efficiencies, we’ve seen a continued use of robotics and automation. With this in mind, the question was presented as to the feasibility of conducting a welding competition with the use of robotics.”

Got Robotic Welding Skills? Bring Out Your Competitive Side

Welding competitions have been a part of the welding industry for decades. They not only provide opportunities for stu- dents to showcase their welding skills to their peers, but also to others in attendance. Typical welding competitions define specific weld joints, materials, and posi- tions to perform specified welding processes. In this format, contestants generally perform welding tasks individu- ally. In the past few years, these competi- tions have morphed into team events where members will be charged with a task to either fabricate a specified project or possibly a theme project with physical size restrictions. As the welding industry becomes more focused on operational efficiencies, we’ve seen a continued use of robotics and au- tomation. With this in mind, the question was presented as to the feasibility of con- ducting a welding competition with the use of robotics. Just like students who develop personal skill sets to perform manual welding, there are many students who develop personal skill sets to operate welding robots. Therefore, in an effort for these students to showcase their skills, the ability to offer a competition was seen as feasible. The Student Robotic Welding Compe- tition, sponsored by the American Weld- ing Society, started in 2016. I have served as its chairman since its inception. Even though it’s only the summer, fall will be here before we know it. On Octo- ber 9–11 at the RTP – Robotics Technolo- gy Park (alabamartp.org), in Tanner, Ala., near Huntsville, student contestants will again have the chance to show their ro- botic arc welding skills and knowledge during a two-and-a-half day competition. RTP provides factory training cells for each of the robot brands. The competition involves a series of project-based activities, requiring hands- on robotic skills, along with technology fundamentals and industrial safety writ- ten examinations. Each of the series of activities and written exams is based on a 2-h time frame. Contestants are required to have a thorough knowledge of robotic program- ming, safety, and weld inspection. All

portions of the contest are judged on comprehension, ability, and accuracy of robot execution and quality of the com- pleted welded project. The welded project, which is assem- bled and welded in a series of four activi- ties and four different robotic cells, tests the student’s ability to follow design drawings and instruction, set up a series of four individual robotic cells, program all robot instructions, and define and use correct welding parameters for weld size requirements. Also, this competition challenges stu- dents with the concept of a specific proj- ect-based objective and four different ro- bot platforms. Each contestant is provid- ed with a set of precut and formed mate- rials along with a set of instructions to construct a functioning object in a series of four operations. Each of the operations is performed on one of four different brands of robots. Competitors are challenged with the call-outs of specific assembly instructions for each robot operating system. The con- cept of different robots demonstrates the student’s ability to transfer the knowl- edge of one operating system to another. In addition to the contest project, each competitor will be required to complete two 50-question written examinations. The first tests knowledge of safety con- cepts for both welding and robot systems. The second tests knowledge of the princi- ples and practices of robotic systems as well as the gas metal arc welding process. The competition is open to all students enrolled in an accredited institution that provides instructional programs in robotic arc welding through either secondary or postsecondary educational institutions. Contestants are required to submit a stu- dent application for participation and a prescreening evaluation test verifying basic competency of robot safety and operations. In addition to the requirement of being en- rolled in an accredited institution, all stu- dents are required to be under the age of 23 upon the date of the competition. If you meet the requirements and think you’ve got what it takes, why not put your robotic welding skills to the test by entering this upcoming

competition?

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PRESS TIME NEWS

Six Nations Polytechnic to Start Welders Program for Low-Income Women; Tuition-Free Training Provided

Six Nations Polytechnic, a postsecondary organization established in Canada’s most populous First Nation, has re- cently been approved for funding, up to a maximum of $307,295 over two years, to start the We Are Welders Pro- gram. This endeavor will be for low-income women, under the Women’s Economic Security Program, and sponsored by the Ontario Ministry of the Status of Women. Since opening its Brantford Campus, located in Ont., Canada, in 2016, staff have been working to identify and fulfill local needs in Brantford, Brant County, and Six Nations for trades workers. The objective of this tuition-free program is to provide soft and practical skills, safety training, technical skills, and personal support for participants to gain local employment as a welder. In addition, it will provide theory, hands-on, and virtual training at the Brantford Campus. “With three cohorts over two fiscal years, this project aims to respond, quickly, to an increased demand for welders by training and employing 30 new qualified welders in the City of Brantford and Brant county region,” said Re- becca Jamieson, president and CEO of Six Nations Polytech- nic. “We know there is a gap in skilled trades workers locally, and this program helps to fill part of that gap.” The 28-week course is comprised of six modules includ- ing career awareness, team building, soft and life skills, welding, employment readiness and empowerment, and a paid work placement. The curriculum content, with work- shops and resources, aim to remove barriers, build confi- dence, acquire skills, and prepare participants for a career as a welder. The first cohort was expected to start in June. Interested applicants will soon be able to apply through Six Nations Polytechnic and community agencies. For more details, visit snpolytechnic.com.

ASM International Honors Weld Mold

snpolytechnic.com . ASM International Honors Weld Mold Fred Schmidt (right), president, ASM International, presents

Fred Schmidt (right), president, ASM International, presents the 2017 His- torical Landmark Award to Darryl Hammock, CEO, Weld Mold Co.

On May 17, ASM International, Materi- als Park, Ohio, pre- sented Weld Mold Co., Brighton, Mich., its ASM Historical Landmark Award for 2017. In attendance for the event were ASM International dignitaries, represen- tatives from the city

of Brighton and state of Michigan, Weld Mold officials and employees, and other guests. Weld Mold was recognized for developing and innovating the flood welding process for weld die repair. Matt Kiilunen (1905-1990), its founder (1945), was personally responsible for revolutionizing the process.

This historical landmark designation recognizes sites and events that have played a prominent role in the discovery, development, and growth of metals, metalworking, and all engineered metals.

National Science Foundation Awards Substantial Grant for Welder Education

Monroe County Community College (MCCC), Monroe, Mich., has received a $224,906 grant from the National Sci- ence Foundation, Alexandria, Va., for a project titled “Ad- vanced Welder Education.” Its goal is to increase the region’s supply of qualified welders, with advanced levels of education, who can further research, develop, and innovate the field. The three-year project is expected to end May 31, 2021. “This award builds on the momentum created by four years of grant-funded welding training completed by MCCC earlier this decade through a $1.79 million Department of Labor Community-Based Job Training Grant,” said Dr. Kojo A. Quartey, MCCC president. The community college will transition the offering of entry-level welding instruction, known as American Welding Society AWS-QC-10, to area high schools, according to Parmeshwar Coomar, dean of MCCC’s applied science and engineering technology division. It will still offer some entry-level welding classes, yet its focus will be on teaching advanced-level welding standards (AWS-QC-11) and incor- porating the latest additions to these standards recently set forth by AWS. Partnering with local high school career and technical ed- ucation instructors to help them implement the entry-level welding (AWS-QC-10) standards at the high schools will help MCCC develop a direct articulation credit pathway, where students can earn up to ten credits toward MCCC’s welding program while still in high school.

Miller Donates $10,000 to Nuts, Bolts & Thingamajigs Foundation’s Manufacturing Camp Grant Program

Miller Electric Mfg. Co. LLC, Appleton, Wis., is support- ing twelve 2018 summer manufacturing camps in the state of Wisconsin with a $10,000 donation to Nuts, Bolts & Thingamajigs® (NBT), the Foundation of the Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, Int’l. The donation will allow approximately 200 students, aged 12–16, to be introduced to the manufacturing process from design through production. Camps allow students to make something with their own hands, sparking their imag- ination and encouraging them to consider a career in manu- facturing. This summer, NBT will support a record number of 90 camps across the United States. “Miller Electric Mfg. Co. believes welding is a key process to the future of manufacturing. We are proud to provide camp and scholarship donations for the young people to connect with a career in such fields. Welding is a key part to the manufacturing economy, and we need these future lead- ers to keep it going,” said Bruce Albrecht, vice president, global innovation & technology, Miller Electric Mfg. Co.

LLC.

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INTERNATIONAL UPDATE

Training Center in Republic of Congo Launches Plan to Modernize Vocational Training

of Congo Launches Plan to Modernize Vocational Training The Don Bosco Vocational Training Center has implemented

The Don Bosco Vocational Training Center has implemented a project to support the modernization of vocational training by increasing teacher training, purchasing new equipment, and creating new courses.

The Don Bosco Vocational Training Center in Brazzaville, the capital of the Republic of Congo, has recently launched a project to develop the skills of teachers, purchase new equip- ment, and create new vocational training workshops. The project, which officially launched in May and will run through October, aims to improve teachers’ training and in- crease student enrollment by 3000 over the next three years. To support teachers, Salesian missionaries will expand the library, address current problems related to the trans- port of teachers to and from school, and increase educator salaries. The plan will also offer teachers scholarships to continue their education and improve their skills. Additionally, funding will be used to purchase new equip- ment for courses in electrotechnical, air conditioning and heating systems, lathing and welding, and carpentry. The project will also purchase new tools for the creation of a driving school within the auto mechanics course to ensure graduating students pass the driver’s test and earn their dri- ver’s license. Lastly, the training center intends to start new courses in construction, renewable energies, as well as maintenance of computers and networks, electronic, and audiovisual equipment.

Hyperloop Begins Construction of Passenger and Freight System in France

Construction of Passenger and Freight System in France The full-scale Hyperloop tubes ar- rive at the

The full-scale Hyperloop tubes ar- rive at the company’s Toulouse re- search and development center.

Hyperloop Trans- portation Technolo- gies (HyperloopTT), a California-based transportation and technology company, has begun construc- tion of a full-scale, passenger-ready cap- sule near its research and development center in Toulouse,

France. The passenger-freight capsule is currently near com- pletion at Carbures in Spain and scheduled for delivery to the facility this summer for assembly and integration. The two-phase process will begin with a closed 320-m system that will be operational this year. A second, full-scale system of 1 km elevated by pylons at a height of 5.8 m will be completed in 2019. “Five years ago, we set out to solve transportation’s most pressing problems: efficiency, comfort, and speed. Today we take an important step forward to begin to achieve that goal,” said HyperloopTT CEO Dirk Ahlborn. “Hyperloop is more than just displays of rapid acceleration and more than just breaking speed records. The real opportunity is to create an efficient and safe system with an unparalleled passenger experience.”

Kemppi Unveils Robotic Welding Application Center in China

Kemppi Unveils Robotic Welding Application Center in China The new Beijing-based Kemppi ro- botic welding application

The new Beijing-based Kemppi ro- botic welding application center is equipped with the company’s ro- botic welding equipment.

Kemppi, headquar- tered in Lahti, Fin- land, has opened up a robotic welding appli- cation center in Kemp- pi China’s subsidiary facilities in Beijing, China, to strengthen its robotic welding business and speed up its growth in Asia. The center is equipped with the company’s range of ro- botic welding equip-

ment and robots from well-known manufac- turers. In the center, visitors can see the welding automa- tion systems in action. Robotic welding and Asia are both strategic focus areas for Kemppi. Kemppi had its first deliveries to China already at the end of the 1980s and has invested significantly in robotic welding solution development during the past years. The ro- botic welding application center is a natural next step in serv- ing the important and fast-growing robotic welding markets in China and Southeast Asia even better,” said Hannu Jokela, vice president Asia Pacific and export sales, Kemppi Oy.

Xiris Opens European Office in Germany to Better Support Local Customers

Xiris Automation Inc., Burlington, Ontario, Canada, a provider of quality control solutions for welding and tube and pipe industries, has opened a European sales and serv- ice office in Ratingen, Germany, near Düsseldorf, to better support its growing customer base in Europe. As part of this initiative, the company will now be able to offer annual recertification services of their weld inspection systems used in the tube industry from the Ratingen office, helping customers achieve optimal equipment performance

and drive quality assurance.

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NEWS OF THE INDUSTRY

Introducing the Newest AWS ATFs:

Performance Instruction & Training, Elgin and Hampshire High Schools

Performance Instruction & Training (PIT), Mooresville, N.C., along with Elgin High School (School District U-46), Elgin, Ill., and Hampshire High School (District 300), Hamp- shire, Ill., have earned the American Welding Society’s (AWS) Accredited Test Facility (ATF) distinction. This pro- gram establishes minimum requirements for test facilities, their personnel, and equipment to qualify for accreditation to test and qualify welders. Accredited Test Facilities also play an integral part in the operation of the AWS Certified Welding program, proving they have the resources to test welders to this nationally recognized and accepted program. PIT, founded in 2003, is a pit crew training facility owned by Thomas C. DeLoach Jr. Realizing the need for welders in racing and other industries, a curriculum was recently devel- oped focusing on motorsports and more skill sets; this led to “Pit Weld U Powered by Miller Welders,” a 16-week course. Now, with PIT’s certified welder program, students and experienced welders can test to be certified under specific AWS codes. Companies can also certify or maintain certifica- tion for their staff under AWS codes. “As one of only a few ATFs in North Carolina, we have separated ourselves from other schools offering welding programs, but [with] no op- tion for AWS certification,” said Trent Schanen, PIT’s direc- tor of event logistics and welding school operations. “Currently, we’re offering certification testing dates monthly, focusing primarily on testing under AWS D1.1 and AWS D1.3 Codes, and will be diversifying in the near future. As we grow, we’ll also offer on-site testing options,” Schanen

grow, we’ll also offer on-site testing options,” Schanen A student at Performance Instruction & Training,

A student at Performance Instruction & Training, Mooresville, N.C., perfects his technique. (Courtesy of Trent Schanen.)

N.C., perfects his technique. (Courtesy of Trent Schanen.) At Elgin High School, Elgin, Ill., students try

At Elgin High School, Elgin, Ill., students try virtual-reality welding. (Courtesy of Nick Moran.)

continued. “Furthermore, we plan to expand our welding course offerings beyond our sole 16-week course, and per- haps offer other welding services as well.” In addition, both Elgin and Hampshire High Schools are the second and third U.S. high school facilities to earn the AWS ATF status. “This credential will allow our welding program to offer students an AWS welding certification test upon graduation, putting them on a firm career path,” said Nick Moran, a welding instructor and QA specialist for School District U- 46, who is also an AWS Certified Welding Inspector. “We aim to make our students career ready, and able to begin work in any field where welding skill is in demand.” Moran noted students train on several equipment brands to stay current with welding/cutting technologies. For more information on the process to achieve ATF ac- creditation, visit aws.org/certification/accreditedtestfacilities. — Kristin Campbell (kcampbell@aws.org), features editor

Alcoa and Rio Tinto Reveal Carbon-Free Aluminum Smelting Process

Alcoa Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa., and Rio Tinto, London, UK, have revealed a process to make aluminum that produces oxygen and eliminates direct greenhouse gas emissions from the traditional smelting process. During this announcement, executives from both compa- nies as well as from Apple were joined by Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Premier of Québec Philippe Couillard. Elysis, a joint venture company, will further develop the new process with a technology package planned for sale starting in 2024. To be headquartered in Montreal, with a research facility in the Quebec’s Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region, it will develop and license the technology. The business will sell proprietary anode and cathode ma- terials. Vincent Christ, who has more than 30 years’ experi- ence at Rio Tinto Aluminium, has been named its CEO. Canada and Quebec are each investing $46.1 million in Elysis. Apple is providing $9.9 million. Alcoa and Rio Tinto will invest $42.3 million cash over the next three years.

Rex-Cut Abrasives Marks 90 Years in Manufacturing Edward Hurst, Rex-Cut’s founder, invented the technique of
Rex-Cut Abrasives Marks 90 Years
in Manufacturing
Edward Hurst, Rex-Cut’s
founder, invented the
technique of embedding
abrasive grain in nonwo-
ven cotton fiber.
Rex-Cut Abrasives is cele-
brating 90 years in business. Its
specialty abrasive material was
invented in 1928. Over the
following nine decades, the
Massachusetts-based company
engineered, refined, and cus-
tomized cotton-fiber abrasive
products for metalworking
industries.
“At our 90-year mark, we are
reflecting on our history, dedi-
cated team, and recognizing
our loyal business partners,”
said President Bob Costa. “We
have a total of 228 distributors
that have been with us for over
20 years, and we wouldn’t have
reached this milestone without
their help.”
In 1928, Edward Hurst, a
MIT graduate and process engineer, invented the technique
of embedding abrasive grain in nonwoven cotton fiber while
working for United Cotton Products. The original product
was named Fluff-Tex, and a patent was filed for the manu-
facturing process in 1935.
In 1960, Hurst retired from United, and his son, Robert
H. Hurst, took over management. The business changed
from United, and his son, Robert H. Hurst, took over management. The business changed JULY 2018
This recent photo at the company’s booth during FABTECH shows (from left) Claude Gelinas, chairman

This recent photo at the company’s booth during FABTECH shows (from left) Claude Gelinas, chairman of the board of directors; Jon Blake, R&D manager; and Tim Borges, sales manager, North American distribution.

hands several times before being called Rex-Cut Products in 1969. Up until the early 1970s, it manufactured and sold only bulk rolls of fabric for conversion to large abrasive com- panies. Its first finish products were Type 27 grinding wheels; abrasive discs to sharpen gardening tools and lawn mower blades were second. Type 1 wheels followed, and mounted points began being manufactured years later. In 1978, the company built a 60,000-sq-ft facility in the Fall River Industrial Park, where it still operates. In 2008,

Rex-Cut was sold to the employees as a 100% employee stock ownership plan company. It began doing business as Rex-Cut Abrasives in 2011.

Industrial Arts Institute Holds Regional High School Welding Competition

The Industrial Arts Institute, Onaway, Mich., sponsored its 2 nd Annual Regional High School Welding Competition on April 20. This event was offered at no cost to high schools throughout Michigan. Competitors chose one of three processes in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), flux cored arc welding (FCAW), or gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Several welding professionals served as judges. For GMAW, 1 st place went to Zach Gildner, Cheboygan High School Career Tech Program; 2 nd , Caleb Evanzo, Mont- calm ISD Career Center; and 3 rd , Chase Vandenbos, Wex- ford/Missauke Career Tech Center. For FCAW, 1 st place was earned by Sean Sikkema, Wexford/Missauke Career Tech Center; 2 nd , Tyler Atkinson, Cheboygan High School Career Tech Program; and 3 rd , Grant Spray, Cheboygan High School Career Tech Program. For SMAW, 1 st place went to Jacob Gow, Industrial Arts Institute/GMCA-NM high school work based learning welding program; 2 nd , Conner Mann, Cheboy- gan High School Career Tech Program; and 3 rd , Robert Ni- ester, Industrial Arts Institute/GMCA-NM high school work based learning welding program. This year, 72 high school students from ten welding pro- grams competed. The 1 st -, 2 nd -, and 3 rd -place finishers re-

pro- grams competed. The 1 s t -, 2 n d -, and 3 r d
Earning 1 s t place at the Industrial Arts Institute’s welding competition are (from left)

Earning 1 st place at the Industrial Arts Institute’s welding competition are (from left) Jacob Gow, SMAW; Sean Sikkema, FCAW; and Zach Gildner, GMAW. Also photographed is Thomas Moran, founder of the Industrial Arts Institute.

ceived prizes and a $1000 scholarship to attend the insti- tute’s comprehensive industrial welding program. First- place finishers got the Thor Award and received $500. Every participating student earned a $500 scholarship to attend the institute’s comprehensive industrial welding program.

ShipTech 2018 Brings Together Navy and Industry Leaders

ShipTech 2018 Brings Together Navy and Industry Leaders ShipTech 2018 featured an array of technical and

ShipTech 2018 featured an array of technical and general- session speakers. Pictured is Rear Admiral David J. Hahn.

Nearly 300 people attended ShipTech 2018 in Charleston, S.C. This two-day defense manufacturing con- ference is held for the domestic shipbuilding industry, its supplier base, the U.S. Navy Program Offices, and the U.S. Navy-sponsored shipbuilding research programs. Attendees and speakers shared details about the Navy’s shipbuilding priorities and industry’s latest manufacturing technology developments. Keynote addresses were given by Rear Admiral David J. Hahn, chief of naval research, Office of Naval Research, and Rear Admiral Lorin C. Selby, chief engineer and deputy commander for ship design, integra-

Admiral Lorin C. Selby, chief engineer and deputy commander for ship design, integra- JULY 2018 /
tion, and naval engineering, Naval Sea Systems Command. Panel discussions focused on lead ship vs.

tion, and naval engineering, Naval Sea Systems Command. Panel discussions focused on lead ship vs. follow-on ship cost differential and integrated warfare systems, which in- cluded leaders in key Navy program offices and industry. Technical sessions featured briefs and posters in joining technologies, production processes, shipbuilding processes and technologies, additive manufacturing, and robotics.

Industry Notes

Fischer Technology has opened a Chicago, Ill., sales and

service facility. Craig Kuchta, the new representative and technical advisor for this office, has more than 20 years of technical instrumentation sales and support of products by many manufacturers. The company’s regional offices support its line of test and measurement instrumentation.

• Fume-extraction vendor ULT LLC, Mequon, Wis., and

Florida-based GulfTech Enterprises – Casiba Group have joined forces. Since March, GulfTech has focused on sales and service of ULT’s air-treatment solutions in Florida and southern Georgia. The representative will provide extraction and filtration-technology equipment for laser and welding fumes, plus address additive manufacturing industries.

• Peggy Del Fabbro, CEO of M. Davis & Sons, Wilmington,

Del., recently announced it has acquired a Messer Cutting Systems Evolution® plasma cutting table. The equipment enables fabrication specialists to produce smooth edge quality and precision hole cutting. Also, the table provides

a larger volume of plate cutting in-house, with materials to be cut from 1.5 in. for carbon steel to 1 in. for stainless steel.

VCOM, a high-tech educational technology enterprise,

has become the latest global partner of WorldSkills In- ternational. Established in the Guangdong Province of China more than 20 years ago, its training products are used in 2000 vocational schools and colleges, technical schools, and public training centers across the country.

Micronor Inc., Camarillo, Calif., a manufacturer of fiber

optic kinetic sensors for industrial and medical applica- tions, has been certified under global quality standard ISO 9001:2015. The company earned certification from regis-

trar TUV Nord USA.

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Do You Have Some News to Tell Us?

If you have a news item that might interest the readers of the Welding Journal, send it to the following address:

Welding Journal Dept. Attn: Kristin Campbell 8669 NW 36 St. #130 Miami, FL 33166. Items can also be sent via fax to (305) 443-7559 or by email to kcampbell@aws.org.

BUSINESS BRIEFS

Huntington Ingalls Industries’ Employees are Honored by the Manufacturing Institute

Employees are Honored by the Manufacturing Institute Newport News Shipbuilding employ- ees (from left) Kelli

Newport News Shipbuilding employ- ees (from left) Kelli Gilliam, Marissa Webb, and Danyelle Saunders were honored at the 2018 STEP Ahead Awards in Washington, D.C. (Photo courtesy of the National Association of Manufacturers.)

Three female em- ployees at Virginia- based Huntington Ingalls Industries’ Newport News Shipbuilding divi- sion were recog- nized by the Manu- facturing Institute for their achieve- ments in science, technology, engi- neering, and pro- duction at the 2018 Women in Manu- facturing STEP Ahead Awards. Kelli Gilliam, fore-

man/craft instruc- tor; Danyelle Saun- ders, engineering manager; and Marissa Webb, industrial engineer, were among 130 women honored during an awards reception in Washington, D.C. Saunders was also rec- ognized as a STEP Ahead Award honoree, and Gilliam and Webb were recognized as emerging leaders. The STEP Ahead Awards honor women who have demon- strated excellence and leadership in their careers and repre- sent all levels of the manufacturing industry, as well as en- couraged women to mentor and support the next generation of female talent to pursue manufacturing careers.

Toyota and Mazda Choose Alabama for New $1.6 Billion Manufacturing Facility

Mazda Motor Corp. and Toyota Motor Corp. have chosen Huntsville, Ala., as the site for their new $1.6 billion joint- venture company named Mazda Toyota Manufacturing U.S.A. Inc. (MTMUS). The facility is projected to produce 150,000 units of Maz- da’s crossover model and 150,000 units of the Toyota Corol- la. The plant is scheduled to open in 2021 and employ up to 4000 people.

manufacturing

“The new plant, which will be Toyota’s 11

th

facility in the U.S., not only represents our continuous com- mitment in this country, but also is a key factor in improv- ing our competitiveness of manufacturing in the U.S.,” said Hironori Kagohashi, executive general manager of Toyota and executive vice president of MTMUS. In collaboration with the state of Alabama and the city of Huntsville, full-scale construction of the facility is expected to start in 2019.

CWB Group Celebrates 70 Years, Rebrands Under One Name

The CWB Group, a not-for-profit organization providing

welder certification, management systems registration, and training services, has recently celebrated 70 years in the Canadian welding industry. Following on the heels of its an- niversary, the company is transitioning all of its business units to unite them under one brand: CWB. The organiza- tion announced the initiative will help industry more easily identify their complete offerings and better allow clients to learn about all of the services they have to offer. “We’re excited about our new unified brand identity for our various service offerings,” said Craig Martin, vice presi- dent of public safety. “It’s a visual reflection of CWB Group’s commitment to see the Canadian welding sector be sustain- able and successful in the years ahead both through the de- livery of value-added services and as a strong voice to pro- mote and advocate for our industry.”

Metal Fatigue Solutions Opens Headquarters in New York City’s Empire State Building

Metal Fatigue Solutions, Las Vegas, Nev., a producer of non- destructive examination and structural health monitoring technology systems for civil and industrial infrastructure, has opened an office in New York City’s Empire State Building. Its newly established east coast regional headquarters will serve as a user base for companies or projects in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maryland. It will also provide access to Washington, D.C., where the company consults with officials at the Department of Transportation and oth- er federal agencies overseeing the nation’s civil infrastruc- ture, which encompasses bridges, aviation, wind turbines, oil rigs, and pipelines.

Recent Acquisitions

• RoboVent, Sterling Heights, Mich., has procured Air Fil-

tration Holdings LLC, Columbus, Ohio. The air filtration company previously acquired Maryland-based Viskon-Aire, a manufacturer of air filtration products, and Illinois-based Permatron, a provider of custom, technology-driven air fil- tration solutions.

• Non-Destructive Testing Products Group, St. Catharines,

Ontario, a distributor of nondestructive examination and aviation equipment and supplies, has acquired Infinitex Corp., an ultrafiltration technology manufacturer. Infinitex operations in Clarence Center, N.Y., will remain in place dur- ing the transition and existing distribution, and user agree- ments will not be affected.

• Clean technology company, MagneGas Corp., Tampa, Fla., has bought Trico Welding Supply, an industrial gas and welding supply distributor in the Sacramento, Calif., market.

• George Industries, Endicott, N.Y., a designer and manu- facturer of engineered aerospace, defense, and industrial components, has purchased Numerical Precision, Wheeling,

Ill., a manufacturer of close-tolerance components for satel-

lites, aircraft, as well as aerospace and defense programs.

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LASERLASER WELDINGWELDING Q&AQ&A

Q: We are a metal fabrication company providing full manufac- turing capability of small (up to 2 in. diameter) and large (up to 60 in. diameter) components. The volume may be low (ten assem- blies/day) to high (ten assem- blies/min). Our company is planning to add laser manufac- turing technology to our capabil- ity. Are there some guidelines in choosing a laser and optics? The information available from the suppliers’ trade literature is not clear.

A: This is a very good question. During an economy where companies are seeing increased demand for their products, and the ramp-up time for increased capacity is very short, se- lecting new manufacturing equipment as well as qualifying the equipment and the process, will understandably create anxiety. The following is the suggested way to approach the selection of the laser

and the laser beam delivery optics for laser welding:

1. Material. Identify the charac-

teristics of the materials to be laser welded. This information is available

and has been covered in this column previously. Check the Classification of Materials (Refs. 1, 2) for the power density values required to couple the laser beam with the surface of differ- ent materials. More on this later.

2. Weld penetration and AR 1 re-

quirement. These help to define the temporal characteristics of the laser power and laser weld process. Pulsed laser power is able to pro- duce good quality conduction welds with penetration from 0.001 in. (0.025 mm) to approximately 0.060 in. (1.5 mm) in class II metals (carbon steel, stainless steel, titanium, and so forth) and from 0.001 in. to approx- imately 0.030 in. (0.76 mm) in class I metals (copper, aluminum, tungsten, and so forth). The recommended val-

ue of AR is between 0.6 and 1.0. For example, if the weld bead is 0.020 in. (0.5 mm) wide, the weld penetration should be between 0.012 in. (0.3 mm) and 0.020 in. (0.5 mm). So, if greater penetration is required for the 0.020-

1 Aspect ratio of the weld.

BY SIMON L. ENGEL

Table 1 — Summary of the Weld Parameters

 

Pulsed Conduction

CW Conduction

CW Keyhole

w

in.

0.020

0.020

0.020

p

in.

0.020

0.020

0.050

AR

#

1.0

1.0

2.5

Overlap

%

80.0

n/a

n/a

E

joules

4.67

n/a

n/a

t

s

0.0155

n/a

n/a

PR

pulse/s

50.0

n/a

n/a

v

in./min W W

12.0

197.0

394.0

P(a)

233.0

750.0

5000.0

P(p)

301.0

n/a

n/a

volume

in. 3 /min

0.006

0.039

0.197

in.-wide weld, continuous wave (CW)

power must be used. Continuous wave laser power is able to produce good quality keyhole welds up to 0.600 in. (15.2 mm) deep in class II and 0.120 in. (3.0 mm) in class I metals. In the previous exam- ple, the 0.020-in.- (0.5-mm-) wide weld may be produced with a weld penetration of 0.050 in. (1.3 mm) deep and an AR value of 2.5.

3. Volume of metal to be weld-

ed. The volume of the material to be processed defines the average power of the laser. Comparison of the vol- ume of metal welded with the same

laser in the pulsed versus power mode is provided in Table 1.

4. Selection of the beam deliv-

ery optics. The equipment designer will determine what optics to use to collimate the laser beam, what fiber optic cable to use to deliver the beam to the target, and so forth. What you should be concerned about is the di- ameter of the focused beam and the spatial profile of the laser beam as it is focused on the target. Pulsed laser power. To compute the energy per pulse and the pulse width for delivering the correct power density to the target, we need to re- member that the diameter beam as fo- cused on the target will be approxi- mately 80% of the bead width. Referring to the above example, to produce a bead width of 0.020 in. (0.5 mm), the beam diameter should be 0.016 in. (400 m). The 400-m spot may be produced with a 400-m fiber- optic cable and the correctly chosen optics. Optical fibers of this diameter typically deliver a spatial profile that is uniform (top hat). Assuming class II

metals and the desired power density value of 1.5 E 06 W/in. 2 , the compu- tation using the formulas provided in a recent column (Ref. 2) and incorpo- rated in mathematical algorithms

(Ref. 3) yields the following laser weld parameters:

For w 0.020 in., p 0.020 in. (AR 1.0), 80% overlap, use E 4.67 joules, t 0.0155 s, PR 50 Hz; travel speed 12 in./min. Average power

233 W; peak power 301 W. The vol.

of metal melted 0.006 in. 3 /min. Continuous wave laser power. At the optimal welding speed, the re- lationship between the bead width and the diameter of the laser beam is the same as in pulsed laser welding. So are the comments about the optics. The difference is in the power density values. For keyhole welding, the de- sired power density is approximately 2.5 E 07 W/in. 2 . This requirement defines the minimum CW power (threshold) needed to achieve the power density for keyhole weld.

Therefore, P min for the 0.050-in. weld penetration, keyhole weld 5000 W; and P min for the 0.020-in. weld pene- tration, conduction weld 300 W. Higher power is recommended be- cause the operating range of lasers is 10100% of full power. Based on published data (Ref. 3), the following laser weld parameters may be used:

For w 0.020 in., p 0.020 in., use

750 W at 197 in./min (5 m/min); vol.

melted 0.039 in. 3 /min (three times the average power used in pulsed weld- ing, but 6.5 times the volume melted). This is understandable because in pulsed welding, the weld nuggets over- lap the previous weld nuggets.

For w 0.020 in., p 0.050 in., use

5000 W at 394 in./min (10 m/min);

vol. melted 0.197 in. 3 /min.

Summary

1. There is a significant difference

between the productivity of pulsed

power welding and CW power welding.

2. When the required weld penetra-

tion is achievable with conduction welding and the number of units to be

welded is low, a laser of a few hundred

W of average power and good pulsing

capabilities would work well. Good

pulsing capability implies easy pro- gramming of the pulse parameters.

3. If you need to produce laser

welds with AR larger than 1.5 (key- hole welding), then a laser in the pow-

er range of 5000–6000 W is the right

choice. The good news is that the

higher power CW solid-state lasers (fiber lasers, disk lasers, and direct diode lasers) may be pulsed and make pulsed welds, too. Also, the cost of the laser does not change linearly with its power rating. So going from 500 to

5000 W does not mean price increase

times ten.

4. The most important characteris-

tics of the beam delivery optical sys- tem are its ability to produce the re- quired diameter of the focused laser beam and a spatial profile, which should be uniform across the laser

beam, called top hat.

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References

1. Engel, S. L. 2016. Laser welding

Q&A. Welding Journal 95(9): 20, 21.

2. Engel, S. L. 2018. Laser welding

Q&A. Welding Journal 97(3): 20, 21.

3. Engel, S. L. Laser Welding Tech-

nology — Engineering Manual. HDE Technologies Inc., Elk Grove, Calif.

SIMON L. ENGEL is president of HDE Technologies Inc., Elk Grove, Calif. He serves as vice chair of the AWS C7C Subcommittee on Laser Beam Welding and Cutting and is a member of the US TAG for ISO/TC44/SC10/WG9 on Hybrid Welding. He is also a senior member of the Laser Institute of America and a life member of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers. He is considered a specialist in industrial laser applications and has been in the business for 40 years. Questions may be sent to Simon Engel, c/o Welding Journal, 8669 NW 36 St., #130, Miami, FL 33166-6672, or via email at simon_of_hde@yahoo.com.

8669 NW 36 St., #130, Miami, FL 33166-6672, or via email at simon_of_hde@yahoo.com . JULY 2018
8669 NW 36 St., #130, Miami, FL 33166-6672, or via email at simon_of_hde@yahoo.com . JULY 2018

STAINLESS Q&A

Q: We are in the planning stages to qualify a gas metal arc weld- ing procedure to weld 316L stain- less steel to 2205 duplex stainless steel. It seems that we can run the procedure qualifica- tion using 316L filler metal or 2209 filler metal. Does it matter what type of filler metal we use?

A: It does matter. The concern would be how the filler metal choice affects the ease of passing a side bend test. There will be a significant strength mismatch across the joint in either case. This leads to strain con-

centration during bending in the weaker material beside the fusion boundary. Table 1 lists the chemical composi- tion requirements for 316L and 2205 base metals according to ASTM A240, as well as ER316L and ER2209 filler metals according to AWS A5.9/A5.9M. Table 2 lists the base metal mechanical property requirements for 316L and 2205. There are no mechanical proper- ty requirements specified for the two filler metals, but there is readily avail- able data showing typical values for these filler metals, which are also list- ed in Table 2. The weld metal tends to be stronger

BY DAMIAN J. KOTECKI

than the corresponding base metal, particularly in regards to yield strength. Typical yield strength for 316L base metal is about 35 ksi (240 MPa). If ER2209 filler metal is used for the 316L to 2205 joint, the mis- match in yield strength at the 316L base metal/2209 filler metal interface will be about 35/80 ksi. However, if ER316L filler metal is used, the mis- match at the ER316L filler metal/ 2205 base metal interface will be about 55/80 ksi, which is appreciably less of a mismatch. When there is a mismatch in yield strength, there is a tendency in many standard bend test jigs to develop a kink in the weaker

Table 1 — Chemical Composition Requirements

Composition, wt-% (single value is maximum)

Alloy

 

C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

Mo

Cu

N

316L

0.030

2.00

0.75

16.0–18.0

10.0–14.0

2.00–3.00

0.10

2205

0.030

2.00

1.00

22.0–23.0

4.5–6.5

3.0–3.5

0.14–0.20

ER316L

0.03

1.0–2.5

0.30–0.65

18.0–20.0

11.0–14.0

2.0–3.0

0.75

ER2209

0.03

0.50–2.00

0.90

21.5–23.5

7.5–9.5

2.5–3.5

0.75

0.08–0.20

0.50–2.00 0.90 21.5–23.5 7.5–9.5 2.5–3.5 0.75 0.08–0.20 22 WELDING JOURNAL / JULY 2018

Table 2 — Base Metal Mechanical Property Requirements or Typical Weld Metal Values

Alloy

Tensile Strength ksi (MPa)

Yield Strength ksi (MPa)

% Elongation

316L

70 (485)

25 (170)

40

2205

95 (655)

65 (450)

25

ER316L

80 (550)

55 (380)

40

ER2209

95 (655)

80 (550)

30

55 (380) 40 ER2209 95 (655) 80 (550) 30 Fig. 1 — Typical bottom-ejecting guided bend

Fig. 1 — Typical bottom-ejecting guided bend test fixture. (Source: Fig. 6.1, AWS

B4.0:2016.)

bend test fixture. (Source: Fig. 6.1, AWS B4.0:2016.) Fig. 2 — Typical bottom-guided bend test fixture.

Fig. 2 — Typical bottom-guided bend test fixture. (Source: Fig. 6.2, AWS B4.0:2016.)

material, and the kink can lead to tear- ing at the interface due to the strain concentration. One way to combat this tendency to develop a kink at the interface be- tween weaker and stronger metals is to change from the normal three-point bending configuration that occurs in a bottom-ejecting guided bend test fix- ture (Fig. 1) or bottom-guided bend test fixture (Fig. 2) to a wrap-around guided bend test fixture (Fig. 3). The

wrap-around fixture forces all parts of the bend test specimen to stretch es- sentially the same amount regardless of variations in yield strength within the specimen. In addition to the concern about kinking of the test specimen when there is a strength mismatch within the test specimen, each of the three bend test fixtures offers a concern in conducting the test. The test specimen in the bottom-ejecting fixture tends to

concern in conducting the test. The test specimen in the bottom-ejecting fixture tends to JULY 2018
Fig. 3 — Typical wrap-around guided bend test fixture. (Source: Fig. B.3, AWS B4.0:2016.) spring

Fig. 3 — Typical wrap-around guided bend test fixture. (Source: Fig. B.3, AWS

B4.0:2016.)

spring rather violently when it exits the fixture. Tethering of the test speci- men or some sort of enclosure around the fixture can be used to prevent this springing of the test specimen from harming someone or damaging equip- ment. With the bottom-guided bend test fixture, the test specimen tends to

become stuck when the test is com- pleted. Then it is sometimes necessary to pry the specimen loose, which may also result in somewhat violent spring- ing of the specimen when it comes loose. With the wrap-around fixture, spring of the test specimen is general- ly not an issue, but it is necessary that

the clamping force be sufficient to pre- vent the clamp from slipping as the roller wraps around the mandrel. In summary, use of ER316L filler metal will result in less strength mis- match across the 316L to 2205 joint than will use of ER2209 filler metal. In any case, use of the wrap-around guid- ed bend test fixture will minimize the tendency for kinking of a bend test specimen in which there is a strength mismatch. The use of ER316L filler metal with a wrap-around guided bend test fixture will maximize the likeli- hood of passing the bend test without

incident.

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DAMIAN J. KOTECKI is president, Damian Kotecki Welding Consultants Inc. He is a past treasurer of the IIW and chair of the AWS A5D Subcommittee on Stainless Steel Filler Metals, member of the D1K Subcommittee on Stainless Steel Structural Welding, and WRC Subcommittee on Welding Stainless Steels and Nickel-Base Alloys. He is a past chair of the A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials, and served as AWS president (2005–2006). Questions may be sent to Damian J. Kotecki c/o Welding Journal, 8669 NW 36 St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672, or via email at damian@damiankotecki.com.

8669 NW 36 St., # 130, Miami, FL 33166-6672, or via email at damian@damiankotecki.com. 24 WELDING
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RWMA Q&A

Q: How does water quality im- pact the life of resistance weld- ing equipment?

A: Water plays an important role in the life of resistance welding equip- ment. Water is used as the primary

cooling source for the welding zone, sil- icon controlled rectifiers, electrodes, and welding tips. Proper cooling can prevent overheating, improve welding tensile values, extend the life of equip- ment, and prevent downtime due to mushrooming or surface distortion. To cool the welding equipment, these types of sources are sometimes utilized:

• Feeding water direct from the tap

or well water directly to the welding equipment;

• Feeding the water from cooling

towers directly to the equipment; and

• Using a closed-loop water chiller.

Turning on the tap may seem like an easy option to use cool water for weld- ing processes, but it is a flow-through option that has many costly issues. If the water is not processed through a self-contained water recirculator or a closed-loop vapor compression chiller, it

will not recirculate the water, and it will go directly into the drain. Plus, munici- pal water can contain lime and mineral deposits that cause corrosion. Water without the use of industrial inhibited glycol can pose significant areas of concern with water quality, such as corrosion, scale or deposits, and biological fouling — Fig. 1.

1. Corrosion. This is a loss of base

materials through gradual degrade from chemical and/or electrochemical attack. In addition, the corrosion

process creates troublesome suspend- ed solids into the process stream.

2. Scale or deposits. There are two

general types: Inorganic mineral and suspended solids sludge. Either one of

these deposits can create an insulating layer that reduces heat transfer. Anoth- er undesirable result is the creation of a corrosive under layer, which will re- strict flow, limiting the ability to re- move heat from the process.

3. Biological fouling. The prolif-

eration of biological organisms, micro- biological or macrobiological, will cause similar issues as corrosion — Fig. 2. Using well water may seem like a

BY RASCHELL M. HICKMOTT AND BONNIE MARTENS

may seem like a BY RASCHELL M. HICKMOTT AND BONNIE MARTENS Fig. 1 — This evaporator

Fig. 1 — This evaporator coil corroded because glycol and inhibitor were not used during operation, which resulted in calcium buildup.

free option, but again, like municipal water, it is laden with mineral deposits that will cause corrosion and damage the equipment. Plus, the temperature of the water needs to be taken into consideration. Too cold of tempera- tures can cause condensation. Conden- sation occurs when the dew point, the temperature at which water vapor will condense, is above the process water temperature. This is a common issue in the summer when dew point tempera- tures can be above 70°F, or in areas of warmer climates. This can cause con- densation on the welder’s transformer, which can cause it to short out, or cre- ate condensation on the electrode holders that will drip puddles of water causing a safety hazard. Using a closed- loop vapor compression chiller with an industrial inhibitor glycol can provide many benefits including temperature control with dew point tracking as well as preventing corrosive elements in the system. Cooling towers have been a com- mon way to supply cooling water to welders, but they present a unique set of problems, including inconsistent process water temperatures, due to varying ambient air temperatures. Ad- ditionally, cooling towers cannot maintain the appropriate water flow that is necessary for welding process- es. When more water-cooled machines are added to a system, additional pumps must be added to the central cooling system to be effective. Using a mixture of industrial inhib- ited glycol and water is recommended whenever possible to improve the wa- ter quality. Ethylene and propylene are the two standard types of inhibited glycols used.

are the two standard types of inhibited glycols used. Fig. 2 — Image is of a

Fig. 2 — Image is of a filter strainer coated with biological growth, better known as slime. Using inhibited glycol will prevent growth.

It’s important to note most equip- ment manufacturers will offer recom- mendations or restrictions on the wa-

ter additives to be used in their equip- ment. Following those recommenda- tions typically enhances the overall production uptime as well as the serv- ice life of the equipment. Industrial glycols have inhibitors that also will prevent formation of scale and corrosion while protecting metals such as brass, copper, steel, cast iron, and aluminum. Water sys- tems treated with an inhibited glycol will also be protected from algae and bacteria that can grow and degrade the fluid system performance. There are a few tips to consider when using industrial inhibited glycols:

• Do not mix glycols;

• Do not use automotive-grade antifreeze;

• Check local environmental

regulations;

• Consider ethylene glycol for most

standard industrial applications;

• Consider propylene glycol for

user-contact applications;

• Know the difference between eth-

ylene and propylene glycol; and

• Understand that the specific ap-

plication drives the water/glycol mix

percentage used.

Do not mix glycols. Because mix- ing different types or brand names of

glycol can result in some inhibitors pre- cipitating out of the solution, do not

mix

glycols. Mixing glycols also will gel

and

clog filters and prevent proper flow

rates. If switching glycol types, it will be necessary to run a thorough flush and clean of the fluid system. Once that is done, it is okay to change over. Do not use automotive-grade antifreeze. Glycols used in automo- tive-grade antifreeze do not have the right type of inhibitors and are not de-

signed for industrial applications. Us- ing automotive-grade antifreeze in the chiller process can cause problems with heat transfer or fluid flow. Also, many automotive glycols contain sili- cate-based inhibitors that can coat heat exchangers, attack pump seals, or form a flow-restricting gel. Check local environmental reg- ulations. Check state and local codes when selecting the process fluid. Cer-

tain areas may have environmental

regulations concerning the use and

disposal of glycol or other additives.

• Ethylene glycol is good for com-

mon welding applications.

• Ethylene glycol can be used where

Table 1 — Recommended Glycol/Water Mixture

Application

Glycol %

Water %

Freeze Point

Indoor chiller and process Outdoor chiller/low temp.

30

70

5°F/-15°C

50

50

-35°F/-37°C

low toxicity content is not required.

• Propylene glycol provides general-

ly the same freeze protection and cor- rosion/algae prevention levels as eth-

ylene glycol, but it has a lower level of toxicity.

• Also, propylene glycol is more

readily disposable than ethylene and safer to handle. Know the difference between ethylene and propylene glycol. At very cold temperatures, propylene gly- col becomes more viscous, changing the heat exchange rate slightly. Ethyl- ene is more widely used due to its low- er purchase price, making it more eco- nomically feasible for factories with significant purchasing volumes. Understand that the application drives the water/glycol mix per- centage. The location of the chiller and environmental concerns must be taken into account when selecting the

proper mixture of glycol and water for the chiller process.

• A cooling system located com-

pletely indoors, with no chance of

freezing, will require less glycol.

• A cooling system located out-

doors, where low temperatures can cause the fluid to freeze and piping to burst, will require more glycol. The glycol percentage figures in Table 1 will apply to any brand of eth-

ylene or propylene glycol.

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RASCHELL M. HICKMOTT is regional sales manager and BONNIE MARTENS is marketing specialist at Dimplex Thermal Solutions, Kalamazoo, Mich. Send your comments and questions to Raschell M. Hickmott c/o Welding Journal, 8669 NW 36 St., #130, Miami, FL 33166-6672, or via email at rhickmott@dimplexthermal.com.

NW 36 St., #130, Miami, FL 33166-6672, or via email at rhickmott@dimplexthermal.com. JULY 2018 / WELDING

PRODUCT & PRINT SPOTLIGHT

Automated Handling System Facilitates Metal Fabrication

Automated Handling System Facilitates Metal Fabrication The Multiaxis Rapid Cincinnati Handling (MARCH) system

The Multiaxis Rapid Cincinnati Handling (MARCH) system offers au- tomated material handling for metal fabrication operations. The system is designed for use with the company’s lasers to reduce operating costs and in- crease productivity and safety. It’s also customized and expands with addi- tional components to grow with a business, or to accommodate specific space requirements. Available in stan- dard or high-density configurations, the handling system ranges from sim- ple load/unload to those with expand- able towers, output stations, over/un- der carts, and conveyors. It can also

serve additional lasers on the shop floor. Standard systems are available with four to ten shelves and will ac- commodate wooden pallets. High- density systems add up to another six shelves, and all shelves are rated to handle up to 6600 lb each.

Cincinnati Incorporated e-ci.com/automation (513) 394-7595

Mounting Tools Perform Pipe Severing and Beveling

The Commando series models of portable outer-diameter mounting tools simultaneously sever and bevel pipes in preparation for welding. Ideal for maintenance applications where a section of pipe or valve needs to be cut out and replaced, its ten models cover the size range of DIN 50 to 1200 (2- to 48-in. pipe). The aluminum bodies of the CS split frame series are designed with a compact cross section for appli-

Highlighting Fabrication

a compact cross section for appli- Highlighting Fabrication cations with restricted clearances. The 180-deg segments of

cations with restricted clearances. The 180-deg segments of the split frames bolt together and rigidly clamp on the pipe with interchangeable mounting blocks. Other features of the sever- ing/beveling tools include automatic tool feed, pneumatic and hydraulic power options, as well as use for compound bevels, counterboring, and facing.

Magnatech LLC

magnatechllc.com

(860) 653-2573

The ITSA Annual Membership Meeting Presents Join the International Thermal Spray Association in conjunction with
The ITSA Annual Membership Meeting
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Join the International Thermal Spray Association in conjunction with the
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Covering the latest technology in: Advanced Thermal Spray Coatings Tungsten Carbide-Based Overlays
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Threaded Arbor Cut-Off Wheels Increase Efficiency

Threaded Arbor Cut-Off Wheels Increase Efficiency The ISO 9001-certified 4 1 ⁄ 2 -in. cut- off

The ISO 9001-certified 4 1 2-in. cut- off wheel features a threaded arbor for quicker and easier wheel changes. Designed to be used with right-angle grinders, the aluminum-oxide, type 27 wheels are ideal for metal cutting, abrasion, and fabrication, as well as body work and general repair work on ferrous materials.

Forney Industries Inc. forneyind.com (800) 521-6038

Technology Enables EBW without a Vacuum Chamber

521-6038 Technology Enables EBW without a Vacuum Chamber The Ebflow technology enhances the efficiency of large-scale

The Ebflow technology enhances the efficiency of large-scale projects by performing electron beam welding (EBW) without a vacuum chamber. It features a local coarse vacuum that can be transported to and operated on site. Its design simplifies the process of thick-section welding in the manu- facture of a range of large structures including ships, pressure vessels, wind farms and towers, nuclear plants, and many of the structures involved in oil

and gas exploration and civil engineer- ing projects. In tests, it has been shown to be 20–30 times faster than conventional arc welding while also utilizing less power. Furthermore, it leads to low-heat-input welds that re- sult in reduced distortion and the op- tion to perform nondestructive testing immediately after welding.

Cambridge Vacuum Engineering ebflow.com 01223 800 861

Mobile Analyzer Provides Metal Grade Confirmation

The portable Spectrotest arc/spark mobile metal analyzer delivers results when an exact metal analysis is re- quired, materials are difficult to iden- tify, or there is a large number of sam- ples to be tested. The analyzer’s high-

— continued on page 31

a large number of sam- ples to be tested. The analyzer’s high- — continued on page

PRODUCT & PRINT SPOTLIGHT

— continued from page 29

PRODUCT & PRINT SPOTLIGHT — continued from page 29 resolution optical system works for a range

resolution optical system works for a range of elements, including nitrogen, lithium, sodium, and all elements nec- essary for complete or spot metal analysis. With predefined calibration packages and the iCAL 2.0 diagnostics software, the metal analyzer can per- form a single-sample standardization (in less than 5 min) at the start of the day’s testing, while ensuring stable performance, and maintain the same standardization regardless of most temperature shifts.

SPECTRO spectro.com +49 28218 92-0

Report Forecasts Growth for the Global Industrial Gases Market

Global Industrial Gases Market for Metals and Metal Fabrication Market 2017–2021 posits that this market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of 6.25% during the four-year pe- riod. To calculate the market size, the

70-page report considers the retail selling price as the average selling price for the product. It also identifies Asia-Pacific as accounting for a larger production of the market share due to its industrial development in emerg- ing countries such as China and India. The increasing demand for an inte- grated distribution channel is listed as a major market trend. Additionally, the high cost of production and uncer- tain return on investments are listed as market challenges.

Wiseguy Research Consultants Pvt. Ltd. wiseguyreports.com (339) 368-6938

Video Shows the Features of a Powered Manipulator

The quick-look powered manipula- tor video showcases the key benefits and features of a specialized modular fixture. With the weldment secured to the table top using any of the com- pany’s 400-plus standard modular components, the operator can use a

any of the com- pany’s 400-plus standard modular components, the operator can use a JULY 2018

push button pendant, foot control switch, or an automated program to move the part to various positions. Also included is a built-in ground con- nector to protect the controls from damage during the welding process.

Bluco Corp.

bluco.com

(800) 535-0135

Fiber Laser Cuts Ferrous and Nonferrous Material

535-0135 Fiber Laser Cuts Ferrous and Nonferrous Material The LS 3015 GC fiber laser uses in-

The LS 3015 GC fiber laser uses in- tegrated flying optics to cut through ferrous and nonferrous materials, in-

cluding steel, stainless steel, alu- minum, brass, and bronze. Its features include a small footprint, making it suitable for most facilities; continual monitoring for processing parameters; an upgraded system; and a high-rigidi- ty frame for enhanced stability and edge quality. The laser also delivers lower power consumption and operat- ing costs, as well as reduced mainte- nance time.

Murata Machinery USA Inc. muratec-usa.com (800) 428-8469

Knee Pads Expand Offerings

True Flex Gel Knee Pads® and True Flex Knee Pads® allow workers to change the knee pad’s front grip strip profile. Equipped with the Stability Bar Grip Strip™ and the Lo-Pro Grip Strip™, both models can be switched back and forth to adapt to different environments and the user’s prefer- ence. The Stability Bar Grip Strip™ is a series of raised bars that, when turn-

Grip Strip™ is a series of raised bars that, when turn- ing, creates a flat, stable

ing, creates a flat, stable base for working on flat surfaces, such as shop floors. The Lo-Pro Grip Strip™ has a lower-profile grip strip that permits the knee to roll freely for round or un- even surfaces, such as in construction environments. Other features include 1.5-in.-wide woven-nylon straps to provide greater comfort and fit; a jointed outer shell that flexes to pro- vide full natural rotation of the knee while keeping the pad in place; and a lightweight, durable design.

TSE Safety

tsesafety.com

(760) 545-8163

Sa ve the Date rwma.org 2019 RWMA A nnual Meeting February 2 7 – March
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Trump Nat ional Doral | Doral, FL
Onl ine Registrati on o pens in October 2018

Evaluating FCAW-G Electrodes

Thin-sheath, high-fill-ratio electrodes broaden parameter range, create high operator appeal

W hat can you learn about fabri-

cating heavy weldments with

large-diameter cored elec-

trodes from someone who holds a master of fine arts in sculpture? Quite a bit if that person also holds qualifica-

tions to requirements of AWS D1.1, Structural Welding Code — Steel, and AWS 14.1, Specification for Welding of Industrial and Mill Cranes and Other Material Handling Equipment. “There are hundreds of different

gas-shielded FCAW [flux cored arc welding] electrodes, and many compa- nies make them. Within any given product line, there are a lot of differ- ent choices and nuances to each elec- trode. Finding the right electrodes for my operation took several years of tri- al and error,” said Dave Rubin, owner of Farm Fabrication in Lebanon, Ohio. Rubin evaluated FCAW-G elec- trodes for their ability to reduce the need for nonvalue-added activities

BY BOB GULAS

such as grinding and preheating, elim- inating piping porosity, all-position performance, weld pool control, pa- rameter flexibility, and weld bead ap- pearance. He eventually selected an AWS E71T-1 electrode featuring a thinner sheath and higher fill ratio be- cause “this technology creates a very forgiving all-position electrode.” Comparatively new, thin-sheath FCAW electrodes offer a different set of benefits compared to thick-sheath

offer a different set of benefits compared to thick-sheath Some of Rubin’s gas-shielded flux cored arc

Some of Rubin’s gas-shielded flux cored arc weld beads. The ’39 Ford pickup he restored sits in the background.

Fig. 1 — Cored wires with a thin sheath concentrate the arc energy in a

Fig. 1 — Cored wires with a thin sheath concentrate the arc energy in a smaller area. This creates a broader “sweet spot” for parameter settings and makes the electrode more forgiv- ing as operators adjust voltage and wire feed speed.

electrodes (Fig. 1), as will be described later in this article.

Renaissance Welder

Rubin chose the name Farm Fabri- cation as an homage to the hard- working, fix-anything work ethic of the American farmer. However, rather than farm equipment, the company specializes in heavy weldments for cranes, infrastructure, heavy repair, and steel industries — Fig. 2. Rubin works out of a 2400-sq-ft shop he designed himself, moving heavy weldments with a 20,000-lb gantry crane and a fork truck with a 6500-lb capacity. Most of his work in- volves A36 plates from 1 4 to 8 in. thick, but his nonindustrial projects include metal sculptures, a restaurant build with a 90-ft metal bar, bottle and wine racks, and a restored 1939 Ford pick- up. In short, Rubin is a bit of a Renais- sance welder, applying multiprocess welding, fabricating, and design skills and equipment to anything he sets his mind to. Growing up in New York’s Hudson Valley region, Rubin was introduced to shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) from his father. He started out “just gluing junk together” before moving on to 55-gal drum barbecues and fix- ing trailers (as a side note, his two sons have started down the same path, with Rubin introducing them to SMAW at ages eight and six). Rubin’s craftsmanship includes woodworking skills developed alongside his father, who renovated historic homes, and an appreciation of art from his mother, an accomplished musician and wool spinner. Literally putting his hands to work, Rubin pursued his bachelor of fine arts in sculpture from Plattsburgh

his bachelor of fine arts in sculpture from Plattsburgh Fig. 2 — Farm Fabrication specializes in

Fig. 2 — Farm Fabrication specializes in heavy weldments for cranes, infrastructure, heavy repair, and steel industries.

State University in New York (2001) and then a master of fine arts in sculp- ture from the University of Washing- ton in Seattle, Wash. (2004). However, after relocating to his wife’s home town of Lebanon, located between Dayton and Cincinnati, Rubin needed to earn a living and found em- ployment at a local welding shop. For the next four years, he predominantly used FCAW and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes. With the opportu- nity for a pay raise, Rubin became lead welder for a crane service company at

AK Steel’s Middletown Works. While much of the mill welding used E7018 electrodes, because the expansive en- vironment was more like a construc- tion site than a shop, Rubin said he quickly learned the nuances of large- scale, high-capacity overhead cranes — Fig. 3. “Being hands-on with repairing cranes for four years taught me where to look for stress points, cracks, and what would fail and what would not,” he recalled. As an example, he pointed out that cranes in the mill’s hot strip

he pointed out that cranes in the mill’s hot strip Fig. 3 — Dave Rubin, owner

Fig. 3 — Dave Rubin, owner of Farm Fabrication, understands the nuances of welding large-scale, high-capacity overhead crane components using the FCAW-G process.

area are subject to a combination of extreme heat and moisture that causes faster wear than the cooler, dryer ar- eas of the mill, such as the caster and basic oxygen furnace departments. In 2013, with support from others who recognized his heavy equipment repair and fabrication skills, Rubin started his own company. He works alone and values the direct line of communication with customers. “I am the eyes, ears, hands, and mind of the operation, and that goes a long way when talking to clients,” he said. “Because of my crane experience and welding skills, customers have a lot of faith in my work.” Farm Fabrication focuses on con- tract work with repeat customers. Ru- bin doesn’t have off-the-street, walk- in trade. In fact, except for a discrete logo on the mailbox, passersby would not know a welding shop exists, as it is tucked on the back of the five-acre lot behind the family’s home.

Filler Metal Selection

Fabricating and repairing heavy com- ponents effectively in a shop environ- ment requires selecting filler metals that provide high deposition rates and travel speeds. For most heavy applica- tions, a cored electrode provides the best combination of high metal deposi- tion while reducing overall heat input compared to using a solid electrode.

For heavy components that can be welded in the 1F, 2F, and 1G positions, Rubin uses a metal cored electrode with an AWS E70-6M H4 classification in 0.052 in. and occasionally 1 16 in. diameters. While metal cored elec- trodes work well for in-position work, they cannot weld out of position — at least without using a pulsed GMAW system, and many welding experts be- lieve pulsing with metal cored elec- trodes creates more problems than it solves, not the least of which is added complexity. “Metal cored electrodes run cleaner, with no slag and very little spatter or smoke. When I can put parts in posi- tion, I run metal cored electrodes,” Ru- bin said. “However, you can’t run it out of position because the [pool] is too molten. For heavy weldments that require out-of-position welding, as well as complex weldments that re- quire moving around a part and weld- ing in all positions, FCAW-G elec- trodes really shine. I don’t waste time flipping the part.” Rubin uses an FCAW-G electrode with an AWS E71T-1M-D/T-9M-D classification, which is commonly used for applications that include structural steel, light and heavy equipment, rail- cars, barges, petrochemical, and off- shore components. These FCAW-G electrodes provide the best combina- tion of results because more factors can contribute to the solution: metal sheath, filler composition (a combina-

the solution: metal sheath, filler composition (a combina- Fig. 4 — This 1 ⁄ 16 -in.-diameter,

Fig. 4 — This 1 16-in.-diameter, thin- sheath FCAW-G electrode uses a fast- freezing slag system that provides excellent weld pool control for uphill welding.

tion of alloys and deoxidizers), shield- ing gas choice, and a fast-freezing slag system that supports all-position welding — Fig. 4.

Thin-Sheath E71T-1

Earlier generations of FCAW-G electrodes have a relatively thicker sheath. With a higher ratio of steel to

Table 1 — Comparison of 1 16-in. E71T-1 Electrodes Using 75% Argon/25% CO 2 Shielding Gas

All tests with 75/25 mixed gas

Electrode #1

Electrode #2

Electrode #3

E71T-9M-H8

E71T-1CH8, 1MH8/-9CH8

E71T-1M-D/T-9M-D

Low end

178 A (122 in./min) 262 A (220 in./min)

178 A (114 in./min) 245 A (197 in./min)

175 A (118 in./min) 276 A (228 in./min)

High end

Voltage range

22.7–26.2

22.0–25.5

22.0–26.5

Current range

84 A

67 A

101 A

WFS range

98 in./min

63 in./min

110 in./min

Table 2 — Comparison of 1 16-in. E71T-1 Electrodes Using 100% CO 2 Shielding Gas

 

All tests with 100% CO 2

Electrode #1

Electrode #2

Electrode #3

E71T-9C-H8

E71T-1C

E71T-1C-DH*/T-9C-DH8

Low end

165 A (126 in./min) 195 A (153 in./min)

162 A (114 in./min) 245 A (197 in./min)

160 A (114 in./min) 270 A (240 in./min)

High end

Voltage range

25.2–56.5

21.2–26.2

19.7–26.5

Current range

30 A

83 A

101 A

WFS range

27 in./min

83 in./min

126 in./min

Fig. 5 — The deoxidizers in a high-per- formance FCAW-G electrode will toler- ate rust

Fig. 5 — The deoxidizers in a high-per- formance FCAW-G electrode will toler- ate rust and mill as well as create slag that begins to self-release after 60 s.

well as create slag that begins to self-release after 60 s. Fig. 6 — Welding procedure

Fig. 6 — Welding procedure specifica- tions required preheating this heavy component to 150°F.

filler, they maximize deposition rates. However, since the steel sheath carries the welding current, electrodes with a thicker sheath require more voltage for the same wire feed speed or less wire feed speed for the same voltage. As a result, these electrodes have a narrower operating range, or what op- erators consider the “sweet spot.” Fur- thermore, higher deposition rates are not always the best solution for maxi- mizing overall productivity. As an alternative, electrode manu- facturers developed FCAW-G elec- trodes with a thinner sheath and high- er fill ratio. With FCAW electrodes, the steel sheath carries the welding cur- rent. Electrodes with a thicker sheath require more current for the same wire feed speed. These wires will produce higher deposition rates; however, they have a narrower operating range. As a result, manufacturers developed FCAW-G electrodes with a thinner sheath and higher fill ratio. “A thinner sheath concentrates the current in a smaller area. Operators can use higher wire feed speeds to in- crease deposition without increasing

amperage and heat input compared to a thick sheath wire,” explained Chad Kosta, an ESAB account manager and welding engineer working with Rubin. “Experienced operators like Rubin can push the parameters toward the high- er side to achieve higher deposition rates, or he can set his parameters once and then switch between the flat and uphill positions without returning to the wire feeder to adjust settings.” For operators with less experience or who feel more comfortable with lower parameters, thin-sheath elec- trodes enable them to make welds with excellent sidewall fusion and good penetration yet still have an arc with enough energy to prevent spatter.

Testing Wires

Characteristics of FCAW-G elec- trodes differ between manufacturers and product lines. To illustrate this point, application engineers evaluated parameter windows for several differ- ent thin-sheath E71T-1 electrodes, welding uphill using 1 16-in.-diameter electrodes. They evaluated the mini- mum and maximum amperages where- in an acceptable fillet weld could be de- posited, with a 1 4-in. fillet on the low end and a 5 16-in. fillet on the high end. The criteria included acceptable bead appearance, maintaining predeter- mined fillet size, and minimum spat- ter and convexity (maximum convexi- ty on the 1 4-in. fillet was 5 64 in., while the 5 16-in. fillet had a maximum con- vexity of 3 32 in.). The results in Table 1 and 2 demon- strate the different ranges of various electrodes. “With the right thin-sheath elec- trode, I can really go across the spec- trum with heat and wire feed speed,” Rubin said. “I can move parameters around quite a bit and retain all the promised performance benefits.” Tests were conducted using E71T- 1/T-9 electrodes designed for use with 75% argon/25% CO 2 shielding gas and 100% CO 2 shielding gas. Using mixed gas (Rubin’s choice) generally creates a softer arc and reduces spatter, where the reactive CO 2 gas creates a hotter, harsher arc and more spatter. Histori- cally, using a mixed gas and FCAW-G electrodes with a fast-freezing slag and when welding in cold and humid envi- ronments sometimes led to porosity. As the silicon and manganese in the

filler composition evacuate impurities

to the weld surface, whether moisture

or other contaminants, the gases and contaminants become trapped under the slag and create porosity. Newer generations of FCAW-G elec- trodes have had their filler formulas updated to address these issues. Those designed for 100% CO 2 now operate

with less spatter, whereas those de- signed for mixed gas reduce porosity issues caused by impurities. “I used to be frustrated because I spent a lot of time grinding out porosi- ty,” Rubin said. “The deoxidizers in the electrodes nowadays help me reduce prep time. The metal doesn’t necessar- ily have to be ground down to a mirror finish. The higher levels of weld bead appearance are really pretty neat, too, plus the slag releases easier. In fact, the slag usually starts to self-release after letting the weld cool for about a minute. A quick hit with a wire wheel easily cleans it off” — Fig. 5. In some applications, some FCAW-

G formulations may also eliminate the

need to preheat the joint to drive off moisture. However, weld procedures for most of Rubin’s applications call for a preheat temperature of 150°F — Fig. 6. Kosta added, “When evaluating electrodes, conduct tests in ambient conditions and on joints that mimic real parts as much as possible. There’s a huge difference between welding in a lab and welding in the real world where temperature, moisture, and wind can affect results.” “There’s a constant conversation among welding operators about elec- trode selection,” said Rubin. “Unfortu-

nately, there’s a lot of misinformation, and some of my issues were my own fault. That’s where working with an electrode expert helps. When I was fighting porosity, I was not factoring

in electrode type in relation to surface

preparation. After being introduced to the electrode I’m running now, I was honestly scared of using something new. I was not about to weld on cus- tomer parts. I used some heavy scrap plate and made lots of test welds. Only after experiencing how this thin- sheath electrode worked as promised

did I use it on money-making parts.”

WJ
WJ

BOB GULAS (bgulas@esab.com) is business product manager, ESAB Welding & Cutting Products, Hanover, Pa.

Projects You Can Do This Summer

Step-by-step instructions for four DIY creations

BY KRISTIN CAMPBELL

T his summer, tap into your creative side by welding various home-made projects. You can keep them for yourself, save them for future gifts, or even donate

them for fundraisers. And if you know of any teenagers looking to do something productive while they’re out of school, why not get them involved? Fun summer creations from a hot-water tank BBQ grill to a brazed fighter plane (as described in this article) can be crafted using a variety

of skills and materials. Before you start, please remember safety comes first. Be sure to follow practices outlined in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard, Z49.1:2012, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes. Now, just like mixing a fresh batch of lemonade to keep you hydrated on a sunny day, here are recipes to build unique projects you can be proud of.

Hot-Water Tank BBQ Grill

Tim J. DeVargas (faulknerweld@ yahoo.com), a welding instructor at the T. L. Faulkner Career Technical Center, Prichard, Ala., and the previous AWS Mobile Section chairman, detailed how to construct a hot-water tank BBQ grill. This model features thicker, durable, and long-lasting metal, De- Vargas explained, because in the south, BBQs are popular. The benefits of building it are two-fold for stu- dents; they learn to work one step at a time and gain cutting/measuring experience. “You can also make some good money for your program,” DeVargas said, given the grill costs about $50 to make and sells for $100.

Materials

Hot-water tank

Four pieces of 1 1 4- or 1 1 2-in. square tubing for the legs, approximately 36 in. long

1 1 2-in. angle iron for a bottom

shelf, additional piece to make a cross member

14- or 16-gauge metal for leg caps,

circle with vent holes, circle for vent cap

½- or ¾-in. flat expanded metal

for the inside cooking surface tray,

along with another piece of this mate-

rial to fit in the tank’s end pieces, then one more piece for the utensil shelf

Two 6- or 8-in. bearing-type,

hard-rubber wheels

1-in. angle iron for the top and

bottom shelves, shelf supports, cross braces, and utensil shelf

¾-in. raised expanded metal for the charcoal trays

Two bolts and nuts (length and

size of the wheel bearings) with one

5 16-in. bolt and nut, one 1 4-in. bolt, nut and spring, and two bullet-style hinges

3- to 4-in. pipe for an exhaust

vent approximately 6 to 8 in. long

1-in. square tubing to make han- dles for the vent side

½- to 1-in.-flat bar to both frame the door and make a doorstop

An old chipping hammer to fabri-

cate a door handle

High-heat paint (meant for grills)

Building Process

Remove all fittings from your hot- water tank — Fig. 1. Also, remove the outer shell from the tank, and use a plasma cutting device to cut this into pieces. Caution: Insulation is flamma- ble and will flare as you cut this outer shell, so remove all foam insulation using a scraping tool. Cut out, using a

all foam insulation using a scraping tool. Cut out, using a Fig. 1 — This hot-water

Fig. 1 — This hot-water tank will be turned into a grill.

plasma cutting device, all the fittings. Weld cap all the fitting holes, previ- ously cut, using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) with a 0.035- or 0.045-in. wire. Grind and clean all the edges and welds. Cut, four times, 1 1 4- or 1 1 2-in. square tubing for the legs, approximately 36 in. long (one side 45 deg, the other side flat). Measure the tank to lay out and weld the four legs to it. Measure and cut 1 1 2-in. angle iron for a bottom shelf, approximately halfway between the floor and bottom

Fig. 2 — The grill’s shaping up with four legs, a bottom shelf, two bearing-type,

Fig. 2 — The grill’s shaping up with four legs, a bottom shelf, two bearing-type, hard-rubber wheels, and weld caps.

shelf, two bearing-type, hard-rubber wheels, and weld caps. Fig. 5 — A 3-in. circle with vent

Fig. 5 — A 3-in. circle with vent holes.

of the grill. Weld (angle up) to all four legs, and weld in cross member (angle iron down) for mesh support. Cut and weld ½- or ¾-in. flat expanded metal inside of the bottom tray. Use two, 6- to 8-in. bearing-type, hard-rubber wheels on one set of legs, marking and welding the bolts to put on the wheels (cut off excess with a band saw). For stability, weld caps to the bottom of the other legs — Fig. 2. Mark and cut out a grill door, just above half of the tank, using a plasma cutting device. Measure the length and width of the tank, approximately 3 to 4 in. above the bottom. Using 1-in. angle iron, cut and build two square/rectan- gle shelves (for charcoal). Cut and weld (angle up) ¾-in. raised expanded met- al. With the expanded metal, cut two half (moon) pieces to cover the curve in the tank, and weld one to each char- coal tray — Figs. 3, 4. Fabricate a 3-in. circle with vent holes, then line it up on the bottom of

circle with vent holes, then line it up on the bottom of Fig. 3 — T.

Fig. 3 — T. L. Faulkner Student Chris- tian Boone plasma cuts an interior grill piece.

Chris- tian Boone plasma cuts an interior grill piece. Fig. 6 — A 3- to 4-in.

Fig. 6 — A 3- to 4-in. pipe for an ex- haust vent approximately 6 to 8 in. long.

the tank, and using bolt in center, bolt it to the tank — Fig. 5. Tack weld the nut as well. Cut two pieces of 1-in. angle iron the length of the tank, excluding the curve. Clamp the first piece of angle iron to the door opening, approxi- mately 1 1 4 in. below its lip (angle down), and spot weld using GMAW or shielded metal arc welding. Use a small level to mark the tank’s backside rest- ing on the front angle. Hold up the other previously cut angle iron, upside down, and spot weld in place. Cut two pieces of 1-in. angle iron across the tank’s width, weld (angle down) the bottom of the angle at the top level of the front and back pieces. Also, cut a ½-in.-flat expanded metal to fit in the tank’s end pieces, from the curve to the cross, and tack weld in position. Measure the distance on the cook- ing surface, length and width, then cut and build two square/rectangle shelves, loose enough to be easily lift-

square/rectangle shelves, loose enough to be easily lift- Fig. 4 — Trevor Wainwright, also a stu-

Fig. 4 — Trevor Wainwright, also a stu- dent at T. L. Faulkner, uses GMAW with a 0.045-in. wire to work on the grill.

uses GMAW with a 0.045-in. wire to work on the grill. Fig. 7 — Welded handles

Fig. 7 — Welded handles on the grill’s vent side.

grill. Fig. 7 — Welded handles on the grill’s vent side. Fig. 8 — The finished,

Fig. 8 — The finished, painted hot- water tank BBQ grill.

ed up. Invert (angle down) and cut and weld ½-in.-flat expanded metal to the shelf (grilling surface). Cut 3- to 4-in. pipe for an exhaust vent approximately 6 to 8 in. long — Fig. 6. Also, cut and fabricate a cap, us- ing a 1 4-in. bolt and nut with spring, weld to the inside top of the vent pipe to keep pressure on it.

Weld handles, using 1-in. square tubing, on the vent side — Fig. 7. Using bullet-style hinges, weld the door into position. Using ½- to 1-in.-flat bar, frame the door to cover the opening from cutting out the door. Fabricate a doorstop, for when lift- ing the door, from 1-in.-flat bar.

Fabricate a handle, out of an old chipping hammer, that’s modified for this purpose and weld it to the door. Build a rectangle, three-sided shelf, to weld in front using ½-in.-flat ex- panded metal. Sand and paint the hot-water tank BBQ grill with high-heat paint de- signed for grills — Fig. 8.

Birdhouse

Heather Grys-Luecht (heather. grysluecht@mstc.edu), the manager of continuing education at Mid-State Technical College’s Wisconsin Rapids Campus, gave birdhouse building guidelines. This project enables prac- ticing basic skills. Last year, as a collaborative effort between Mid-State Technical College’s School of Advanced Manufacturing & Engineering, and the Continuing Edu- cation Department, a two-night metal garden sculpture community educa- tion class took place — Fig. 9. The premise was to give community mem- bers, many of whom had never experi- enced a manufacturing-like environ- ment, a chance to learn skills and use a medium for artistic expression. “The first few times we ran the class, the majority of the participants were female and over the age of 50, but ages ranged from 12 years old (with a parent) to over 70,” Grys- Luecht said. This success led the col- lege to create a 32-h, eight-week class on welding for the home and garden. “It has been exciting to see so much interest in our welding classes and to see students, men and women alike, progress in skill level and creativity over such a short period of time,” added Michael Schultz, Mid-State in- dustrial mechanical technician pro- gram instructor.

Materials

• 14-gauge mild steel sheet cut into

these dimensions: 6 8.8 in., bent up to 90 deg, for the bottom; 7.5 11 in., also bent up to 90 deg, for the top/ roof; 4.5 4.5 in., with a circle cut in

it, for the front wall; and 4.5 4.5 in. for the back wall

• ¼-in. mild steel rod, 2 in. long, for the perch

• A semicircle in 14-gauge mild steel

long, for the perch • A semicircle in 14-gauge mild steel Fig. 9 — Attendees in

Fig. 9 — Attendees in Mid-State’s metal garden sculpture class last year look on as their instructor demonstrates how to assemble and tack weld birdhouses.

demonstrates how to assemble and tack weld birdhouses. Fig. 10 — The birdhouse blueprint specifying its

Fig. 10 — The birdhouse blueprint specifying its various parts and dimensions.

sheet, with an outer radius of 1.0000 and an inner radius of 0.6250, for the hanger

Building Process

Following what’s specified in the blueprint, gather all the precut bird-

house components, including the top/roof, bottom, back wall, front wall, perch, and hanger — Figs. 10, 11. Note: Components for this project were precut on a computer numerical control plasma table, but materials may be precut using manual methods — Fig. 12. Remove any sharp edges or

Fig. 11 — All the precut components. Fig. 14 — The roof is attached, along

Fig. 11 — All the precut components.

Fig. 11 — All the precut components. Fig. 14 — The roof is attached, along with

Fig. 14 — The roof is attached, along with the perch next to the center cut- out.

slag from plasma-cut edges; a chipping hammer for slag and a file to remove burrs are all that’s needed. Using gas metal arc welding (GMAW), with 75%/25% argon/CO 2 shielding gas and 0.035-in. E70S-6 filler wire, tack the front and back walls on to the bottom section, with three evenly spaced tacks on each side

bottom section, with three evenly spaced tacks on each side Fig. 12 — A computer numerical

Fig. 12 — A computer numerical con- trol plasma table was used to cut pieces.

numerical con- trol plasma table was used to cut pieces. Fig. 15 — The top hanger’s

Fig. 15 — The top hanger’s in place.

— Fig. 13. Make the tack welds on the inside of the birdhouse for a cleaner look. Place the perch approximately ¼ in. into the hole, in the front wall, and weld from the inside. Finish welding the walls to the bot- tom from the inside with two stitch welds, ¾ to 1 in. long, evenly spaced along the inside seams. Evenly space the overhang of the

along the inside seams. Evenly space the overhang of the Fig. 13 — Use GMAW to

Fig. 13 — Use GMAW to tack the front and back walls onto the bottom section.

to tack the front and back walls onto the bottom section. Fig. 16 — A birdhouse

Fig. 16 — A birdhouse that’s been dec- oratively welded.

top/roof and tack weld it to the walls. Place a short stitch weld, about 1½ in. long, at the center of each roof/wall seam in the front and back — Fig. 14. Center the hanger on the peak of the roof and tack weld both sides of each connection point — Fig. 15. To finish your birdhouse, paint it or decoratively weld it to your personal taste — Fig. 16.

Darth Vader TIE Fighter Fire Pit

Daymon Gast (dgast@lw210.org), who has 18 years of high school welding teaching experience in Illinois, wants the force to be with you while creating a Star Wars-inspired, Darth Vader TIE fighter fire pit. He works at Lincoln-Way Central and East High Schools, where his students are used to making various welded projects, and is an adjunct weld- ing instructor at Joliet Junior College. “Any Star Wars fan instantly con- nects with what we’ve built here. It gets immediate attention and instant requests for the opportunity to own

the next one we build,” Gast said. He also knew it would motivate future students to begin thinking of what their welding skills could create. Gast provided the following in- structions on making this 28 in. long 21 in. high 12 in. deep fire pit — Fig. 17. It weighs 45 lb.

Materials

A cylinder tank (either a new propane or an old, no longer working air compressor cylinder tank)

One 24 24 in., 16-gauge sheet

metal

Approximately 14 ft of 0.120-in.

wall thickness, 1-in. square tubing

2.5 ft of 5 5 in. thin-wall square

tubing, or more sheet metal, to make the two horizontal wing supports

3 ft of 7 16-in. smooth rod

A very small section of 6-in. pipe for the top

A short amount of 2-in. Schedule

40 pipe, and perhaps some small- diameter Schedule 40 pipe, to make the blasters in front

Expanded metal for the fire pit’s

top

High-temperature paint (meant for BBQs)

Building Process

Because the fire pit is made from a propane cylinder, Gast recommends purchasing a new tank never filled with propane. These retail for $25–30. If you prefer to use a previously filled propane cylinder, even though it’s empty, never cut into it without consulting AWS F4.1:2017, Safe Prac- tices for the Preparation of Containers and Piping for Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes. An alternative to the fuselage of the fire pit would be a used air compressor tank. “You will, at a certain point in this project, want to burn off the fac- tory-applied paint using an oxyacety- lene rosebud heating torch tip,” Gast explained. Cut the project parts with a plasma arc cutting device or small tip oxy- acetylene torch. Because the metal is relatively thin, he recommends using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) with a 0.030-in. wire and 75%/25% argon/CO 2 gas. “You’ll have some great welds on clean metal with this arc process, as long as you remember to burn away and clean off all the original paint from the cylinder,” Gast said. “Later, you’ll want to use a high-temperature BBQ paint in black on the outside to be able to have a hot fire in it.” The welds on the wings need to be flush ground. Use angle grinders fitted with an abrasive grind wheel to per-

angle grinders fitted with an abrasive grind wheel to per- Fig. 17 — This Star Wars

Fig. 17 — This Star Wars-inspired, Darth Vader TIE fighter fire pit is 28 in. long 21 in. high 12 in. deep.

form the heavy work, and a 40-grit zir- conia flap disk to polish it. Don’t forget to cut holes through the blaster guns, where they are at- tached to the tank, as they will glow red with flames. The geometry of the angles is diffi- cult, but if you end up with joint open- ings, they can be filled using a stitch- weld technique with your GMAW gun. “The other major challenge you’ll face is propping the fighter wings up in order to spot weld it temporarily. If

you don’t get the wings even, you can use your angle grinder cut-off wheel to cut the tacks. Be sure to put the tacks in open areas, so that they can be cut if needed,” Gast said. Expanded metal to put on top of the fire pit makes a convenient place to heat a few hot dogs at a time. “Budget a week to build, and it’s a good team-building exercise; you’ll need someone to help with it,” Gast said of this project.

Brazed Fighter Plane

After describing how to make the fire pit, Daymon Gast also detailed cre- ating a brazed fighter plane — Fig. 18. “We have ROTC in our high school,” Gast said of the inspiration behind making this. “Several of my welding students are proudly in it and are even pursuing careers in the Air Force after high school.”

Materials

One spark plug

16-gauge steel for the wings and tail fins

A large washer for the base

1 8-in. ER70S or RG45 rod that has been coiled and cut

Clear coat paint

Building Process

Gast noted a computer numerical control plasma cutting table is used to mass produce the wings and tail fins for this project. The process leaves some dross/slag; however, that needs

to be polished with a 40-grit zirconia flap disk on an angle grinder. Using a low fuming brazing rod, 1 16 or 3 32 in. diameter, braze the fighter plane’s pieces together. The base’s large washer needs to be attached to the 1 8-in. ER70S or RG45 rod, then the two side wings and three tail fins need to be joined onto the spark plug (for the wings, you can choose underneath or on the sides of the plane’s fuselage). Avoid getting your base metal too hot during heating, and make sure both pieces at the weld joint are at a

Fig. 18 — Using just a few materials, including a spark plug and 16-gauge steel,

Fig. 18 — Using just a few materials, including a spark plug and 16-gauge steel, this brazed fighter plane comes together.

proper temperature. “I tell my stu- dents that each piece at the joint should be dull red, not red hot. You will also have a much easier time if you can get someone to help you. A second set of eyes and hands, along with good communication skills, are a blessing.” He likes how the planes look un- painted, so he typically requests stu- dents paint them with a clear coat. “The project is quite small and can take as little as an hour to build,” Gast concluded. “We made this a new project just this year to celebrate the success of our ROTC program and to give some diversity to our brazing

projects.”

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KRISTIN CAMPBELL (kcampbell@aws.org) is features editor of the Welding Journal.

Figs. 1–8 are courtesy of Tim J. DeVargas; 9–16, Heather Grys-Luecht; and 17, 18, Daymon Gast.

Dear Readers:

The Welding Journal encourages an exchange of ideas through letters to the editor. Please send your letters to the Welding Journal Dept., 8669 NW 36 St., #130, Miami, FL 33166. You can also reach us by fax at (305) 443-7559 or by sending an email to Roline Pascal at rpascal@aws.org.

Reprints

Custom reprints of Welding Journal articles, in quantities of 100 or more, may be purchased from Jill Kaletha, national account executive, Mossberg & Co. at (800) 428-3340, ext. 149 or (574) 289-9253, ext. 149. You can also send an email to jkaletha@mossbergco.com.

149 or (574) 289-9253, ext. 149. You can also send an email to jkaletha@mossbergco.com. JULY 2018
Cordless beveling tools offer versatility while allowing for precise chamfering and clean cold processing of
Cordless beveling
tools offer versatility
while allowing for
precise chamfering
and clean cold
processing of metal.
Cordless Tools for
Today’s Fab Shops
of metal. Cordless Tools for Today’s Fab Shops These products provide a number of advantages and

These products provide a number of advantages and allow operators to work anywhere

BY ANTOINE DERCHÉ

C ordless power tools have been progressively taking over the market (see lead photo). Today,

manufacturers as well as construction and industrial end users are entwined with cordless power tools, but around 60 years ago, a cordless power tool wasn’t even an option. Cordless tools were introduced in the early 1960s with drills, using heavy nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batter- ies at low voltages (4 V). These tools did not offer much power nor runtime, but where needed, they offered a solu- tion. Progressively, technology im- proved and the range of tools broad- ened as well as the adoption of cord- less tool use. Nonetheless, cordless tools never really conquered the heavy-duty construction and industri- al space because of Ni-Cd technology limitations, such as memory effect re- ducing the runtime and the life of the

batteries, drop in voltage through the discharge cycle, weight, self-discharge rates, and other issues. The market has changed a lot in the past 10 to 15 years since lithium-ion batteries were developed and started taking over the cordless tool market. Lithium-ion batteries offer more pow- er and performance in a lighter, small- er package with the ability to handle tough industrial applications, and they are longer lasting and quicker to charge. The memory effect is now a thing of the past; batteries can be charged and discharged at any time without performance loss. Some man- ufacturers even started offering an un- limited warranty, regardless of the number of charging cycles. Since 2015, the use of new lithium high-density cells (LiHD) has allowed larger tools, like 6-in. and even 9-in. cordless grinders, to become major

contenders in the cordless market. LiHD cells are slightly larger and longer than traditional cells, offering higher power output and storage capa- bility. Together with optimized battery pack architectures, they open doors for cordless applications never imag- ined before. Learn about the pros of going cord- less in this article.

Air and Electric Tool Background Details

There are numerous benefits to go- ing cordless. Pneumatic air hoses and electrical extension cords can pose hazards at job locations. One of the most common job-site injuries is due to tripping hazards; it’s the third most common cause of worker downtime. By eliminating the need for air hoses and extension cords, this is one safety

Fig. 1 — Cordless rivet guns are now as fast as pneumatic models. consideration that

Fig. 1 — Cordless rivet guns are now as fast as pneumatic models.

consideration that can be eradicated instantly. Also, if users find themselves in a situation where the cord or hose is not long enough, and they try to make it reach farther, they could cause materi- als or other tools in the workspace to be knocked over, creating a more dan- gerous environment for their cowork- ers. Air lines can also pose a challenge if the pressure and airflow requirements of the tool being used is not met. This can lead to the tool performing im- properly or even failing. Futhermore, maintaining a compressor for air tool use can be costly and noisy. For in- stance, even if the proper airflow and pressure are delivered by the compres- sor, both values significantly drop af- ter the hundreds of feet (and some- times even miles) of pneumatic lines that can run throughout a factory or shipyard. In addition, compressors and air lines need a lot of maintenance, es- pecially in humid environments and climates, increasing the operating cost. The cost associated with air lines is often overlooked when making a tool-buying decision. Cordless is cheaper to operate in the long term, even though the upfront cost may seem higher. When working with electric-corded tools, using the incorrect length and gauge extension cord, or simply a low- quality cord, can starve a tool of volt- age, making it inefficient. The voltage can drop significantly and reduce the RPM of the motor, which limits the ca- pacity of the motor to cool itself down. This leads to premature wear on the tool, even for tools equipped with elec-

tronic protection. Heavy-duty exten- sion cords are also expensive, and the setup time involved is longer, especial- ly if the user needs to move to a new workstation or location. Additionally, when an operator is required to use a tool on scaffolding, a ladder, or tethered to a structure in the air, cordless tools give them the option to work anywhere and at any time. A good rule to follow is this: If the operator is working in an area and needs to move more than 3 ft in any direction, go cordless.

The Cordless Movement

Fifteen years ago, who would have imagined that cordless drills would be mainstream? Yet today, no mainte- nance, repair, and overhaul operator, plumber, or electrician would not even think of “plugging in” to a wall socket when there’s a cordless option avail- able. Only a very small amount of pro- duction applications still justifies the need for corded tools. There are even powerful cordless job-site vacuums that can be carried anywhere, avoiding constant plugging and unplugging.

Portable Performance

Cordless power tools are easier to maneuver with and, by definition, to- tally portable. This is their main strength. Modern batteries offer up to 4.0 Ah in a compact 18-V, five-cell flat battery pack or 8.0 Ah in a standard ten-cell pack, which is plenty of run- time for most common applications. This includes drilling, riveting, bevel-

ing, cleaning work with a high-torque die grinder, and 9-in. cordless grinding and cutting.

Charger Characteristics

Charging technologies are also adapting to the industrial world. If one charger is not enough for the number of workers on a job site, some manu- facturers offer multibay chargers, which can charge up to eight batteries at the same time. Multibay chargers are ideal for metal cutting and grind- ing because there’s always a battery charged and waiting to be used. For high-use applications, fast chargers are now available from some manufacturers, reducing the charging time of larger batteries from more than two hours to less than one hour. Air-cooled systems allow the user to place a hot battery in the charger and for it to start charging in virtually no time after it is removed from the tool. The charger’s built-in-fan system quickly cools the inside of the battery pack as it begins the charging cycle. This kind of charger allows the battery to survive more charge and discharge cycles.

Heavy-Duty Considerations

There are fewer and fewer times when the benefits of using a corded tool outweigh going cordless, especial- ly when it comes to heavy-duty pro- duction jobs, or if an end user is in a static heavy-duty environment. Sometimes it may not make sense to replace a corded tool with a cordless one. Examples include a chop saw sta- tioned in a shop, a large angle grinder or production grinder with high-power needs, or a metal drill used for drilling large holes at a high frequency. How- ever, with the advent of more power- ful cordless tools, these examples are becoming less and less prevalent.

Cordless and Metal Fabrication

When it comes to metal fabrication, welding is the heart of the process. A handful of manufacturers offer spe- cialized, fully integrated cordless solu- tions for before and after welding. Be- cause lithium high-density batteries allow for larger tool operation and longer runtime, there are now numer- ous cordless specialty tools available.

Rivet Guns, Beveling, and Much More

Metal fabricators can use cordless tapping tools, which allow the user one continuous motion that automati- cally changes the rotation of the motor and produces a perfectly threaded hole in a few seconds. There are also cord- less rivet guns that make riveting work quick and easy — Fig. 1. Cordless beveling tools offer unlim- ited versatility while allowing for pre- cise chamfering and clean cold pro- cessing of metal. Some manufacturers offer cordless flat-head angle grinders with a low profile for working on welds in hard-to-reach locations. High-speed cordless drills are now used in metal fabrication for quick and accurate fastening applications — Fig. 2. There are plenty of other cord- less tool options available for metal fabricators, such as burnishers, die grinders, pipe and tube sanders, and band saws, so a shop no longer needs to be completely tied down with cords and hoses.

Evolving Technology

Premium tool manufacturers have helped the cordless market grow with better batteries and cordless tools that last longer and are able to handle the most demanding applications.

Battery Benefits

A focus is no longer just on the mainstream, light-duty tools for elec- tricians and plumbers, but on solu- tions for metal fabrication and the in- dustrial workplace. Manufacturers concentrate on developing advanced battery technology, where energy management at the cell level during the charge and discharge cycles en- hances the life of the battery packs. These manufacturers also focus on systems that air-cool batteries to pro- tect the charging cells against thermal deterioration even after heavy use. They further concentrate on de- signing components inside the battery that allow for higher current delivery without resistance, maximizing the power output and life of the tool. The 18-V standard battery packs now can deliver up to 1600 or 3200 W when combined in a 36-V configuration. This kind of power opens the door to

a 36-V configuration. This kind of power opens the door to Fig. 2 — High-speed cordless

Fig. 2 — High-speed cordless drills/drivers are used in metal fabrication for fast drilling and accurate fastening applications.

for fast drilling and accurate fastening applications. Fig. 3 — The development of new batteries offering

Fig. 3 — The development of new batteries offering more output power makes way for the introduction of more powerful motors.

all sorts of industrial applications with very little limitation. Metabo Corp., West Chester, Pa., offers a battery with a microchip that allows it to communicate with the tool and battery charger. The ongoing com- munication ensures each battery cell is evenly charged and discharged every time, extending the life of the battery and protecting the tool being used. The development of new batteries offering more output power makes way for the introduction of more pow- erful motors — Fig. 3. The 1600-W machines are now available on 18-V platforms; that’s the equivalent of up to a 13-A corded tool, or up to 3200 W for a 36-V machine. This breakthrough

makes industrial applications that were simply not an option a few years ago possible.

Conclusion

Simply put, the future of power tools is cordless. It is only a matter of time before technology catches up to the need for even more powerful, longer lasting, and compact batteries for a more diverse future in cordless

industrial applications.

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ANTOINE DERCHÉ (aderche@metabousa.com) is the director of marketing and product management, Metabo Corp., West Chester, Pa.

CONFERENCES

IIW 2018 Annual Assembly and International Conference

July 15–20

Bali, Indonesia

The annual event will take pace at Vali Nusa Dua Conven- tion Center, Bali, Indonesia. In conjunction with the IIW General Annual Assembly, the International Conference aims to provide a forum for networking and knowledge ex- change among scientists, researchers, and industry related to welding and joining. Topics to be covered during the con- ference include advanced welding processes and technolo- gies; welding automation and simulations; design and fabri- cation; inspection and quality assurance of welded products; corrosion and surface protection of welding; personnel de- velopment and qualifications; business aspects of welding; and special sessions on maritime, transportation, and off- shore industries. For those involved in welding and related practices. This year’s theme is “Advanced Welding and Smart Fabrication Technologies for Efficient Manufacturing Processes.”

2018 Welding Summit

Oct. 16 and 17 League City, Texas

This summit, cosponsored by the AWS Houston Section, brings the best quality information and construction weld- ing professionals together for a series of interactive presen- tations on how more value can be brought to welding opera- tions and the best ways to execute successful welding proj- ects. Topics covered will include welder training and per- formance; using advanced equipment and procedures to im- prove quality, productivity, and safety; and fundamental project success. A career fair will be held on Oct. 17 from 3

to 5 pm.

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For more information, please contact the AWS Conferences and Seminars Business Unit at (800) 443-9353, ext. 213, or email cbrowne@aws.org. You can also visit the Conference Department website at aws.org/conferences for upcoming conferences and registration information.

WELDING ® American Welding Society S UMMI aws.org T – 201 8 – October 16
WELDING
®
American Welding Society
S
UMMI
aws.org
T
201
8 –
October 16 – 17, 2018
South Shore Harbour Resort & Conference Center
League City, TX
BRINGIN G VALUE TO YO UR WELDING O PERATION
• Meet Indus try Experts
• Network with Peers
• Discuss C ommon Issues
• Gain PDH Credits
• Attend Career Fair
Pro gram Topics:
Keynote Add ress
• Welder Training & W elder Performance
• Field Heat Treatment : An Essential Variable in Welding
“Welding Your Team Life”
• Non-Destructive Exa mination: Cost vs Value
DAVID RU THERFORD
• Importance of Accur ate Welding Procurement
Former Navy S EAL Motivational Speaker,
• Outsourcing Work Sc ope and Recognizing Scope Split
Author, Perfor
mance Coach, and Host
• Fundamental Project Success
Co-sponsored by
®
American Welding Society
HOUS TON SECTION
Endorsed by the AWS D1 0 Committee on Piping and Tubing
American Welding Society FOUNDATION ® GRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS To: Professors Engaged in Joining Research Subject:
American Welding Society FOUNDATION ® GRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS To: Professors Engaged in Joining Research Subject:

American Welding Society

FOUNDATION

®

GRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS

To: Professors Engaged in Joining Research Subject: Request for Proposals for 2019 AWS Fellowships

The American Welding Society (AWS) seeks to foster university research in joining and to recognize outstanding faculty and stud ent talent. We are again requesting your proposals for consideration by AWS.

It is expected that the winning researchers will take advantage of the opportunity to work with industry committees interested in the research topics and report work in progress.

Recipients are encouraged to submit the results of their work for presentation at the annual AWS professional program. If the

results of their research are unique and would be an important contribution to the welding literature, the authors are encouraged t o submit a relevant

paper for publication in the Welding Journal (contingent on successful peer review).

authors believe the

Please note there are important changes in the schedule which you must follow in order to enable the awards to be made i n a timely fashion. Proposals must be received at American Welding Society by August 31, 2018. New Fellowships will be announced at FABTECH i n November.

THE AWARDS

The Fellowships or Grants are to be in amounts of up to $25,000 per year. Proposals may be funded for a period of up to thr ee years, however, progress reports and requests for renewal must be submitted for the second and third years. Renewal by AWS will be contingen t on demonstration of reasonable progress in the research or in graduate studies.

The AWS Fellowship is awarded to the student for graduate research toward a Masters or Ph.D. Degree under a sponsoring p rofessor at a North

American University. The qualifications of the Graduate Student are key elements to be considered in the award. The academic

and research history (if any) of the student should be provided. The student must prepare the proposal for the AWS Fellows hip. However, the proposal must be under the auspices of a professor and accompanied by one or more letters of recommendation from the spon soring professor or others acquainted with the student's technical capabilities. Should the student selected by AWS be unable to accept the Fellowsh ip or continue with the research at any time during the period of the award, the award will be forfeited and no (further) funding provided by AWS . The bulk of AWS funding should be for student support. AWS reserves the right not to make awards in the event that its Committee fi nds all candidates unsatisfactory.

credentials, plans

RESEARCH TOPICS

Topics for the AWS Fellowship may span the full range of the joining industry. Proposals for both applied and fundament al research topics are welcome. The Committee may recommend topics to be considered and these will be posted at aws.org/graduatefello wships.

DETAIL S

The Prop osal should include:

6.

Current

Status of Relevant Research

1. Ex ecutive Summary

7.

Technica l Plan of Action

2. An nualized Breakdown of Funding Re quired and

3. M atching Funding or Other Support fo r Intended

8.

Qualifica tions of Researchers

Pu rpose of Funds (Student Salary, Tui tion, etc.)

9.

Pertinent Literature References and Related Publicati ons

Re search

10.

Special E quipment Required and Availability

4. Du ration of Project

11.

Stateme nt of Critical Issues Which Will Influ ence

5. St atement of Problem and Objectives

Success or Failure of Research

In additio n the proposal must include:

,

1. St udent's Academic History, Resume and Transcript (Both undergraduate and graduate)

2. Re commendation(s) Indicating Qualifi cations for Research must include

one or more letters of recommenda tion

fro m the sponsoring professor or othe rs acquainted with the student's te chnical capabilities

3. Br ief Section or Commentary on Impo rtance of Research to the Welding Te chnical Merit, National Need, Long Term Benefits, etc.

4. St atement Regarding Probability of S uccess

Community and to AWS, including

The technical portion o f the proposal should not exceed fi fteen typewritten pages. The page limit for the proposal is twenty-five typewritten pages.

may include the executive summa ry, is not included in the page cou nt limit. The maximum file size fo r the proposal is 2 that exceed either the page limit or file size limit will be considered non-conforming and will not be e valuated. Proposal

should be typed in a minimum of 12-point font in Times, Times New Roman, or equivalent. Proposals received after the deadline will not be evaluated. Proposals should be sent electronically by August 31, 2018 to John Douglass, Associate Director, AWS Foundation at jdouglass@aws.org.

The title page, which megabytes. Proposals

aws.org

COMING EVENTS

U.S., CANADA, MEXICO EVENTS

ITW Welding Instructors Conference. July 17–19. Fox Valley Technical College, Appleton, Wis. This three-day profession- al development workshop for welding instructors focus on creative teaching ideas, innovative technologies, and new teaching tools. The conference will feature speakers from the American Welding Society, NOCTI, and Oshkosh Corp., as well as engineers from Miller Electric and Hobart Broth- ers. Visit millerwelds.com.

7 th Global Automotive Lightweight Materials Detroit Summit. Aug. 21–23. COBO Center, Detroit, Mich. This year’s summit will focus on implementing lightweighting in- novations and optimizing multimaterial architectures for electric, autonomous, and next-generation internal combus- tion engine vehicles. The three-day event will provide a mix of in-depth technical sessions, case study-led presentations, and panel discussions on the hottest issues. There will also be an adjoining exhibition hall showcasing the latest tech- nologies, advanced materials, and manufacturing processes for Body in White. Visit global-automotive-lightweight- materials-detroit.com.

INTERNATIONAL EVENTS

IIW 2018 Annual Assembly and International Conference. July 15–20. Bali Nusa Dua Convention Center, Bali, Indone- sia. This conference provides a forum for networking and knowledge exchange among scientists, researchers, and in- dustry related to welding and joining. Topics that will be covered include advanced welding processes and technolo- gies; welding automation and simulations; design and fabri- cation; inspection and quality assurance of welded products; corrosion and surface protection of welding; personnel de- velopment and qualifications; business aspect of welding; and special sessions in maritime, transportation, and off- shore industries. Visit iiw2018.com.

Aluminium 2018 — 12 th World Trade Fair & Conference. Oct. 9–11. Messe Düsseldorf, Germany. Spread across six exhibi- tion halls, global players, specialists, and innovative compa- nies will showcase the industry’s complete range from alu- minum production to machines and plants for processing to finished goods and recycling. Visit aluminium-messe.com/en/.

plants for processing to finished goods and recycling. Visit aluminium-messe.com/en/. 50 WELDING JOURNAL / JULY 2018

First International Conference on Defence Technology (ICDT). Oct. 21–25. Beijing Friendship Hotel, Beijing, China. The conference brings together different aspects of defense technology including energetic materials, materials behavior and properties, advanced manufacturing techniques, impact mechanics, and electromagnetic launch technologies. Visit icdt.cos.org.cn.

22 nd IAS Steel Conference. Oct. 23–25. Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina. This conference is intended for researchers, man- ufacturers, suppliers, and users in the steel industry around the world to review the progress and achievements made in recent years; assess new developments in steel research, pro- duction, and application; meet new challenges; and promote further international exchange and cooperation. Visit

siderurgia.org.ar/conf18.

EuroBLECH 2018 — 25 th International Sheet Metal Working Technology Exhibition. Oct. 23–26. Hanover Exhibition Grounds, Germany. The meeting place for experts and top decision makers in the sheet metal working industry, the ex- hibition will cover technology sectors including sheet metal, semifinished and finished products, handling, separation, forming, flexible sheet metal working, tube/section process- ing, joining, welding, additive manufacturing, surface treat- ment, processing of hybrid structures, tools, quality control, CAD/CAM/CIM systems, factory and warehouse equipment, as well as R&D. Visit euroblech.com.

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

Advanced Fundamentals & Brazing by Design. Philadelphia, Pa. Two-and-a-half days of classes covering the essential theoretical aspects of brazing technology combined with real-life applications and case studies. Visit lucasmilhaupt.com.

Business Electronics Soldering Technology. Classes held in Chicago, Ill.; Detroit, Mich.; Minneapolis, Minn.; Cleveland, Ohio; and Huntsville, Ala., or can be coordinated onsite at your facility. Contact BEST at (847) 797-9250 to register.

Certification Classes and Seminar. Steel Tank Institute/ Steel Plate Fabricators Association offers upcoming courses: STI/SP001 Aboveground Tank System Inspector Training: Aug. 20–24; Sept. 17–21; Oct. 29–Nov. 2; and Dec. 10–14. Cathodic Protection Inspection Training and Certification: Aug. 14, 15; Oct. 2, 3; and Oct. 23, 24. Steel Water Storage Tank Seminar: Aug. 9. Visit steeltank.com.

E­Courses in Destructive and Nondestructive Testing of Welds and Other Welding­Related Topics. Online video courses taken at one’s own pace offer certificates of comple- tion and continuing education units. Contact Hobart Insti- tute of Welding Technology; (800) 332-9448; welding.org/product-category/online-courses/.

of Welding Technology; (800) 332-9448; welding.org/product-category/online-courses/. JULY 2018 / WELDING JOURNAL 51
of Welding Technology; (800) 332-9448; welding.org/product-category/online-courses/. JULY 2018 / WELDING JOURNAL 51

ESAB Welding and Cutting Distributor Instructor­Led Training. Year-round training at Denton, Tex.; West Lebanon, N.H.; Traverse City, Mich.; Hanover, Pa.; and Salt Lake City, Utah. Online e-Learning training available at training.victortechnologies.com, email trainingteam@esab.com.

European Modern Furnace Brazing School. Oct. 9–11. Pon- tardawe, Wales, UK. Wall Colmonoy presents a three-day seminar offering knowledge and practical application on brazing design, metallurgical aspect/brazing operation, brazing atmosphere and furnace equipment, brazing mate- rial selection and applications, and quality control. Contact Jordan Brace at brazingschool@wallcolmonoy.co.uk, or call +44 (0) 1792 860622, or visit wallcolmonoy.com/ brazingschool.

EWI Event Central. EWI presents classes and training for summer 2018 at its Columbus, Ohio, headquarters. Courses include Fundamentals of Welding Engineering, Aug. 13–17, plus Sheet Metal Forming, Sept. 10, 11.

GE Industrial Computed Tomography (CT) Operator Course. Learn to operate the 3D technology that is becoming more prominent in industrial quality control and metrology. Lewistown, Pa., (315) 554-2039; geinspectionacademy.com.

Hypertherm Cutting Institute Online. Includes video tutori- als, interactive e-Learning courses, discussion forums, webi- nars, and blogs. Visit hypertherm.com; hyperthermcutting institute.com.

Industrial Laser Training. Technical training and support offered for users of industrial lasers in manufacturing, education, and research. Regularly scheduled classes in laser welding, laser cutting, and drilling. HDE Technologies Inc.; (916) 714-4944; laserweldtraining.com, laser-cutting-drilling- training.com.

INTEG Courses. Courses in NDE disciplines to meet certifica- tions to Canadian General Standards Board or Canadian Nu- clear Safety Commission. The Canadian Welding Bureau; (800) 844-6790; cwbgroup.org.

Laser Safety Online Courses. Courses include Medical Laser Safety Officer, Laser Safety Training for Physicians, Indus- trial Laser Safety, and Laser Safety in Educational Institu- tions. Laser Institute of America; (800) 345-2737; lia.org.

Laser Safety Training Courses. Courses based on ANSI Z136.1, Safe Use of Lasers. Orlando, Fla., or customer’s site. Laser Institute of America; (800) 345-2737; lia.org.

— continued on page 98

site. Laser Institute of America; (800) 345-2737; lia.org . — continued on page 98 52 WELDING
American Welding Society EDUCATION aws.org ® DON’T TRU ST YOUR WELDING EDUCA TIO N TO

American Welding Society

EDUCATION

aws.org

®

American Welding Society EDUCATION aws.org ® DON’T TRU ST YOUR WELDING EDUCA TIO N TO JUST
DON’T TRU ST YOUR WELDING EDUCA TIO N TO JUST ANYONE . AWS offers the
DON’T TRU ST YOUR WELDING
EDUCA TIO N TO JUST
ANYONE .
AWS offers the most accur ate, relev ant, and well-researched seminars in the weldin g industry.
When it comes to your career de velopment, why not put it in the most capable h ands?
Opportunities to further y our education and caree r are heading your way.
Si
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up
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AWS CERTIFIE D WELDING INSPECTO R SEMINARS
Location
Se minar Date
Exam Date
Deadline
Location
Seminar Date
Exa m Date
Deadline
San Francisco, CA
A ug. 26-31
Sep. 1
Jul. 23
Kankakee, IL
Oct. 14-19
Oc t. 20
Sep. 10
Beaumont TX
,
A ug 26-31
.
Sep
.
1
Jul . 23
Denver , CO
Oct 21-26
.
Oc .
t
27
Sep . 17
Nashville, TN
S ep.
9-14
Sep. 15
Aug. 6
Des Moines, I A
Oct. 21-26
Oc t. 27
Sep. 17
Portland, OR
S ep. 9-14
Sep. 15
Aug. 6
Cleveland, OH
Oct. 28-Nov. 2
No v. 3
Sep. 24
Pittsburgh, PA
S ep. 16-21
Sep. 22
Aug. 13
Sacramento, CA
Nov. 4-9
No v. 10
Oct. 1
Houston, TX
S ep.
16-21
Sep. 22
Aug. 13
Dallas, TX
Nov. 4-9
No v. 10
Oct. 1
Kansas City, MO
S ep. 23-28
Sep. 29
Aug. 20
Charlotte, NC
Nov. 11-16
No v. 17
Oct. 8
New Orleans, LA
S ep. 23-28
Sep. 29
Aug. 20
Reno, NV
Nov. 25-30
De c. 1
Oct. 22
Long Beach, CA
S ep. 30-Oct. 5
Oct. 6
Aug. 27
Orlando, FL
Nov. 25-30
De c. 1
Oct. 22
Tulsa, OK S ep. 30-Oct. 5
Oct. 6
Aug. 27
Houston, TX
Dec. 2-7
De c. 8
Oct. 29
Ann Arbor, MI
S ep. 30-Oct. 5
Oct. 6
Aug. 27
Los Angeles,
CA
Dec. 2-7
De c. 8
Oct. 29
Newark, NJ O ct. 7-12
Oct. 13
Sep. 3
Richmond, VA
Dec. 9-14
De c. 15
Nov. 5
Chattanooga, TN
O ct. 7-12
Oct. 13
Sep. 3
Miami, FL
Dec. 9-14
De c. 15
Nov. 5

For a complete li sting please visit aws.or g/cwischedule

7-12 Oct. 13 Sep. 3 Miami, FL Dec. 9-14 De c. 15 Nov. 5 For a

CERTIFICATION SCHEDULE

Note: The 2018 schedule for all certifications is posted online at aws.org/w/a/registrations/prices_schedules.html.

Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)

Location

Seminar Dates Exam Date

Waco, TX

July 8–13

July 14

Louisville, KY

July 8–13

July 14

Houston, TX

July 15–20

July 21

Phoenix, AZ

July 15–20

July 21

Cleveland, OH

July 15–20

July 21

Philadelphia, PA

July 15–20

July 21

Baton Rouge, LA

July 22–27

July 28

Helena, MT

July 22–27

July 28

Omaha, NE

July 22–27

July 28

Seattle, WA

July 29–Aug. 3

Aug. 4

Chicago, IL

July 29–Aug. 3

Aug. 4

Charlotte, NC

Aug. 5–10

Aug. 11

Dallas, TX

Aug. 12–17

Aug. 18

San Diego, CA

Aug. 12–17

Aug. 18

Salt Lake City, UT

Aug. 12–17

Aug. 18

Minneapolis, MN

Aug. 19–24

Aug. 25

Miami, FL

Aug. 19–24

Aug. 25

San Francisco, CA

Aug. 26–31

Sept. 1

Beaumont, TX

Aug. 26–31

Sept. 1

Nashville, TN

Sept. 9–14

Sept. 15

Portland, OR

Sept. 9–14

Sept. 15

Pittsburgh, PA

Sept. 16–21

Sept. 22

Houston, TX

Sept. 16–21

Sept. 22

Kansas City, MO

Sept. 23–28

Sept. 29

New Orleans, LA

Sept. 23–28

Sept. 29

Long Beach, CA

Sept. 30–Oct. 5

Oct. 6

Tulsa, OK

Sept. 30–Oct. 5

Oct. 6

Detroit, MI

Sept. 30–Oct. 5

Oct. 6

S. Plainfield, NJ

Oct. 7–12

Oct. 13