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Mohamad Sundra Sutisna
Departement of Geological Engineering, Pertamina University

In addition to the constituent components of the geothermal system, the existence of a
geothermal system is characterized by the presence of heat manifestations on the surface. Convective
geothermal systems that have fluid circulation from the recharge area enter the reservoir and then out
to the surface through the upflow and outflow areas, the fluid will act with the surrounding rock and
then out through the fractures in the rock. The fluid interaction with the surrounding rocks produces
altered minerals, while the fluid that exits through the crack will produce hot water or hot steam.
Because from such an event what happens beneath the surface can be recognized and analyzed
geologically. As there's usually no thermal liquid out flow from a kaipohan, sinters are absent. but,
rocks in the location are intensely altered, leached, and feature a characteristic gray, friable look.
Alteration mineral assemblages are dominated by the presence of kaolinite, with lesser and variable
quantities of smectite, alunite and native sulfur. Hydrothermal eruptions do not all require a cover
rock, which permits reservoir pressures to exceed those of lithostatic or the tensile energy of this rock
(although they are able to occur this way) . instead, they most typically occur in water-dominated
reservoirs with water almost at its boiling temperature, in order that any nearby depressurisation
allows it to boil.

Keywords: Manifestation, Subsurface, Geothermal.

1. Introduction

The surface manifestations of a geothermal system in a volcanic area are generally the features
that first stimulate exploration. Consequently, the recognition, mapping, and evaluation of these
features are important in the second stage or prefeasibility study, during which the geothermal
potential is evaluated. The prefeasibility stage also involves sampling fluids and gases to be studied

by hydrogeochemical techniques that help estimate the temperatures and compositions of
hydrothermal reservoir fluids (Wohletz & Heiken, 1992).

The most apparent expression of a geothermal reservoir happens while fluids leak to the surface
alongside faults and fissures or through permeable rock units. relying on the reservoir temperatures
and discharge rates, those surface manifestations take the shape of seeps, fumaroles, warm springs,
boiling springs, geysers, phreatic explosion craters, and zones of acid alteration. further, there are
deposits of silica sinter, travertine, and/or the bedded breccias that surround phreatic craters.

Figure 1 Geothermal System Ilustrated (Wohletz & Heiken, 1992).

2. Factors That Controlled Type of Manifestations

According to (Saptadji, 2001) there are things that become the type controller of the geothermal

 Total heat input (Qin) at the bottom of the reservoir.

 Permeability, especially vertical permeability, is the path of fluid to the surface.
 Density, Viscosity, temperature, and the origin of the hot fluid.
 Factors of influx of fluid from outside into the hydrological system of the area.
 Factors that affect the hot fluid at a deep depth.

Table 1 Properties of Reservoir rocks in some of the geothermal fields (Bodvarsson et al., 1988)

In contrast, kaipohans are characterized by no apparent thermal activity, and by mass transfer of
gas from the underlying geothermal system. To achieve this requires cooling and condensation of
steam during the migration of separated steam and gas from the deep, single phase reservoir
(Bogie, Lawless, & Pornuevo, 1987).

3. Kaipohan

The term "kaipohan" is here defined to refer to areas of actively forming argillic alteration, with
surface temperatures close to ambient, and active gas emission, but without permanent thermal
springs (Bogie et al., 1987)

Figure 2 Kaipohan in Southern Negros, Philippines (Bogie et al., 1987)

Kaipohan emerged as an anomaly in the hydrothermal system, this raises a big question mark for
scientists as well as a challenge to uncover it. Kaipohan appears on high topography with a type of
meteoric water supply at low altitudes. This describes the Andesitic Strato type of volcano in the
tropics or subtropics. As there's usually no thermal liquid out flow from a kaipohan, sinters are absent.
but, rocks in the location are intensely altered, leached, and feature a characteristic gray, friable look.
Alteration mineral assemblages are dominated by the presence of kaolinite, with lesser and variable
quantities of smectite, alunite and native sulfur.

Figure 3 Models of Kaipohan (Bogie et al., 1987)

4. Hydrothermal Eruption

According to (Browne & Lawless, 2001) Hydrothermal eruption is An eruption ejecting at least
some solid material and whose energy derives solely from heat loss and phase changes in a
convecting hot water or steam-dominated hydrothermal system. The resulting crater comes from a
large-strength eruption due to the heat vapor pressure coming from the hydrothermal reservoir at a
depth of approximately 400m and a temperature of 230oC above the lithostatic pressure, when the
vapor pressure is not restrained by the screening rock. While hydrothermal deposits are produced by
ballistic-backed eruptions from shallow hydrothermal reservoirs of approximately 200m deeper at

Figure 4 Mechanisms of Hydrothermal Eruption (Browne & Lawless, 2001)


Kaipohan is an indication of the presence of low permeability formations which makes it a link
between deep-water geothermal reservoir hydrology and shallow groundwater. The control factor of
Kaipohan is piezometric level. According to (Bogie et al., 1987) Kaipohan is an expression on the
surface of a geothermal system that can provide information where the central location of the upflow
zone and the edge side of the system (outflow zone). While the products of hydrothermal eruption are

craters and hydrothermal deposits, making this an indicator of the presence of an active hydrothermal


Bodvarsson, G. S., Bjornsson, S., Gunnarsson, A., Gunnlaugsson, E., Sigurdsson, O. S., &
Steingrimsson, B. (1988). A summary of modeling studies of the Nesjavellir geothermal field,
Iceland. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Iceland Univ., Reykjavik; Reykjavik Municipal
District Heating Service (Iceland); Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik;
Braedraborgarstigur, Reykjavik (Iceland).

Bogie, I., Lawless, J. V, & Pornuevo, J. B. (1987). Kaipohan: an apparently nonthermal manifestation
of hydrothermal systems in the Philippines. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research,
31(3–4), 281–292.

Browne, P. R. L., & Lawless, J. V. (2001). Characteristics of hydrothermal eruptions, with examples
from New Zealand and elsewhere. Earth-Science Reviews, 52(4), 299–331.

Saptadji, N. M. (2001). Teknik Panas Bumi. Diktat Kuliah Prodi Teknik Perminyakan, Penerbit ITB,

Wohletz, K., & Heiken, G. (1992). Volcanology and geothermal energy (Vol. 432). University of
California Press Berkeley.