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GNSS

Precise Point Posi.oning


(PPP)

Associate Professor Suelynn Choy


School of Science
RMIT University, Australia
suelynn.choy@rmit.edu.au

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Content
1.  GNSS Precise PosiBoning Techniques
2.  Theory of Precise Point PosiBoning (PPP)
3.  GNSS Online Processing Services
4.  Real-Bme PPP System and ApplicaBons
5.  *PPP-RTK

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GNSS PosiBoning Techniques

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Real-Time KinemaBc (RTK)
•  PosiBonal accuracy +/- 2cm (horiz)
•  Single base soluBon
•  Range < 10-20 km (accuracy decreases with distance)
•  Data transfer via UHF radio

UHF Radio Reference User 4


Network RTK
•  PosiBonal accuracy +/- 2cm (horiz)
•  Based on CORS network
•  Range increased up to 70 km between CORS sites
•  Data transfer via mobile internet

CORS - Continuously
Operating Reference Station 5
Thailand’s
CORS network
providing NRTK
Services

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Australia’s CORS Network

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Australia’s Mobile ConnecBvity

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Precise Point PosiBoning (PPP)
•  Precise Point Posi.oning (PPP) allows a single GNSS receiver user
to determine posiBon at the decimetre / cenBmetre error level in
kinemaBc / staBc mode using precise satellite orbits and clocks.
Precise Point Positioning
Standard Positioning Service
Precise orbit and clock
Broadcast orbit and clock informaBon
informaBon
+
+ User satellite tracking
informaBon
User satellite tracking
informaBon
+
= AddiBonal error modelling

m-level user posiBon esBmates =


dm- to cm-level user posiBon
esBmates
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InternaBonal GNSS Services (IGS)

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How Does PPP Work?

Differen.al PPP

PPP uses state space representation (SSR) correction products such


as precise satellite orbits, clocks and signal biases from either
commercial or/and public (e.g., IGS) that are delivered to the user via
satellite and/or internet.
MathemaBcal Model
Lki − ρik − c( Δti − Δt k ) − α ik Ti + I ik − λ Bik −ε = 0
Pi k − ρik − c( Δti − Δt k ) − α ik Ti − I ik − c(b k + bi ) − ε = 0
Lki , Pi k -  undifferenced carrier phase and code observations (meters)
ρ ik -  geometric distance (satellite-receiver)
Bik -  carrier phase bias, where λ Bi = λ ( N i + δ N i ) + c(d + d i )
k k k k

N ik , δ N ik -  integer carrier phase ambiguity and non-zero initial fractional phase


Δti , Δt k - receiver and satellite clock offsets
Ti - tropospheric total zenith delay
α ik - troposphere mapping function
I ik - slant ionospheric delay
bi , b k ; di , d k -  receiver and satellite code and phase hardware delays
λ -  corresponding carrier wavelength
c - speed of light
ε - random error or residual 13
PPP Error Budget

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IGS Orbit and Clock Products

Real-Bme IGS Orbit < 10 cm 10-20 secs


Clock 0.15 ns

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PPP Accuracy

Processing Mode RMS (cm)


East North Up
Daily staBc <0.5 <0.5 <1
Hourly staBc ~4 ~2 ~3
Post-processed kinemaBc ~5 ~4 ~10
Real-Bme kinemaBc <10 <10 <20
Note: Based on dual-frequency measurements

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How Good is PPP?

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How Good is PPP?

10 cm

30 min

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MulB-GNSS

GPS(32) + Glonass(24) + Galileo(26) + BeiDou(29) + IRNSS(7) + QZSS(4) + SBAS(13)


Marengo

Source: UNSW

RMIT University School of Science Spring Lectures 2017 19


RMIT University
Source: Li et al (2015) School of Science Spring Lectures 2017 20
Key Points to Remember
PPP
•  Absolute posiBon
•  Global coverage
•  Precise orbits and clocks are indispensable
•  Iono error is canceled by using iono-free
combinaBon (DF) or esBmated by models (SF)
•  Cm-dm accuracy but with long convergence Bme

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Benefits and LimitaBons of PPP
Limita.ons Benefits

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Primary ApplicaBons of PPP
Engineering (commercial) and scien.fic applica.ons

PPP is feasible for posiBoning and navigaBon in remote areas or regions of


low GNSS reference sta.ons
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GNSS Online Processing Services
PPP
1.  CSRS-PPP: Canadian SpaBal Reference System, Natural
Resources Canada
2.  MagicGNSS: GMV
3.  CenterPoint RTX: Trimble NavigaBon
4.  GAPS: University of New Brunswick
5.  APPS: Jet Propulsion Laboratory
6.  SCOUT: Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC),
University of California, San Diego
7.  AUSPOS: Geoscience Australia
8.  OPUS: U.S. NaBonal GeodeBc Survey’s Online PosiBoning User
Baselines Service 24
Work Example
Sta.on Informa.on
•  CUSV, Bangkok, Thailand
•  1 December 2017 (1 day, 24 hours)
•  Dual-frequency, staBc processing

Online GNSS Processing Service(s)


•  CSRS-PPP
•  MagicGNSS
•  CenterPoint RTX
•  AUSPOS
•  GAPS

Compute and compare X, Y, Z coordinates of CUSV


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Work Example: Notes
1.  Check RINEX file(s)
•  antenna
•  sampling rate

2.  Upload and submit RINEX file(s)
•  CSRS-PPP (hops://webapp.geod.nrcan.gc.ca/geod/tools-
ouBls/ppp.php)
•  MagicGNSS (hops://magicgnss.gmv.com)
•  CenterPoint RTX (hop://trimblertx.com)
•  AUSPOS (hop://www.ga.gov.au/bin/gps.pl)
•  GAPS (hop://gaps.gge.unb.ca/submitbasic.php)
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Work Example: Notes
3.  Assess the reports provided by the processing
services and note any warnings/errors

4.  Collate and compare the coordinates
•  reference frame, e.g., ITRF (year and epoch)
•  cartesian, geodeBc or local, etc
Make sure the coordinates are
in the same reference frame !!
5.  Plot ΔX, ΔY, ΔZ

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Real-Bme PPP System
GNSS Satellites GNSS Satellites CommunicaBon/GNSS
Satellites

CorrecBons

ObservaBons

CorrecBons CorrecBons
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Commercial PPP Services
Company Services Company Services

OmniSTAR HP NavCom StarFire

OmniSTAR OmniSTAR G2 C-NavC2


C-Nav
OmniSTAR XP C-NavC1

CenterPoint RTX Apex 2

Trimble RangePoint RTX Apex


Veripos
ViewPoint RTX Ultra 2

Starfix.G2+ Ultra

Starfix.G4 TerraStar-C
TerraStar
Fugro Starfix.G2 TerraStar-D

Starfix.XP2 Novatel CORRECT (PPP)

Starfix.HP Hemisphere Atlas


Next GeneraBon GNSS/RNSS
Regional/Global Precise Posi.oning Service(s)
Next generaBon GNSS/RNSS satellites augmentaBon signals, which
could be used for real-Bme PPP services

GLONASS L3 1207.14 ?

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Real-time PPP Application:
Precision Agriculture
•  Rice farming: Nov 2014 – Feb 2015
•  Location: Jerilderie, NSW
•  Funded by Japan Ministry of Internal Affairs
and Communications
•  Japanese Partners:
•  Hitachi, Hitachi Zosen,
Hitachi Solutions, JAXA,
Hokkaido University,
Yanmar
•  Australian Partners:
•  CRCSI, Hitachi Australia,
Rice Research Australia,
SmartNet, CRK, PACA,
UNSW, UNE, RMIT
•  Aim: Evaluate the
performance of QZSS-PPP 31
Real-time PPP Application:
Mining and Construction
•  Mining: Aug 2016 – Sep 2016
•  LocaBon: Morewell, Victoria
•  Funded and supported by the CRCSI and JAXA
•  Australian Partners:
–  PosiBon Partners, Energy Australia, Victoria
government (DELWP)
•  Aim: Evaluate QZSS-PPP in mining applicaBons Dozer used on mining opera.ons

Loca.on of Morwell coal mine site Dozer opera.on path


Real-time PPP Application:
Auto-Driving Vehicle
•  Autonomous vehicle: Dec 2017
(on-going)
•  Location: Melbourne
•  Funded by the Australian and
New Zealand Governments
•  International Partners:
•  Lockheed Martin, Inmarsat and
GMV
•  Local Partners:
•  Geoscience Australia, CRCSI,
Bosch, VicRoads and RMIT
•  Aim: Evaluate the performance
of PPP and its suitability for
autonomous driving

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Useful References
•  Kouba J (2009) A Guide to using InternaBonal GNSS Service (IGS)
Products.
hops://kb.igs.org/hc/en-us/arBcles/201271873-A-Guide-to-Using-the-
IGS-Products.
•  Silver M (2013) A Comparison of Free GPS Online Post-Processing
Services. GPS World.
hop://gpsworld.com/a-comparison-of-free-gps-online-post-
processing-services/
•  Choy S, Bisnath S, Rizos C (2017) Uncovering common misconcepBons
in GNSS Precise Point PosiBoning and its future prospect. Available to
download:
hops://www.fig.net/resources/monthly_arBcles/2016/
september_2016/Suelynn_etal_september_2016.pdf
•  Teunissen PJG, Montenbruck O (2017) Springer handbook of global
navigaBon satellite systems. Springer handbooks, 1st ediBon. Springer
Berlin Heidelberg, New York.
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The Future?
RTK, NRTK, PPP, PPP-RTK
Commonly Technically beYer What does it What is the
used term term mean? difference?
RTK Only common
EliminaBon of errors are
DifferenBal GNSS
most errors eliminated
or
and
NRTK ObservaBon Space CombinaBon of
EsBmaBon of
RepresentaBon (OSR) eliminaBon and
some errors
esBmaBon
PPP Only some errors
esBmated
State Space EsBmaBon of
PPP-RTK RepresentaBon (SSR) errors Almost all errors
esBmated
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The Future?
RTK, NRTK, PPP, PPP-RTK
Method What is Ini.alisa.on .me Accuracy (horiz)
transmiYed?
RTK/NRTK CorrecBons per < 20 s ~ 2 cm
satellite and per
(virtual) reference
staBon
PPP §  Orbits > 40 min for float a few cm
§  Clocks
PPP-AR §  Orbits ~ 30 min a few cm
§  Clocks
§  Phase biases
PPP-RTK §  Clocks < 1 min a few cm
§  Orbits
§  Phase biases
§  Troposphere
§  Ionosphere
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PPP-RTK
Advantages

Bandwidth needed for


•  Rapid cm level accuracy like NRTK

Transmission
•  Transmission bandwidth less
dependent on the number of
satellites (important when 4
global systems are available)
•  Independent from individual Number of Satellites
reference staBon and satellites
RTK PPP PPP-RTK
•  Reduced influence of local errors,
e.g. mulBpath
•  Scalable accuracy, i.e. different Disadvantages
accuracy levels can be realized by
using only parts of the models, •  Needs local ground infrastructure as
e.g., PPP, PPP-AR, PPP-RTK NRTK
•  Can not be applied globally
•  Method not yet widely accepted in
pracBce
•  No standardised data formats
available yet (sBll in development)
Comparison NRTK, PPP and PPP-RTK
1
DGNSS

0.1 PPP-RTK PPP


Accuracy [m]

NRTK
0.01

0.001
0 s 1 s 1 min 10 min 1 h 1 d

Time to Positioning Solution


Useful References
•  Wübbena G, Schmitz M, Andreas B (2005) PPP-RTK: Precise Point
PosiBoning Using State-Space RepresentaBon in RTK Networks. In: the
18th InternaBonal Technical MeeBng of the Satellite Division (ION
GNSS), Long Beach, California, 13-16 September. pp 2584-2594
•  Wübbena G et al (2016) SSR-Technologie für skalierbare GNSS Dienste
Prinzipien, Anwendungen, Standardisierung. In: INTERGEO, Hamburg,
Germany, 11 October
•  Geng J, Teferle FN, Meng X, Dodson AH (2011) Towards PPP-RTK:
Ambiguity resoluBon in real-Bme precise point posiBoning Advances
in Space Research 47:1664-1673 doi:10.1016/j.asr.2010.03.030
•  Choy S, Harima K (2018) Satellite Delivery of High Accuracy GNSS
Precise Point PosiBoning Service: An Overview for Australia. Journal of
SpaBal Science (accepted for publicaBon)
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