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Some important chemical Compounds


Have you observed carefully the use of baking soda in the kitchen
during the preparation of Sev, Namkeen etc. You may also recall that
baking soda is also used in making cake, bread etc.

While coming from kitchen to bathroom not this baking soda

but washing soda finds use here.

You need not to worry if there is a crack or other damage or

injury in the bone, as it will come in it's original form in a few days by
applying plaster of paris. In our daily life, besides baking soda, washing
soda, plaster of paris, there are other chemical compounds such as
cement, steel, glass, quick lime etc, which we use in one or the other way
but we are not much familiar with their nature and structure. In this
chapter we will study some of such chemical compounds.

Washing soda

Common name : Washing soda

Chemical name : Sodium carbonate Decahydrate*

Chemical formula : Na2CO3.10H2O

Nature: White crystalline

Soda Ash

Common name : Soda Ash

Chemical name : Sodium Carbonate

Chemical formula : Na2C03

Nature : White anhydrous (dry/waterless)

Washing soda is Na2C03 (Sodium carbonate) including

ten molecules of crystalline water. Sodium carbonate, does not have any
water of crystallisation in it is called anhydrous (waterless) sodium
carbonate (Na2C03). Dry sodium carbonate is commonly known as Soda

Sodium Carbonate founds deposits in the lakes of desert situated in

East Africa, Egypt, America etc. In India it is found mostly in Dehradun,
Mathura, Jaunpur, Varanasi etc. areas.

Manufacture of Sodium Carbonate

The Industrial preparation of sodium carbonate is done by following.


• Solvay Method or Ammonia Soda Method

Solvay Method :-
Ernst Solvay was the first to use this method for preparing sodium carbonate in
1864. The main advantage of this method is that no harmful fumes/vapours are
released. The method is described below.

1) Raw Material :-
CaCO3 NH3 and Saturated Solution of NaCl
(Calcium Carbonate)

Carbon dioxide is prepared by heating calcium carbonate in hot furnance.

CaCO3 → Cao + CO2 ↑
2) Ammonia Saturating Tank :- In this tank brine is saturated with ammonia
gas to begin with.
3) Filter :- Impurities are removed from the ammonical brine by filtering.
4) Cooling Pipe :- The temperature of this solution is reduced in the cooling
pipes, as excessive amount of heat is produced by the reaction of ammonia
and sodium chloride solution.
5) Carbonating Tower :- In this tower ammoniated brine is dropped from
above and the CO2 gas obtained from hot furnace is released from below.
Sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) is obtained as a result of the
chemical reaction.
NaCl + NH3 + H2O + CO2 → NaHCO3 ↓ + NH4Cl
Sodium Chloride + Ammonia + water Sodium Ammonium
Ammoniated brine hydrogen carbonate chloride

The Sodium hydrogen carbonate obtained by the above reaction is

precipitated which is then filtered, washed and dried. It is then heated to
form dry anhydrous sodium carbonate.
2NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
Sodium hydrogen Sodium Carbonate
(Soda Ash)

To obtain washing soda, the soda ash is dissolved in water and then recrystallized.

Na2CO3 + 10H2O → Na2CO3 .10H2O

6) Ammonia Recovery Tower :- Ammonia is recovered by reaction of Calcium
hydroxide and ammonium chloride. Calcium hydroxide is prepared by using
calcium oxide obtained from the hot furnace.
CaO+ H2O → Ca (OH)2
Ca(OH)2+ 2NH4Cl → 2NH3 + 2H2O + CaCl2

Properties :-
1. It is a white crystalline solid.
2. It is soluble in water. Its aqueous solution is alkaline as NaOH (Sodium
hydroxide) which is formed in this reaction is a strong base. Whereas
H2CO3 is weak acid so that this resulting solution is alkaline.
Na2CO3 + H2O → NaOH + H2CO3
Strong base weak acid
3. Reaction with air :- On keeping in open air 9 molecules of crystalline
water and forms sodium carbonate monohydrate which appears as
white powder on the surface of washing powder crystals. This process is
called efflorescence.
𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛 𝑎𝑖𝑟
Na2CO3.10H2O → Na2CO3.H2O + 9 H2O
Washing soda Efflorescence sodium carbonate monohydrate
4. Effect of heat :- On heating it forms dry salt at 7500C while it melts at
7500 𝐶
Na2CO3.10H2O ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ Na2CO3
−10𝐻2 𝑂
Washing Soda Sodium carbonate

5. Reaction with acids :- CO2 gas is formed.

Na2CO3+2HCl → 2NaCl + H2O + CO2 ↑
6. Detergent or cleansing properties :-
Washing soda has cleansing properties. It may remove dirt, grease etc
from dirty clothes.
Uses :-
1. In removing the permanents hardness of water. Where is removes a
Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions as MgCO3 and CaCO3 respectively and thereby
2. In the manufacture of glass, caustic soda, soap, borax etc.
3. As a detergent and a cleansing agent.
4. As a laboratory reagent.
5. In textile and glass industry.

Baking Soda :-
Common Name : Baking Soda.

Chemical Name: Sodium hydrogen carbonate (Sodium bicarbonate)

Chemical Formula : NaHC03.

Laboratory Method : Sodium hydrogen carbonate is made by

saturating an aqueous solution of Sodium Carbonate with carbon

Na2C03 + H20 + C02 → 2NaHCO3

Manufacture : It is obtained as a bye product in solvay method.

1. It is a white crystalline solid
2. It is soluble in water
3. It's aqueous solution is alkaline in nature. On heating it decomposes to
form C02 gas.

Uses :-
1. In preparation of baking powder.
2. In making cold drinks.
3. As a laboratory reagant.
4. In manufacture of fire extinguishers.
5. It is used as an antacid to decrease the acidity of stomach. Due to its
alkaline nature it neutralizes the extra acid present in the stomach.
Activity :-
Let’s Prepare fire extinguish :-

 In the laboratory, soda acid fire extinguisher can be prepared in the

following way.
 Take 20 ml of sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) solution in washing

 Place an ignition tube filled with dill sulphuric acid the washing bottle.
 Close the lid of the washing bottle.
 Bend the wash bottle in such a way so that the acid of the ignition tube
mixes with the sodium hydrogen carbonate solution.
 You will see that a gas comes out in the form of bubbles form the nozzle.
 Bring this gas towards a lighted candle. See what happens? The candle
blows away (stops buning).

Conclusion :-
Due to the releasing of CO2, the candle blows out which explains the
mechanism of fire extinguisher.

Bleaching Powder :-
Common Name – Bleaching Powder

Chemical Formula – CaOCl2 (Though this formula is generally assigned to

bleaching powder. Actually it is a mixture)

Chemical Name – Calcium Oxychloride

Manufacture – It is manufactured by passing chlorine gas on dry slaked lime.

Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 → CaOCl2 + H2O

Slaked lime chlorine Bleaching Powder water

It is manufactured in following two type of apparatus –

Hansen clever plant

 This apparatus contains many hollow Iron spherical cylinders which have
blades along with shafts.
 Slaked lime is passed with the help of hopper in wrought the spherical
 Chorine gas is passed through the lowest cylinder.
 The slaked lime dropped from the hopper in the upper cylinder passes
downward with the help of the blades in the shaft and comes in contact
with the chlorine gas coming upward.
 The Slaked lime reacts with chlorine with chlorine gas to form Bleaching
Powder which is removed outside from the outlet of the lowest cylinder.

Properties -
1 It is a yellowish white powder with a pungent smell like chlorine.
2 It is soluble in'cold water but does not form a clear solution due to the
presence of lime.
3 When it is exposed to open air, it reacts with C02 of the atmosphere and
releases chlorine gas.
CaOCI2 + CO2 CaCO3 + CI2
Bleaching Power Carbon dioxide Calcium Carbonate Chlorine
(Present in atmosphere)
4 It releases chlorine gas on reacting with dilute HCI or dilute H2S04. The
chlorine released in this way is known as Available Chlorine. The more the
quantity of Available chlorine, the better will be the quality of bleaching
powder. A good quality sample of bleaching powder contains 35-38% of
Available chlorine approximately.
CaOCI2 + H2S04 - CaS04 + Cl2 + H20
Available Chlorine

CaOCI2 + 2HCI - CaCI2 + Cl2 + H20

1. In textile industry.
2. In paper industry for bleaching timber pulp
3. As a disinfectant for purifying water.
4. In making (shrinking less) wool.
5. As an oxidant in chemical industry
6. For removing toxic awdic gases from the atmosphere.

Plaster of Paris
Common: Plaster of Paris

Chemical Name: Gypsum is Calcium sulphate dehydrate (CaSO4)1/2H2O)

Chemical Formula: CaSO4)1/2H2O

It was first prepared by hating Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O). it is found

mostly in Paris, the capital of France. The capital of France. It is so that it is
also Known as P.O.P.

Preparation: Plaster of Paris is formed by heating gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) at


CaSO4.2H2O - CaSo4 1/2H2O + 1/2H2O

Gypsum - Plaster of Paris Water

On heating above 1000G, it loses all it's crystalline water and anhydrous
Calcium sulphate is formed which* is called Dead burnt plaster.

Properties - It is white in colour. On mixing with an adequate quantity of water

for half an hour, if forms a plastic mass that sets into a hard solid.

CaS04.1/2H20 + 1.5H20 - CaS04. 2H20

Plaster of Paris Water Gypsum (Hard and Solid)

The setting of Plaster of Paris leads to it's volume change. Due to this
property it is used for making statues and toys etc.
Uses –
1. In making plasters to mend bones.

2. In making casts of teeth in dentistry.

3. In making toys, Jewelry, Chalk, Statues etc.

4. As a fire proof substance.

5. In making some laboratory apparatus.

6. In making decorative designs.

Quick Lime
Common Name : Quick lime or lime

Chemical Name : Calcium Oxide

Chemical Formula : CaO.

Manufacture: It is prepared on a commercial scale by heating limestone

(CaC03) in a rotary Klin at 100Q°C, a special type of furnace having burners on the
right and left side of the base, so that the ash of the fuel does not mix with the
lime so that pure lime is obtained. Calcium carbonate is dropped from the hopper
in the furnace and fuel is burnt in the burners. The hot gases obtained by burning
fuel, reduce Calcium carbonate to Calcium oxide and Carbon dioxide. Qarbon
dioxide gas is released out and lime is collected at the bottom.

CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 ↑

1. It is a white amorphous solid.
2. It's Melting Point is 2000°C-(approx.)
3. On heating in Oxyhydrogen flame it gives bright white light, which is known
as Lime Light fire.
4. Reaction with water: It relets with water to form slaked lime. Heat is
produced in this reaction.
CaO + H20 → Ca(OH)2 + Heat
A hissing sound is produced when water is added slowly to quick lime. So
much heat is produced in this reaction that some part of water is converted into
vapour and the lump of lime breaks on heating to form powder. This process is
called Slaking of lime and the substance obtained is called Slaked lime. Slaked
lime (Ca(OH)2) is a white powder which is sparingly soluble in water. The aqueous-
solution of Calcium hydroxide [(Ca(OH)2J is known as Lime water and a suspension
of slaked lime in water is known as Milk of lime. These materials have the
chemical formula Ca (OH)2

1. To make lime light.
2. For white washing of walls.
3. In manufacturing glass, cement, mortar, calcium hydroxide i.e. lime water.
4. For removing temporary hardness of water.
5. For making bleaching powder, caustic soda, calcium carbide etc.
6. As a flux.
7. To remove acidity of soil.

Cement is an important building material. It was first introduced in England in

1824 by Joseph Aspdin. He observed that if a mixture of Calcium carbonate (lime
stone) and Clay is heated strongly and left for 2-3 hours after mixing it with some
water, it sets into a hard mass which resembles the natural hard limestone
quarried in the Isle of portland, England. That is why it is also known as Portland

In India, the major Cement manufacturing factories Rajasthan, Madhya

Pradesh and Tamil Nadu States.

The common composition of Portland Cement is –

CaO (Calcium oxide) = 60-70%

SiO2 (Silica) = 20-25%
Al2O3 (Alumina) = 5-10%
Fe2O3 (Iron oxide) = 2-3%

Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) = 2% Approx.

Manufacture of Cement-
The following raw materials are used in the manufacture of Cement-

1. Lime stone- CaCO3 which produces CaO (Calcium oxide)

2. Clay- It provides Silica (SiO2) Alumina (Al2O3) and Iron oxide (Fe2O3) etc.
Some types of clay do not provide Fe2O3.
3. Gypsum- CaSO4.2H2O

Lime stone and clay mixture are put in a rotary Klin with the help of the hopper.
This special type furnace, Klin is a long and bent downwards and rotates
continuously, (fig. 10.5) Hot air is blown from bottom to top in this furnace. At
this high temperature, clay and lime fuse and react to form small pieces of
Cement klinker

Calcium Carbonate + Clay - 15000C - Cement + CO2 + H2O

Cement clinker is cooled and mixed with 2-5% gypsum. The mixture of
clinker and gypsum is grinded to get fine powder of portland cement which is
stored in a big structures vessel called Silos and then packed in air tight bags for
sale." In the process and tri -silicates and tri Calcium aluminate are the major
products, formed. All these ingredients of cement when mixed with water, set to
give a hard mass.
Uses –

Cement is an important building material used in following various forms

1. Mortar- It is used for joining-bricks in plastering etc. it is prepared by mixing

1 part cement and 3 parts sand with adequate amount of water.
2. Concrete - When cement, thick sand and .water are mixed with small -
pidces of stone (gravel/pebbles) the mixture obtained is called Concrete. It
becomes extremely hard on setting. It is used in making floors and roofs of
houses, roads, bridges, dams, rail tracks etc.
3. Reinforced Concrete Cement (R.C.C.)- When concrete is filled inside Iron
rod and allowed to set, it is called Reinforced Concrete Cement. It is used in
the construction of building's roofs,' tunnels, dam etc.

Glass is an amorphous transparent or opaque substance which is a mixture'
of Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), -Calcium silicate (CaSiO3) and Silica (SiO2)'

In India, glass is manufactured mostly in Bangalore, Baroda,.Mumbai,

Kolkata,- Firozabad and Delhi, It's constitutional formula -maybe written
approximately as Na2Si03.CaSi03.4Si02 or Na2O.Ca0.6Si02.

The following raw materials are used to make Ordinary glass or Soda glass-
Sodium carbonate (Na2C03)5 calcium Carbonate (CaC03) and Sand (Si02)

Process of Manufacturing
A fine mixture of soda ash, lime stone and sand which is called batch is
mixed with glass pieces (called cullet) and kept in tank furnace. The melting of the
mixture becomes easy by adding cullet. The tank furnace is heated by burning
fuel gases which generate temperature up to 1400° C in the furnace. At this
temperature the raw materials react with one another to form melt glass which
on cooling forms solid glass. Before cooling the melted glass can be put in
different cast to make items of desirable shape. To obtain the desired properties
of glass such as hardness, heat resistant power, colour etc some other substances
are also mixed in it.

Annealing of glass-
If a hot glass substance is cooled immediately, it becomes fragile and cracks
easily. If cooling is done very slowly the glass becomes opaque. Thus hot glass
substances should be neither cooled immediately nor very slowly. After casting
the glass in the desired shape, it is cooled gently to prevent it from becoming
fragile. The process by which the prepared glass materials are cooled gently with
a uniform speed is called annealing.

Various types of glass arid their uses-

Various types of glasses are required for various works. For example the
glass used in making laboratory tools has the property of resisting high
temperature whereas mirror is made up of Ordinary glass (soft glass).

It is a mixture of Iron and Carbon. Pure Iron is shock proof and ductile but it
is not durable and strong. If a small amount of carbon is added to pure Iron it's
strength increases and the Iron including carbon in it is called Steel. It contains .1-
1.5% of Carbon in it.

Steel is manufactured from raw Iron. Raw Iron contains Carbon (C), Sulphur
(S), Manganese (Mn), Silicon (Si) and Phosphorous (P minutely) in the form of

The process of manufacture of steel is carried out in the Bessemer

converter. It is a pear shaped furnace having lining of fire bricks inside. Hot air
passes in the furnace. Bessemer converter can he toted or turned upside down
A mixture of raw Iron and lime (CaO) is taken in the converter and hot air is
passed. The oxygen present in the hot air oxidizes the various impurities present
in raw iron.

 Carbon present as impurity in raw iron converts into Carbon monoxide gas
which oxidizes at the surface of the converter to form CO2.
 Sulphur, present as impurity reacts with oxygen of the air to form Sulphur
dioxide gas which escapes out.
 Manganese and Silicon present as impurity get oxidize to form Manganese
oxide and Silicon oxide which react with each other to form Mangnous
silicate (Slag)
 Phosphorous present as impurity in raw iron, reacts with Oxygen to form
Phosporous pentaoxide (P205) which reacts with lime (CaO) to form
Calcium phosphate (slag)

Mangnous silicate and Calcium phosphate being light, float on the surface of
melted iron in the converter and are separated.Thus only pure melted Iron
remains in the converter. Necessary amount of Carbon is mixed in this pure
melted Iron to get theNdesired steel.

Steel has intense strength, hardness and ductile capacity. The properties of
steel depend on the content of Carbon present. Properties of steel can be
modified by heat treatment.

Depending on the content of carbon, steel is mainly of two types-

1. Mild steel 2. Hard steel

1. Mild steel - Iron, containing 0.1 to 0.4% carbon in it is called mild steel. It is
extremely strong, durable, shock proof, ductile and elastic. It is used for making
sheets, wires, chains, car's body, nuts, bolts, rail track, wheels, ships, bridge,
cable, taps, guarder etc.

2. Hard steel - it contains more carbon than that present in mild steel. Iron
containing 0.5 to 1.5% carbon is called hard steel. It is extremely, hard and brittle.
It is used for making cutting instruments, knife etc.
Heat Treatment of Steel
The special properties of steel i.e. hardness and elasticity can be obtained
by suitable heat treatment. The following are the types of heat treatment.

i. Hardening or Quenching
When red hot Iron (approximately having 850°C temp.) is
immediately plunging to cold water it becomes extremely hard and
brittle. The process of cooling red hot Iron immediately is called
Quenching or Hardening.
ii. Tempering-
The hardness of quenched steel can be increased or decreased. This
process is called tempering. When quenched steel are heated at 200°C-
350°C and then cooled gradually, this process is called tempering.
Tempered steel is much less brittle. The steel of desired degree of
hardness can be obtained by adjusting the temperature of tempering.
The brittleness of steel can be reduced or destroyed by tempering.
iii. Annealing-
The process in which red hot Iron is cooled slowly is called annealing.
The steel becomes soft by this process. The annealing effect on steel is
opposite to that of quenching.
Conclusion :-
Due to the releasing of CO2 the candle

blows out which explains the mechanism of fire extinguisher.

In making plasters to mend bones. In making costs of teeth in

dentistry. In making toys, Jewellary, chalk, statues etc as a fire

proof substance. In making some Laboratory apparatus. In

making decorative designs.

Reference :-

Super simplified science chemistry Class 10th

S.K. Malhotra.

Washing soda
Baking soda
Bleaching powder
Plaster of paris.
Manufacture of substances those are used in
making buildings as building materials