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Sei sulla pagina 1di 88

Creation of Antimatter

Vol. XXI No. 3 March 2014

Corporate Office:

Plot 99, Sector 44 Institutional area,

Gurgaon -122 003 (HR), Tel : 0124-4951200

W hile the antiparticles were discovered in the last century, thanks to

the powerful mass spectrometers and nuclear reaction studies.

The rules of formation of antimatter is not much different from that of

Regd. Office matter. The major difficulty in formation is that, as the earth is full of

406, Taj Apartment, Near Safdarjung Hospital,

Ring Road, New Delhi - 110029. matter, the slightest lack of isolation, matter and antimatter annihilate

e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in each other.

Managing Editor : Mahabir Singh Physicists from CERN, where incidentally they have made one of the

Editor : Anil Ahlawat (BE, MBA)

most powerful accelerators in the world, had isolated antihydrogen

nuclei i.e. antiprotons. These are of sufficient low energies to enable

Contents experiments to be performed. When antielectrons are made to

combine with them, antihydrogen atoms are generated. Physicists from

Physics Musing (Problem Set-8) 4 CERN’s Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons

JEE Advanced 8 (ASACUSA) have produced at least 80 atoms of antihydrogen. This is a

very important step for the march of science.

Practice Paper 2014

Spectroscopy had advanced by leaps and bounds in the last century.

JEE Main 20 Atomic, molecular, X-ray, g-ray spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy etc.

Practice Paper 2014 had advanced not only experimentally but had also made immense

JEE Foundation Series 27 contribution to atomic and molecular physics. To explain these spectra,

theoretical advances were made in field theory and quantum mechanics.

Brain Map 46

If scientists will reopen these chapters to study the spectroscopy of

NCERT Xtract 54 antimatter in every field, it will be really great. Knowing human nature,

we only pray to God that they will not try to misuse the knowledge for

AIPMT Special 60

destruction.

Practice Paper 2014

However optimism and hope is the solution for human existence.

You Asked We Answered 70

Anil Ahlawat

Thought Provoking Problems 72 Editor

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Page 3

PHYSICS MUSING

P hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of

Physics Musing is to augment the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIPMT / AIIMS /

Other PMTs / PETs with additional study material.

In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIPMT.

The detailed solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their solutions along with address. The names of those who send

atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.

We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through "Physics Musing" and stand in better stead while facing

the competitive exams.

By : Akhil Tewari

(c) (d)

a straight line with mean position at x = 0, period 2 π( R2 − R1 ) 2 π( R1 − R2 )

20 s and amplitude 5 cm. The (shortest) time in

seconds taken by the particle to go from x = 4 cm 5. White light is used to illuminate the two slits in

to x = –3 cm is a Young’s double slit experiment. The separation

(a) 5 (b) 6 between slits is b and the screen is at a distance

(c) 7 (d) 4 d (>> b) from the slits. At a point on the screen

directly in front of one of the slits, certain

2. A uniform circular wavelengths are missing. One of these missing

disc of radius r is wavelengths is

placed on a rough b2 2b 2

horizontal surface (a) λ = (b) λ =

and given a linear 2d d

velocity v0 and b2 2b 2

(c) λ = (d) λ =

angular velocity w0 as shown. The disc comes to 3d 3d

rest after moving some distance to the right. It

6 Which of the following statements is true

follows that

concerning the elastic collision of two objects?

(a) v0 = w0r (b) 2v0 = w0r

(a) No work is done on any of the two objects,

(c) 2v0 = 3w0r (d) 3v0 = 2w0r

since there is no external force.

3. A substance of mass M kg requires a power input (b) The work done by the first object on the

of P W (joules per second) to remain in the molten second is equal to the work done on the first

state at its melting point. When the power source by the second.

is turned off, the sample completely solidifies in (c) The work done by the first object on the

t s. The latent heat of fusion of the substance is second is exactly the negative of the work

P Mt Pt Pt done on the first by the second.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (d) The work done on the system depends on the

Mt P 2M M angle of collision.

4. A thin plastic disc of inner radius R1 and outer 7. A perfectly absorbing, black, solid sphere with

radius R2 has a charge q uniformly distributed constant density and radius R, hovers stationary

over its surface. If the disc rotates at an angular above the sun. This is because the gravitational

frequency w about the axis passing through its attraction of the sun is balanced by the pressure

centre and perpendicular to its plane, the magnetic due to sun’s light. Light pressure P is given by the

field at the centre of the disc is intensity I of the absorbed light divided by the

µ 0 ωq µ 0 ωq speed of light c = 3 × 108 m s–1. (P = I/c). Assume

(a) (b) that the sun is far enough away that it closely

2 πR1 2 π( R1 + R2 )

approximates a point source of light. The distance

Page 4

from the centre of the sun at which the sphere and the second shows what happens when it

hovers is has a greater than E potential initially.

(a) proportional to R (b) proportional to 1/R (b) The first graph shows what happens when

(c) proportional to 1/R2 (d) independent of R the capacitor has a greater than E potential

8 A uniform magnetic initially and the second shows what happens

field B is directed out when it has a less than E potential initially.

of the page. A metallic (c) The first graph is the correct qualitative shape

wire has the shape of for any initial potential, but the second is not

a square frame and is possible.

placed in the field as (d) The second graph is the correct qualitative

shown. While the shape shape for any initial potential, but the first is

of the wire is steadily not possible.

transformed into a circle in the same plane, the 10. String I and II have identical lengths and linear

current in the frame mass densities, but string I is under greater

(a) is directed clockwise tension than string II. The accompanying figure

(b) does not appear shows four different situations, in which standing

(c) is directed counterclockwise wave patterns exist on the two strings. In which

(d) is alternating situation is it possible that strings I and II

9. A capacitor is charged upto a potential V0. It is oscillating at the same resonant frequency?

then connected to a resistance R and a battery of

emf E. Two possible graphs of potential across

(a)

capacitor vs time are shown.

(b)

(c)

What is the most reasonable explanation of these

graphs?

(a) The first graph shows what happens when the

capacitor has a less than E potential initially (d)

nn

m Mars orbiter Spacecraft, India’s first interplanetary probe, was launched by PSLV-C 25 at 1438 hours on

November 5, 2013 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. In its voyage towards Mars, the mission

successfully completes 100 days in space (February 12, 2014).

m Subsequent to six orbit raising manoeuvres around the Earth following the launch, the Trans Mars Injection

(TMI) Manoeuvre on December 01, 2013 gave necessary thrust to the spacecraft to escape from Earth and to

initiate the journey towards Mars, in a helio-centric Orbit. This journey, of course, is long wherein the spacecraft

has to travel 680 million km out of which a travel of 190 million km is completed so far.

m The First Trajectory Correction Manoeuvre (TCM) was conducted on December 11, 2013. The trajectory of the

spacecraft, till today, is as expected. Three more TCM operations are planned around April 2014, August 2014

and September 2014.

m The spacecraft health is normal. The spacecraft is continuously monitored by the ground station of ISRO

Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC), located at Byalalu, near Bangalore. Except for a 40

minute break in the Telemetry data received from the spacecraft to the ground station, data has been continuously

available for all the 100 days.

m The propulsion system of the spacecraft is configured for TCMs and the Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) Operation.

On February 6, 2014, all the five payloads on Mars Orbiter spacecraft were switched ‘ON’ to check their health.

m The health parameters of all the payloads the normal. Presently, the spacecraft is at a radio distance of 16 million

km causing a one way communication delay of approximately 55 seconds. After travelling the remaining

distance of about 490 million km over next 210 days, the spacecraft would be inserted into the Martian Orbit on

September 24, 2014.

Page 6

PAPER-1

SECTION - 1 3 5

Only One Option Correct Type (a) mg (b) mg

2 2

This section contains 10 multiple choice questions. Each

question has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONLY (c) 3 mg (d) 5 mg

ONE is correct. 5. An open pipe is suddenly closed at one end with

the result that the frequency of third harmonic of

1. The input resistance of a silicon transistor is 100 W.

the closed pipe is found to be higher by 100 Hz

Base current is changed by 40 mA which results in a

than the fundamental frequency of the open pipe.

change in collector current by 2 mA. This transistor

is used as a common emitter amplifier with a load The fundamental frequency of the open pipe is

resistance of 4 kW. The voltage gain of the amplifier (a) 200 Hz (b) 300 Hz (c) 240 Hz (d) 480 Hz

is 6. A system consists of a uniform charged sphere of

(a) 2000 (b) 3000 (c) 4000 (d) 1000 radius R and a surrounding medium filled by a

a

2. A photon collides with a stationary hydrogen atom charge with the volume density r = , where a

in ground state inelastically. Energy of the colliding r

photon is 10.2 eV. After a time interval of the order is a positive constant and r is the distance from

of microsecond, another photon collides with same the centre of the charge. The charge of the sphere

hydrogen atom inelastically with an energy of for which the electric field intensity E outside the

15 eV. What will be observed by the detector? sphere is independent of r is

(a) One photon of energy 10.2 eV and an electron (a) pR2a (b) 4pR2a

(c) 2pR a2 (d) 3pR2a/4

of energy 1.4 eV.

(b) Two photons of energy 1.4 eV. 7. In a potentiometer experiment, when three

(c) Two photons of energy 10.2 eV. cells A, B and C are connected in series the

(d) One photon of energy 10.2 eV and another balancing length is found to be 740 cm. If A and

photon of 1.4 eV. B are connected in series balancing length is

440 cm and for B and C connected in series that is

3. A block of mass 1 kg is attached to one end of

540 cm. Then the emf of eA, eB and eC are respectively

spring of force constant k = 20 N m–1. The other end

(in volts)

of the spring is attached to a fixed rigid support.

(a) 1, 1.2 and 1.5 (b) 1, 2 and 3

This spring block system is made to oscillate on

(c) 1.5, 2 and 3 (d) 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5

a rough horizontal surface (m = 0.04). The initial

displacement of the block from the equilibirum 8. A flat glass slab of thickness 6 cm and refractive

position is a = 30 cm. How many times the block index 1.5 is placed in front of a plane mirror. An

passes from the mean position before coming to observer is standing behind the glass slab and

rest? (Take g = 10 m s–2) looking at the mirror. The actual distance of the

(a) 11 (b) 7 (c) 6 (d) 15 observer from the mirror is 50 cm. The distance of

4. One end of a uniform rod of length his image from himself, as seen by the observer is

l and mass m is hinged at A. It is (a) 94 cm (b) 96 cm (c) 98 cm (d) 100 cm

released from rest from horizontal 9. In the figure shown, AB is a rod of length

position AB as shown in figure. 30 cm and area of cross-section 1 cm2 and thermal

The force exerted by the rod on the conductivity 336 SI units. The ends A and B

hinge when it becomes vertical is are maintained at temperatures 20°C and 40°C

Page 8

respectively. A point C of this rod is connected to current I, and the other has charge l per unit length.

a box D, containing ice at 0°C, through a highly An electron moving parallel to the conductors

conducting wire of negligible heat capacity. The is undeflected. Let c is the velocity of light and

rate at which ice melts in the box is v is the velocity of electron, then

[Assume latent heat of fusion for ice, Lf = 80 cal g–1] lc 2 I

(a) v = (b) v =

A C B I l

20°C 40°C

I

10 cm 20 cm (c) c =

l

Highly conducting wire (d) The electron may be at any distance from the

Ice D conductor.

0°C 14. The figure shows

∞

(a) 84 mg s–1 (b) 84 g s–1 an energy level

Principal Quantum

(c) 20 mg s–1 (d) 40 mg s–1 diagram for the 4

III

hydrogen atom. 3

Number

10. Six resistances each of value r = 6 W are connected Several transitions

II IV V VI

between points A, B and C as shown in the are marked as Ι, 2

figure. ΙΙ, ΙΙΙ, ……… . The

If R1, R2 and R3 are the diagram is only I

net resistances between indicative and not

A and B, between B and 1

to scale. Then,

C and between A and (a) the transition in which a Balmer series photon

C respectively, then absorbed is VI.

R1 : R2 : R3 will be (b) the wavelength of the radiation involved in

equal to transition ΙΙ is 486 nm.

(a) 6 : 3 : 2 (b) 1 : 2 : 3 (c) transition IV will occur when a hydrogen atom

(c) 5 : 4 : 3 (d) 4 : 3 : 2 is irradiated with radiation of wavelength

103 nm.

SECTION - 2

(d) transition IV will emit the longest wavelength

One or More Options Correct Type line in the visible portion of the hydrogen

This section contains 5 multiple choice questions. Each question spectrum.

has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONE or MORE 15. Consider the motion of a positive point charge in

are correct. a region where there are simultaneous uniform

^ ^

11. Two springs A and B have force constants k1 and electric and magnetic= fields E E=0 j and B B0 j .

k2 respectively. The ratio of the work done on A to At time t = 0, this charge has velocity v in the

that done on B in increasing their lengths by the x-y plane, making an angle q with the x-axis.

same amount is a and the ratio of the work done Which of the following option(s) is (are) correct

on A to that done on B when they are stretched for time t > 0?

with the same force is b. Then (a) If q = 0°, the charge moves in a circular path in

k1 k2 the x-z plane.

(a) a = (b) a = (b) If q = 0°, the charge undergoes helical motion

k2 k1

k k2 with constant pitch along the y-axis.

(c) b = 1 (d) b = (c) If q = 10°, the charge undergoes helical motion

k2 k1

with its pitch increasing with time, along the

12. In a region of space, the electric field is

in the y-axis.

X-direction and proportional to x, i.e.; E = E0 xi .

Consider an imaginary cubical volume of edge a, (d) If q = 90°, the charge undergoes linear but

with its edges parallel to the axes of coordinates. accelerated motion along the y-axis.

The charge inside this volume is SECTION - 3

(a) zero (b) e0E0a3 Integer Value Correct Type

1 1 This section contains 5 questions. The answer to each question

(c) E a3 (d) e E a2

e0 0 6 0 0 is a single digit integer, ranging from 0 to 9 (both inclusive).

13. Two long, thin, parallel conductors are kept very 16. The diameter of a convex lens is d. An eye is placed

close to each other, without touching. One carries a at a distance 3f (f being the focal length of the lens)

Page 9

to the right of the lens at a distance d/4 normally 19. A rectangular loop a sliding connector of length l

below the optic axis so that the image of an object = 1.0 m is situated in a uniform magneticfield B =

placed on the optic axis to the left of the lens is not 2 T perpendicular to the plane of loop.

visible for a distance greater than d/4. The distance Resistance of connector is r = 2 W. Two resistances

of the object is nf. Find the value of n. of 6 W and 3 W are connected as shown in figure.

17. If the speed of electron is 35 m s–1 with an The external force required to keep the connector

uncertainty of 5%, the minimum uncertainty in its moving with a constant velocity v = 2 m s–1 is

position is roughly 10x times the size of the atom,

20. A circular platform is mounted on a vertical

where x is (Take mass of electron = 9.11 × 10–31 kg

frictionless axle. Its radius is r = 2 m and its

and Plank constant = 6.62 × 10–34 J s)

moment of inertia

18. A steady current I goes through a wire loop is I = 200 kg m2. It is

PQR having shape of a right angle triangle with initially at rest. A 70

PQ = 3x, PR = 4x and QR = 5x. If the magnitude kg man stands on the

of the magnetic field at P due to this loop is edge of the platform

m I and begins to walk along the edge at speed v0 = 1.0

k 0 , find the value of k. m s–1 relative to the ground. The angular velocity

48 px

of the platform is x × 10–1 rad s–1. The value of x is

PAPER-2

One or More Options Correct Type ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4

(b) the forces on them exerted by the wall are in

This section contains 8 multiple choice questions. Each question the ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4

has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONE or MORE (c) the energy stored in the rods due to elasticity

are correct. are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4

1. Two particles are projected from a horizontal plane (d) the strains produced in the rods are in the

with the same initial velocity v0 at two different ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4

angles of projection q1 and q2, such that their 5. An a-particle of mass 6.4 × 10–27 kg and charge

ranges are the same. The ratio of their maximum 3.2 × 10–19 C is situated in a uniform electric field

heights reached is/are of 1.6 × 105 V m–1. The velocity of the particle at

(a) tan2q1 (b) cot2q2 the end of 2 × 10–2 m path when it starts from rest

(c) sin2q1cosec2q2 (d) sin2q1 cos2q2 is

2. In the two cases shown, the coefficient of kinetic (a) 2 3 × 105 m s −1 (b) 8 × 105 m s–1

friction between the block and the surface is the 5 –1

(c) 16 × 10 m s (d) 4 2 × 105 m s −1

same and both the identical blocks are moving with

the same uniform speed. If sinq = mg/4F2, then 6. A charged particle with

velocity = v xi + y j moves

in a magnetic field B = yi + x j . The magnitude of

magnetic force acting on the particle is F. Which

one of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) F1 = F2 (b) F1 < F2 (a) No force will act on particle, if x = y.

(c) F1 > F2 (d) F1 = 2F2 (b) F ∝ (x2 – y2) if x > y.

(c) The force will act along z-axis, if x > y.

3. For two satellites at distance R and 7R above the (d) The force will act along y-axis, if y > x.

earth’s surface, the ratio of their

7. A point object is placed at 30 cm from a convex

(a) total energies is 4 and potential and kinetic

energies is 2 3

glass lens m g = of focal length 20 cm. The

(b) potential energies is 4 2

(c) kinetic energies is 4 final image of object will be formed at infinity if

(d) total energies is 4 (a) another concave lens of focal length 60 cm is

4. Four rods, A, B, C and D of the same length and placed in contact with the convex lens

(b) another convex lens of focal length 60 cm is

material but of different radii r, r 2 , r 3 and 2r placed at a distance of 30 cm from the first

respectively are held between two rigid walls. The lens

temperature of all rods is increased through the (c) the whole system is immersed in a liquid of

same range. If the rods do not bend, then refractive index 4/3

Page 10

(d) the whole system is immersed in a liquid of (b) directly proportional to a

refractive index 9/8 (c) directly proportional to a2

(d) inversely proportional to a

8. The tension in a stretched

string fixed at both ends 12. For a = 0, the value of d (maximum value of r as

is changed by 2%, the shown in the figure) is

fundamental frequency is 3Ze

(a) 3Ze (b)

found to get changed by 3 pR3

4 pR

15 Hz. Select the correct

statement(s) 4 Ze Ze

(a) Wavelength of the string of fundamental (c) (d)

3pR 3

3pR 3

frequency does not change.

(b) Velocity of propagation of wave changes by Paragraph for Questions 13 and 14

2%. A ring of mass 200 g and

(c) Velocity of propagation of wave changes by

radius 10 m is placed on a

1%

smooth horizontal surface

(d) Original frequency is 1500 Hz.

with centre at the origin. A

SECTION - 2 small particle of the same

Paragraph Type mass as ring, is given veloc-

This section contains 4 paragraphs each describing theory, 5

ity m s–1 from point A

experiment, data etc. Eight questions related to four paragraphs 2

with two questions on each paragraph. Each question of a (very close to inner surface

paragraph has only one correct answer among the four choices of the ring) towards point B

(a), (b), (c) and (d). (at t = 0).

Paragraph for Questions 9 and 10 Initially particle was no in contact with ring. Assume

Two discs A and B are mounted coaxially on a vertical all collisions between the ring and the particle as

perfectly elastic.

axle. The discs have moments of inertia I and 2I,

respectively about the common axis. Disc A is imparted 13. Particle will collide with point A for the first time

an initial angular velocity 2w using the entire potential after a time interval of

energy of a spring compressed by a distance x1. Disc B (a) 8 s (b) 16 s

is imparted an angular velocity w by a spring having (c) 12 s (d) 24 s

the same spring constant and compressed by a distance 14. Co-ordinate of centre of mass of ring when particle

x2. Both discs rotate in clockwise direction. reach back to point A for the first time

9. The loss of kinetic energy during the process is (a) (10, 10) (b) (0, 0)

(a) Iw2/2 (b) Iw2/3 (c) Iw2/4 (d) Iw2/6 (c) (20, 20) (d) (–20, – 20)

10. When disc B is brought in contact with disc A, they Paragraph for Questions 15 and 16

acquire a common angular velocity in time t. The

average frictional torque during this period is The key feature of Bohr ’s theory of spectrum of

(a) 2Iw/3t (b) 9Iw/2t (c) 9Iw/4t (d) 3Iw/2t hydrogen atom is the quantization of angular momen-

tum when an electron is revolving around a proton. We

Paragraph for Questions 11 and 12 will extend this to a general rotational motion to find

The nuclear charge (Ze) is quantized rotational energy of a diatomic molecule

non-uniformly distributed assuming it to be rigid. The rule to be applied is Bohr’s

within a nucleus of radius quantization condition.

R. The charge density r(r) 15. A diatomic molecule has moment of inertia I.

(charge per unit volume) By Bohr’s quantization condition, its rotational

is dependent only on the energy in the nth level (n = 0 is not allowed) is

radial distance r from the

centre of the nucleus as 1 h2 1 h2

(a) (b)

shown in figure.

n2 8p 2 I n 8 p 2 I

The electric field is only along the radial direction.

11. The electric field at r = R is h2 2

h2

(c) n 2 (d) n 2

(a) independent of a 8p I 8p I

Page 11

16. It is found that the excitation frequency from P Q R S

ground to the first excited state of rotation for (a) 1 2 3 4

the CO molecule is close to (4/p) × 1011 Hz. The (b) 3 1 2 4

moment of inertia of CO molecule about its centre

of mass is close to (c) 1 4 2 3

(d) 3 4 1 2

(Take h = 2p × 10–34 J s)

(a) 2.76 × 10–46 kg m2 (b) 1.87 × 10–46 kg m2 19. List-I gives some devices and List-II gives some

(c) 4.67 × 10–47 kg m2 (d) 1.17 × 10–47 kg m2 processes on which the functioning of these

SECTION - 3 devices depend. Match the device in List-I with

Matching List Type the processes in List-II.

This section contains 4 multiple choice questions. Each question List - I List - II

has matching lists. The codes for the lists have choices (a), (b), (P) Bimetallic strip (1) Radiation from a

(c) and (d) out of which ONLY ONE is correct. hot body

17. In the shown circuit initially capacitor has some (Q) Steam engine (2) Energy conversion

charge, the switch is closed at t = 0. (R) Incandescent lamp (3) Melting

(S) Electric fuse (4) Thermal expansion

of solids

P Q R S

(a) 1 2 3 4

(b) 4 3 2 4

List - I List - II (c) 3 4 2 1

Variables Possible graphs (d) 4 2 1 3

20. Figure gives the x-t plots of a particle executing

(P) Charge v/s time (1) one-dimensional simple harmonic motion.

(R) Charge v/s current (3) Match the List-I with List-II.

List - I List - II

Time Signs of position

(S) Energy stored in (4) None of these

capacitor v/s time (x), velocity (v) and

P Q R S acceleration (a)

(a) 1 2 3 4

(b) 3 1 2 4 (P) At t = –1.2 s (1) x < 0, v < 0, a > 0

(c) 1 4 2 3 (Q) At t = –0.3 s (2) x > 0, v > 0, a < 0

(d) 3 4 1 2 (R) At t = 0.3 s (3) x > 0, v < 0, a < 0

18. In the following, List-I lists some physical (S) At t = 1.2 s (4) x < 0, v > 0, a > 0

quantities and the List-II gives approximate

P Q R S

energy values associated with some of them.

(a) 4 3 1 2

Choose the appropriate value of energy from

(b) 3 1 2 4

List-II for each of the physical quantities in List-I.

(c) 4 3 2 1

List-I List-II (d) 3 4 1 2

(P) Energy of thermal (1) 0.025 eV

neutrons SOLUTIONS

(Q) Energy of X-rays (2) 8 MeV Paper 1

(R) Binding energy per (3) 3 eV 1. (a) : Here, collector current, Iout = 2 mA = 2 × 10–3A

nucleon Base current, Iin = 40 mA = 40 × 10–6 A

(S) Photoelectric (4) 10 keV Input resistance Rin = 100 W

threshold of a metal Output resistance Rout = 4 kW = 4 × 103 W

Page 12

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Page 13

Vout I out Rout Centripetal force of COM of rod in this position is

Voltage gain = = × l 3mg

Vin I in Rin m w2 = (towards A)

2 × 10 −3 A 4 × 10 −3 W 2 2

= Let F be the force exerted by the hinge on the rod

40 × 10 −6 A 100 W upwards. Then

= 2000 3mg 5

F − mg = \ F= mg

2. (a) : The photon of energy 10.2 eV excites the 2 2

electron from n = 1 to n = 2 as 5

E2 – E1 = – 3.4 eV – (– 13.6 eV) = 10.2 eV or force exerted by the rod on the hinge is mg

downwards. 2

The electron returns to the ground state in less

than a mirosecond and releases a photon of energy 5. (a) : Length of organ pipe is same in both the

10.2 eV. As the ionisation energy is 13.6 eV, the cases. Fundamental frequency of open pipe is

second photon of 15 eV energy ionises the atom

v

by ejecting an electron and the balance of energy u1 = and frequency of third harmonic of closed

(15 eV – 13.6 eV = 1.4 eV) is retained by the ejected 2l

electron. pipe will be

3. (b) : Let the initial amplitude decreases to a1 to the v

u2 = 3

other side i.e., after the first sweep, 4l

decrease in elastic potential energy Given that, u2 = u1 + 100

= work done against friction or u2 – u1 = 100

1 2 1 2 3 v 1 v

or ka − ka1 = mmg (a + a1) or − = 100

2 2 4 l 2 l

1 v

or k(a + a1) (a – a1) = mmg (a + a1) ⇒ = 100 Hz

2 4l

2mmg v

or a − a1 = …(i) \ or u1 = 200 Hz

k 2l

2mmg Therefore, fundamental frequency of the open

Similarly, a1 − a2 = …(ii)

k pipe is 200 Hz.

............................. Q + Q′ ...(i)

an −1 − an =

2mmg

…(iii)

6. ∫

(c) : EP dS =

e0

k

Adding all the above equations where Q′ is the charge outside the sphere.

2nmmg

a − an = …(iv)

k

The block stops when,

mmg

mmg = kan or an =

k

Substituting in equation (iv) we get,

(2n + 1) mmg = a r r

a

∫ ∫ r × 4pr dr

2

k =

Q′ =

dV

ka 20 × 0.3 R R

or + 1) =

(2n= = 15 r

mmg 0.04 × 1 × 10 r2 r 2 R2

2 pa (r − R )

2 2

or 2n = 15 – 1 = 4 pa=

4 pa = −

2 R 2 2

\ n=7

4. (b) : The rod will rotate about A. Therefore, From equation (i)

from conservation of mechanical energy, Q + 2 pa (r 2 − R 2 )

Decrease in gravitational potential energy EP × 4 pr 2 =

e0

= increase in rotational kinetic energy

about A Q a aR 2

= EP 2

+ − 2

or l 1 4 pr e 0 2 e 0 2r e 0

mg= I w2

2 2 A

l 1 ml 2 2 Q aR 2

or mg = w E is independent of r if 2

− 0

=

2 2 3 4 pr e 0 2r 2 e 0

3g Q = 2pR2a

\ w2 = …(i)

l

14 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 14

7. (a) : Let eA, eB and eC be the emf of three cells A, B A C(0°C) B

and C respectively. 20°C H1 H2 40°C

As per question

eA + eB + eC = kl1 = k × 740 ...(i)

eA + eB = kl2 = k × 440 ...(ii) H

eB + eC = kl3 = k × 540 ...(iii)

Inserting the value of eA + eB from (ii) into (i), we Ice D

get 0°C

eC = 300k 40 40 × 336

Inserting the value of eB + eC from (iii) into (i), we \ H= H1 + H 2 ==

get

R 10 3

13440

= = 13.44 W

eA = 200k 10 3

Inserting this value of eA into (ii), we get Rate of melting of ice

eB = 240k H 13.44

= = g s −1 = 40 mg s −1

\ eA : eB : eC = 200k : 240k : 300k L f 4.2 × 80

= 10 : 12 : 15 = 1 : 1.2 : 1.5

10. (c)

⇒ eA = 1 V, eB = 1.2 V, eC = 1.5 V

11. (a,d) : As, F1 = k1x, F2 = k2x.

8. (b) : As the thickness of glass slab is 6 cm and its

3 1

refractive index m = , so shift produced by it Work done W1 = k x 2 and W = 1 k x 2

will be 2 2 1 2

2 2

1 2 W k

=x t1 − = 6 1 − = 2 cm or a= 1 = 1

m

3 W2 k2

So the glass slab will shift the mirror from MM′ to When the springs are stretched by the same force

mm′ as shown in the figure. F, the extensions in springs A and B are x1 and x2

respectively which are given by

x k

F = k1x1 = k2x2 or 1 = 2 …(i)

x2 k1

1 1

Work done W1′ = k1x12 and W2′ = k2 x22

2 2

W1′ k1 x12

\ = ⋅ …(ii)

W2′ k2 x22

The distance of object from this virtual mirror will Using (i) and (ii) we get

be

= 50 – x = 50 – 2 = 48 cm W1′ k1 k22 k2

b= = ⋅ =

This virtual mirror will form the image of object O W2′ k2 k12 k1

at a distance 48 cm behind it and so the distance of

image from actual mirror MM′ will be

= 48 – 2 = 46 cm 12. (b) :

[As mm′ is 2 cm in front of MM′]

So the distance of image as seen by the observer is

= 50 cm + 46 cm = 96 cm

L

9. (d) : Thermal resistance of AC =

KA

0.1 10 3

= = = R(suppose )

336 × 1 × 10 −4 336

0.2

Thermal resistance of BC = = 2R The field at the face ABCD = E0 x0 i

336 × 10 −4

\ flux over the face ABCD = –(E0x0)a2.

Temperature of C = 0°C

The negative sign arises as the field is directed

20 40 20 into the cube.

\ H1 = ;H

= 2 =

R 2R R The field at the face EFGH = E (x + a) i .

0 0

Page 15

\ flux over the face EFGH = E0(x0 + a)a2. 15. (c, d) :

The flux over the other four faces is zero as the

field is parallel to the surfaces.

1

\ total flux over the cube = E0a3 = q,

e0

where q is the total charge inside the cube. ^ ^

\ q = e0E0a3. Here,

= 0 j , B B0 j

E E=

If q = 0°, then due to magnetic force path is

13. (a,d) : circular but due to electric force qE0 (↑) q will have

accelerated motion along y-axis. So combined

path of q will be a helical path with variable pitch.

So (a) and (b) are wrong.

If q = 10° then due to vcosq, path is circular and

due to qE0 and vsinq, q has accelerated motion

along y-axis so combined path is a helical path

with variable pitch. So (c) is correct.

If q = 90° then FB = 0 and due to qE0 motion is

l accelerated along y-axis. So (d) is correct.

At P, electric field, E = (to the right),

2 pe 0 x

m0I

and magnetic field, B = (into the paper) 16. (2) :

2 px

E

For no deflection, E = vB or v =

B

l 2 px l 1 lc 2 From similar triangles AOB and BDC

or

= v =

× = .

2 pe 0 x m 0 I I e 0 m 0 I OB AO x ( d / 2)

= or 1 =

1 BD CD x2 ( d / 4 )

c =

m 0 e 0 or x1 = 2x2

As x1 + x2 = 3f, 2x2 + x2 = 3f or x2 = f

14. (a,b,d) : For Balmer series, n1 = 2, n2 = 3,4,........ i.e. x1 = 2f

(lower) (higher) \ n = 2.

\ In transition (VΙ), photon of Balmer series is 17 (5) : Uncertainty in electron’s momentum,

absorbed. ∆px = (0.05)mv

= 0.05(9.11 × 10–31 kg)(35 m s–1)

In transition ΙΙ = 1.59 × 10–31 kg m s–1

E2 = – 3.4 eV, E4 = – 0.85 eV Minimum uncertainty in electron’s position,

∆E = 2.55 eV h

∆x =

hc hc 2p∆px

∆E = ⇒ l=

l ∆E 6.62 × 10 −34 J s

l = 486 nm =

Wavelength of radiation = 103 nm = 1030 Å

(

2 p 1.59 × 10 −30 kg m s −1 )

= 6.64 × 10–5 m ≈ 105 times the size of atom

\ 12400 eV Å

∆E = 18. (7) : Q

1030 Å

D

12.0 eV 5x

So difference of energy should be 12.0 eV (approx) 3x 1

Hence n1 = 1 and n2 = 3 2

P 4x R

(–13.6 eV) (–1.51 eV)

\ Transition is V. Using the concept of area of triangle

For longest wavelength, energy difference should 1 1

× PD × 5 x= × 3x × 4 x

be minimum. 2 2

So in visible portion of hydrogen atom, minimum 12 x

energy emitted is in transition ΙV. \ PD =

5

144 x 2 9 x

=

QD ( PQ)2 − ( PD

= )2 9x2 − =

16 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 25 5

Page 16

12 x

\ PD =

5

2. (c, d) : If q is the angle made by the direction of

144 x 2 9 x

=

QD ( PQ)2 − ( PD

= )2 9x2 − = force with the horizontal, we have

25 5 F1 cosq = m(mg + F1 sinq) and

9 x 16 x F2cosq = m(mg – F2sinq).

and DR

= 5x − =

5 5 Clearly F1 > F2 so that option (c) is correct.

Magnetic field at P due to current elements PQ mg

and PR is zero as the point P is on the conductor. If sin q = , two relations written above becomes

4 F2

Therefore, magnetic field at P due to current

element QR is mgF1

cosq m mg +

F1= and

m0 I 4 F2

B= (sin φ1 + sin φ 2 )

4 pPD

m I × 5 (9 x / 5) (16 x / 5) mgF2

B= 0 + cosq m mg −

F2= .

4 p × 12 x 3 x 4 x 4 F2

m0 I 5 3 4 7 m0 I

= + = \ k=7 F1 1 + ( F1 / 4 F2 )

48 px 5 5 48 px Thus, = .

F2 (3 / 4)

19. (2) : Motional emf e = Bvl

e=2×2×1=4V ⇒ F1 = 2F2

This acts as a cell of emf e = 4 V and internal

resistance r = 2 W. 3. (b, c, d)

The simple circuit can be drawn as follows 4. (b, c) : Thermal force = YAa dq = Ypr2a dq

r1 = r, r2 = r 2 , r3 = r 3 , r4 = 2r,

The ratio of forces on them exerted by the wall,

F1 : F2 : F3 : F4 = 1 : 2 : 3 : 4

Thermal stress = Ya dq

As Y and a are same for all the rods, hence stress

\ Current through the connector developed in each rod will be same.

4 As strain = a dq, so strain will also be same.

I= =1A 1

2+2 Energy stored = Y (strain)2 × A × L

Magnetic force on connector Fm = IlB 2

\ E1 : E2 : E3 : E4 = 1 : 2 : 3 : 4

= (1) × (1) × (2) = 2 N (towards left)

Therefore, to keep the connector moving with a 5. (d)

constant velocity a force of 2 N will have to be ^ ^

6. (a, b, c) : Here v= x i^+ y j^

applied towards right.

= y i+ x j

B

20 (7) : Net external torque is zero. Therefore, angular If x = y then v B i.e.; F = 0

momentum of system will remain conserved,

Hence, option (a) is correct

i.e.; Li = Lf

Initial angular momentum Li = 0

\ final angular momentum should also be zero.

As = F q ( v= ( ) ( )

× B) q xi + y j × yi + x j

= angular momentum of platform in opposite

Now, if x > y, F ∝ x2 – y2 and force is along z-axis.

direction

But if y > x, force will be along negative z-axis.

or mv0r = Iw

\ Option (b) and (c) are also correct.

mv r 70 × 1 × 2

or w = 0 = 7. (a, d) : Final image is formed at infinity if the

I 200 combined focal length of the two lenses (in

\ w = 0.7 rad s–1 = 7 × 10–1 rad s–1 contact) becomes 30 cm

\ x=7 1 1 1

= +

Paper 2 30 20 f

i.e. when another concave lens of focal length

1. (a, b, c) : Here, q2 = 90° – q1

60 cm is kept in contact with the first lens.

The ratio of maximum height reached =

Similarly, let m be the refractive index of a liquid

h1 sin 2 q1 in which focal length of the given lens becomes

= = tan2q1 = cot2q2

2

h2 sin (90° − q1 ) 30 cm. Then

Page 17

For 8 second ring move along x direction and for

1 3 1 1

= − 1 − …(i) 8 second it move along y direction. So, its centre of

20 2 R1 R2 mass = (2R, 2R) = (20, 20)

1 3/2 1 1 nh

…(ii) 15. (d) : Angular momentum, L =

= − 1 − 2p

30 m R1 R2 Kinetic energy of rotation,

From equations (i) and (ii), we get L2 p2

= Kr = ( K translation )

9 2I 2m

m=

8 (nh / 2 p )2 h2

8. (a, c, d) : Wavelength depends on length which is Thus,

= Kr = n2 2

fixed. Thus, wavelength does not change. 2I 8p I

Further v = T / m or v ∝ T1/2 4h2 h2 3h 2

16. (b) : As, hv = (Kr)2 – (K = r)1 2

− 2 = 2

1 8p I 8p I 8p I

\ percentage change in v =

2 3h 3( 2 p × 10 −34 J s)

= I =

× percentage change in T 8p v2

4

8 p 2 × 1011 s −1

1 p

= (2) = 1%

2 = 0.1875 × 10 –45 kg m2 = 1.87 × 10 –46 kg m2

i.e. Speed and hence frequency will change by 1%.

17. (a)

Change in frequency is 15 Hz which is 1% of

1500 Hz. 18. (c) :

List-I List-II

Therefore, original frequency should be 1500 Hz.

(P) Energy of thermal neutrons (1) 0.025 eV

9. (b) : Loss in KE = Ki – Kf

2

(Q) Energy of X-rays (4) 10 keV

1 2 1 2 1 4w Iw 2 (R) Binding energy per nucleon (2) 8 MeV

= I ( 2w ) + ( 2 I )(w ) − ( I + 2 I ) =

2 2 2 3 3 (S) Photoelectric threshold (3) 3 eV

[as from conservation of angular momentum, of a metal

4w 19. (d)

I(2w) + (2I)w = (I + 2I)wf, where wf = ]

3 20. (a) : In SHM, acceleration, a = – w2x

10. (a) : Considering the disc B (with moment of where w is (i.e angular frequency) constant.

inertia 2I and angular velocity w),

w f − w i ( 4w / 3) − w w

wf = wi + at, a = = =

t t 3t

2Iw

Thus, t = (2)Ia =

3t

11. (a) : Electric field at the surface of the nucleus,

Q At t = – 1.2 s, x < 0

E = ke 2 i.e. r = R The slope of x-t is positive, hence v is positive.

R Since a = – w2x, hence a is positive.

Which is independent of a. \ At t = – 1.2 s, x < 0, v > 0, a > 0

12. (b) P–4

At t = – 0.3 s, x > 0

13. (b) : Time taken by particle to move from A to B The slope of x-t is negative, hence v is negative.

is Since a = – w2x, hence a < 0

2 R 2 R 20 \ At t = – 0.3 s, x > 0, v < 0, a < 0

= t1 = = = 4 second.

5 5 5 Q–3

2 At t = 0.3 s, x < 0

Since collision is perfectly elastic, relative velocity The slope of x-t is negative, hence v is negative.

between ring and particles will not change. Hence Since a = – w2x, hence a > 0

th

after 4 time it reaches to A. i.e. 4 × 4 = 16 s \ At t = 0.3 s, x < 0, v < 0, a > 0

R–1

14. (c) : For the particle, x component of velocity

At t = 1.2 s, x > 0

(2 initial)

The slope of x-t is positive, hence v is positive.

5

= m s–1 Since a = – w2x, hence a < 0

2 5 \ At t = 1.2, x > 0, v > 0, a < 0

y component of velocity (2 initial) = m s–1

2 S–2 nn

Page 18

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Solutions

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Page 19

1. The distance between 4. In the Young’s double slit

plates of a parallel plate experiment apparatus

capacitor is 5d. The shown in figure, the ratio

positively charged plate of maximum to minimum

is at x = 0 and negatively intensity on the screen is 9.

charged plate is at The wavelength of light used

x = 5d. Two slabs one is l, then the value of y is

of conductor and lD lD

the other of a dielectric of same thickness d are (a) (b)

d 2d

inserted between the plates as shown in figure.

lD lD

Potential (V) versus distance (x) graph will be (c) (d)

3d 4d

5. The frequency of a sonometer wire is u, but when

the weights producing the tensions are completely

(a) (b) immersed in water the frequency becomes u/2 and

on immersing the weights in a certain liquid the

frequency becomes u/3. The specific gravity of the

liquid is

16 15

(a) 4 (b) (c) (d) 32

3 9 12 27

(c) (d) 6. Find the phase velocity of electromangetic wave

having electron density and frequency for D layer,

N = 400 electron per c.c., u = 200 kHz.

(a) 3 × 108 m s–1 (b) 3.4 × 108 m s–1

2. Let K1 be the maximum kinetic energy of 8 –1

(c) 6.9 × 10 m s (d) 1.1 × 109 m s–1

photoelectrons emitted by light of wavelength

l1 and K2 corresponding to wavelength l2. If 7. A current of 3 A flows through the 2 W resistor

l1 = 2l2 then shown in the circuit below. The power dissipated

(a) 2K1 = K2 (b) K1 = 2K2 in the 5 W resistor is

(c) K1 < K2/2 (d) K1 > 2K2 (a) 1 W

3. A rigid circular loop of radius r and mass m lies (b) 5 W

in the x-y plane on a flat table and has a current (c) 4 W

I flowing in it. At this particular place, the earth’s (d) 2 W

magnetic field is = B Bx i + Bz k . What is the value 8. Two large parallel copper plates are L m apart

I so that one edge of the loop lifts from the table? and have a uniform electric field between them.

An electron is released from the negative plate

mg mg

(a) (b) at the same time, a proton is released from the

pr Bx2 + Bz2 prBz positive plate. The gravity and force on the

particles on each other are to be neglected. The

mg mg

(c) (d) two particles cross each other at a distance r from

prBx pr Bx Bz the positive plate. Then r is

Page 20

mp L (2, 2, 0) be B2 , then

(a) L/2 (b)

me (a) B1 = B2 (b) B1 = 2B2

me L mp L (c) B1 = − B2 (d) B1 = −2B2

(c) (d)

(m

e + mp ) (me + mp ) 15. Two beams of light having intensities I and 4I

9. When a dc voltage of 200 V is applied to a coil of interfere to produce a fringe pattern on a screen.

self inductance 2 3 / p H, a current of 1 A flows The phase difference between the beams is p/2

through it. But by replacing dc source with ac at point A and p at point B. Then the difference

source of 200 V, the current in the coil is reduced between the resultant intensities at A and B is

to 0.5 A. Then the frequency of ac supply is (a) 2I (b) 4I (c) 5I (d) 7I

(a) 100 Hz (b) 75 Hz 16. A radioactive nucleus X decays to a stable nucleus

(c) 50 Hz (d) 30 Hz Y. Then the graph of rate of formation of Y against

10. A block of ice at –10°C is slowly heated and time t will be

converted to steam at 100°C. Which of the

following curves represents the phenomena

qualitatively? (a) (b)

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Statement-1 and Statement-2. Of the four choices given

choose the one that best describes the two statements.

(a) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true.

11. Two wires of same dimension but resistivities (b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true, Statement-2

r1 and r2 are connected in series. The equivalent is the correct explanation of Statement-1.

resistivity of the combination is (c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true, Statement-2

1 is not the correct explanation of Statement-1.

(a) r1 + r2 (b) (r1 + r2) (d) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false.

2

(c) r1r2 (d) 2(r1 + r2) 17. Statement 1 : The threshold frequency of

photoelectric effect supports the particle nature of

12. The moment of inertia of a uniform circular disc light.

is maximum about an axis perpendicular to the

disc and passing through Statement 2 : If frequency of incident light is less

(a) B than the threshold frequency, electrons are not

(b) C emitted from metal surface.

(c) D 18. Statement 1 : If earth suddenly stops rotating

(d) A about its axis, then the value of acceleration due

to gravity will become same at all the places.

13. When an ideal monoatomic gas is heated at

Statement 2 : The value of acceleration due to

constant pressure, the fraction of the heat energy

gravity is independent of rotation of earth.

supplied which increases the internal energy of

the gas is 19. A particle moves in the x-y plane under the

influence of a force such that its linear momentum

(a) 2/5 (b) 3/5 (c) 3/7 (d) 5/7

= is P(t) A[i cos( kt) − j sin( kt)] , where A and k are

14. A small current element of length dl is placed at constants. The angle between the force and the

(1, 1, 0) and is carrying current in +z direction. momentum is

If magnetic field at origin be B1 and at point (a) 0° (b) 30° (c) 45° (d) 90°

Page 21

20. A particle moves in space along the path from the mean position are y1 and y2 respectively,

dx dy then its time period is

z =ax3 + by2 in such a way that = c= where

dt dt

a, b and c are constants. The acceleration of the y12 + y22 v22 − v12

(a) 2 p (b) 2 p

particle is v12 + v22 y12 − y22

(a) (6ac2x + 2bc2) k (b) (2ax2 + 6by2) k y12 − y22

v12 + v22

(c) (4bc2x + 3ac2) k (d) (bc2x + 2by) k (c) 2 p (d) 2 p

y12 + y22 v22 − v12

21. The mean distance between the atoms of iron is 28. Two chambers containing m1 g and m2 g of a

3 × 10–10 m and interatomic force constant for iron gas at pressures P1 and P2 respectively are put

is 7 N m–1. The Young’s modulus of elasticity for in communication with each other, temperature

iron is remaining constant. The common pressure

(a) 2.33 × 105 N m–2 (b) 23.3 × 106 N m–2 reached will be

P1P2 (m1 + m2 )

9

(c) 2.33 × 10 N m –2 (d) 2.33 × 1010 N m–2 P1P2 m1

(a) (b)

22. A particle has two equal accelerations in two (P2m1 + P1m2 ) P2 m1 + P1m2

given directions. If one of the accelerations is m1m2 ( P1 + P2 ) m1m2 P2

halved, then the angle which the resultant makes (c) (d)

P2 m1 + P1m2 P2 m1 + P1m2

with the other is also halved. The angle between

the accelerations is 29. Variation of radiant energy

(a) 120° (b) 90° (c) 60° (d) 45° emitted by sun, filament

of tungsten lamp and

23. A projectile is given an initial velocity of welding arc as a function

i + 2 j . The cartesian equation of its path is

of its wavelength is shown

(Take g = 10 m s–2) in figure. Which of the

(a) y = x – 5x2 (b) y = 2x – 5x2 following option is the

(c) y = 2x – 15x2 (d) y = 2x – 25x2 correct match?

24. A particle is moving in a circle of radius R in such a (a) Sun-T1, tungsten filament-T2, welding arc-T3

way that at any instant the normal and tangential (b) Sun-T2, tungsten filament-T1, welding arc-T3

components of its acceleration are equal. If its (c) Sun-T3, tungsten filament-T1, welding arc-T2

speed at t = 0 is v0, the time taken to complete the (d) Sun-T1, tungsten filament-T3, welding arc-T2

first revolution is 30. A deflection mangnetometer is adjusted in

R R( the usual way. When a magnet is introduced,

(a) (b) 1 − e −2 p )

v0 v0 the deflection observed is q, and the period of

R −2 p 2 pR oscillation of the needle in the magnetometer is

(c) e (d) T. When the magnet is removed, the period of

v0 v0

oscillation is T0. The relation between T and T0 is

25. An electric charge of 8.85 × 10–13 C is placed at the 2

(a) T2 = T0 cosq (b) T = T0 cosq

centre of a sphere of radius 1 m. The electric flux T T02

through the sphere is (c) T = 0 (d) T 2 =

cosq cosq

(a) 0.2 N C–1 m2 (b) 0.1 N C–1 m2

(c) 0.3 N C–1 m2 (d) 0.01 N C–1 m2 SOLUTIONS

26. The mass M of planet-earth is uniformly 1. (b) : Since electric field E = – (slope of V-x graph)

distributed over a spherical volume of radius and E inside a conductor = 0

R. Find the energy needed to disassemble the \ slope of V-x graph between x = d to x = 2d

planet against the gravitational pull amongst its should be zero.

constituent particles. also E in air > E in dielectric

(Given MR = 2.5 × 1031 kg m and g = 10 m s–2) \ |Slope in air|>|slope in dielectric|

(a) 3.0 × 1032 J (b) 2.5 × 1032 J hc

28 2. (c) : K= −W …(i)

(c) 1.4 × 10 J (d) 1.5 × 1032 J 1

l1

27. A particle is describing simple harmonic motion. If hc

and K= −W …(ii)

its velocities are v1 and v2 when the displacements 2

l2

Page 22

Here, W is work function of given metal surface. r

Substituting l1 = 2l2 in equation (i), we get or 2=

r − rW

hc

=K1 −W 4

2l 2 or 4r – 4rW = r ⇒ r = r …(i)

3 W

1 hc 1

= − W =( K 2 + W ) − W Similarly in second case

2 l 2 2

u r

=

\

K2 W hc u/3 r − rL

=

K 1

2

−

2 l= K 2 + W

2

K 4

⇒ K1 < 2 r

2 or 3 W

3=

3. (c) : The torque on the loop must be equal to the 4

r − rL

gravitational torque exerted about an axis tangent 3 W

to the loop.

The gravitational torque 4 [From equation (i)]

=

t1 = mgr …(i) rL

4−3

Only Bx causes a torque. Therefore torque to the rW

magnetic field

rL

t2 = M × B = MB sin90° = pr2IBx …(ii) Here specific gravity of the liquid s =

rW

Hence from equation. (i) and (ii), we get

mg \ 4

t1 = t2, ⇒ mgr = pr2IBx \ I= 9= ⇒ 36 – 27s = 4

prBx 4 − 3s

2

32

I max I1 / I 2 + 1 9 \ s=

4. (c) : = = 27

I min I1 / I 2 − 1 1

6. (c) : Since refractive index of D layer,

or

x+1

x −1

=3 ( x = I1 / I 2 ) =

µ 1−

81.45 N

\ x=2 u2

I1 Here, N = 4000 electrons per c.c. = 400 × 106

and 2

= x= 22 = 4

I2 electrons per m3

u = 200 kHz = 200 × 103 Hz

Let I1 = 4I2

I2 = I0 ⇒ I1 = 4I0 81.45 × 400 × 106

δ δ \ µ = 1− = 0.43

Since I2 = I1 cos2 ⇒ I0 = 4I0 cos2 ( 200 × 10 3 )2

2 2

δ 1 c

As µ =

⇒ cos2 2 = 4 v

c 3 × 108

δ 1 p \ Phase velocity, v= = = 6.9 × 108 m s–1

or cos = = cos \ δ = 2p µ 0.43

2 2 3 3

2p yd 7. (b) :

and δ= Dx and Dx =

l D

\ 2 p yd 2 p ⇒ y = lD

= 3d

l D 3

5. (d) : Since frequency u ∝ T

Where T is tension in sonometer wire 2 W, 4 W and (1 W + 5 W) are in parallel. The

potential difference across each is same.

uair Wair Vrg

\ = = Therefore,

u water Wwater Vrg − VrW g

VAB = VFC = VED = I1 × 2 = 3 × 2 = 6 V (... I1 = 3 A)

u r VED 6

or = I3 = = = 1A

u/2 r − rW 1+ 5 6

Page 23

Power dissipated in 5 W resistance

2

= I 3 × 5 = 12 × 5 = 5 W

8. (c) : Total displacement of both charged particle

due to electric field E,

1 qE qE 2

= L + t

2 me mp

2L 2 Lme mp

or t2 = =

1

qE +

1 qE me + mp

( )

m

e mp

11. (b) : R = R1=

+ R2 r1 + r2

1 2 1 qE 2 Lme mp

qE pr 2 pr 2

=r =at × a = l

2 p

(

2 mp qE me + mp P mp

) R = (r1 + r2)

pr 2

…(i)

me L For equivalent resistance

=

(me + mp ) R= r 2

2l

…(ii)

pr

V 200

9. (c) : For dc voltage source, R

= = = 200 W From Equations (i) and (ii), we have

I 1 2r = r1 + r2

2 3

and L = H r + r2

p or r = 1

When dc source is replaced by ac source, 2

12. (a) : According to the theorem of parallel axes,

Ev 200 I = ICM + Ma2

Impedance, =

Z = = 400 W

Iv 0.5 As a is maximum for point B.

Hence the reactance of inductor Therefore I is maximum about B.

=

XL Z2 − R 2 [... Z2 = R2 + XL 2] 13. (b) : By first law of thermodynamics

DQ = DU + DW

= 400 2 −=

200 2 200 4 − 1 = 200 3

f

Now, XL = wL = 2puL = 200 3

=

2

nRT + P dV ∫

f

200 3 200 3 = nRT + PV

=u = = 50 Hz 2

2 pL 2 3

2p ×

p or =

DQ

f

nRT + nRT (... PV = nRT)

2

10. (a) : The temperature of ice will first increase from

3 5

–10°C to 0°C. Heat supplied in this process will be = nRT + nRT = nRT

2 2

Q1 = mSi(10), DU

where m = mass of ice, and Si = specific heat of ice \ Fraction of heat energy supplied =

DQ

At 0°C ice starts melting. Temperature during

( 3 / 2)nRT 3

melting will remain constant (0°C) = =

( 5 / 2)nRT 5

Heat supplied in the process will be

Q2 = mL, where L is latent heat of melting µ Idl × r

Now the temperature of water will increase from 14. (c) : From Biot-Savart Law, B = 0

4p r 3

0°C to 100°C. Heat supplied will be

Q3 = mSw(100)

1

( )

For B , r = −i − j

where Sw is specific heat of water \ B1

=

µ 0 Idl

4p 2 2

( )

k × − i − j …(i)

Finally water at 100°C will be converted into

steam and during this process temperature

For B2, r = i + j

again remains constant. Temperature versus heat

supplied graph will be as follows \=B2

4p 2 2

(

µ0 Idl

k× i+ j ) …(ii)

Page 24

From (i) and (ii) d2x d2y

\ = = 0

B1 = − B2 or B1 = B2 dt 2 dt 2

15. (b) : Since resultant intensity Further z = ax3 + by2

I I1 + I 2 + 2 I1 I 2 cos φ

= …(i) dz dx dy

\= 3 ax 2 + 2by

Applying equation (i) when phase difference is dt dt dt

p/2

= 3acx2 + 2bcy (using (i))

Ip/2 = I + 4I ⇒ Ip/2 = 5I

d2z dx dy

Again applying equation (i) when the phase Again, 2 = 6 acx + 2bc = 6ac2x + 2bc2

dt dt dt

difference is p

Now acceleration of particle is

Ip = I + 4I + 2 I 4 I cosp d2x 2 2

\ Ip = I …(ii) = a i + d y j + d z k = (6ac2x + 2bc2) k

2 2

From equations (i) and (ii) we get, dt dt dt 2

Ip/2 – Ip = 5I – I = 4I 21. (d) : Given, r0 = 3 × 10–10 m and k = 7 N m–1;

... k = Yr

16. (c) : Since N = N0e–lt ⇒ NY = N0(1 – e–lt) 0

or Y= k= 7

dN = 2.33 × 1010 N m −2

Rate of formation of Y , R = = + lN0e–lt r0 3 × 10 −10

dt

Hence the graph (c) is the correct representation. B sin q

22. (a) : As tan β =

17. (c) : Both assertion and reason are true but reason A + B cos q

is not the correct explanation of assertion. There is A sin q

= (... A = B)

no emission of photoelectrons till the frequency of A + A cos q

incident light is less than a minimum frequency, sin q

however intense light it may be. In photoelectric = …(i)

1 + cos q

effect, it is a single particle collision. Intensity is

hu × N, where hu is the individual energy of the β ( A / 2)sin q A

tan = B =

photon and N is the total number of photon. In 2 A + ( A / 2)cos q 2

the wave theory, the intensity is proportional, not sin q

= …(ii)

only to u2 but also to the amplitude squared. For 2 + cos q

the same frequency, increase in intensity only The equations are satisfied if q = 120°

increase the number of photons (in the quantum

theory of Einstein). 23. (b) : Given, u= i + =

2 j ux i + uy j

18. (d) : The value of g at any place is given by the Then ux = 1 = ucosq

relation, and uy = 2 = usinq

u sin q 2

g′ = g – Rew2cos2l \ =tan q = =2

Where l is angle of latitude and w is the angular u cos q 1

velocity of earth. If earth suddenly stops rotating, The equation of trajectory of a projectile motion is

then w = 0 \ g′ = g gx 2 gx 2

=y x tan q − = x tan q −

i.e., the value of g will be same at all places. 2u2 cos 2 q 2 (u cos q)

2

19. (d) : Here,

= P(t) A[i cos( kt) − j sin( kt)] …(i) 10 × x 2

\ y= x × 2 − = 2x – 5x2

dP 2 (1)

2

=F = Ak[ −i sin( kt) − j cos( kt)] …(ii)

dt dv v 2

From equation (i) and (ii) 24. (b) : =

at =

dt R

F⋅P = 0

t

dt dv

v v

1

F⋅P =

FP cosq

∫ =

R 0v ∫

2 ⇒ t = −R

v v0

But F ⋅ P = 0 ⇒ cosq = 0 0

v0 R

\ q = 90°. v=

20. (a) : Given that

(R − v0t)

dx dy dr v0 R

= = c ... (i) Now, =

dt dt dt ( R − v0 t )

Page 25

2 pR T

dt 2p y 2 − y22

∫ dr = v0 R ∫ (R − v t )

0

⇒ =

T = 2 p 12

w v2 − v12

0 0

R 28. (a) : According to Boyle’s law, PV = k (a constant)

⇒=T (1 − e −2 p )

v0 Pm m

m

25. (b) : According to Gauss’s law, or P = k or r = V = r

r k

the electric flux through the sphere is

P k

qin 8.85 × 10 −13 C or r= (... = K a constant)

=φ = = 0.1 N C −1 m 2 K m

ε 0 8.85 × 10 −12 C 2 N −1 m −2

P m1 m1 Km1

So, r1 = 1 and V

= = =

26. (d) : If M is the mass and R is the radius of earth, K 1

r1 P1 / K P1

M

then the density r = . ...(i) Km2

4 3 Similarly, V2 =

pR P2

3

The spherical volume may be supposed to be m m

\ Total volume = V1 + V2 = K 1 + 2

formed by a large number of their concentric P P2

1

spherical shells. Let the sphere be disassembled Let P be the common pressure and r be the

by removing such shells. When there is a spherical common density of mixture. Then

core of radius x the energy needed to disassemble m + m2 m1 + m2

a spherical shell of thickness dx is r= 1 =

V1 + V2 m1 m2

Gm1m2 4 3 K +

= dW = , where m1 px r P1 P2

x 3

mass of spherical shell of radius x and thickness m1 + m2 P1P2 (m1 + m2 )

\ =

P K=

r =

dx is, m2 = 4px2dxr. m1 m2 (m1P2 + m2 P1 )

+

4

G pr 3r 4 px 2 dxr

3

(16 2 2 4

) P1 P2

\ dW = = p r Gx dx 29. (c) : According to Wien’s displacement law,

x 3 lmT = b = a constant. As (lm)3 < (lm)2 < (lm)1

\ Total energy required therefore, T3 > T2 > T1. Hence, curve T3 is for sun,

R

R

16 2 2 3 16 2 2 x 5 curve T2 is for welding arc and curve T1 is for

= W =

3 ∫

p r Gx dx

3

p r G

5 0

tungsten filament.

0

30. (a) : In the usual setting of deflection magnetometer,

16 2 2 GR 5 16 2 M

= = p r p GR 5 (using (i)) field due to magnet (F) and horizontal component

3 5 15 4 3 (H) of earth’s field are perpendicular to each other.

pR

2 3 Therefore, the net field on the magnetic needle is

3 GM

= F2 + H 2

5 R

I

But GM = gR2 \ T = 2p …(i)

3 gR 2 M 2 3 3 M F + H2 2

\ W =

= gMR = × 10 × 2.5 × 1031 When the magnet is removed,

5 M R 5 5

= 1.5 × 1032 J I

T0 = 2 p …(ii)

MH

27. (d) : In simple harmonic motion, F

Also, = tanq

velocity

= v w A2 − y 2 H

Dividing (i) by (ii), we get

\=v1 w A2 − y12 ⇒ v12 = w2A2 – w2y12 …(i)

T H

=

and

= v2 w A2 − y22 ⇒ v22 = w2A2 – w2y22 …(ii) T0 F2 + H 2

Solving equations (i) and (ii), we get H H

= = = cosq

v2 2 – v1 2 = w2(y1 2 – y2 2) H tan 2 q + H 2

2

H sec 2 q

v22 − v12 T2

w= ⇒ cosq

= \ T2 = T20 cosq

2

y1 − y22 T02

nn

Page 26

OPTICS If keeping the incident ray fixed, the plane mirror

Optics is the branch of physics which deals with the is rotated through an angle q, the reflected ray

study of production, propagation and nature of light. turns through double the angle i.e., 2q in that very

It is divided into two branches : direction.

(i) Ray optics (ii) Wave optics

If the object is fixed and the mirror moves relative

REFLECTION OF LIGHT to the object with a speed v, the image moves with

It is defined as, a part of incident light is turned back a speed 2v relative to the object.

into the same medium. If the mirror is fixed and the object moves relative

In figure i and r represent to the mirror with a speed v, the image also moves

incident ray and reflected with the same speed v relative to the mirror.

ray respectively. Deviation suffered by a light ray incident at an angle

Laws of Reflection i is given by

The angle of incidence i equals the angle of d = (180° – 2i)

reflection r.

Number of Images Formed by Two Inclined

Incident ray, the normal and the reflected ray lie Mirrors

in the same plane.

The above laws of reflection are valid both in case of If 360° = even number; number of images

θ

plane and curved reflecting surfaces.

360°

For normal incidence i.e., ∠i = 0, ∠r = 0. Hence a ray = −1

θ

of light falling normally on a mirror retraces its path

on reflection. 360°

If = odd number; number of images

Reflection from Plane Surface θ

The image formed by a plane mirror is at the 360°

= − 1 if the object is placed on the angle

same distance behind the mirror as the object is θ

bisector.

in front of it.

360° 360°

The image formed by a plane mirror is laterally If = odd number; number of images = ,

θ θ

inverted. The lateral inversion means that the right

if the object is not placed on the angle bisector.

side of the object appears as the left side of the

image and vice-versa. 360°

If ≠ integer, then count the number of images

The image formed by a plane mirror is virtual, erect θ

w.r.t. object and of the same size as the object. as explained above.

Page 27

Illustration 1 : Two mirrors are inclined by an angle

30°. An object is placed making 10° with the mirror

F Primary focus

M1. Find the positions of first two images formed by

each mirror. Find the total number of images.

Soln.: Figure is self explanatory.

50°

F Secondary focus

10°

M1 Sign convention

10° object We follow Cartesian co-ordinate system conventions

30° according to which

M2

The pole of mirror is the origin.

20° The distance measured in the direction of the

incident rays is considered as positive x-axis.

40° The heights measured in the vertically up direction

360° are positive y-axis.

Number of images = 12(even number)

30° Mirror Formula

\ number of images = 12 – 1 = 11 1 1 1

= +

SPHERICAL MIRRORS f v u

Spherical Mirror is u = distance of object, v = image distance, f = focal

formed by polishing Concave length and f = R/2; R = radius of curvature.

mirror

one surface of a part Convex Illustration 2 : A convex mirror has its radius of

of sphere. mirror curvature 20 cm. Find the position of the image of

C an object placed at a distance of 12 cm from the

Depending

upon which part P R mirror.

P Soln.: The situation is shown in figure.

is shining the

spherical mirror Here u = – 12 cm and R = + 20 cm. We have,

is classified as 1 1 2

+ =

Concave mirror, if the side towards center of u v R

curvature is shining. 1 2 1

or = −

Convex mirror, if the side away from the center of v R u

2 1 11

curvature is shining. = − =

20 cm −12 cm 60 cm

Important Terms for Spherical Mirrors 60

Pole (P), is the mid point of reflecting surface. or, v = cm.

11

Centre of curvature (C), is the centre of the sphere The positive sign of v shows that the image is

of which the mirror is a part. formed on the right side of the mirror. It is a virtual

Radius of curvature, is the radius of the sphere image.

of which the mirror is a part. Distance between Ray Tracing

P and C. Following facts are useful in ray tracing.

Principal axis, is the straight line connecting pole If the incident ray is parallel to the principal axis,

P and centre of curvatrue C. the reflected ray passes through the focus.

Principal focus (F), is the point of intersection of all If the incident ray passes through the focus, then

the reflected ray is parallel to the principal axis.

the reflected rays which strikes the mirror parallel

Incident ray passing through centre of curvature

to the principal axis. In concave mirror it is real and will be reflected back through the centre of

in the convex mirror it is virtual. curvature (because it is a normally incident ray).

Focal length (f), is distance from pole to focus.

Aperture, the diameter of the mirror is called

aperture of the mirror.

Focal Plane : Plane perpendicular to principal axis

and passing through focus is known as focal plane.

Page 28

It is easy to make the ray tracing of a ray incident Refractive index

at the pole as shown below. The refractive index of a medium for a light of given

wavelength may be defined as the ratio of the speed

of light in vacuum to its speed in that medium.

µ= =

C F P Speed of light in medium v

vacuum

Magnification to vacuum) = c

v

h2 v Refractive index of a medium with respect to vacuum

Linear magnification : m = =−

h1 u is also called absolute refractive index.

h1 = height of the object, h2 = height of the image. When a light ray travels from one medium to

(h1 and h2 both are perpendicular to the principal another, its frequency remains constant but its

axis of mirror) wavelength as well as velocity changes.

Note: If the image is upright or erect with respect The deviation of the incident ray when it is

to the object then m is positive. And m is negative if refracted is given by an angle d = |i – r|.

the image is inverted with respect to the object.

Refraction Through Various Medium

v − v1

Longitudinal magnification = 2 If a light ray passes through a number of parallel

u2 − u1 media and if the first and the last medium are same,

[for small sized object] the emergent ray is parallel to the incident ray as

shown in figure below.

REFRACTION OF LIGHT

When light passes obliquely from one transparent

medium to another, the direction of its path changes

at the interface of the two medium. This phenomenon

is known as refraction of light.

If a ray of light passes from an optically rarer medium

to a denser medium, it bends towards the normal

(i.e., ∠r < ∠i).

If a ray of light passes from an optically denser

medium to a rarer medium, it bends away from the

normal (i.e. ∠r > ∠i).

A ray of light travelling along the normal passes 1 sin i1

undeflected, the incident ray and refracted ray make µ2 =

sin r1

zero angle with normal (i.e., ∠i = ∠r = 0°) sin r1 sin r2

2

Laws of Refraction µ3 = and 3µ1 =

sin r2 sin i1

The incident ray, the normal to the interface at the

1 2 3 sin i1 sin r1 sin r2

point of incidence and the refracted ray all lie in Hence, µ 2 × µ 3 × µ1 = sin r × sin r × sin i = 1

1 2 1

the same plane.

The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the Principle of reversibility

sine of the angle of refraction is always a constant 1 1

µ2 =

(a different constant for a different set of media). 2

µ1

sin i

i.e. = constant =1µ 2 Illustration 3 : The refractive index of glass is 1.5

sin r

This constant ( m2) is called refractive index of

1 and that of water is 1.3. If the speed of light in

medium 2 (in which refracted ray travels) w.r. water is 2.25 × 108 m s–1, what is the speed of light

to medium 1 (in which incident ray travels). It is in glass?

known as Snell’s law and holds good for all angles c c

Soln.: Here, aµ g = = 1.5 , aµ w = = 1.3

of incidence. vg vw

Page 29

c v g 1.3 Illustration 4 : A mark is made on the bottom of

∴ × = beaker and a microscope is focussed on it. The

vw c 1.5

microscope is raised through 1.5 cm. To what height

1.3 1.3

or vg = × vw = × 2.25 × 108 water must be poured into the beaker to bring the

1.5 1.5 4

mark again into focus? µ water =

= 1.95 × 108 m s–1. 3

Soln.: Here, apparent shift, d = 1.5 cm

LATERAL SHIFT DUE TO GLASS SLAB

Let t be the height through which water must be

When the medium is same on both sides of a glass

poured into the beaker.

slab, then the deviation of the emergent ray is zero.

That is the emergent ray is parallel to the incident 1

d = t 1 −

ray but it does suffer lateral displacement/shift with µ

respect to the incident ray and is given by 1

sin (i − r ) 1.5 = t 1 −

Lateral shift, h = t 4 / 3

cos r t = 1.5 × 4 = 6.0 cm

where t is the thickness of the slab.

TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION

The total internal reflection is the phenomenon in which

a ray of light travelling from an optically denser into

an optically rarer medium at an angle of incidence

greater than the critical angle for the two media is

totally reflected back into the same medium.

Necessary conditions for total internal reflection

Light is travelling from optically denser to optically

rarer medium.

The angle of incidence at the surface is greater than

the critical angle for the pair of media.

Critical angle

Real depth and apparent depth The critical angle between the two media is the angle

An object placed in a denser medium (e.g. water). of incidence in the optically denser medium for which

when viewed from a rarer medium (e.g. air) appears the angle of refraction is 90°. It is given by

to be at a lesser depth than its real depth. This is on 1

sin iC =

account of refraction of light. µ

Real depth Let i = angle of incidence. Consider the following

Refractive index = cases :

Apparent depth

If i < iC, then refraction takes place.

Real depth If i = iC, then grazing emergence takes place.

or apparent depth =

Refractive index If i > iC, then total internal reflection takes place.

As the refractive index of any medium (other than Critical angle depends on nature of media in

vacuum) is greater than unity, so the apparent depth contact and also on the wavelength of light.

is less than the real depth. Critical angle for red light is more than that for

The height through which an object appears to be blue light.

raised in a denser medium is called normal shift or A fish in water at a depth d sees the world outside

apparent shift. through a horizontal circle of radius

Normal shift = real depth – apparent depth d

r = d tan iC =

t 1 2

µ −1

d = t − = t 1 −

µ µ

Here, t is the real depth of water and m is its refractive

index.

Therefore, the normal shift in the position of an object,

when seen through a denser medium depends on the

refractive index of the medium. The higher the value

of m, greater is the apparent shift d.

Page 30

Applications of total internal reflection Angular dispersion, q = dV – dR = (mV – mR)A

Brilliance of diamonds where mV and mR are the refractive indices for violet

Mirage and red light respectively.

Totally reflecting glass prisms

angular dispersion

Optical fibres Dispersive power, ω =

mean deviation

REFRACTION THROUGH A PRISM µ − µR

A prism is a homogeneous, transparent medium ω= V

(µ − 1)

bounded by two plane surfaces inclined at an angle µV + µ R

A with each other. These surfaces are called the where µ = = mean refractive index

2

refracting surfaces and angle between them is called The dispersive power depends on the material of

the refracting angle or the angle of prism A. the prism.

The angle between the incident ray and the emergent Dispersive power is a unit less and dimensionless

ray is called the angle of deviation. quantity.

For refraction through a prism it is found that Dispersive power of a flint glass prism is more than

that of a crown glass prism.

Combination of Prisms

When two prisms are combined together, we can get

deviation without dispersion or vice versa.

Deviation without Dispersion

Condition for deviation without dispersion is

q + q′ = 0

d = i + e – A where A = r1 + r2

When A and i are small

(µV − µ R )A + (µV′ − µ′R )A′ = 0

\ d = (m – 1) A ( µV − µ R ) A

or A′ = −

In a position of minimum deviation d = dm, i = e, (µV′ − µ′R )

and r1 = r2 = r

–ve sign shows that the refracting angles of the two

∴ i= ( A + δm

2 ) and r =

A

2

prisms are in opposite direction.

where A and A′ are refracting angles of two prisms

The refractive index of the material of the prism is respectively and mV, mR and m′V, m′R be the refractive

( A + δm ) indices of the violet and red light of the corresponding

sin

µ= 2 prisms.

sin( )A

2

Under this condition, net deviation produced by the

combination is

This is called prism formula. = d + d′ = (m – 1)A + (m′ – 1)A′

Dispersion of light The prism which produces deviation without dispersion

It is the phenomenon of splitting of white light into its is called achromatic prism.

constituent colours on passing through a prism. This Dispersion without Deviation

is because different colours have different wavelengths Condition for dispersion without deviation is

(lR > lV). According to Cauchy’s formula d + d′ = 0

B C (m – 1)A + (m′ – 1)A′ = 0

µ=A+ 2 + 4

λ λ (µ − 1) A

where A, B, C are arbitrary constants. Therefore, m or A′ = −

(µ ′ − 1)

of material of prism for different colours is different

–ve sign shows that the refracting angles of two prisms

(mV > mR). As d = (m – 1) A, therefore different colours

are in opposite direction.

turn through different angles on passing through the

where m and m′ be the refractive indices of the material

prism. This is the cause of dispersion.

of two prisms respectively.

Note : Vacuum is a non-dispersive medium whereas

Under this condition, net angular dispersion produced

glass is a dispersive medium.

by the combination is

= ( δV − δ R ) + ( δ′V − δ′R )

= (µV − µ R ) A + (µV′ − µ ′R ) A′

Red

The prism which produces dispersion with deviation

Violet is called direct vision prism.

Page 31

SCATTERING OF LIGHT Soln.: With usual notation, we are given that,

As sunlight travels through the earth’s atmosphere, it A = 5°, mv = 1.66 and mr = 1.54

gets scattered (changes its direction) by the atmospheric Angular dispersion = (dv – dr) = (mv – mr)A

particles. Light of shorter wavelengths is scattered = (1.66 – 1.54) × 5° = 0.12 × 5° = 0.6°

much more than the light of longer wavelengths. REFRACTION AT SPHERICAL SURFACES

The amount of scattering is inversely proportional A refractive surface which forms a part of a sphere

to the fourth power of the wavelength. This is called of transparent medium is called a spherical refracting

Rayleigh scattering. surface spherical refracting surface are of two types

Illustrations of Scattering of Light Convex spherical refracting surface

Blue colour of sky Concave spherical refracting surface.

White colour clouds For both surfaces refracting formula is given by

The sun looks reddish at the time of sun rise and µ −1

1 µ2 1

sun set − =1 2

v u R

Illustration 5 : A prism is made of glass of unknown

where 1m2 is refractive index of second medium with

refractive index. A parallel beam of light is incident

respect to first and u, v, R are the object distance,

on a face of the prism. By rotating the prism,

image distance and radius of curvature of the spherical

the minimum angle of deviation is measured to

surface respectively.

be 40°. What is the refractive index of the prism?

If m1 and m2 are refractive indices of first and second

If the prism is placed in water (refractive index medium with respect to air, then

1.33), predict the new angle of minimum deviation µ 2 µ 1 µ 2 − µ1

of a parallel beam of light. The refracting angle of − =

v u R

the prism is 60°.

Soln.: Here; as dm = 40°, A = 60°, Illustration 7 : What curvature must be given

to the bounding surface of a refracting medium

a sin[( A + δ m ) / 2] sin 50° 0.7660

∴ µg = = = = 1.53 (m = 1.5) for the virtual image of an object in the

sin( A / 2) sin 30° 0.5000 adjacent medium (m = 1) at 10 cm to be formed at

When the prism is placed in water, refractive index a distance of 40 cm?

of prism (i.e., glass) w.r.t. water i.e., Soln.: Let R be the radius of curvature of the

a

µ g 1.53 refracting surface. As the object lies in the rarer

(... amw = 1.33)

w

µg = = = 1.1519 medium and the image formed is virtual,

a

µ w 1.33 µ µ µ − µ1

∴ − 1+ 2 = 2

Let d′m be the new minimum angle of deviation. u v R

Clearly, Here m1 = 1, m2 = 1.5, u = –10 cm,

′

w sin[( A + δ m ) / 2] v = – 40 cm

µg =

sin( A / 2) −1 1.5 1.5 − 1

∴ + =

−10 −40 R

sin[( A + δ ′m ) / 2]

or 1.152 =

sin 30° 0.5 1 1.5 2.5

or = − =

R 10 40 40

′

or sin ( A + δ m ) = 1.152 × sin 30°

2 40 × 0.5

∴ R= = + 8 cm

= 1.152 × 0.5000 = 0.5759 2.5

( A + δ ′m )

or = 35°10′ LENSES

2

A lens is a transparent medium bounded by two

or d′m = 2 × 35°10′ – 60° = 10°20′ refracting surfaces such that at least one of the

Illustration 6 : Calculate the angular dispersion refracting surfaces is curved.

between violet and red colours produced by a small If the thickness of the lens is negligibly small in

angled prism with vertex angle 5°. Refractive index comparison to the object distance or the image

of the material of the prism for violet = 1.66 and distance, the lens is called thin. Here we shall limit

that for red = 1.54. ourself to thin lenses.

Page 32

Types of Lenses m = 1.5

Broadly, lenses are of the following types : 1 1

= (1.5 − 1) −

15 −30

1 1

= 0.5 × + = 20 cm

15 30

Power of a Lens

The power of a lens is defined as the reciprocal of

the focal length in metre.

1

P=

f (in m )

The SI unit of power of lens is diopter (D).

For a convex lens, P is positive.

For a concave lens, P is negative.

When focal length (f) of lens is in cm, then

100

P= , dioptre.

f (in cm )

Lens Maker’s Formula

Combination of Thin Lenses in Contact

The focal length (f) of a lens depends upon the refractive

When a number of thin lenses of focal length f1, f2,

indices of the material of the lens and the medium in

...etc. are placed in contact coaxially, the equivalent

which the lens is present and the radii of curvature of

focal length F of the combination is given by

both sides. The following relation giving focal length

(f) is called as ‘lens maker’s formula. 1 1 1 1

= + + + ....

F f1 f 2 f 3

1 µ 1 1

= − 1 − The total power of the combination is given by

f µ0 R1 R2 P = P1 + P2 + P3 + ...

where m = refractive index of the material of the lens, The total magnification of the combination is given

m0 = refractive index of the medium. by

m = m1 × m2 × m3 ....

When two thin lenses of focal lengths f1 and f2 are

placed coaxially and separated by a distance d, the

focal length of combination is given by

1 1 1 d

= + − .

F f1 f 2 f1 f 2

Lens Formula In terms of power, P = P1 + P2 – dP1P2.

1 1 1 Silvering of a Lens

− =

v u f Let a planoconvex lens is having a curved surface of

Linear Magnification (m) radius of curvature R and has refractive index m. If

its plane surface is silvered, it behaves as a concave

The ratio of the size of the image formed by a lens

mirror of focal length

to the size of the object is called linear magnification

R

produced by the lens. It is denoted by m. f =−

2(µ −1)

If O and I are the sizes of the object and image

If the curved surface of planoconvex lens is silvered

respectively, then

I v then it behaves as a concave mirror of focal length

m= = .

O u R

f =−

Illustration 8 : The radii of curvature of a double 2µ

convex lens are 15 cm and 30 cm and its refractive Displacement Method

index is 1.5. Find its focal length. For a convex lens, the minimum distance between

the object and its real image is 4f. If a convex lens is

1 1

Soln.: 1 = (µ − 1) − placed between an object O and a screen S such that

f R

1 R 2 the distance OS ≥ 4f, there are two positions of the

Here, R1 = 15 cm, R2 = – 30 cm lens which give a sharp image on the screen.

Page 33

The focal length of the lens is given by Magnifying power of an astronomical telescope

2

D −d2 When the final image is formed at infinity (normal

f = adjustment),

4D

f

where D = distance between the screen and the object, M=− o

fe

d = distance between the two positions of the lens.

If I1, I2 are the two sizes of image of the object of size Length of tube, L = fo + fe

O, then O = I1I 2 When the final image is formed at least distance of

distinct vision,

OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS f f

Simple Microscope M = − o 1 + e

fe D

It is also called magnifying glass or simple magnifier. It

fe D

consists of a converging lens of small focal length. Length of tube, L = f o +

fe + D

Magnifying power of a simple microscope

When the image is formed at infinity (far point), Terrestrial Telescope

D It is used for observing far off objects on the ground.

M= The essential requirement of such a telescope is that

f

final image must be erect w.r.t. the object. To achieve

where f is the focal length of convex lens.

When the image is formed at the least distance of it, an inverting convex lens (of focal length f ) is used

distinct vision D (near point), in between the objective and eye piece of astronomical

D telescope. This lens is known as erecting lens.

M =1+ In normal adjustment,

f

f

Compound Microscope Magnifying power, M = o

fe

It consists of two convergent lenses of short focal

lengths and apertures arranged coaxially. Lens facing Length of the tube, L = fo + 4f + fe

the object is called objective or field lens while the Galileo’s Terrestrial Telescope

lens facing the eye, is called eye-piece or ocular. The It consists of an objective which is a convex lens of

objective has a smaller aperture and smaller focal large focal length and an eye-piece which is a concave

length than eye-piece. lens of short focal length (fo > fe).

Magnifying power of a compound microscope In the normal adjustment,

When the final image is formed at infinity (normal f

Magnifying power, M = o

adjustment), fe

v D Length of the tube, L = fo – fe

M=− o

uo f e

Length of tube, L = vo + fe WAVEFRONT

When the final image is formed at least distance of A wavefront is defined as the continuous locus of all

distinct vision, such particles of the medium which are vibrating in

the same phase of any instant.

v D

M = − o 1 + Types of Wavefront

uo fe

The geometrical shape of a wavefront depends on

where uo and vo represent the distance of object and the source of disturbance. Some of the common

intermediate image from the objective lens, fe is the shapes are

focal length of an eye lens.

Spherical wavefront : In the case of waves

f D travelling in all directions from a point source, the

Length of the tube, L = vo + e

fe + D wavefronts are spherical in shape.

Astronomical Telescope (Refracting Type) Cylindrical wavefront : If the source of light is

It consists of two converging lenses. The one facing linear in shape, such as a fine rectangular slit, the

the object is called objective or field lens and has wavefront is cylindrical in shape.

large focal length and aperture while the other facing Plane wavefront : As a spherical or cylindrical

the eye is called eye-piece or ocular has small focal wavefront advances, its curvature decreases

length and aperture. progressively.

Page 34

HUYGEN’S PRINCIPLE

( )

2

According to Huygen’s principle, each point on a I = I max = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 = I1 + I 2

wavefront is a source of secondary waves, which add When f = (2n – 1)p, where n = 1, 2, 3, ....

up to give a wavefront at any later time. Then, A = Amin = (A1 – A2)

Assumptions

( )

2

The secondary wavelets spread out in all directions I = I min = I1 + I 2 − 2 I1I 2 = I1 − I 2

( I1 + )

with the speed of light in the given medium. 2

I max I2

The new wavefront at any later time is given by =

( I1 − I2 )

I min 2

the forward envelope (tangential surface) in the

forward direction of the secondary wavelets at

that time. If the amplitude of the two waves are equal

Each point on a wavefront acts as fresh source A1 = A2 = A0, then resultant amplitude

of new disturbance called secondary waves or φ

A = 2 A02 + 2 A02 cos φ = 2 A0 cos

wavelets. 2

Resultant intensity, I = 4I0 cos 2

Two sources of light which continuously emit light 2

waves of same frequency (or wavelength) with a zero In this case, Amax = 2A0, Imax = 4I0

or constant phase difference between them, are called Amin = 0, Imin = 0

coherent sources. Note : If the sources are incoherent, I = I1 + I2.

Conditions for obtaining two coherent sources of

light YOUNG’S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT

The two sources of light must be obtained from a The phenomenon of interference of light was first

single source by some method. observed by a British Physicist Thomas Young. Using

The two sources must give monochromatic light. two slits illuminated by monochromatic light source,

The path difference between the waves arriving on he obtained alternately bright and dark band on the

the screen from the two sources must not be large screen. These bands are called interference fringes or

Two independent sources cannot be coherent. interference bands.

For constructive interference (i.e. formation of

SUPERPOSITION OF WAVES bright fringes)

When a number of waves travelling through a medium, For nth bright fringe,

superpose on each other, the resultant displacement Path difference = nl

at any point at a given instant is equal to the vector where n = 0 for central bright fringe

sum of displacements due to the individual waves n = 1 for first bright fringe,

at that point. n = 2 for second bright fringe and so on

Interference of Light d = distance between the two slits

If two light waves of the same frequency and having D = distance of slits from the screen

zero or constant phase difference travelling in the same The position of nth bright fringe from the centre of

direction super position gets redistributed becoming the screen is given by

maximum at some points and minimum at others. D

xn = nλ

This phenomenon is called interference of light. d

Intensity Distribution For destructive interference (i.e. formation of dark

If A1, A2 are the amplitudes of interfering waves due to fringes)

two coherent sources and f is constant phase difference For nth dark fringe,

between the two waves at any point P, then λ

path difference = ( 2n − 1)

The resultant amplitude at P will be 2

where

A = A12 + A22 + 2 A1 A2 cos φ n = 1 for first dark fringe,

n = 2 for second dark fringe and so on.

Resultant intensity at P is The position of nth dark fringe from the centre of the

I = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos φ screen is given by

λ D

When f = 2np, where n = 0, 1, 2,.... ∴ xn = ( 2n −1)

2 d

Then, A = Amax = (A1 + A2)

Page 35

Fringe width : The distance between any two Soln.: The distance of nth bright fringe from the

consecutive bright or dark fringes is called fringe central bright fringe is

width. nDλ

xn = = nβ ∴ x9 = 9β

λD d

Fringe width, β =

d The distance of nth dark fringe from the central

Angular fringe width, θ = β = λ bright fringe is

D d

Dλ β

If W1, W2 are widths of two slits, I1, I2 are intensities of xn′ = ( 2n − 1) = ( 2n − 1)

2d 2

light coming from two slits; A1, A2 are the amplitudes

3

of light from these slits, then ∴ x2′ = β

2

W1 I1 A12 But x9 – x′2 = 8.835 mm [Given]

= =

W2 I 2 A2 3 15

2 or 9β − β = 8.835 mm or β = 8.835 mm

I max ( A1 + A2 )2 2 2

= 8.835 × 2

I min ( A − A )2

1 2 or β = = 1.178 mm = 1.178 × 10 −3 m

15

I max − I min

Fringe visibility V = βd 1.178 × 10 −3 × 0.5 × 10 −3

I max + I min Hence, λ = = m

D 1.0

When entire apparatus of Young’s double slit experiment

is immersed in a medium of refractive index m, then = 0.5890 × 10–6 m = 5898 Å

fringe width becomes Interference in thin films

λ′D λD β A thin film of liquid (e.g. soap film or a layer of oil

β′ = = =

d µd µ over water) appears bright or dark when viewed in

When a thin transparent plate of thickness t and monochromatic light. This effect is caused due to

refractive index m is placed in the path of one of the the interference of light reflected from the top and

interfering waves, fringe width remains unaffected bottom faces of the film.

but the entire pattern shifts by Interference in reflected light (reflected system of

D β light)

∆x = (µ − 1) t = (µ − 1) t For a bright fringe,

d λ

This shifting is towards the side in which transparent λ

2µt cos r = ( 2n + 1)

plate is introduced. 2

Illustration 9 : Two sources of intensity I and where, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ........

4 I are used in an interference experiment. Find For a dark fringe

the intensity at points where the waves from 2mtcosr = nl

two sources superimpose with a phase difference where, n = 0, 1, 2, 3 .......

(i) zero (ii) p/2 and (iii) p. Interference in transmitted light (transmitted system

Soln.: The resultant intensity at a point where phase of light)

difference is f is For a bright-fringe,

2mtcosr = nl

I R = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos φ For a dark fringe,

As I1 = I and I2 = 4I, therefore λ

2µt cos r = ( 2n + 1)

I R = I1 + 4 I + 2 I 4 I cos φ = 5I + 4 I cos φ 2

Hence, the condition for maxima and minima in the

(i) When f = 0, IR = 5I + 4 I cos0 = 9I. reflected system are just opposite to those for the

π π transmitted system. Thus the reflected and transmitted

(ii) When φ = , I R = 5I + 4 I cos = 5I .

2 2 systems are complimentary i.e, a film which appears

(iii)When f = p, IR = 5I + 4 I cosp = 5I – 4I = I. bright by reflected light will appear dark by transmitted

light and vice-versa.

Illustration 10 : In a Young’s double slit experiment,

the slits are separated by 0.5 mm and screen is placed DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT

1.0 m away. It is found that the ninth bright fringe The phenomenon of bending of light around the

is at a distance of 8.835 mm from the second dark corners of an obstacle or aperture is called diffraction

fringe. Find the wavelength of light used. of light.

Page 36

Diffraction of light is not easily noticed because Fresnel distance

the obstacles and apertures of size of wavelength It is the minimum distance a beam of light has to

of light 10–6 m are hardly available. travel before its deviation from straight line path

In ray optics, we ignore diffraction and assume becomes significant. It is given by

that light travels in straight lines. This assumption a2

Fresnel distance, ZF =

is reasonable because under ordinary conditions, λ

diffraction (bending) of light is negligible. Resolving Power of a Microscope

The smaller the size of the obstacle or aperture, It is defined as the reciprocal of the minimum distance

the greater is the bending (or diffraction) of light d between two point objects, which can just be seen

through the microscope as separate.

around the corners of the obstacle or aperture and

1 2µ sin θ

vice-versa. Resolving power = =

d λ

Types of Diffraction where m is refractive index of the medium between

The diffraction phenomenon is generally divided into object and objective lens, q is half the angle of cone

the following two classes : of light from the point object, d represents limit of

Fraunhofer’s diffraction resolution of microscope and msinq is called the

Fresnel diffraction numerical aperture.

Fresnel diffraction : In this case, either the source Resolving Power of a Telescope

or the screen or both are at finite distances from the It is defined as reciprocal of the smallest angular

aperture or obstacle causing diffraction. separation (dq) between two distant objects, whose

Fraunhofer diffraction : In this case, the source and images are just seen in the telescope as separate.

the screen on which the pattern is observed are at 1 D

infinite distances from the aperture or the obstacle Resolving power = =

dθ 1.22 λ

causing diffraction. where D is diameter or aperture of the objective lens

Diffraction due to a Single Slit of the telescope, dq represents limit of resolution of

The diffraction pattern produced by a single slit of telescope.

width a consists of a central maximum bright band

with alternating bright and dark bands of decreasing POLARISATION OF LIGHT

intensity on both sides of the central maximum. The phenomenon of restricting the vibrations of light

Condition for nth secondary maximum is, (electric vector) in a particular direction, perpendicular

λ to direction of wave motion is called polarisation of

Path difference = a sin θn = ( 2n + 1) light.

2

where n = 1, 2, 3,....... Polarisation of light confirms the transverse nature

Condition for n secondary minimum is,

th

of light.

Path difference = asinqn = nl The plane in which vibrations of polarised light are

where n = 1, 2, 3,....... confined is called plane of vibration.

Width of secondary maxima or minima A plane which is perpendicular to the plane of vibration

λD λf is called plane of polarisation.

β= =

a a Plane polarised light can be produced by the following

where methods :

a = width of slit By reflection

D = distance of screen from the slit By scattering

f = focal length of lens for diffracted light By refraction

2 λD 2 f λ By dichroism

Width of central maximum = = By double refraction

a a

The width of central medium is also called primary Angle of Polarisation

fringe width. The angle of incidence for which an ordinary light is

completely polarised in the plane of incidence when

2λ

Angular fringe width of central maximum = . it gets reflected from a transparent medium.

a

Angular fringe width of secondary maxima or Brewster’s Law

λ According to this law, when unpolarised light is

minima =

a incident at polarizing angle i p , on an interface

Page 37

separating air from a medium of refractive index m, Here D = 100 inch = 254 cm,

then the reflected light is fully polarized (perpendicular l = 6000 Å = 6 × 10–5 cm

to the plane of incidence) provided 1.22 × 6 × 10−5

m = tanip. ∴ dθ = = 2.9 × 10−7 rad

254

This relation is called Brewster’s law.

Note : When the light is incident at polarising angle, WAVE PARTICLE DUALITY

the reflected and refracted rays are perpendicular to De s p ite the ir wave nature , e le c tro magne tic

each other. radiations, have properties alike to those of particles.

Laws of Malus Electromagnetic radiation is an emission with a dual

According to this law when a beam of completely plane nature i.e. it has both wave and particle aspects. In

polarised light is incident on an analyser, the resultant particular, the energy conveyed by an electromagnetic

intensity of light (I) transmitted from the analyser varies wave is always carried in packets whose magnitude is

directly as the square of the cosine of the angle (q) proportional to frequency of the wave. These packets

between plane of transmission of analyser and polariser of energy are called photons.

i.e. I ∝ cos2q Energy of photon is E = hu where h is Planck’s constant,

If intensity of plane polarised light incident on and u is frequency of wave.

analyser is I0, then intensity of light emerging from According to de Broglie,

analyser is As wave behaves like material particles, similarly

I = I0cos2q matter also behaves like waves. According to him,

Note : We can prove that when unpolarised light

a wavelength of the matter wave associated with

of intensity I0 gets polarised on passing through a

h h

polaroid, its intensity becomes half, a particle is given by λ = = , where m is the

p mv

1

i.e. I = I0 mass and v is velocity of the particle.

2 If an electron is accelerated through a potential

Polaroids difference of V volt,

Polaroids can be used to control the intensity, in

1 2 eV

sunglasses, windowpanes, etc. Polaroids are also used then me v 2 = eV or v =

in photographic cameras and 3D movie cameras. 2 me

h h

Illustration 11 : A parallel beam of light of \ λ= =

me v 2 eVme

wavelength 600 nm is incident normally on a

slit of width d. If the distance between the slits (It is assumed that the voltage V is not more than

and the screen is 0.8 m and the distance of 2 nd several tens of kilovolt)

order maximum from the centre of the screen is Illustration 13 : Sun gives light at the rate of

15 mm, find the width of the slit. 1400 W m–2 of area perpendicular to the direction of

Soln.: Distance of 2nd order maximum from the light. Assume l (sunlight) = 6000 Å. Calculate the

centre of the screen, (a) number of photons/s arriving at 1 m2 area at

that part of the earth, and

5 Dλ 5 Dλ

x′2 = or d = (b) number of photons emitted from the sun/s

2 d 2 x′2

assuming the average radius of earth’s orbit is

Given l = 600 nm = 6 × 10–7 m, D = 0.85 m, 1.49 × 1011 m.

x′2 = 15 mm = 15 × 10–3 m Soln.: I = 1400 W m–2 ; l = 6000 Å, (c = 3 × 108 m s–1)

5 × 0.8 × 6 × 10−7 hc

∴ d= = 8 × 10−5 m = 80 µm (a) Energy of the photon, E = hυ =

λ

2 × 15 × 10−3

Let n be the number of photons received/s per

Illustration 12 : Assume that light of wavelength unit area.

6000 Å is coming from a star. What is the limit IA (1400 × 1) × (6000 × 10 −10 )

of resolution of telescope whose objective has a n= =

E/Photon 6.63 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108

diameter of 100 inch?

Soln.: The limit of resolution of a telescope, = 4.22 × 1021.

(b) Total energy emitted per second = power (watt)

1.22λ Power of sun(W)

dθ = n / sec =

D E/photon

Page 38

i.e., hu0 = W0.

I × ( 4 πR 2 ) × (6000 × 10 −10 )

= where u0 is the threshold frequency and W0 is the

6.63 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108 work function. If the frequency of incident light is less

(R average radius of earth’s orbit)

than u0, no photoelectric emission takes place.

= 1.178 × 1045

Kinetic energy of photoelectrons is

PHOTO ELECTRIC EFFECT ∆KE = hυ − hυ0 = h( υ − υ0 )

The phenomenon of emission of electrons from a 1 1 1 1

metallic surface when radiation of suitable frequency = hc − = 12400 − eV .

λ λ 0 λ λ 0

falls on it is called photo electric effect.

The photo (light) generated electrons are called photo Illustration 14 : A beam of light has three wavelengths

electrons. 4144 Å, 4972 Å and 6216 Å with a total intensity of

Photoelectric effect is a general phenomenon exhibited 3.6 × 10–3 W m–2 equally distributed amongst the three

by all substances but is most easily observed with wavelengths. The beam falls normally on an area

metals. When radiation of suitable frequency (called 1.0 cm2 of a clean metallic surface of work function

threshold frequency) is incident on a metallic 2.3 eV. Assuming that there is no loss of light

surface, electrons are emitted from the metal surface. by reflection and that each energetically capable

The threshold frequency is different for different photon ejects one electron. Calculate the number

metals. of photo-electrons liberated in 2 seconds.

Some Points : Soln.: Three different wavelengths are incident

If the frequency of incident radiation is equal to or on metal surface, so first determine which is (are)

greater than threshold frequency for the metals, capable of ejecting photo-electrons.

electrons will be emitted from the metal, no matter For photo-emission, l ≤ l0. Given: W0 = 2.3 eV

how low is the intensity of radiation. W0 = hc/l0

If the frequency of incident radiation is less than the hc 6.63 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108

⇒ λ0 = = = 5404 Å

threshold frequency for the metal, no photoelectrons W0 2.3 × 1.6 × 10 −19

will be emitted from the metal surface, no matter

⇒ only wavelengths 4144 Å and 4972 Å will cause

how great is the intensity of radiation.

photo-emission (6216 Å > l0)

Work function Intensity of each incident wavelength

The minimum amount of work or energy necessary to = 3.6 × 10–3/3 = 1.2 × 10–3 Wm–2

take a free electron out of a metal against the attractive [Q I is distributed equally among three

forces of surrounding positive ions inside metals is wavelengths]

called the work function of the metal. IA

W0 = hu0, where u0 is the threshold frequency. n / second =

hc / λ

An electron can undergo collisions with other electrons,

n / second (l = 4144 Å)

protons or macroscopically with the atom. In this process

−3 −4 −10

it will fritter away its energy. Therefore, electrons with( λ = 4144 Å) = (1.2 × 10 ) × (10 ) × 4144 × 10

n / second = 2.5 × 1011

K.E. ranging from 0 to K. E.max will be produced. 6.63 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108

Einstein’s photoelectric equation n / second (l = 4972 Å)

According to Einstein, photon energy is utilized for

(1.2 × 10 −3 ) × (10 −4 ) × 4972 × 10 −10

two purposes. n / sec( λ = 4972 Å) = −34 8

= 3 × 1011

Partly for getting the electron free from the atom and 6 .63 × 10 × 3 × 10

away from the metal surface. This energy is known ⇒ total electrons emitted/second = 5.5 × 1011

as the photoelectric work function of the metal and ⇒ total electrons emitted in 2 seconds = 11 × 1011

is represented by W0.

Stopping potential

The balance of the photon energy is used up in giving

This is the value of negative potential difference

1 2

the electron a kinetic energy of mv . which just stops the electrons with maximum kinetic

2

1 2 energy from reaching the anode. If Vs is the stopping

hυ = W0 + mv

2 potential, then

In the case the photon energy is just sufficient to

1 2 .

liberate the electron only, the kinetic energy of the eVs = mvmax

electron is zero. 2

Page 39

Experimental Features and Observations of The photoelectric emission is an instantaneous

Photoelectric Effect process without any apparent time lag (~ 10–9 s or

For a given photosensitive material and frequency of less), even when the incident radiation is made

incident radiation (above the threshold frequency) exceedingly dim.

the photoelectric current is directly proportional to DAVISSON AND GERMER EXPERIMENT

the intensity of incident light. The wave nature of electrons was first experimentally

verified by C.J. Davisson and L.H. Germer in 1927

Photoelectric

current

scattered by crystals.

THOMSON'S MODEL OF ATOM

Intensity of light The first model of atom was proposed by J.J. Thomson

in 1898. According to this model, the positive charge

For a given photosensitive material and frequency of the atom is uniformly distributed throughout

of incident radiation, saturation current (the the volume of the atom and the negatively charged

maximum value of photoelectric current) is found electrons are embedded in it like seeds in a watermelon.

to be proportional to the intensity of incident This model was picturesquely called plum pudding

radiation whereas the stopping potential is model of the atom.

independent of its intensity.

RUTHERFORD’S MODEL OF ATOM

According to this model, the entire positive charge and

Photoelectric

I3 > I2 > I1

most of the mass be concentrated in a small region

current

I3 the nucleus in orbits just as the planets revolving

I2 around the sun.

I1

Stopping Rutherford’s Scattering Formula

potential The formula that Rutherford obtained for alpha

–V0 O particle scattering by a thin foil on the basis of the

Retarding Collector plate Rutherford’s model of the atom is given by

potential potential Ni ntZ 2 e 4

N (θ) =

(8 πε 0 ) r K sin 4 (θ / 2)

2 2 2

For a given photosensitive material, there exists a

certain minimum cut-off frequency of the incident where N(q) = number of alpha particles per unit area

radiation, called the threshold frequency, below that reach the screen at a scattering angle of q

which no emission of photoelectrons takes place, Ni = total number of alpha particles that reach the

no matter how intense the incident light is. Above screen

the threshold frequency, the stopping potential or n = number of atoms per unit volume in the foil

equivalently the maximum kinetic energy of the Z = atomic number of the foil atoms

emitted photoelectrons increases linearly with the r = distance of the screen from the foil

frequency of incident radiation, but is independent K = kinetic energy of the alpha particles

of its intensity. t = foil thickness

The fraction of incident alpha particles scattered by

an angle q or greater is

2

Stopping Metal A Ze 2 2θ

potential > 0 f = πnt cot 2

Metal B 4 πε0 K

(V0) > 0

Impact Parameter

It is defined as the perpendicular distance of the

initial velocity vector of the alpha particle from the

O 0 0 ( )

Frequency of incident radiation

central line of the nucleus, when the particle is far

away from the nucleus of the atom.

Page 40

The scattering angle q of the a particle and impact Bohr’s Formulae

parameter b are related as Radius of nth orbit

Ze 2 cot(θ / 2) 4 πε 0n2 h 2 ε 0n2 h 2

b= rn = =

4 πε0 K

4 π 2mZe 2 πmZe 2

where K is the kinetic energy of the a particle and For hydrogen atom, Z = 1

Z is the atomic number of the nucleus.

Smaller the impact parameter, larger the angle of ε 0n2 h 2

rn = = a0n2

scattering q. πme 2

Distance of Closest Approach h 2ε0

where a0 = = 0.53 × 10 −10 m = 0.53 Å is called

At the distance of closest approach whole of the πme 2

kinetic energy of the alpha particles is converted into Bohr’s radius

potential energy. Velocity of electron in nth orbit

Distance of closest approach is given by Ze 2

1 2 πZe 2 αcZ c Z

2 Ze 2 vn = = = =

r0 = 4 πε 0 nh 2ε0nh n 137 n

4 πε0 K

where c = speed of light

BOHR’S MODEL OF ATOM

e2 1

Bohr developed a theory of hydrogen and hydrogen- α= =

like atoms which have only one orbital electron. His 2ε0 hc 137

postulates are as follows : a is called fine structure constant and is a pure number.

An electron can revolve around the nucleus only Frequency of electron in nth orbit

2

in certain allowed circular orbits of definite energy vn 1 4π 2 Z2 e 4m me 4 Z2

υn = = =

and in these orbits it does not radiate. These orbits 2 πrn 4 πε 0 n3h 3 4ε 02n3 h 3

are called stationary orbits.

Time period of revolution of electron in nth orbit

Angular momentum of the electron in a stationary

orbit is an integral multiple of h/2p. 2 πrn n3 h 3 ( 4 πε 0 )2 4 ε 02n3 h 3

Tn = = =

nh nh vn 4π 2 Z2 e 4m me 4 Z2

i.e., L = or, mvr =

2π 2π Kinetic energy of electron in n orbit

th

where m is the mass of the electron, v is the velocity 1 Ze 2 1 2 π2me 4 Z2

Kn = =

of the electron, r is the radius of the orbit and n is a 4 πε0 2rn 4 πε0 n2 h 2

positive integer called principal quantum number.

13.6 Z2

This postulate is equivalent to saying that in a = eV.

stationary state, the circumference of a circular n2

Potential energy of electron in nth orbit

orbit contains integral numbers of de Broglie

2

wavelength. 1 Ze 2 1 4 π2me 4 Z2

nh nh Un = − = −

2 πr = nλ = i.e. L = mvr = . 4 πε0 rn 4 πε0 n2 h 2

mv 2π

The emission of radiation takes place when an −27.2 Z2

= eV

electron makes a transition from a higher to a lower n2

orbit. The frequency of the radiation is given by Total energy of electron in nth orbit

2

E2 − E1 1 2 π2me 4 Z2

υ= En = Un + Kn = −

h 4 πε0 n2 h 2

where E2 and E1 are the energies of the electron in 2

13.6 Z

the higher and lower orbits respectively. =− eV.

n2

Since the centripetal force for circular orbit is Frequency of emitted radiation

provided by the Coulomb’s force, we have When an electron makes a transition from initial

1 Ze 2 mv 2 state ni , to final state nf , (ni > nf) then the frequency

=

4 πε0 r 2 r of emitted radiation is given by

where Z is the atomic number of the element and 1 1

υ = RcZ2 −

e is the electronic charge. 2 2

n f ni

Page 41

Wavelength of emitted radiation is given by Ionization energy and ionization potential

2

1 1 1 Ionization energy = 13.6 Z eV.

= RZ2 − 2

λ 2 2 n

n

f ni

where R is called Rydberg’s constant. 13.6 Z2

Ionization potential = volt.

2

1 2 π2me 4 n2

R= = 1.097 × 107 m −1. Hydrogen spectrum

4 πε0 ch 3

1 In emission line spectrum of hydrogen atom,

is called wave number and is denoted by υ. various lines are obtained at different regions of

λ

This relation holds for radiation by hydrogen like the spectrum. Each group of line is called series of

atoms i.e. spectral lines and these series are named after the

H (Z = 1), He+ (Z = 2), Li++ (Z = 3) and Be+++ (Z = 4) names of their discoverer.

Name Initial state Final Wavelength Wavelength Series limit Region

of state formula of first line of (Minimum

series series (Maximum wavelength)

wavelength)

Lyman ni = 2, 3, 4, 5,.... nf = 1 UV

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

=R − =R − =R −

2 2 2

λ

1 ni

λ max 12 2 2 λ min 12

∞

4 1

λ max = λ min =

3R R

Balmer ni = 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, nf = 2 Visible

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

8, ..... =R − =R − =R −

2

λ

2 ni2 λ max 2 2

32 λ min 22 ∞2

36 4

λ max = λ min =

5R R

Paschen ni = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, nf = 3 Infrared

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

9, .... =R − =R − =R −

λ 2 2 λ max 2 2 λ min 2 2

3 ni 3 4 3 ∞

144 9

λ max = λ min =

7R R

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

=R − =R − =R −

2 2 2

λ

4 ni

λ max 4 2 52 λ min 4 2

∞

400 16

λ max = λ min =

9R R

Pfund n i = 6, 7, 8, 9, nf = 5 Far

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10,..... =R − =R − = R − Infrared

2

λ

5 ni2 λ max 5 2

62 λ min 52 ∞ 2

900 25

λ max = λ min =

11R R

Number of spectral lines due to transition of electron ENERGY QUANTISATION AND ATOMIC MASSES

from nth orbit to lower orbit is In quantum mechanics, the energies of a system are

n(n − 1) discrete or quantised. The energy of a particle of

N=

2 mass m is confined to a box of length L can have only

discrete values of energy given by the relation

Page 42

n2 h 2 Then, ∆m = Zmp + ( A − Z) mn − M ( Z, A)

En = 2

where n = 1, 2 , 3 , .........

8mL This mass defect is in form of energy and is responsible

Atomic masses refer to the masses of neutral for binding the nucleons together. From Einstein’s

atoms, not of bare nuclei. Thus an atomic mass mass-energy relation,

always includes the masses of its Z electrons. E = mc 2 (c is speed of light , m is mass)

Atomic masses are expressed in atomic mass

⇒ Binding energy = ∆mc 2

unit (u) or amu. The value of an atomic mass unit is Generally, Dm is measured in amu units. So let us

1 u = 1.66054 × 10–27 kg calculate the energy equivalent to 1 amu. It is calculated

The energy equivalent of an atomic mass unit is

931.49 MeV.

(

in eV electron volt, 1 eV = 1.6 × 10 −19 J )

( )

2

1 × 1.67 × 10 −27 × 3 × 108

NUCLEUS E ( ≡ 1 amu ) = eV

It exists at the centre of an atom, containing entire 1.6 × 10 −19

positive charge and almost the whole of the mass. = 931 × 106 eV = 931 MeV

The electrons revolve around the nucleus to form an

⇒ B. E. = ∆m (931) MeV

atom. The nucleus consists of protons (+ve charge)

and neutrons (no charge). There is another quantity which is very useful in

A proton has positive charge, equal in magnitude to predicting the stability of a nucleus called as binding

that of an electron, (1.6 × 10–19 C) and a mass equal energy per nucleon.

to 1836 times that of an electron. ∆m (931)

Β. Ε. per nucleon = MeV.

A neutron has no charge and its mass is approximately A

equal to that of the proton (1.6726 × 10 −27 kg ) From the Plot of B.E./Nucleon Vs Mass Number (A),

(1837 times that of an electron). we observe that :

A particular set of nucleons forming an atom is called

a nuclide. It is represented as ZXA. 8.7

Binding energy per

nucleon (in MeV)

Isotopes 8

The nuclides having same number of protons (Z),

6

but different number of nucleons (A) are called

isotopes. 4

Isobars 2

The nuclides having the same number of nucleons

20 60 180

(A), but different number of protons(Z) are called Mass number (A)

isobars.

B.E./nucleon increases on an average and reaches a

Isotones

maximum of about 8.7 MeV for A ≡ 50-80.

The nuclides having the same number of neutrons

For heavier nuclei, B.E./nucleon decreases slowly

(A – Z) are called isotones.

as A increases. For the heaviest natural element

MASS DEFECT AND BINDING ENERGY 238

U it drops to about 7.5 MeV.

The nucleons are bound together in a nucleus and From above observation, it follows that nuclei

the energy has to be supplied in order to break apart in the region of atomic masses 50-80 are most

the constituents into free nucleons. The energy with stable.

which nucleons are bound together in a nucleus is

called binding energy (B.E.). In order to free nucleons NUCLEAR FORCES

from a bound nucleus, this much of energy ( = B.E.) The protons and neutrons are held together by the

has to be supplied. strong attractive forces inside the nucleus. These

It is observed that the mass of a nucleus is always forces are called as nuclear forces.

less than the mass of its constituent (free) nucleons. Properties of the Nuclear Force

This difference in mass is called as mass defect and Nuclear force is short ranged. It exists in small

is denoted as Dm. (

region of diameter 10 −15 m = 1 fm . The nuclear )

If mn = mass of neutron and mp = mass of a proton force between two nucleons decreases rapidly as

M ( Z, A ) = mass of bound nucleus the separation between them increases and becomes

negligible at separation more than 10 fm.

Page 43

Nuclear force is much stronger than electromagnetic Illustration 15 : It is proposed to use the nuclear

force and gravitational force. fusion reaction, 12H + 12H → 24He in a nuclear reactor,

Nuclear force is independent of charge. The nuclear of 200 MW rating. If the energy from above reaction is

force between two protons is same as that between used with a 25% efficiency in the reactor, how many

two neutrons or between a neutron and proton. grams of deuterium will be needed per day?

This is known as charge independent character of (The masses of 12H and 24He are 2.0141 amu and

nuclear force. 4.0026 amu respectively.)

Soln.: Let us first calculate the Q value of nuclear

NUCLEAR REACTION reaction.

In nuclear reaction, sum of masses before reaction is Q = Dmc2 = Dm(931) MeV

greater than the sum of masses after the reaction. The

⇒ Q = ( 2 × 2.0141 − 4.0026 ) × 931 MeV

difference in masses appears in the form of energy

following the law of inter-conversion of mass and energy. = 23.834 MeV = 23.834 × 106 eV.

The energy released in a nuclear reaction is called as Now efficiency of reactor is 25%.

Q value of a reaction and is given as follows : So effective energy used

If difference in mass before and after the reaction 25

= × 23.834 × 106 × 1.6 × 10 −19 J = 9.534 × 10 −13 J

is Dm amu 100

Dm = mass of reactants minus mass of products, then Now 9.534 × 10–13 J energy is released by fusion

Q value = Dm(931) MeV of 2 deuterium.

Law of conservation of momentum is also followed. (9.534 × 10 −13 )

⇒ J/deuterium is released.

Total number of protons and neutrons should also 2

remain same on both sides of a nuclear reaction. Requirement is 200 MW = 200 × 106 J s–1 × 86400 for

Nuclear Fission 1 day.

The breaking of a heavy nucleus into two or more No. of deuterium nuclei required

fragments of comparable masses, with the release of 200 × 106 × 86400

= = 3.624 × 10 25

tremendous amount of energy is called as nuclear 9.534 −13

× 10

fission. The most typical fission reaction occurs when 2 m

slow moving neutrons strike 235 U. The following Number of deuterium nuclei = × 6 × 10 23

92 M

nuclear reaction takes place. m

3.624 × 10 25 = × 6 × 10 23

235

+ 10 n → 141

U 92

+ 310 n + 200 MeV 2

92 56 Ba + 36 Kr

2 × 3.624 × 10 25

Nuclear Fusion ⇒m= = 120.83 g day −1.

6 × 10 23

The process in which two or more light nuclei are

combined into a single nucleus with the release of RADIOACTIVITY

tremendous amount of energy is called as nuclear The phenomenon of spontaneous emission of radiation

fusion. Like a fission reaction, the sum of masses before or particles from the nucleus is called radioactivity.

the fusion (i.e. of light nuclei) is more than the sum The substances which emit these radiations are

of masses after the fusion (i.e. of bigger nucleus) and called as radioactive substances. It was discovered by

this difference appears as the fusion energy. The most Henry Becquerel for atoms of radium. Later it was

typical fusion reaction is the fusion of two deuterium discovered that many naturally occurring compounds

nuclei into helium. of heavy elements like radium, thorium etc also emit

radiations.

2

H + 12 H → 42He + 24 MeV

1 At present, it is known that all the naturally occurring

For the fusion reaction to occur, the light nuclei elements having atomic number greater than 82 are

are brought closer to each other (with a distance of radioactive. For example some of them are; radium,

10–14 m). This is possible only at very high temperature polonium, thorium, actinium, uranium, radon etc.

to counter the repulsive force between nuclei. Due Later on Rutherford found that emission of radiation

to this reason, the fusion reaction is very difficult always accompanied by transformation of one element

to perform. The inner core of sun is at very high (transmutation) into another. Actually radioactivity

temperature, and is suitable for fusion, in fact the is the result of disintegration of an unstable nucleus.

source of energy in sun and other stars is the nuclear Rutherford studied the nature of these radiations and

fusion reaction. found that these mainly consist of a, β, γ rays.

Page 44

4

a-Particles ( 2 He) N0 − λT

⇒ = N0 e 1 / 2 …(ii)

These carry a charge of +2e and mass equal to 4mp. 2

These are nuclei of helium atoms. The energies of From (i) and (ii), we get

a-particles vary from 5 MeV to 9 MeV and their t/T n

Nt 1 1 / 2 1

velocities vary from 0.01-0.1 times of c (velocity of = =

light). They can be deflected by electric and magnetic N0 2 2

fields and have low penetrating power but high n = number of half lives

ionizing power. The mean life (Tm) of a radioactive substance is

0 equal to the sum of life times of all atoms divided

β-Particles (–1e)

by the number of all atoms. It is given by

These are fast moving electrons having charge equal

1

to –e and mass me = 9.1 × 10 −31 kg . Their velocities Tm =

vary from 1% to 99% of the velocity of light (c). They λ

can also be deflected by electric and magnetic fields. Illustration 16 : The mean lives of a radio active

They have low ionizing power but high penetrating substance are 1620 and 405 years for a-emission

power. β+ particles are positrons. and β-emission respectively. Find out the time

0

γ-Radiation ( 0 γ) during which three fourth of a sample will decay

These are electromagnetic waves of nuclear origin if it is decaying both the a-emission and β-emission

and of very short wavelength. They have no charge simultaneously.

and no mass. They have maximum penetrating power Soln.: When a substance decays by a and β emission

and minimum ionising power. The energy released simultaneously, the average rate of disintegration

in a nuclear reaction is mainly emitted in the form lav is given by

of γ radiation. λ av = λ α + λ β

Laws of Radioactive Decay where λ α = disintegration constant for a-emission

Rutherford-Soddy laws (Statistical Laws) only

The disintegration of a radioactive substance is λβ = disintegration constant for β-emission only.

random and spontaneous. Mean life is given by

Radioactive decay is purely a nuclear phenomenon 1

Tm =

and is independent of any physical and chemical λ

conditions. 1 1 1

⇒ lav = la + lβ ⇒ = +

The radioactive decay follows first order kinetics, Tm Tα Tβ

i.e., the rate of decay is proportional to the number

1 1

of undecayed atoms in a radioactive substance at = + = 3.08 × 10 −3

1620 405

any time t .

If dN be the number of atoms (nuclei) disintegrating 100

λ av t = 2.303 log

in time dt, the rate of decay is given as dN / dt . From 25

first order of kinetic rate law (3.08 × 10−3 ) t = 2.303 log 100

25

dN 1

= − λN , where l is called as decay or ⇒ t = 2.303 × log 4 = 450.17 years.

dt

3.08 × 10 −3

disintegration constant.

Let N0 be the number of nuclei at time t = 0 and Soddy Fajan Laws (Group-Displacement Laws)

Nt be the number of nuclei after time t, then When a nuclide emits one a-particle (42He), its

according to integrated first order rate law, we mass number (A) decreases by 4 units and atomic

have number (Z) decreases by 2 units.

N N

Nt = N0 e − λt ⇒ λt = ln 0 = 2.303 log 0 A

ZX → A−4

Z − 2Y + 42He + Energy

Nt Nt

When a nuclide emits a β-particle, its mass number

The half life (T1/2) period of a radioactive remains unchanged but atomic number increases

substance is defined as the time in which one-half

by one unit.

of the radioactive substance is disintegrated. If N0

be the number of nuclei at t = 0, then in a half life

A

ZX → Z +A1Y + −1 e 0 + υ + Energy

T1/2, the number of nuclei decayed will be N0/2. where υ is antineutrino.

In the nucleus, due to conversion of neutron into

N t = N 0 e − λt …(i) proton, antineutrino is produced. It has no charge

Page 45

Wave Motion

Wavelength and Wave velocity

1

v=

lυ

λ=λ

T nv n T

υ

= =

t x

2π 2L 2L m

y=

A sin 2 π

+ =

A sin ( vt +

x)

T λ λ

Velocity of Transverse φ

=

t

2π

x

++φ

T λ

0

Wave in Solids and Strings

v 1 T

υ

0 = = ,

η 2L 2L m

v=

ρ 2π

∆

φ

= t.

∆

T

2π

T ∆

φ

= x.

∆

v= , λ 1

m n+

1 v

2 T

υ

=

n +

=

dy 2 πA t x

2 2L 2L m

u= =cos 2 π

+

dt T

T λ

v 1 T

υ

0 = =

2πA 4L 4L m

u0 == A

ω

T

Velocity of Longitudinal Waves

2

du 4π t x

a= −A sin 2π

= +

dt 2 T λ

T

4 2

κ+ η 4π 2

a0 =A = ω A

v =3 T 2

ρ Organ Pipes

2 2

1ω A T 2

Pav = 2π

= mvA 2υ

2

2 v

Y v

v= υ

1= =

υ

ρ 2L

Stationary Waves

κ

v= nv

ρ

2L

2π

x 2π

t

y=

±2 a sin cos

λT

κ P

iso =

v= .

ρρ

λ3λ v

x=

0, , λ

, .... υ

1= =

υ

2 2 4L

κ γP λ 3λ 5λ

v=adia = , x= , , ...

ρρ 4 4 4

CP

γ

=

CV λ 3λ 5λ

x= , , ...

4 4 4

λ3λ

1ω2 2

Aκ 2π2

κ P0 v

2

P02 x=

0, , λ

, ...

I= = A2 v2 = = 2 2

2 v v 2κ 2ρ v

λ

2

λ

.

Factors affecting velocity of 4

Sound through gases L2 − 3 L1

=

Doppler's Effect in Sound 2

1

v∝

ρ Beats Formation

v2 ρ1

=

v1 ρ2

v+v −v

v∝

T =m 0 ×

υ

′ υ

v+

vm −

vs

vt T 273 +t

== v–v

v0 T0 273 =0 ×

υ

′ υ

v−vs

or mass, but has momentum. When a proton is A0 = 2 Ci ⇒ A0 = A10 + A20 = 2 ...(i)

converted to a neutron, a neutron and a +ve β-particle

Initial ratio of atoms of isotopes = 2 : 1

is produced, which is called as positron. β rays are

From definition of activity,

electrons and β+ are the antielectrons or positrons. A = λN

1

0n →11 p + −10 e + υ (antineutrino ) A10 λ 1N10 N10 T2

⇒ = = ×

A20 λ 2 N 20 N 20 T1

1

1p → 10n + +01e ( positron ) + υ ( neutrino )

where T represents half life

Antineutrino and neutrino share the energy of A 2 25 50 25

⇒ 10 = × = = …(ii)

electrons and positrons. That is the reason why A20 1 14 14 7

the energy of β is continuous and β rays has a On solving equation (i) and (ii), we get

energy maximum. 7 25

When a γ particle is produced, both atomic and A20 = and A10 =

16 16

mass number remain constant.

At = A10 e −λ1 t + A20 e −λ 2 t

Activity of a Radioactive Isotope

0.693 0.693

The activity of a radioactive substance (or radioisotope) 25 − 14 × 30 7 − 25 × 30

⇒ At =

e + e

means the rate of decay per second or the number 16 16

of nuclei disintegrating per second. It is generally Consider the first exponential term:

denoted by A. −

0.693 × 30

dN e = e −1.485

14

A=

dt Let y = e–1.485 ⇒ ln y = − 1.485

At time t = 0, the activity of a radioactive substance −1.485 −1.485

⇒ log y = ⇒ y = antilog

be A0 and after time t = t s, activity be At then 2.303 2.303

dN So, from above calculations you can derive a general

A0 = = − λN 0 result i.e.,

dt t = 0

−x

dN e −x = antilog

At = = − λN t 2.303

dt t = t 25 7

At = × 0.2265 + × 0.4354 = 0.5444 Ci.

At = A0 e −λt 16 16

Unit of Activity

Form IV

The activity is measured in terms of curie (Ci). 1 curie

1. Place of Publication : New Delhi

is the activity of 1 g of a freshly prepared sample of

2. Periodicity of its publication : Monthly

radium 226Ra(T1/2 = 1602 years.)

3. Printer’s and Publisher’s Name : Mahabir Singh

1 curie = 1 Ci = 3.7 × 1010 dps (disintegration per second)

Nationality : Indian

1 dps is also known as 1 Bq (becquerel) Address : Physics For You,

⇒ 1 Ci = 3.7 × 1010 Bq 406, Taj Apartment,

New Delhi - 110029.

Illustration 17 : Radioisotopes of phosphorus 32P 4. Editor’s Name : Anil Ahlawat

and 35P are mixed in the ratio of 2 : 1 of atoms. The Nationality : Indian

activity of the sample is 2 Ci. Find the activity of Address : Physics For You,

the sample after 30 days. T1/2 of 32P = 14 days and 19, National Media

T1/2 of 35P is 25 days. Center, Gurgaon

Soln.: Let A0 = initial activity of sample. Haryana - 122002

A10 = initial activity of isotope 1 and 5. Name and address of : Mahabir Singh

A20= initial activity of isotope 2. individuals who own the 406, Taj Apartment,

A0 = A1t + A20 newspapers and partners or New Delhi

shareholders holding more than

Similarly for final activity (Activity after time t) one percent of the total capital

At = A10 + A2t I, Mahabir Singh, here by declare that particulars given above

are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.

⇒ At = A10 e −λ1t + A20 e −λ 2t

Mahabir Singh

Now in the given equation, Publisher

Page 48

QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE

1. A convex lens forms an image of an object placed emitted per second per unit area from the surface

20 cm away from it at a distance of 20 cm on the will be

other side of the lens. If the object is moved 5 cm (Given, h = 6.64 × 10–34 J s, c = 3 × 108 m s–1)

towards the lens, the image will move (a) 12 × 1018 (b) 10 × 1018

(a) 5 cm towards the lens (c) 1.2 × 1018 (d) 12 × 1016

(b) 5 cm away from the lens

8. If the atom 257 Fm follows the Bohr model and the

(c) 10 cm towards the lens 100

(d) 10 cm away from the lens radius of fifth orbit of 257

100

Fm is N times the Bohr

radius, then find the value of N is

2. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of a single slit is

(a) 100 (b) 200

formed in the focal plane of a lens of focal length

(c) 4 (d) 1/4

1 m. The width of slit is 0.3 mm. If third minimum

is formed at a distance of 5 mm from central 9. What is the refractive index of material of a

maximum, then wavelength of light will be planoconvex lens, if the radius of curvature of the

(a) 5000 Å (b) 2500 Å convex surface is 10 cm and focal length of the

(c) 7500 Å (d) 8500 Å lens is 30 cm?

6 7

3. Energy required to remove an electron from an (a) (b)

5 4

aluminium surface is 4.2 eV. If light of wavelength 2 4

2000 Å falls on the surface, the velocity of faster (c) (d)

3 3

electrons ejected from the surface is

10. In a Young’s double slit experiment, the fringes

(a) 2.5 × 1018 m s–1 (b) 2.5 × 1013 m s–1

18 –1 are displaced by a distance x when a glass plate

(c) 6.7 × 10 m s (d) 8.4 × 105 m s–1

of refractive index 1.5 is introduced in the path

4. The half-life for the a-decay of Uranium 238 is of one of the beams. When this plate is replaced

92 U

4.47 × 109 yr. If a rock contains sixty percent of its by another plate of same thickness, the shift of

original 238 U atoms, its age is fringes is (3/2)x. The refractive index of second

92 plate is

[Given, log 6 = 0.778; log 2 = 0.3] (a) 1.75 (b) 1.50

(a) 3.3 × 109 yr (b) 6.6 × 109 yr (c) 1.25 (d) 1.00

(c) 1.2 × 108 yr (d) 5.4 × 107 yr

11. The binding energy of deuteron (12 H) is 1.15 MeV

5. A ray of light incident at an angle q on a refracting

face of a prism emerges from the other face per nucleon and an alpha particle ( 42 He) has

normally. If the angle of the prism is 5° and the binding energy of 7.1 MeV per nucleon. Then

prism is made of a material of refractive index 1.5, in the reaction 12 H + 12H → 42 He + Q , the energy

the angle of incidence is released Q is

(a) 7.5° (b) 5° (c) 15° (d) 2.5° (a) 5.95 MeV (b) 26.1 MeV

6. Consider sunlight incident on a slit of width (c) 23.8 MeV (d) 289.4 MeV

104 Å. The image seen through the slit shall 12. In Young’s experiment the wavelength of red light

(a) be a fine sharp slit white in colour at the is 7.5 × 10–5 cm and that of blue light 5.0 × 10–5 cm.

centre The value of n for which (n + 1)th blue bright band

(b) a bright slit white at the centre diffusing to coincides with nth red band is

zero intensities at the edges (a) 8 (b) 4

(c) a bright slit white at the centre diffusing to (c) 2 (d) 1

regions of different colours

13. The magnifying power of a telescope is 9. When it

(d) only be a diffused slit white in colour

is adjusted for parallel rays, the distance between

7. Light rays of wavelength 6000 Å and of photon the objective and the eye-piece is found to be

intensity 39.6 W m–2 is incident on a metal 20 cm. The focal lengths of the lenses are

surface. If only 1% of photons incident on surface (a) 18 cm, 2 cm (b) 11 cm, 9 cm

emit photoelectrons, then the number of electrons (c) 10 cm, 10 cm (d) 15 cm, 5 cm

Page 49

14. An object is placed 30 cm to the left of a diverging proton is 1.007277 amu and mass of neutron is

lens whose focal length is of magnitude 20 cm. 1.008665 amu. Mass defect of lithium nucleus in

Which one of the following correctly states the amu is

nature and position of the virtual image formed? (a) 0.04048 (b) 0.04050

Nature of image Distance from lens (c) 0.04052 (d) 0.04055

(a) inverted, enlarged 60 cm to the right Directions : Question number 22 and 23 have

(b) erect, diminished 12 cm to the left Statement-I and Statement-II. Of the four choices

(c) inverted, enlarged 60 cm to the left given after the Statements, choose the one that best

(d) erect, diminished 12 cm to the right describes the two Statements.

15. The angular momentum of electron in 3d orbital (a) Statement-I is false, Statement-II is true.

of an atom is (b) Statement-I is true, Statement-II is true, Statement-II

h is the correct explanation of Statement-I.

h

(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) Statement-I is true, Statement-II is true, Statement-II

2π 2π

is not the correct explanation of Statement-I.

h h (d) Statement-I is true, Statement-II is false.

(c) 6 (d) 12

2π 2π

22. Statement-I : The pattern and position of fringes

16. The binding energy of an electron in the ground shift after the introduction of a transparent

state of He is equal to 24.6 eV. The energy required medium in the path of one of the slits.

to remove both the electrons is

Statement-II : The central fringe is bright or dark

(a) 49.2 eV (b) 24.6 eV

does not depend upon the initial phase difference

(c) 38.2 eV (d) 79.0 eV between the two coherent sources.

17. A convex lens of focal length 0.15 m is made of a 23. Statement-I : A biconvex lens of focal length

material of refractive index 3/2. When it is placed 10 cm is split into two equal parts by a plane

in a liquid, its focal length is increased by 0.225 m. parallel to its principal axis. The focal length of

The refractive index of the liquid is each part will be 20 cm.

7

(a) (b) 5 Statement-II : Focal length depends on the radii

4 4 of curvature of two surfaces.

9 3

(c) (d) 24. Taking the Bohr radius as a0 = 53 pm, the radius of

4 2

Li++ ion in its ground state, on the basis of Bohr’s

18. A transparent thin plate of a polaroid is placed on

model, will be about

another similar plate such that the angle between (a) 53 pm (b) 27 pm (c) 18 pm (d) 13 pm

their axes is 30°. The intensities of the emergent

and the unpolarized incident light will be in the 25. In a nuclear reactor, moderators slow down the

ratio of neutrons which come out in a fission process. The

(a) 1 : 4 (b) 1 : 3 (c) 3 : 4 (d) 3 : 8 moderator used have light nuclei. Heavy nuclei

will not serve the purpose because

19. When an object is kept at a distance of 30 cm from (a) they will break up

a concave mirror, the image is formed at a distance (b) elastic collision of neutrons with heavy nuclei

of 10 cm. If the object is moved with a speed of will not slow them down

9 m s–1, the speed with which image moves is (c) the net weight of the reactor would be

(a) 10 m s–1 (b) 1 m s–1 unbearably high

(c) 9 m s –1 (d) 0.9 m s–1 (d) substances with heavy nuclei do not occur in

20. When the electromagnetic radiations of liquid or gaseous state at room temperature.

frequencies 4 × 1015 Hz and 6 × 1015 Hz fall on the 26. A plastic sheet (refractive index = 1.6) covers

same metal, in different experiments, the ratio of one slit of a double slit arrangement meant for

maximum kinetic energy of electrons liberated is the Young’s experiment. When the double slit is

1 : 3. The threshold frequency for the metal is illuminated by monochromatic light (wavelength

(a) 2 × 1015 Hz (b) 1 × 1015 Hz in air = 6600 Å), the centre of the screen appears

15

(c) 3 × 10 Hz (d) 4 × 1015 Hz dark rather than bright. The minimum thickness of

7Li the plastic sheet to be used for this to happen is

21. 3

nucleus has three protons and four neutrons.

Mass of 37Li nucleus is 7.016005 amu. Mass of (a) 3300 Å (b) 6600 Å

(c) 2062 Å (d) 5500 Å

Page 50

27. Light of wavelength 1500 Å fall on aluminium

surface. Work function of aluminium is 4.2 eV. 2 × 2 × 1.6 × 10 −19

⇒ v=

What is the kinetic energy of the fastest emitted 9.1 × 10 −31

photoelectrons? 6.4

(a) 2 eV (b) 1 eV (c) 4 eV (d) 0.2 eV = × 106 m s −1 = 0.84 × 106 m s −1.

9.1

28. If the series limit wavelength of Lyman series for = 8.4 × 105 m s–1

the hydrogen atom is 912 Å, then the series limit

wavelength for Balmer series of hydrogen atom 60

4. (a) : Here, T1/2 = 4.47 103 yr, N = N

is 100 0

n n

(a) 912 Å (b) 912 × 2 Å N 1 60 1 10

= ⇒ = or 2n =

912 N0 2 100 2 6

(c) 912 × 4 Å (d) Å

2 ⇒ n log 2 = log 10 – log 6 = 1 – 0.778 = 0.222

29. One of the refracting surfaces of a prism of angle

30° is silvered. A ray of light incident at an angle 0.222 0.222

∴ n= = = 0.74

of 60° retraces its path. The refractive index of the log 2 0.3

material of prism is Now, t = nT1/2 = 0.74 × 4.47 × 109 yr = 3.3 × 109 yr.

3 5. (a) : Here, A = 5°, m = 1.5, i = q, e = 0°

(a) 3 (b) (c) 2 (d) 2

2 As the emergent ray is normal to the refracting

30. The focal length of objective and eye-piece of surface of the prism

a microscope are 1 cm and 5 cm respectively. If Hence, for a small angled prism,

the magnifying power for relaxed eye is 45, then d = (m – 1)A,

length of the tube is d = (1.5 – 1)5° = 2.5°

(a) 9 cm (b) 15 cm (c) 12 cm (d) 6 cm Since, A + d = i + e,

⇒ 5° + 2.5° = q + 0°

SOLUTIONS

or q = 7.5°

1. (d) : Clearly, 2f = 20 cm or f = 10 cm 6. (a) : Diffraction effects will be observable only

Now, u = –15 cm, f = 10 cm when width of the slit (a) is of the order of

1 1 1 wavelength of light (l).

Using lens formula, − =

v −15 10 Here, a = 104 Å and l ~ 103Å

1 1 1 1 1 1 7. (c) : Useful intensity for the emission of electron

or + = or = −

v 15 10 v 10 15 is

1 3−2 1 1

or = = or v = 30 cm I ′ = 1% of I = × 39.6 = 0.396 W m −2

v 30 30 100

The change in image distance is (30 – 20) cm i.e., Energy of each photon = hc

10 cm away from the lens. λ

ax ax (6.64 × 10 −34 ) × ( 3 × 108 )

2. (a) : As for minima, nl = asinq = or λ = = = 3.32 × 10 −19 J

f nf 6000 × 10 −10

x No. of photoelectrons emitted per second per unit

sin θ = area

f

Here, a = 0.3 mm = 0.3 × 10–3 m, x = 5 mm = 5 × 10–3 m, 0.396

= ≈ 1.2 × 1018

−19

n = 3, f = 1 m. 3.32 × 10

0.3 × 10 −3 × 5 × 10 −3 n2

∴ λ= = 5 × 10 −7 m = 5000 Å. 8. (d) : As rn = a ,where n is the orbit number. For

3×1 Z 0

1 hc 257

Fm, Z = 100

3. (d) : From mv 2 = − φ0 (in eV) 100

2 eλ

25 1

1 6.6 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108 \ r5 = a0 = a0

∴ mv 2 = − 4.2 = 6.2 − 4.2 100 4

2 2000 × 10 −10 × 1.6 × 10 −19 r5 1 1

or = ⇒ N=

= 2 eV = 2 × 1.6 × 10–19 J r0 4 4

Page 51

9. (d) 15. (c) : The angular momentum is given by

D h

10. (a) : As, y0 = (µ − 1)t L = l(l + 1)

d 2π

For same D, d and t, we have, For 3d electron, l = 2.

x (1.5 − 1) 2 1 h h

= ⇒ = ∴ L = 2( 3) = 6

3 (µ − 1) 3 2(µ − 1) 2π 2π

x

2 16. (d) : Helium atom has 2 electrons. When one

1 4 3 electron is removed, the remaining atom is

⇒ = ⇒ µ −1= hydrogen like atom, whose energy in first orbit is

µ −1 3 4

E1 = –(2)2(13.6 eV) = – 54.4 eV

7

\ µ= = 1.75 Therefore, to remove the second electron from the

4 atom, the additional energy of 54.4 eV is required.

11. (c) : Given, 12 H +12 H → 42 He + Q Hence, total energy required to remove both the

The total binding energy of the deutrons electrons = 24.6 + 54.4 = 79.0 eV.

= 4 × 1.15 = 4.60 MeV 17. (b) : According to lens maker’s formula

The total binding energy of alpha particle

1 µ2 1 1

= 4 × 7.1 = 28.4 MeV = − 1 −

\ The energy released in the process f µ1 R1 R2

= 28.4 – 4.60 = 23.8 MeV where m1 is the refractive index of the medium in

which lens is placed and m2 is the refractive index

12. (c) : For bright fringe, n1 l1 = n2 l2

of the material of the lens.

\ n(7.5 × 10–5) = (n + 1)(5 × 10–5)

\ For a convex lens in air

⇒ 2.5 × 10–5n = 5 × 10–5

1 µg 1 1

5.0 × 10 −5 = − 1 − ...(i)

or n= = 2. fa µ a 1R R 2

2.5 × 10 −5 For the same convex lens in liquid

f0

13. (a) : As for a telescope magnitying power, M =

fe 1 µg 1 1

= − 1 − ...(ii)

f0

\ 9= or f0 = 9 fe

fl µ l R1 R2

fe Dividing (i) by (ii), we get

Also, L = f0 + fe or 20 = f0 + fe fl µ g − µ a µl

or 20 = 9fe + fe or 20 = 10 fe ⇒ fe = 2 cm = ×

fa µa µ g − µl

\ f0 = 9 × 2 cm = 18 cm

Here, fl = 0.150 + 0.225 = 0.375 m

14. (b) : When an object is placed between 2f and f Substituting the given values, we get

(focal length) of the diverging lens, the image is

3

virtual, erect and diminished as shown in the ray −1

0.375 2 µl

diagram. = ×

0.15 1 3

− µ l

µl 2

5

⇒ =

2 3 − 2µ l

or 5(3 – 2ml) = 2ml

12ml = 15

15 5

µl = =

12 4

To calculate the distance of the image from the 18. (d) : Let I0 be the intensity of unpolarized light,

lens, we apply then intensity of light from first transparent thin

1 1 1 1 1 1 plate of a polaroid is

= − ⇒ = −

f v u −20 v 30 I

I= 0

( 20)( 30) 2

⇒ v=− Now this light will pass through the second

20 + 30 similar plate whose axis is inclined at an angle of

= – 12 cm (to the left of the diverging lens.)

30° to that of first plate.

Page 52

According to Malus law, the intensity of emerging 25. (b) : During an elastic collision between two

light is particles, the maximum kinetic energy is

2

I′ 3 transferred from one particle to the other when

I0 3 3

I ′ = I cos 2 30° = = I0 \ = they have the same mass. Consequently, a

2 2 8 I0 8

neutron loses all of its kinetic energy when it

19. (b) : According to mirror formula, collides head-on with a proton, in analogy with

1 1 1 the collision between a moving billiard ball and

+ = a stationary one. For this reason, materials which

u v f

Differentiating with respect to t, we get are abundant in hydrogen such as paraffin and

1 du 1 dv water, are good moderators for neutrons.

∴ − 2 − =0 ( f is constant) 26. (d) : The path difference produced by a sheet

u dt v 2 dt

Dx = (m – 1)t

2

dv v du According to the given condition (for minimum

or =−

dt u dt thickness)

2 λ

v dv du (µ − 1)t =

vi = − vo = vi and = vo 2

u dt dt

Substituting the given values, we get λ 6600 × 10 −10

∴ t= = = 5500 Å.

2 2(µ − 1) 2(1.6 − 1)

10

vi = − × 9 = − 1 m s −1

30

27. (c) 28. (c)

|vi| = 1 m s–1

29. (a) : Given, A = 30°, i1 = 60°

20. (c) : According to Einstein’s photoelectric As the ray retraces its path on reflection at the

equation

silvered face therefore,

hu = hu0 + KEmax

i2 = 0, r2 = 0

For first experiment, h × 4 × 1015 = hu0 + x ...(i)

As r1 + r2 = A

For second experiment, h × 6 × 1015 = hu0 + 3x...(ii)

\ r1 + 0 = 30°

Subtracting equation (i) from (ii), we get,

or r1 = 30°

2x = h × 2 × 1015 or x = h × 1015

Putting in equation (i) sin i1 sin 60°

µ= =

hu0 = h × 4 × 1015 – h × 1015 = 3 × h × 1015 sin r1 sin 30°

or u0 = 3 × 1015 Hz.

3/2

21 (a) = = 3.

1/ 2

22. (d) : The effective path in air is increased by

30. (b) : For the relaxed eye, magnifying power is

(m – 1)t due to introduction of a transparent

v D

medium of refractive index m and thickness t. M= o

Accordingly, the central fringe shifts to a new uo fe

position. vo 25 v

The central fringe is bright or dark depends on the ∴ − 45 = − × or o = 9.

uo 5 uo

initial phase difference between the two coherent

sources. For objective lens, image is real.

v

23. (a) : Both the parts will be biconvex lenses, each of ∴ vo = + vo , uo = − o .

focal length 10 cm. 9

Focal length depends on the radii of curvatures of Given, fo = 1 cm.

the two surfaces. 1 1 1

From − =

24. (c) : Radius of Li++ ion in its ground state, i.e., vo uo fo

ε0h2 1 9 1

r0 = + = ; v = 10 cm.

πmZe 2 vo vo 1 o

ε0h2 a0 53 pm

As Bohr radius, a0 = ⇒ r0 = = ≈ 18 pm Length of the tube = vo + fe = 10 + 5 = 15 cm

2 Z 3

πme

( for Li, Z = 3) nn

Page 53

1. Which one of the following is not correct about (a) 2.01 × 10–3 T (b) 5.64 × 10–3 T

Lorentz Force? (c) 2.64 × 10–4 T (d) 5.01 × 10–4 T

(a) In presence

of electric field E(r ) and magnetic 5. An electron having momentum 2.4 × 10–23 kg m s–1

field B(r ) the force

on a moving electric enters a region of uniform magnetic field of

charge is F = q[E(r ) + v × B(r )] .

0.15 T. The field vector makes an angle of 30° with

(b) The force, due to magnetic field on a negative

the initial velocity vector of the electron. The radius of

charge is opposite to that on a positive

the helical path of the electron in the field shall be

charge.

(a) 2 mm (b) 1 mm

(c) The force due to magnetic field become zero

if velocity and magnetic field are parallel or 3

(c) mm (d) 0.5 mm

anti-parallel. 2

(d) For a static charge the magnetic force is 6. An electron is moving in a cyclotron at a speed

maximum. of 3.2 × 107 m s–1 in a magnetic field of 5 × 10–4 T

2. A 4 A current carrying loop consists of three perpendicular to it. What is the frequency of this

identical quarter circles of radius 5 cm lying in the electron?

positive quadrants of the x-y, y-z and z-x planes (e = 1.6 × 10–19 C, me = 9.1 × 10–31 kg)

with their centres at the origin joined together, (a) 1.4 × 105 Hz (b) 1.4 × 107 Hz

value of B at the origin is (c) 1.4 × 106 Hz (d) 1.4 × 109 Hz

µo ^ ^ ^ µo ^ ^ ^

(a) (i + j− k) T (b) (− i + j+ k) T 7. A proton is accelerating on a cyclotron having

10 10 oscillating frequency of 11 MHz in external

µo ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ magnetic field of 1 T. If the radius of its dees is

(c) (i + j+ k) T (d) 10µ o ( i + j + k ) T

5 55 cm, then its kinetic energy (in MeV) is

3. A long straight wire carrying current of 30 A rests (mp = 1.67 × 10–27 kg, e = 1.6 × 10–19 C)

on a table. Another wire AB of length 1 m, mass (a) 13.36 (b) 12.52

3 g carries the same current but in the opposite (c) 15.89 (d) 14.49

direction, the wire AB is free to slide up and

down. The height upto which AB will rise is 8. A straight wire having mass of 1.2 kg and length

(a) 0.6 cm (b) 0.7 cm of 1 m carries a current of 5A. If the wire is

(c) 0.4 cm (d) 0.5 cm suspended in mid-air by a uniform horizontal

magnetic field, then the magnitude of field is

4. A circular coil of radius 10 cm having 100 turns

(a) 0.65 T (b) 1.53 T

carries a current of 3.2 A. The magnetic field at

(c) 2.4 T (d) 3.2 T

the center of the coil is

Page 54

9. A m a g n e t i c f i e l d 13. A solenoid of length 0.6 m has a radius of 2 cm

^

B = B0 j exists in the and is made up of 600 turns. If it carries a current

region a < x < 2a and of 4 A, then the magnitude of the magnetic field

^

B = − B0 j in the region inside the solenoid is

2a < x < 3a, where B0 is (a) 6.024 × 10–3 T (b) 8.024 × 10–3 T

a positive constant. A (c) 5.024 × 10 T

–3 (d) 7.024 × 10–3 T

positive point charge 14. The inner and outer radius of a toroid core are

moving with a velocity 28 cm and 29 cm respectively and around the core

^ 3700 turns of a wire are wounded. If the current

v = v0 i where v0 is a positive constant, enters

in the wire is 10 A, then the magnetic field inside

the magnetic field at x = a. The trajectory of the

the core of the toroid is

charge in this region can be like,

(a) 2.60 × 10–2 T (b) 2.60 × 10–3 T

(c) 4.52 × 10–2 T (d) 4.52 × 10–3 T

15. The horizontal component of earth’s magnetic

(a) (b) field at a certain place is 3.0 × 10–5 T and having a

direction from the geographic south to geographic

north. The force per unit length on a very long

straight conductor carrying a steady current of

1.2 A in east to west direction is

(a) 3.0 × 10–5 N m–1 (b) 4.5 × 10–5 N m–1

(c) 3.6 × 10–5 N m–1 (d) 5.5 × 10–5 N m–1

(c) (d)

16. A circular coil of wire consisting of 100 turns

each of radius 9 cm carries a current of 0.4 A.

The magnitude of magnetic field at the centre

10. A straight wire carrying a current of 13 A is bent of the coil is

into a semi-circular arc of radius 2 cm as shown (a) 2.4 × 10–4 T (b) 3.2 × 10–4 T

in figure. The magnetic field is 1.5 × 10–4 T at (c) 2.79 × 10–4 T (d) 3.92 × 10–4 T

the centre of arc, then the magnetic field due to 17. A circular coil of 70 turns and radius 5 cm carrying

straight segment is a current of 8 A is suspended vertically in a

uniform horizontal magnetic field of magnitude

1.5 T. The field lines make an angle of 30° with

the normal of the coil then the magnitude of the

counter torque that must be applied to prevent

(a) 1.5 × 10–4 T (b) 2.5 × 10–4 T the coil from turning is

(c) zero (d) 3.0 × 10–4 T (a) 33 N m (b) 3.3 N m

^

(c) 3.3 × 10–2 N m (d) 3.3 × 10–4 N m

11. An element of 0.05 i m is

placed at the origin as shown 18. The electric current in a circular coil of two turns

in figure which carries a large produced a magnetic induction of 0.2 T at its

current of

of 10 A. The magnetic centre. The coil is unwound and then rewound

field at a distance of 1 m in into a circular coil of four turns. If same current

perpendicular direction is flows in the coil, the magnetic induction at the

(a) 4.5 × 10–8 T (b) 5.5 × 10–8 T centre of the coil now is

–8

(c) 5.0 × 10 T (d) 7.5 × 10–8 T (a) 0.2 T (b) 0.4 T

(c) 0.6 T (d) 0.8 T

12. Two particles of equal charges after being

accelerated through the same potential difference 19. A circular coil of 25 turns and radius 12 cm is

enter in a uniform transverse magnetic field and placed in a uniform magnetic field of 0.5 T normal

describe circular paths of radii R1 and R2. Then to the plane of the coil. If the current in the coil

the ratio of their respective masses (M1/M

/ 2) is is 6 A then total torque acting on the coil is

(a) R1/R2 (b) (R1/R2)2 (a) zero (b) 3.4 N m

(c) R2/R1 (d) (R2/R1)2 (c) 3.8 N m (d) 4.4 N m

Page 55

20. A current I is flowing 25. If electron moving

with velocity v produces a

through a loop. The magnetic field B, then

direction of the current (a) the direction of field B will be same in the

and the shape of the loop

direction of velocity v.

are as shown in the figure.

(b) the direction of field B will be opposite to

The magnetic field at the

µ I the direction of velocity v .

centre of the loop is 0

(c) the direction of field B will be perpendicular

times R

to the direction of velocity v.

(Here, MA = R, MB = 2R, ∠DMA = 90°)

(d) the direction of field B does not depend upon

5

(a) , out of the plane of the paper. the direction of velocity v.

16

5 26. A long straight wire in the horizontal plane carries

(b) , into the plane of the paper. a current of 75 A in north to south direction,

16

7 magnitude and direction of field B at a point 3 m

(c) , out of the plane of the paper. east of the wire is

16

7 (a) 4 × 10–6 T, vertical up

(d) , into the plane of the paper. (b) 5 × 10–6 T, vertical down

16

(c) 5 × 10–6 T, vertical up

21. What is the correct value of Bohr magneton?

(d) 4 × 10–6 T, vertical down

(a) 8.99 × 10–24 A m2 (b) 9.27 × 10–24 A m2

(c) 5.66 × 10–24 A m2 (d) 9.27 × 10–28 A m2 27. A proton and an a-particle enter in a uniform

22. If an electron is projected with uniform velocity magnetic field perpendicularly with same speed.

along the axis of a current carrying long solenoid, Tp

then The ratio of time periods of both particle

will be Tα

(a) the electron will be accelerated along the axis.

(b) the electron will continue to move with uniform (a) 1 : 2 (b) 1 : 3

velocity along the axis of the solenoid. (c) 2 : 1 (d) 3 : 1

(c) the electron path will be circular about the

28. A conductor of length 2 m carrying current 2 A

axis.

(d) the electron will experience a force at 45° to is held parallel to an infinitely long conductor

the axis and hence executes a helical path. carrying current of 12 A at a distance of 100 mm,

the force on small conductor is

23. A circular current loop of magnetic moment M is

(a) 8.6 × 10–5 N (b) 6.6 × 10–5 N

in an arbitrary orientation in an external magnetic

field B . The work done to rotate the loop through (c) 7.6 × 10 N

–5 (d) 9.6 × 10–5 N

45° about an axis perpendicular to its plane is 29. A short bar magnet has a magnetic moment of

3 MB 0.65 J T–1, then the magnitude and direction of

(a) zero (b)

2 the magnetic field produced by the magnet at a

(c) MB (d) 2MB distance 8 cm from the centre of magnet on the

2 axis is

24. A uniform conducting wire (a) 2.5 × 10–4 T, along NS direction

of length 18 a and resistance (b) 2.5 × 10–4 T, along SN direction

R is wound up as current (c) 4.5 × 10–4 T, along NS direction

carrying coil in the shape of (d) 4.5 × 10–4 T, along SN direction

a regular hexagon of sides a.

30. A galvanometer of resistance 50 W is connected to

If the coil is connected to a

a battery of 3 V along with a resistance of 2950 W

voltage source Vo , then the

magnetic moment of coil is in series. A full scale deflection of 30 divisions is

2 obtained in the galvanometer. In order to reduce

Vo 2 3 Vo a

(a) 6 3 a A m2 (b) 9 A m2 this deflection to 20 divisions, the resistance in

R 2 R

series should be

2

7 3 Vo a

2 11 3 Vo a (a) 6050 W (b) 4450 W

(c) A m2 (d) A m2

2 R 2 R (c) 5050 W (d) 5550 W

Page 56

SOLUTION q 2B2 R 2 (1.6 × 10 −19 )2 × (1)2 × ( 55 × 10 −2 )2

\ K.E. = =

1. (d) : If charge is not moving then the magnetic 2m 2 × 1.67 × 10 −27

force is zero. = 23.19 × 10–13 J

Since Fm = q( v × B) 23.19 × 10 −13

= eV= 14.49 × 106 eV = 14.49 MeV

As v = 0, for stationary charge 1.6 × 10 −19

8. (c) : For mid-air suspension the upward force F

\ F =0

m

on wire due to magnetic field B must be balanced

2. (d) : As B = Bxy + Byz + Bzx …(i) by the force due to gravity,

µ I µ I µ I ⇒ IlB = mg

where Bxy = o θ k , Byz = o θ i , Bzx = o θ j , mg

4π R 4π R 4π R B=

Il

Substituting these values in equation (i) we get,

µ I Here, m = 1.2 kg, g = 10 m s–2, I = 5 A, l = 1 m

B = o θ[i + j + k ] 1.2 × 10

4π R \ B= = 2.4 T

5×1

π

Here, q= , I = 4 A and R = 5 cm = 5 × 10–2 m 9. (a) : Force on the charged particle in a magnetic

2

field, F = q( v × B).

µ 4 π

\ B= o × × (i + j + k ) In the region a < x < 2a, the force on the charged

4 π 5 × 10 −2 2 ^ ^

particle, must be in the direction of i × j , that

^ ^ ^ is, in +z direction, which is vertically upwards.

= 10µ 0 ( i + j + k ) T

And in the region 2a < x < 3a, the force on the

3. (a) : Here I1 = I2 = 30 A, l = 1 m, charged particle will be in –z direction, which is

m = 3 g = 3 × 10–3 kg vertically downwards.

In equilibrium position, For a < x < 2a, path will be concave upward.

µ o 2 I 1I 2 l For 2a < x < 3a, path will be concave downward.

mg = Moreover, there should not be any kink in the path at

4π h

x = 2a.

µ 2I I l 2 × 30 × 30 × 1

h = o × 1 2 = 10 −7 × Hence graph (a) is correct.

4π mg 3 × 10 −3 × 10

–3 10. (c) : Since dl and r for each element of the straight

= 6 × 10 m = 0.6 cm

segments are either parallel or antiparallel.

µ o NI Therefore

4. (a) : As B = , Here N = 100, I = 3.2 A,

2R dl × r = 0

and R = 10 cm = 10 ×10–2 m = 0.1 m Hence, B due to straight segment is also zero.

4 π × 10 −7 × 100 × 3.2 µ o Idl sin θ

\ B= = 2.01 × 10 −3 T 11. (c) : dB =

2 × 0.1 4π r 2

5. (d) : The radius of the helical path of the electron Here, dl = Dx = 0.05 m, I = 10 A, r = 1 m

in the uniform magnetic field is and sinq = sin 90° = 1,

mv⊥ mv sin θ ( 2.4 × 10 −23 kg m s −1 ) × sin 30° 10 × 0.05 × 1

r= = = \ dB = 10–7 ×

(1)2

eB eB (1.6 × 10 −19 C) × (0.15 T)

= 5 × 10–4 m = 0.5 × 10–3 m = 0.5 mm = 0.50 × 10–7 = 5.0 × 10–8 T

6. (b) : Here, v = 3.2 × 107 m s–1, B = 5 × 10–4 T 12. (b) : qV = 1 Mv 2 or v = 2qV …(i)

The frequency of electron is 2 M

eB 1.6 × 10 −19 × 5 × 10 −4 Mv 2

υ= = And Bqv =

2 πme 2 × 3.14 × 9.1 × 10 −31 R

= 1.4 × 107 Hz = 14 MHz Mv M 2qV 2qVM

or Bq = = = (Using (i))

7. (d) : Here, uc = 11 MHz = 11 × 106 Hz R R M R

B = 1 T, R = 55 cm = 55 × 10–2 m, B2 q 2 R 2 B2 qR 2

e = 1.6 × 10–19C and mp = 1.67 × 10–27 kg, or M= =

2qV 2V

Page 57

B , q and V are same for the 18. (d) : When there are two turns in the coil, then

∴ M ∝ R2 given two particles l

l = 2 × 2 πr1 or r1 =

4π

2

M1 R1 µ N I µ × 2 × I µ 0 4 πI

Hence = then B1 = 0 1 = 0 =

M2 R2 2r1 2 × (l / 4π) l

When there are four turns in the coil, then

13. (c) : Here, l = 0.6 m and r = 0.02 m l

l = 4 × 2 πr2 or r2 =

600 8π

n= = 1000 turns / m, I = 4 A

0.6

Then B = µ 0 N 2 I = µ 0 × 4 × I = µ 0 16 πI

... l 2

2r2 2 × (l / 8π) l

= 30 i.e. l >> r

r B1 4 1

Hence, we can use long solenoid formula, ⇒ = = or B2 = 4B1 = 4 × 0.2 T = 0.8 T

\ B = monI = 4p × 10–7 × 103 × 4 = 50.24 × 10–4 B2 16 4

= 5.024 × 10–3 T 19. (a) : The torque acting on the coil

14. (a) : The number of turns per unit length for the | τ |=| m × B| = mB sin θ

N Here the circular coil is placed normal to the

given toroid, n =

2πrav direction of magnetic field then the angle between

The average radius of toroid, the direction of magnetic moment

(m) and magnetic

28 + 29 field (B) is zero, then

rav = = 28.5 cm = 28.5 × 10 −2 m

2 t = mBsinq = mBsin 0 = 0 ⇒ \ t = 0

3700 20. (d) : Magnetic field at the centre M due to current

\ n= through the curved portion DA is

2 × 3.14 × 28.5 × 10 −2

= 2067.27 ≈ 2067 turns/m. µ 0 I 3π

B1 = × into the plane of the paper

Now, B = monI = 4p × 10–7 × 2067 × 10 4 πR 2

= 259615.2 × 10–7 T = 2.60 × 10–2 T

3µ 0 I

15. (c) : Since F = Il × B = into the plane of the paper

8R

\ F = IlBsinq Magnetic field at the centre

F M due to current through

Now force per unit length, f = = IB sin θ

l the straight portion AB is

When the current is flowing from east to west B2 = 0

then q = 90°, hence (... point M lies on the axis of

f = IBsin90° = 1.2 × 3 × 10–5 × 1= 3.6 × 10–5 N m–1 the straight portion AB)

Magnetic field at the centre M due to current

16. (c) : Here, N = 100

through the curved portion BC is

R = 9 cm = 9 × 10–2 m and I = 0.4 A

µ0I π

µ NI 2 π × 10 −7 × 100 × 0.4 B3 = × int o the plane of the paper

Now, B = o = 4 π( 2 R) 2

2R 9 × 10 −2

2 × 3.14 × 0.4 µ0I

= × 10–3 = into the plane of the paper

9 16 R

= 0.279 × 10–3 T = 2.79 × 10–4 T Magnetic field at the centre M due to current

17. (b) : Here, N = 70 through the straight portion CD is B4 = 0

r = 5 cm = 5 × 10–2 m, I = 8 A (... point M lies on the axis of the straight portion

B = 1.5 T and q = 30° CD)

The counter torque to prevent the coil from The resultant magnetic field at M is

turning will be equal and opposite to the torque B = B1 + B2 + B3 + B4

acting on the coil, 3µ I µ I 3µ I µ I

= 0 +0+ 0 +0 = 0 + 0

\ t = NIAB sin q = NIpr2B sin 30° 8R 16 R 8R 16 R

1 7µ0I

= 70 × 8 × 3.14 × (5 × 10–2)2 × 1.5 × = into the plane of the paper

= 3.3 N m 2 16 R

Page 58

e The direction of field at the given point will be

21. (b) : Bohr Magnetron, µ B = (µ l )min = h

4 πme vertical up determined by the screw rule or right

Here, e = 1.6 × 10–19 C hand rule.

h = 6.64 × 10–34 J s 27. (a) : The time period of revolution of a charged

me = 9.1 × 10–31 kg particle in a magnetic field is

2πm

1.6 × 10 −19 × 6.64 × 10 −34 T=

\ µB = Bq

4 × 3.14 × 9.1 × 10 −31

For proton, mp = m, qp = q

= 9.27 × 10–24 A m2

2πm

22. (b) : Let the electron (e) is projected with a uniform \ Tp =

Bq

velocity (v) in a uniform magnetic field B. The

Now, for a-particle,

magnitude of force on it is

ma = 4 m, qa = 2q

| F |= − e | v × B|= − evB sin θ

2 π( 4 m ) 2 πm T 1

As q = 0, | F |= − evB sin θ = 0 \ Tα = = 2 = 2Tp or p =

B( 2q) Bq Tα 2

Hence the electron will continue to move with a

uniform velocity along the axis of the solenoid. 28. (d) : Here, I1 = 2 A, I2 = 12 A

r = 100 mm = 0.1m, l = 2 m

23. (a) : Due to rotation of the loop through 45° about The force per unit length on small conductor due

the axis perpendicular to the plane of loop there to long conductor

will be no change in the angle between magnetic µ 2I I

f = 0 12

moment M and magnetic field, therefore 4π r

q1 = 45° and q2 = 45° and Now total force on length l of small conductor

work done W = MB(cosq1 – cosq2) µ o 2 I 1I 2

= MB(cos45° – cos45°) = 0 F = f ×l= ×l

4π r

24. (b) : In the regular hexagon, if each arm length is 10 −7 × 2 × 2 × 12 × 2

a, then the number of turns in the given shape, = = 9.6 × 10 −5 N

0.1

18 a

N= =3 29. (b) : Here, M = 0.65 J T–1 and d = 8 cm = 0.08 m

6a

The field produced by magnet at axial point is

The area of given shape,

given by

3 3a2 µo 2M 2 × 0.65

A= B= = 10 −7 × = 2.5 × 10 −4 T along SN.

2 4π d 3

(0.08)3

Now magnetic moment M = NIA

3 3 2 9 3 Vo a

2

Vo 30. (b) : Total initial resistance = G + R

= 3×I × a = A m2 (∴ I = ) = 50 W + 2950 W = 3000 W

2 2 R R

3V

25. (c) : According to Biot Savart’s law, the magnetic Current , I = = 1 × 10 −3 A = 1 mA

field 3000 Ω

µ q( v × r ) If the deflection has to be reduced to 20 divisions,

B= o. then current

4π r3

1 mA 2

The direction of B will be along v × r , i.e. I′ = × 20 = mA

30 3

perpendicular to the plane containing v and r . Let x be the effective resistance of the circuit,

26. (c) : From ampere circuital law, 2

3 V = 3000 Ω × 1 mA = x Ω × mA

3

∫ B ⋅ dl = µ 0 Ienc 3

or x = 3000 × 1 × = 4500 Ω

B × 2pR = m0Ienc 2

µ 0 I enc 75 \ Resistance to be added = (4500 W – 50 W)

B= = 2 × 10 −7 × = 5 × 10 −6 T = 4450 W

2 πR 3

nn

Page 59

1. Two cars are moving in the same direction with a 6. A steel wire of length 20 cm and uniform cross-

speed of 30 km h–1. They are separated from each section 1 mm2 is tied rigidly at both the ends. The

other by 5 km. Third car moving in the opposite temperature of the wire is altered from 40°C to

direction meats the two cars after an interval of 20°C. Coefficient of linear expansion of steel is

4 min. What is the speed of the third car? a = 1.1 × 10–5 °C–1 and Y for steel is 2.0 × 1011 N m–2,

(a) 30 km h–1 (b) 35 km h–1 the tension in the wire is

(c) 40 km h–1 (d) 45 km h–1 (a) 2.2 × 106 N (b) 16 N

2. A 24 kg block resting on a floor has a rope tied (c) 8 × 106 N (d) 44 N

to its top. The maximum tension, the rope 7. A cylindrical vessel is filled with equal amounts

can withstand without breaking is 310 N. The by weights of mercury and water. The total height

minimum time in which the block can be lifted a of the two layers is 29.2 cm. The pressure of the

vertical distance of 4.6 m by pulling on the rope is liquid at the bottom of the vessel is (Given, specific

(a) 1.2 s (b) 2.9 s gravity of mercury is 13.6)

(c) 1.7 s (d) 2.3 s (a) 8 cm of Hg (b) 6 cm of Hg

3. An object of mass m is tied to a string of length (c) 4 cm of Hg (d) 2 cm of Hg.

L and a variable horizontal force is applied on it 8. At what temperature, the average kinetic energy

which starts at zero and gradually increases until of translatory motion of a gas molecule will be

the string makes an angle q with the vertical. equal to that of an electron accelerated through

Work done by the force F is a potentialdifference of 10 V? (Take Boltzmann

O

constant k = 1.38 × 10–23 J K–1)

(a) 2.42 × 103 K (b) 7.73 × 103 K

(c) 2.42 × 10 K

4

(d) 7.73 × 104 K

L

9. An electric charge 10–3 mC is placed at the origin (0, 0)

C F of X - Y co-ordinate system. Two points A and B

B are situated at ( 2 , 2 ) and (2, 0) respectively.

A

The potential difference between the points A and

(a) mgL (1 – sinq) (b) mgL B will be

(c) mgL (1 – cosq) (d) mgL (1 + cos q)

(a) 4.5 V (b) 9 V (c) zero (d) 2 V

4. A ball falls freely from a height of 45 m. When

the ball is at a height of 25 m, it explodes into two 10. A potential difference of 220 V is B

equal pieces. One of them moves horizontally maintained across a 12000 W

with a speed of 10 m s–1. The distance between the rheostat AB as shown in figure.

two pieces when both strike the ground is The voltmeter V has a resistance 220 V

(a) 10 m (b) 20 m (c) 15 m (d) 30 m of 6000 W and point C is at one

C

fourth of the distance from A V

5. The ratio of energy required to raise a satellite to a to B. What is the reading in the A

height h above the earth’s surface to that required voltmeter ?

to put it into the orbit is (a) 32 V (b) 36 V

(a) h : R (b) h : 2R (c) 2h : R (d) R : h (c) 40 V (d) 42 V

Page 60

11. A straight horizontal conducting rod of length (a) convex mirror of focal length 10 cm

50 cm and mass 50 g is suspended by two vertical (b) concave mirror of focal length 40 cm

wires at its ends. A current of 5.0 A is set up in (c) concav mirror of focal length 60 cm

the rod through the wires. What magnetic field (d) concave mirror of focal length 10 cm

should be set up normal to the conductor in order

18. The weight based ratio of U238 and Pb226 in a

that the tension in the wires is zero?

sample of rock is 4 : 3. If the half life of U238 is

(Take g = 10 m s–2)

4.5 × 109 years, then the age of rock is

(a) 0.05 T (b) 0.1 T

(a) 9.0 × 109 years (b) 6.3 × 109 years

(c) 0.2 T (d) 0.5 T

(c) 4.5 × 109 years (d) 3.78 × 109 years

12. A man of mass m squatting on the ground gets

19. A bottle weighing 220 g and of area of cross-

straight up and stands. The force of reaction of

section 50 cm2 and height 4 cm oscillates on the

ground on the man during the process is

surface of water in vertical position. Its frequency

(a) constant and equal to mg in magnitude

of oscillation is

(b) constant and greater than mg in magnitude

(a) 1.5 Hz (b) 2.5 Hz (c) 3.5 Hz (d) 4.5 Hz

(c) variable but always greater than mg

(d) at first greater than mg, and later becomes 20. Astring of density 7.5 g cm–3 and area of cross-section

equal to mg. 0.2 mm2 is stretched under a tension of 20 N.

When it is plucked at the midpoint, the speed of

13. A uniform rod of length l and mass m is swinging

freely about a horizontal axis passing through its the transverse wave on the wire is

end. Its maximum angular speed is w. Its centre of (a) 116 m s–1 (b) 40 m s–1

mass rises to a maximum height of (c) 200 m s –1

(d) 80 m s–1

(a) (b) plates has a capacitance of 9 pF. The separation

3 g 6 g

between the plates is d. The space between the

1 l 2ω2 1 l 2ω2

(c) (d) plates is now filled with two dielectrics. One of

2 g 6 g

the dielectrics has dielectric constant K1 = 3 and

14. A magnet is suspended lengthwise from a spring thickness d/3 while the other one has dielectric

and while it oscillates, the magnet moves in and constant K2 = 6 and thickness 2d/3. Capacitance of

out of the coil C connected to a galvanometer G. the capacitor is now

Then as the magnet oscillates, (a) 20.25 pF (b) 1.8 pF

(a) G shows no deflection (c) 45 pF (d) 40.5 pF

(b) G shows deflection on one side

(c) deflection of G to the left and right has 22. In the circuit shown, the value of

constant amplitude

(d) deflection of G to the left and right has

decreasing amplitude.

15. A 16 mF capacitor is charged to a 20 V potential.

The battery is then disconnected and a pure

40 mH coil is connected across the capacitor so (a) R = 15 W (b) R = 30 W

that LC oscillations are set up. The maximum (c) e = 36 V (d) e = 180 V

current in the coil is 23. Two resistances are connected in two gaps of

(a) 0.2 A (b) 40 mA a metrebridge. The balance point is 20 cm from

(c) 2 A (d) 0.4 A the zero end. A resistance of 15 W is connected in

16. In Young’s double slit expt., the distance between series with the smaller of the two. The null point

two sources is 0.1 mm. The distance of the screen shifts to 40 cm. The value of the smaller resistance

from the source is 20 cm. Wavelength of light in ohms is

used is 5460 Å. The angular position of the first (a) 3 (b) 6

dark fringe is (c) 9 (d) 12

(a) 0.08° (b) 0.16° (c) 0.20° (d) 0.32° 24. A circular loop of a wire and a long straight wire

17. A concave lens of focal length 20 cm placed in carry currents Ic and Il respectively as shown in

contact with a plane mirror acts as a figure. Assuming that these are palced in the

Page 61

same plane, the magnetic field will be zero at the 30. Two spherical conductors A and B of radii

centre O of the loop, when separation H is 1 mm and 2 mm are separated by a distance of

IR 5 cm and are uniformly charged. If the spheres

(a) l R are connected by a conducting wire, then in

Ic π

Ic equilibrium condition, the ratio of the magnitude

Ic R O

of the electric fields at the surfaces of spheres

(b)

Il π A and B is

H

Ic π (a) 4 : 1 (b) 1 : 2 (c) 2 : 1 (d) 1 : 4

(c)

Il R 31. In the circuit shown in figure, the potential

difference across 3 W is

Il π Il 6

(d) 2

Ic R 2A

tied together by a massless spring. A force of

200 N is applied on a 20 kg mass as shown in 4

figure. At the instant shown, the acceleration of

10 kg mass is 12 m s–2, the acceleration of 20 kg (a) 2 V (b) 4 V (c) 8 V (d) 16 V

mass is 32. A thin disc having radius r and charge q distributed

uniformly over the disc is rotated n rotations per

second about its axis. The magnetic field at the

10 kg 20 kg 200 N

centre of the disc is

µ0qn µ0qn

(a) (b)

(a) 0 (b) 10 m s–2 2r r

(c) 4 m s–2 (d) 12 m s–2. 3µ0qn 3µ0qn

(c) (d)

26. The mass of the earth is increasing at the rate of r 4r

1 part in 5 × 1019 per day by the attraction of 33. A square loop of side a

meteors falling normally on the earth’s surface. placed in the same plane as

a

Assuming that the density of earth is uniform, a long straight wire carrying I v

a current I. The centre of the 1

the rate of change of the period of rotation of the

earth is loop is at a distance r from r

(a) 2.0 × 10–20 (b) 2.66 × 10–19 the wire, where r >> a,

(c) 4.33 × 10 –18

(d) 5.66 × 10–17 figure. The loop is moved away from the wire

with a constant velocity v. The induced emf in the

27. The twisting couple per unit twist for a solid loop is

cylinder of radius 3 cm is 0.1 N m. The twisting

couple per unit twist, for a hollow cylinder of µ0 Iav µ0 Ia 3 v µ0 Iv µ0 Ia 2 v

(a) (b) (c) (d)

same material with outer and inner radius 5 cm 2 πr 2 πr 3 2π 2 πr 2

and 4 cm respectively will be 34. The focal length of a biconvex lens of refractive

(a) 0.1 N m (b) 0.455 N m index 1.5 is 0.06 m. Radius of curvatures are in

(c) 0.91 N m (d) 1.82 N m the ratio 1 : 2. Then radii of curvatures of two lens

surface are

28. A body takes 10 minutes to cool from 60°C to

(a) 0.045 m, 0.09 m (b) 0.09 m, 0.18 m

50°C. If the temperature of surroundings is 25°C,

(c) 0.04 m, 0.08 m (d) 0.06 m, 0.12 m

then temperature of body after next 10 minutes

will be 35. The diode used in the circuit shown in figure has a

(a) 48°C (b) 46°C constant voltage drop at 0.5 V at all currents and a

(c) 40°C (d) 42.85°C maximum power rating of 100 mW. What should

be the value of the resistor R, connected in series

29. When a gas filled in a closed vessel is heated with diode, for obtaining maximum current?

through 1°C, its pressure increases by 0.4%. The (a) 6.76 W R 0.5 V

initial temperature of the gas was (b) 20 W

(a) 250 K (b) 2500 K (c) 5 W 1.5 V

(c) 250°C (d) 25°C (d) 5.6 W

Page 62

36. The wavelength of the first line of Lyman series 43. A cubical room is formed with six plane mirrors.

for hydrogen atom is equal to that of the second An insect moves along the diagonal of the floor

line of Balmer series for a hydrogen like ion. The with uniform speed. The velocities of its images

atomic number Z of hydrogen like ion is in two adjacent walls are 20 2 cm s −1 , then the

(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 1 velocity of the image formed by the roof is

37. Light from a hydrogen discharge tube is incident (a) 10 2 cm s −1 (b) 20 cm s–1

on the cathode of a photoelectric cell. The work (c) 20 2 cm s −1 (d) 40 cm s–1

function of the cathode surface is 4.2 eV. In order

44. A bullet is fired from a gun. The force on the

to reduce the photocurrent to zero, the voltage of

bullet is given by F = 600 – 2 × 105 t, where F is in

the anode relative to the cathode must be made

newton and t is in seconds. The force on the bullet

(a) – 4.2 V (b) – 9.4 V

becomes zero as soon as it leaves the barrel. What

(c) – 17.8 V (d) + 9.4 V

is the average impulse imparted to the bullet?

38. The size of the image of an object, which is at (a) 9 N s (b) zero

infinity, as formed by a convex lens of focal length (c) 0.9 N s (d) 1.8 N s

30 cm is 2 cm. If a concave lens of focal length

45. An object of mass 5 kg falls from rest through a

20 cm is placed between the convex lens and the

vertical distance of 20 m and acquires a velocity of

image at a distance of 26 cm from the convex lens,

10 m s–1. The work done by the push of air on the

then the new size of the image is

object is (g = 10 m s–2)

(a) 1.25 cm (b) 2.5 cm

(a) 250 J (b) – 500 J

(c) 1.05 cm (d) 2 cm

(c) 750 J (d) – 750 J

39. Two point white dots are 1 mm apart on a black

SOLUTIONS

paper. They are viewed by an eye of pupil diameter

3 mm. Approximately, what is the maximum 1. (d) : Let speed of the third car be v km h–1.

distance at which these dots can be resolved by Then, relative speed of third car with respect to

the eye? (Take wavelength of light = 500 nm) two cars = (v + 30) km h–1

(a) 5 m (b) 1 m (c) 6 m (d) 3 m Two cars are separated by 5 km and third car

crosses them in 4 min.

40. The Earth is assumed to be a sphere of radius R.

A plateform is arranged at a height R from the 5 × 60

\ v + 30 = = 75

surface of the Earth. The escape velocity of a body 4

from the plateform is fv, where v is the escape ⇒ v = 75 – 30 = 45 km h–1

velocity from the surface of the Earth. The value 2. (c) : Effective upward force, F = T – mg

of f is = 310 – 24 × 9.8 = 74.8 N

(a) 1/2 (b) 2 \ upward acceleration, a = F/m

(c) 1 / 2 (d) 1/3 a = 74.8/24 = 3.12 m s–2

1 T

41. In a capillary tube experiment, a vertical 30 cm As s = ut + at 2

2

long capillary tube is dipped in water. The water 1

rises upto a height of 10 cm due to capillary action. 4.6 = 0 + × 3.12 × t 2 a

2

If the experiment is conducted in a freely falling 4 . 6

or t 2 = = 2.95

elevator, the length of the water column becomes 1.56

(a) 10 cm (b) 20 cm mg

or t = 2.95 ≈ 1.7 s

(c) 30 cm (d) zero

3. (c) : W = DK or WT + Wg + WF = 0

42. A stone is lying in a fluid stream. The force acting

on it depends on the density of the fluid, the

L cos L

velocity of flow and the maximum area of cross-

section perpendicular to the direction of flow. The L

force F and the velocity v of flow are related as

h

1

(a) F ∝ (b) F ∝ v

v

1 Here, WT = work done by tension = 0

(c) F ∝ v2 (d) F ∝

v2 Wg = work done by force of gravity

Page 63

= – mgh = – mgL (1 – cosq) Total pressure exerted by mercury and water on

\ WF = – Wg = mgL (1 – cosq) the bottom of vessel

4. (b) : Let at the time of explosion, velocity of one = h1 × 13.6 × g + h2 × 1 × g

= 2 × 13.6 × 980 + 27.2 × 1 × 980 dyne

piece of mass m/2 is (10i) . If velocity of other

27.2

be v2 , then from conservation of momentum =2+ = 2 + 2 = 4 cm of Hg

(since there is no force in horizontal direction), 13.6

8. (d) : Mean translational K.E. per molecule of a gas

horizontal component of v , must be −10i .

2 3

\ relative velocity of two parts in horizontal = kT

2

direction = 20 m s–1. Kinetic energy an of electron when accelerated

Time taken by ball to fall through 45 m, through a potential difference, V = eV

2h 2 × 45 3

t= = =3s \ eV = kT

g 10 2

and time taken by ball to fall through first 20 m, 2 eV 2 × (1.6 × 10 −19 ) × 10

T= = = 7.73 × 104 K

2 h′ 2 × 20 3k 3 × 1.38 × 10 −23

t′ = = = 2 s.

g 10

Hence time taken by ball pieces to fall from 25 m 9. (c) : r = 2 i^ + 2 j^

1

height to ground = t – t′ = 3 – 2 = 1 s.

( 2) + ( 2)

2 2

\ horizontal distance between the two pieces at | r1 |= r1 = =2

the time of striking on ground = 20 × 1 = 20 m.

^ ^

5. (c) : Energy required to raise a satellite to a height r2 = 2 i + 0 j

h (i.e. at distance r (= R + h) from the centre of

| r2 | = r2 = 2

earth) is

Potential at point A,

GM m GM m

E1 = − −− 1 q

r R VA =

4 πε0 r1

GMm(r − R) GMmh

= =

rR Rr 1 10 −3 × 10 −6

=

Energy spent in putting the satellite in orbit is 4 πε 0 2

1 1 GM GM Potential at point B,

E2 = mvo2 = m vo =

2 2 r r 1 q 1 10 −3 × 10 −6

VB = =

E1 2 h 4 πε 0 r2 4 πε 0 2

\ =

E2 R

\ VA – VB = 0.

6. (d) : Increase in length due to rise in temperature,

10. (c) : In case of linear rheostat, resistance R ∝ length L

DL = a L DT RAC AC B

FL YA ∆L \ =

As, Y = , so F = RAB AB

A ∆L L

YA × αL ∆T Here, RAB = 12000 W

= = YA α ∆T 220 V

1

L and AC = AB C

4

\ F = 2 × 1011 × 10–6 × 1.1 × 10–5 × 20 = 44 N 1 V

\ RAC = 12000 × = 3000 W

7. (c) : Let h1, h2 be the height of mercury and water 4 A

layers in the vessel. Let A be the area of cross- As the resistance RAC (= 3000 W) is in parallel with

section of the vessel. Since their weights are equal, voltmeter of resistance of 6000 W. Therefore, the

so effective resistance between points A and C will

(A × h1) × 13.6 × g = (A × h2) × 1 × g be

or h2 = 13.6 h1 3000 × 6000

′ =

RAC = 2000 Ω

Given, h1 + h2 = 29.2 cm ( 3000 + 6000)

or h1 + 13.6 h1 = 29.2 Resistance between points B and C

or h1 = 2 cm

RBC = RAB − RAC = 12000 Ω − 3000 Ω = 9000 Ω

\ h2 = 13.6 × 2 = 27.2 cm

Page 64

′ are in series. Therefore, the voltmeter

RBC and R AC 16. (b) : For first dark fringe (n = 1)

reading will be λD λD

x = ( 2n − 1) =

′ VAB

RAC 2000 2 d 2 d

VAC = = × 220 = 40 V x λ

( RBC + RAC

′ ) (9000 + 2000) Angular position, θ = =

D 2d

11. (c) : Here, l = 50 cm = 50 × 10–2 m 5460 × 10 −10

= radian

m = 50 g = 50 × 10–3 kg, I = 5.0 A 2 × 10 −4

Tension in the wires is zero, if the force on the rod 180

due to magnetic field is equal and opposite to the = 2730 × 10 −6 × degree = 0.16°

π

weight of the rod.

i.e., mg = BIl 1 2 1

17. (a) : As, = +

mg F fe fm

B =

Il For a plane mirror fm = ∞

Substituting the given values, we get f 20

\ F= e = = 10 cm

50 × 10 −3 × 10 2 2

B = = 0.2 T Hence arrangement behaves as a convex mirror of

5 × 50 × 10 −2

focal length 10 cm.

12. (d) : In the process of getting straight up and stand

from squatting position, the man exerts a variable 18. (d) : Let initial no. of U atoms = N0

force (F) on the ground to set his body in motion. After time t (age of rock), let no. of atoms

This force is in addition to the force required remaining undecayed = N.

to support his weight (mg). Once the man is in No. of atoms converted into lead = N0 – N

standing position, F becomes zero. 238 N 4 N

\ = ⇒ 0 = 1.79

226( N0 − N ) 3 N

13. (d) : When the centre of mass of the rod rises

through h, increase in PE = mgh. T log N0 /N

Now, t =

1 2 1 ml 2 2 log 2

Kinetic energy of the rod = I ω = ω

2 2 3 4.5 × 109 × log 1.79

= = 3.78 × 109 years

ml 2 2 1 l 2ω2 0.301

Thus, mgh = ω or h =

6 6 g 19. (b) : Let h be the depth of bottle in water then

m 200

14. (d) : As a given pole (N or S) of suspended magnet A h r g = mg or h = = = 4 cm

goes into the coil and comes out of it, current is Aρ 50 × 1

induced in the coil in two opposite directions. h 1 1 g

Now, T = 2π or υ = =

Therefore, galvanometer deflection goes to left g T 2π h

and right both. As amplitude of oscillation of

magnet goes on decreasing, so does the amplitude 7 980

= = 2.5 Hz

of deflection. 2 × 22 4

1 20. (a) : Given T = 20 N,

15. (d) : Energy stored in capacitor = CV 2

2 A = 0.2 mm2 = 0.2 × 10–6 m2

1 r = 7.5 g cm–3 = 7.5 × 103 kg m–3

= × 16 × 10 −6 × 20 2 = 3.2 × 10 −3 J Mass per unit length of the wire,

2

Energy supplied to inductor = 3.2 × 10–3 J m = Ar = 0.2 × 10–6 × 7.5 × 103 = 1.5 × 10–3 kg m–1

1 2 When a string is plucked at the midpoint it

\ LI = 3.2 × 10–3

2 vibrates with fundamental frequency.

Fundamental frequency of the stretched string is

1

or × ( 40 × 10 −3 )I 2 = 3.2 × 10 −3 1 T 1 20

2 υ= =

2 L µ 2 L 1.5 × 10 −3

2 × 3.2

⇒ I2 = Speed of transverse wave, v = u(2L)

40

4 1 20

⇒ I= = 0.4 A ∴ v= × 2 L 116 m s −1

10 2 L 1.5 × 10−3

Page 65

ε A Since B1 and B2 act in opposite direction, for

21. (d) : Here, C = 0 = 9 pF

d resultant magnetic field to be zero, B1 = B2 where,

ε0 K1 A 3K1ε0 A IR

Now, C1 = = H= l .

d/ 3 d Ic π

= 3 × 3 × 9 = 81 pF 25. (c) : Force on 10 kg block = m a = 10 × 12 = 120 N.

ε K A 3K 2 ε0 A Total force applied = 200 N

C2 = 0 2 = Force acting on 20 kg block = 200 – 120 = 80 N

2d / 3 2 d

\ acceleration of 20 kg block = 80/20 = 4 m s–2.

3×6

= × 9 = 81 pF

2 26. (a) : As angular momentum is conserved in the

As C1, C2 are connected in series, absence of a torque, therefore

1 1 1 1 1 2 I0w0 = Iw

\ = + = + =

Cs C1 C2 81 81 81 2 2 2π

2 2 2 MR

2

2π

MR = MR +

81 5 T0 5 5 5 × 1019 T

⇒ Cs = = 40.5 pF

2

T 1

= 1+

22. (d) : T0 5 × 1019

T 1

−1= = 2 × 10 −20

T0 5 × 1019

= 2 × 10 −20 or = 2 × 10 −20

Voltage across 30 W = 1.5 × 30 = 45 V T0 T0

As R2 and 30 W are in parallel

27. (b) : Twisting couple per unit twist for solid

\ Voltage across, R2 = 45 V

cylinder,

45 V

∴ R2 = πηR4

0.75 A τ1 = ...(i)

2l

R2 = 60 W 4

πη(r2 − r1 )4

Also, R1 = 60 W (... R1 = R2 (Given)) for hollow cylinder, τ2 =

2l

Voltage across, R1 = 2.25 × 60 W = 135 V r24 − r14 0.1 × ( 54 − 4 4 ) 36.9

\ e = (135 + 45)V = 180 V \ τ2 = τ1 = using (i), =

R4 34 81

l R

23. (c) : (i) As = , r24 − r14 0.1 × ( 54 − 4 4 ) 36.9

100 − l S τ2 = τ1 = =

4

R 34 81

R 20 1

\ = = , = 0.455 N m

S 100 − 20 4

which means R < S 28. (d) : According to Newton’s law of cooling,

l′ R + 15 T1 − T2 T + T

(ii) As = , = K 1 2 − T0

100 − l′ S t 2

40 R + 15 2 60 − 50 60 + 50

\ = = ...(i)

100 − 40 S 3 \ = K − 25

10 2

R 15 2 1 15 2 Let T be the temperature after another 10 minutes

or + = or + = ⇒ S = 36 W

S S 3 4 S 3 50 − T T + 50

\ = K − 25 ...(ii)

S 10 2

\ R= =9 Ω

4 Dividing (i) by (ii), we get

24. (a) : For the point O, 10 30 × 2 \ T = 42.85°C

µ I =

B1 = 0 c (due to circular loop) 50 − T T

2 R ⊗ 29. (a) : P1 = P and T1 = T,

µ I 0.4

B2 = 0 l (due to long straight wire) P2 = P + P = 1.004 P , T2 = (T + 1)

2 πH ⊗ 100

Page 66

P2 T2 µ0 I

As = B=

P1 T1 2 πr

As area of loop, A = a2

\ 1.004 P T + 1 1

= = 1+ and magnetic flux f = BA

P T T

µ Ia 2

1 \ φ= 0

or T= = 250 K 2 πr

0.004

The induced emf in the loop is

r1 1 mm 1

30. (c) : Here, = = . When the spheres dφ d µ0 Ia

2

r2 2 mm 2 e= =

are connected by a conducting wire, then the dt dt 2 πr

potentials on both conductors are same µ0 Ia 2 dr µ0 Ia 2 v

i.e., V1 = V2 , e= =

2 πr 2 dt 2 πr 2

q1 q2 q r 1

\ = ⇒ 1 = 1 = dr

4 πε0r1 4 πε0r2 q2 r2 2 where, v = is velocity.

dt

2 2

Now, E1 = q1 ⋅ r2 = 1 × 2 = 2 : 1 1 1 1

34. (a) : As, = (µ − 1) −

E2 q2 r1 2 1 f R1 R2

31. (a) : Net resistance of 6 W, 3 W and 2 W is 1 1 1

\ = (1.5 − 1) +

6×3

R= +2=4Ω 0.06 R1 R2

6+3

As resistance of arms in parallel are same, hence (Taking R1 positive and R2 negative)

current in upper arm, I = 1 A 1 1 1 100

or + = =

At junction, I = I1 + I2 ...(i) R1 R2 0.06 × 0.5 3

Potential difference across 6 W and 3 W = 6I1 = 3I2

R1 1 or R = 2R

or I2 = 2I1 ...(ii) According to question, = 2 1

Solving eqns. (i) and (ii), we get, R2 2

3 100

2 1 \ =

I 2 = A , I1 = A 2 R1 3

3 3

2 9

Potential difference across 3 Ω = A × 3 Ω = 2 V R1 = = 0.045 m

3 200

32. (b) : Consider a hypothetical ring of radius x and

R2 = 2R1 = 2 × 0.045 m = 0.09 m

thickness dx of a disc as shown in figure.

Charge on the ring, VD2 (0.5 V)2

q 35. (c) : RD = = = 2.5 Ω ,

dq = × ( 2 πxdx) PD 0.1 W

πr 2 x dx

O

Current due to rotation of charge r VD

ID = = 0.2 A

on ring is RD

dq dq nq 2 xdx Total resistance required in the circuit,

dI = = = ndq =

T 1/n r2 V 1.5 V

Req = = = 7.5 Ω

Magnetic field at the centre O due to current on I D 0.2 A

ring element is Resistance of the series resistor,

µ dI µ nq 2 xdx µ0nqdx R = Req – RD

dB = 0 = 0 =

2x r 2 ( 2 x) r2 = 7.5 W – 2.5 W = 5 W

Total magnetic field induction due to current on 36. (a) : For first line of Lyman series of hydrogen

whole disc is atom,

µ nq r µ nq µ nq

B = 0 ∫ dx = 0 ( x)r0 = 0 1 1 1 3R

r2 0 r2 r = R − =

2

λ1 1 22 4

33. (d) : Magnetic field intensity at a distance r from

For second line of Balmer series for a hydrogen-

the straight wire carrying current I is

like ion,

Page 67

41. (c) : In a freely falling elevator, g = 0.

1 1 1 3R

= Z2 R − = Z2 2T cos θ

λ2 22 42 16 As h = , so, h = ∞

rρg

Since l1 = l2

In such a case, the radius of the meniscus will

3 3 adjust itself in such a way that there would be no

Z 2 R = R or Z2 = 4, ⇒ Z = 2

16 4 overflowing of water. At this stage, the length of

the water column becomes equal to the length of

37. (b) : Work function of the cathode surface,

the tube, i.e., 30 cm.

f0 = 4.2 eV

Energy of the photon emitted by hydrogen 42. (c) : Let F ∝ da vb ac

discharge tube, or F = K da vb ac where K is dimensionless constant.

hu = 13.6 eV [MLT–2] = [ML–3)a (LT–1)b(L2)c

As eV0 = hu – f0 = 13.6 eV – 4.2 eV = 9.4 eV, = MaL– 3a + b + 2c T–b

\ V0 = 9.4 V Equating the power of M, L and T, we get

In order to reduce photocurrent to zero, anode \ a = 1, –3a + b + 2c = 1, – b = –2

must be held negative relative to the cathode. Solving, we get

Hence, V0 = – 9.4 V a = 1, b = 2, c = 1

\ F ∝ v2

38. (b) : Image formed by convex lens acts as a virtual

object for concave lens, where u = (30 cm – 26 cm) 43. (b) : Velocity of the insect along the diagonal

= 4 cm. = v cos 45° = 20 2 cos 45°

For concave lens, f = – 20 cm

= 20 2 × 1/ 2 = 20 cm/s

1 1 1 Therefore, the velocity of the image on the roof

From = − ,

f v u = 20 cm/s

v = 5 cm

Magnification, m = v/u = 1.25 As F = 600 – 2 × 105t

44. (c) :

I \ At t = 0, F = 600 N

Also m = , I = m × O = 1.25 × 2 cm As F = 0, on leaving the barrel,

O

= 2.5 cm \ 0 = 600 – 2 × 105t

600

1.22λ t= = 3 × 10 −3 s

39. (a) : Limit of resolution, dθ = 2 × 10 5

D

d This is the time spent by the bullet in the barrel.

Also, dθ = where d is the distance between the

y 600 + 0

two dots and y is their distance from the eye. Average force = = 300 N.

2

Dd \ Average impulse imparted = F × t

Thus, y =

1.22λ = 300 × 3 × 10–3 = 0.9 N s

Here, D = 3 mm = 3 × 10–3 m 45. (d) : If P is upward push of air, then resultant force

d = 1 mm = 10–3 m on the body = (mg – P)

l = 500 mm = 500 × 10–9 m From work energy theorem,

Dd 3 × 10 −3 × 10 −3 1

F × s = mv 2

\ y= = =5m

1.22λ 500 × 10 −9 × 1.22 2

1

40. (c) : Applying the law of conservation of energy, ( mg − P ) × s = mv 2

PE + KE = 0. 2

1

GM m 1 ( 50 − P ) × 20 = × 5 × 10 2 = 250

\ − + m( fv)2 = 0 2

( R + R) 2

P = 50 – 12.5 = 37.5 N

GM v \ Work done by this push of air

or fv = = gR = ( v = 2 gR )

R 2 = Ps cos 180° = 37.5 × 20(–1) = – 750 J.

⇒ f = 1/ 2 nn

Page 68

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14 69

Page 69

Y U ASKED

suggests that the ball is to be considered the system.

A ball projected through the air is subject to the

gravitational force as an external force, so it is not

WE ANSWERED

an isolated system, and we would not expect its

momentum to be conserved. If we consider this in

a little more detail, the gravitational force is in the

Do you have a question that you just can’t get answered? vertical direction, so it is actually only the vertical

Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the bottom component of the momentum that changes due to this

of the question. From the serious to the silly, the controversial force. In the horizontal direction, no force is exerted

to the trivial, the team will tackle the questions, easy and (ignoring air friction), so the horizontal component of

tough. the momentum is conserved.

The best questions and their solutions will be printed in this If we consider the baseball and the Earth as a system

column each month. of two particles, the gravitational force is an internal

force to this system. The momentum of the ball-Earth

Q1. Explain why, under static conditions, all points system is conserved. The downward force from the

on a conductor must be at the same electric potential. thrower’s feet as the ball is thrown gives the Earth

– Punit, Rajasthan an initial motion. As the ball rises and falls, the Earth

Ans. If two points on a conducting object were at initially sinks and then rises (although imperceptibly!),

different potentials, then free charges in the object due to the upward gravitational force from the ball,

would move, and we would not have static conditions, so that the total momentum of the system remains

in contradiction to the initial assumption. (Free unchanged.

positive charges would migrate from higher to lower Q5. How can the total energy of an atom be negative?

potential locations; free electrons would move rapidly For that matter, how can any energy be negative?

from lower to higher potential locations.) The charges – Soumya Das, W.B.

would continue to move until the potential became Ans. The way the total energy of an atom, and in fact

equal everywhere in the conductor. other energies, can be negative is through an arbitrary

Q2. Does a wire connected to a battery emit an choice of the zero point for potential energies. The

electromagnetic wave? electrostatic potential energy between charged

– Gaurav Sharma, Delhi particles is arbitrarily chosen to be zero when the

Ans. No. The wire will emit electromagnetic waves particles are separated by an infinite distance. When

only if the current varies in time. The radiation is the two particles having opposite signs, such as the

result of accelerating charges, which can only occur electron and proton in a hydrogen atom, are a finite

when the current is not constant. distance apart, the potential energy is less than zero, or

Q3. When looking outdoors through a glass window negative. If they are sufficiently close, the magnitude of

at night, you sometimes see a double image of yourself. the negative potential energy may exceed the positive

Why? kinetic energy, making the total energy negative.

– Manish, Punjab

Q6. You set up two oscillating systems, a simple

Ans. Reflection occurs whenever there is an interface pendulum and a block hanging from a vertical spring.

between two different media. For the glass in the You carefully adjust the length of the pendulum so

window, there are two such surfaces. The first is the that both oscillators have the same period. You now

inner surface of the glass, and the second is the outer take the two oscillators to the Moon. Will they still

surface of the glass. Each of these interfaces results in have the same period as each other? What happens

an image. if you observe the two oscillators in an orbiting space

Q4. A baseball is projected into the air at an shuttle?

upward angle to the ground. As it moves through its – Santosh, Bihar

trajectory, its velocity and therefore its momentum Ans. The block hanging from the spring will have

constantly change. Is this a violation of conservation the same period on the Moon that it had on the Earth

of momentum? because the period depends on the mass of the block

– Rashmi, Bangalore and the force constant of the spring, neither of which

Ans. The principle of conservation of momentum have changed. The period of the pendulum on the

states that the momentum of an isolated system of Moon will be different from its period on the Earth

particles is conserved. The statement of the question because the period of the pendulum depends on the

Page 70

value of g. Because g is smaller on the Moon than on that the wire has the shape of a very long cone. How

the Earth, the pendulum will oscillate with a longer does the drift speed of electrons vary along the wire?

period. – Sachin, Chennai

In the orbiting space shuttle, the block-spring system Ans. Every portion of the wire is carrying the same

will oscillate with the same period as on the Earth amount of current—otherwise, charge would build

when it is set into motion, because the period does not up or disappear somewhere along the wire. Thus

depend on gravity. The pendulum will not oscillate at

for equation I = ∆Q = nqvdA to be satisfied, as the

all. If you pull it to the side from a direction you define ∆t

as “vertical” and release it, it stays there. Because the cross-sectional area decreases, the drift speed must

shuttle is in free-fall while in orbit around the Earth,

the effective gravity is zero, and there is no restoring increase to maintain the constant current. This

force on the pendulum. increased drift speed is a result of the electric field

lines in the wire being distributed over a smaller area,

Q7. If stereo speakers are connected to the amplifier

thus increasing the magnitude of the field, and, in

“out of phase,” one speaker is moving outward when

turn, increasing the electric force on the electrons.

the other is moving inward. This results in a weakness

in the bass notes, which can be corrected by reversing nn

the wires on one of the speaker connections. Why are

only the bass notes affected in this case, and not the

treble notes?

– Pulkit, Haryana

Ans. Imagine that you are sitting in front of the

speakers, midway between them. Then, the sound

from each speaker travels the same distance to you, Diamonds can be made from graphite by applying a temperature

so the phase difference in the sound is not due to a of 3000°C and pressure as high as 100,000 atm.

path difference. Because the speakers are connected 50 times as much as all the water that is present in the rivers and

out of phase, the sound waves are half a wavelength lakes combined is present in the ground soil.

out of phase on leaving the speaker and consequently, The amount of heat in the Earth’s entire atmosphere is equivalent

to the heat present in the first ten feet of the ocean.

on arriving at your ear. As a result, the sound for

all frequencies cancels, in the simplification model One of the most amazing and interesting fact about Physics on

earth is “The Dead Sea”, which is known for its density due to

of a zero-size head located exactly on the midpoint

the presence of salt, as a result of which you can easily float on

between the speakers. If the ideal head were moved it without drowning, so one can always claim to be a swimmer

off the centerline, an additional phase difference is there.

introduced by the path length difference for the sound The flashing lightning bolt is 3 times hotter compared to the sun,

from the two speakers. In the case of low-frequency, seems like the sun also has to face competition.

long-wavelength bass notes, the path length differences A rubber band shrinks when heated and expands when cooled

are a small fraction of a wavelength, so significant because of the change in its Entropy state.

cancellation still occurs. For the high-frequency, Due to the effect of Thermal Expansion, the Eiffel Tower is upto

short-wavelength treble notes, a small movement of 15 cm taller in summer.

the ideal head results in a much larger fraction of a If an atom were the size of a stadium, its electrons would be as

wavelength in path length difference, or even multiple small as bees.

wavelengths. Thus, the treble notes could be in phase Light does not age.

with this head movement. If we now add the fact that At 25, Physicist Lawrence Bragg is the youngest person to receive

the head is not of zero size, and the fact that it has a Nobel Prize.

two ears, we can see that complete cancellation is Atom is over 99.9% empty space.

not possible, and, with even small movements of the The effect of relativity made Astronaut Sergel Avdeyev a fraction

head, one or both ears will be at or near maxima for of a second younger upon his return to Earth after 747 days in

the treble notes. The size of the head is much smaller space.

than bass wavelengths, however, so the bass notes are The world’s densest wood, the Black Ironwood (Olea laurifolia),

significantly weakened over much of the region in does not float on water and therefore sinks.

front of the speakers. The mass of our entire atmosphere is estimated to be some

5.5 quadrillion tons (55 followed by 14 zeros).

Q8. Suppose a current-carrying wire has a cross-sectional

The diameter of a proton is approximately 0.000000000001 mm.

area that gradually becomes smaller along the wire, so

Page 71

1. A train approaching a hill at a speed of 40 km h–1 Assuming sound to be

sounds a whistle of frequency 580 Hz when it is completely absorbed by

at a distance of 1 km from hill. A wind with speed the walls of the cylinder,

40 km h–1 is blowing in the direction of motion of find the mean energy of

the train. Find flow rate reaching the

(a) the frequency of the whistle as heard by an lateral curved surface of

observer on the hill, the cylinder.

(b) the distance from the hill at which the echo

4. A rope of mass m and length L is suspended

from the hill is heard by the driver and its

vertically. If a mass M is suspended from the

frequency.

bottom of the rope, find the time for a transverse

(Velocity of sound in air = 1200 km h–1)

wave to travel the length of rope.

2. A short wave radio receiver receives

5. A cylinder of mass M and

simultaneously two signals from a transmitter

radius R is kept on a rough

500 km away, one by a path along the surface of

horizontal platform at one

the earth and one by reflection from a portion

of the ionospheric layer situated at a height of extreme of the platform at

200 km. The layer acts as a perfect horizontal t = 0. Axis of the cylinder

reflector. When the frequency of the transmitted is parallel to y-axis. The

wave is 10 MHz, it is observed that the combined platform is oscillating in the

signal strength varies from maximum to minimum x-y plane and displacement from the origin

and back to maximum 8 times per minute. With is represented as x = 2cos(4pt) m. There is no

what slow slipping between the cylinder and the platform.

vertical speed is Find the acceleration of the centre of mass and the

the ionospheric cylinder as a function of time.

layer moving? 6. A bead is constrained to move on a

(Assume the smooth circular wire frame in the vertical

earth is flat plane. The frame rotates uniformly with

and ignore angular velocity about a vertical axis passing

atmospheric through its diameter. In the equilibrium

disturbances) position (relative to frame) the radius drawn

3. A point isotropic source with sonic power to the bead makes an angle f with the vertical.

P = 0.10 W is located at the centre of a round hollow Find the time period of small oscillations about

cylinder with radius R = 1 m and height h = 2 m. this position.

Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh

Page 72

SOLUTIONS Differentiating equation (i) with respect to time

( v ± vm ± v o ) gives

1. (a) u o = u s , −1/ 2

( v ± vm v s ) d( ∆x ) 2 dH

= 2H H 2 + D …(iii)

dt 4 dt

Using equation (iii) in equation (ii), we get

−1/ 2

2 uHv 2 D 2

f = H + ,

c

4

The observer is at rest on the hill, i.e., vo = 0 dH

where = v is the vertical velocity of the layer.

The wind is blowing from source to observer and dt

source is moving towards the observer. 1/ 2

fc 2

v + vm 1200 + 40 ⇒ v = H2 + D

\ uo = us = 580 2Hu 4

v + vm − v s 1200 + 40 − 40 8 –1

= 599.3 Hz Here, f = 8 minute–1 = s

60

(b) Let x be the distance from the hill at which C = 3 × 10 m s , H = 200 km = 2 × 105 m

8 –1

echo is heard by the train driver. u = 10 MHz = 107 Hz, D = 500 km = 5 × 105 m

The distance travelled by the train is (1 – x). 1/ 2

(8 / 60)( 3 × 10 8 ) 5 2

5 2 ( 5 × 10 )

1− x \ v= ( 2 × 10 ) +

Time taken by train to travel = …(i) 2 × 2 × 10 5 × 10 7 4

40

Also time taken by sound to move up to the hill v = 3.2 m s–1

and return back to the driver 3. Total power, P = P1 + P2 + P3

1 x As the end caps are placed symmetrically relative

= + …(ii)

1240 1160 to the source, P1 = P2.

Solving (i) and (ii), we get, Thus, P3 = P – (P1 + P2) = P – 2P1

1− x 1 x

= +

40 1240 1160

⇒ 1 − x =1 + x

31 29

29

\ x= km

31

From figure, power flow through ring

When the reflected sound wave travels back to

P

the driver, the wavefronts are moving against the P1 = × [2p(1 – cosq)]

wind. The train driver is listener in motion, thus 4p

the frequency heard by listener, P P h/2

= (1 − cos q) = 1 − 2 2

v − vm + v0 1200 − 40 + 40 2 2 ( h / 2) + R

uo = us = 599.3

v − v m 1200 − 40 P h

= 1 −

= 620 Hz 2 2 2

h + 4R

⇒ uo = 620 Hz

P 1 − h Ph

2. The path difference between direct path on earth’s P−2×

\ P3 = =

surface D and height of ionospheric layer H is 2 2 2

h + 4R h + 4R 2

2

given by 0.1 × 2

1/ 2 =

2

…(i) ( 2)2 + 4(1)2

∆x = 2 H 2 + D − D

4

⇒ P3 = 0.07 W

The frequency of observed fluctuation is

1 d( ∆x ) u d( ∆x ) 4. Due to the mass of the string, the tension in the

= f = …(ii) string is variable.

λ dt c dt

\ wave velocity is variable.

where u is frequency of radiation and c is the

Consider a point at a distance x from O.

speed of light.

Page 73

Tension at A, and acceleration of centre of mass of the cylinder

m 64 2

TA = M + x g relative to platform aCM = p cos( 4 pt) m s −2

L 3

Acceleration of centre of mass of the cylinder

relative to ground

64

= aCM – a = − 32 p 2 cos ( 4 pt ) m s −2

3

−32 2

= p cos ( 4 pt ) m s −2

3

m

where is the mass per unit length of string. 6. Taking moment about centre O of the wire frame.

L

(mw2 r sinf) × r cosf = mg(r sinf)

Velocity of wave at point A,

⇒ w2r cosf = g …(i)

dx [ M + ( m / L ) x ]g If bead is further

v=

A =

dt (m / L) displaced through

L t an angle q, so that

dx L the angle of radius

\ ∫ =∫ dt

0 [ M + (m / L)x ] g 0

m with the vertical

L becomes (q + f).

L m L Therefore restoring

⇒ 2 M + x=

×t

m g L 0 m tangential force is

L d2

or t = 2 M + m − M mr (f + q) = −[mg sin(f + q) − mw 2r sin( f + q)cos(f + q)]

mg

2

dt

d2

mr (f + q) = −[mg sin(f + q) − mw 2r sin( f + q)cos(f + q)]

L 2

When M = 0, t = 2 dt

g d 2q

or r + g sin f cos q + g cos f sin q

mL dt 2

For m << M, t = w 2r w 2r

Mg − sin 2f cos 2q − cos 2f sin 2q = 0

2 2

5. Given equation x = 2cos(4pt) can be equated with …(ii)

x = Acoswt, so w = 4p rad s–1 For small q, sinq ≈ q and cosq ≈ 1

a = –w2x = –32p2cos(4pt) m s–2 Hence,

Pseudo force acting on the cylinder = Ma

d 2q

r + ( g cos f − w 2r cos 2f)q + sin f( g − w 2r cos f) = 0

dt 2

…(iii)

From equation (i), g – w2r cosf = 0

⇒ g = w2rcosf

\ F = Ma = 32p2M cos(4pt). or, gcosf – w2rcos2f = w2rcos2f – w2rcos2f

If aCM = acceleration of center of mass of the = w2r cos2f – w2r[2cos2f – 1]

cylinder relative to plank, = w2r sin2f …(iv)

From Newton’s second law, From equation (ii) and (iv)

32p2 Mcos(4pt) – f = MaCM …(i)

d 2q

Taking moment about the centre of mass of the r + (w 2r sin 2 f) ⋅ q + 0 = 0

cylinder dt 2

1 2 d 2q g sin 2 f g sin 2 f

f ⋅R = MR a

2 …(ii) ⇒ 2

+ q = 0 gives w = r cos f

dt r cos f

For pure rolling, aCM = Ra …(iii)

Hence, solving above three equations, we get 2p r cos f

Hence, =

T = 2p

32 2 w g sin 2 f

Friction

= , f p ⋅ M cos( 4 pt) N

3 nn

Page 74

\ Total aceleration at extreme position ae = g sinq

At mean position

The velocity of the ball

SOLUTION SET-7

vm

= 2 gh

= 2 g (l − l cosq)

1. (d) : Let frame of reference be the one attached

to the sphere. With zero velocity of the particle and displacements of ball, h = (l – l cosq)

relative to sphere at point A and center of the 2

vm

sphere as the reference point for potential energy, The normal acceleration at this position, an =

l

the total mechanical energy of the system at A is

2 g (l − l cos q)

Ei = mgR = = 2 g (1 − cos q)

The total mechanical energy l

at the final position (point and tangential acceleration at = g sin q = gsin0 = 0

P) where the particle makes Thus total acceleration at mean position

an angle q with the vertical is am = 2g (1 – cos q)

1 According to given condition, we have

= Ef mv 2 + mgR cosq

2 T ae = am ⇒ g sin q = 2g (1 – cos q)

Since the reference frame attached to the sphere q q q

⇒ 2 sin cos =2 2 sin 2

accelerates, there is a pseudo force ma opposite to 2 2 2

the direction of a. The work done by this force is q 1 1

W = maRsinq = mgR sinq ( g = a) or tan = ⇒ q = 2 tan −1

2 2 2

By the principle of conservation of mechanical

energy 4. (b) : Let q is the required angle. The velocity of the

W = DK + DU body at angular position q is

1 v2 = 0 + 2g (l cos q) ….. (i)

⇒ mgR sin q = mv 2 − mgR(1 − cos q) The normal acceleration of bob,

2 T 1

v2 2 gl cos q

⇒ vt =

[2 R( g sin q + g − g cos q) 2 an =

= = 2 g cos q

l l

2. (d) : As kinetic energy, K ∝ P2 And tangential acceleration of bob, at = g sinq

As the resultant acceleration is directed

Here the momentum (P) of the body is increased a

by 20% horizontally so tan q = n

at

20 6P

P=

′ P+ P= sin q 2g cos q

100 5 or =

2 cos q g sin q

6 36 2 36

\ K ′ = P′ 2 = =P = P K or 2 cos2 q = sin2 q = (1 – cos2 q)

5 25 25

1 1

K′ − K 11 ⇒= cos 2 q = and q cos −1

× 100 = × 100 =44.0 % 3 3

K 25

5. (a) : The velocity of bob at its lowest position,

3. (b) : l

v 2= 0 + 2 g (l − l cos 60=

°) 2 g ×

2

or =v gl

= g×1 [ l =

1 m] ….. (i)

suspension. The bob will have to complete the

Suppose q is the required angle. circle of radius r = 1 – d.

At extreme position the velocity of the ball is zero, For the bob to just perform the revolutions about

nail, the minimum speed at the lowest position

ve2

thus normal acceleration a=

n = 0, must be

l

and tangential acceleration at = g sinq. 5 gr

= 5 g (1 − d ) ...(ii)

Page 75

Equating equations (i) and (ii), we get

0 v 2 − 2 g × 2l

or =

=g 5 g (1 − d )

⇒=v 4 gl 2 gl

=

4

⇒ d= = 0.80 m 8. (b,c,d)

5

d

9. (a,c,d) : t =

v cosq

d

tmin =

6. (b) : v

d

t=

v − u2

2

Let the particle loose the contact at point P. At 10. (a,b,c,d) : There is no acceleration in x-direction so

point P normal reaction by surface become zero. x component of velocity is constent.

If v is the velocity of the particle at P, then we Now the given equation of motion

have y = ax – bx2 ...(i)

v2 = 0 + 2gh The standard equation of projectile motion

gx 2

v = 2 gh =y (tan q)x − ...(ii)

or ….. (i) 2u cos 2 q

2

Comparing equations (i) and (ii), we get

mv 2 tanq = a ...(iii)

mg cosq − N =

R \ q = tan–1(a)

At P, N = 0, g g

and= or (u cos q)2

b=

mv 2

m( 2 gh) 2(u cos q)2 2b

\ mg cos q = = (using (i))

R R

g

2h u cos

= q ⇒ u = sec q g / 2b .

⇒ cosq = 2b

R

vy(at origin) = usinq

2h R − h R

Therefore, = or h = g

R R 3 or = sec q sin q

2b

R−h

Also in figure, cosq = sin q g g g

h = = tan q =a (using (iii))

2 2 cos q 2b 2b 2b

Here cosq= ⇒ q = cos −1 .

3 3 The given equation of motion shows the motion

of particle is a projectile motion.

7. (a, d) : As rod is a rigid part of the system, it can nn

take compression (T < 0), so the velocity of block

at its highest position can be zero to just cross this Solution Senders of Physics Musing

position. SET-7

Let block is given a velocity v at 1. Ayaz Ahmed (Jharkhand)

its lowest position, then by

2. Jenish Jain

third equation of motion, we have

3. Shivdatt Rawani

2

v=

H vL2 − 2 gh 4. Alok Verma

5. Jatin Gupta

Page 76

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 77

Page 77

Useful for All National and State Level PMTs

1. An open organ pipe is closed suddenly with the

result that the second overtone of the closed pipe

is found to be higher in frequency by 100 than

the first overtone of the original pipe. Then the

fundamental frequency of the open pipe is

(a) 200 s–1 (b) 100 s–1

–1

(c) 300 s (d) 250 s–1

2. Three unequal resistors in parallel are equivalent

to a resistance 1 ohm. If two of them are in the

ratio 1 : 2 and if no resistance value is fractional,

the largest of the three resistances in ohm is (a) R1 = 3 W; R2 = 3 W

(a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 5 (d) 12

(b) R1 = 6 W; R2 = 15 W

3. From the top of tower, a stone is thrown up. It (c) R1 = 1.5 W; R2 = any finite value

reaches the ground in t1 s. A second stone thrown (d) R1 = 3 W; R2 = any finite value

down with the same speed reaches the ground in

7. A block of mass m is at rest

t2 s. A third stone released from rest reaches the

under the action of force

ground in t3 s. Then

F against a wall as shown

(t + t )

(a) t3 = 1 2 (b) t3 = t1t2 in the figure. Which of the

2

1 1 1 following statements is

2

(c) = + (d) t=3 t22 − t12 incorrect?

t3 t1 t2

4. A planet is at an average distance d from the sun, (a) f = mg [where f is the friction force]

and its average surface temperature is T. Assume (b) F = N [where N is the normal force]

that the planet receives energy only from the sun, (c) F will not produce torque

and loses energy only through radiation from its (d) N will not produce torque

surface. Neglect atmospheric effects. If T ∝ d–n, 8. In an astronomical telescope in normal adjustment,

the value of n is a straight black line of length L is drawn on the

1 1 objective lens. The eyepiece forms a real image

(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) (d)

2 4 of this line. The length of this image is l. The

5. A glass tube of length 1.0 m is completely filled magnification of the telescope is

with water. A vibrating tuning fork of frequency L L

500 Hz is kept over the mouth of the tube and the (a) (b) +1

l l

water is drained out slowly at the bottom of the

tube. If velocity of sound in air is 330 m s–1, then L L+1

(c) −1 (d)

the total number of resonances that occur will be l L −1

(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 1 (d) 5 9. A copper wire of resistance 10 W is in the form

6. In the Wheatstone bridge shown below, in order of a perfect circle. Two points A and B on it are

to balance the bridge, we must have connected to a battery of emf 5 V and internal

Page 78

resistance 0.5 W. The two segments of the circle 15. The refractive index of the material of a prism

have lengths in the ratio 2 : 3. The net magnetic is 2 , and its refracting angle is 30°. One of the

induction at the center of the circle is refracting sufaces of the prism is made a mirror

(a) p (b) zero (c) 2p (d) m0/4p inwards. A beam of monochromatic light entering

10. A galvanometer of resistance 50 W is connected the prism from the other face retraces its path,

to a battery of 3 V along with a resistance of after reflection from mirrored surface, if its angle

of incidence on prism is

2950 W in series. A full scale deflection of

(a) 0° (b) 30° (c) 45° (d) 60°

30 divisions is obtained in the galvanometer. In

order to reduce this deflection to 20 divisions, the 16. A photocell employs photoelectric effect to

resistance in series should be convert

(a) 6050 W (b) 4450 W (a) change in the frequency of light into a change

(c) 5050 W (d) 5550 W in the electric current

(b) change in the frequency of light into a change

11. What is the value of inductance L for which the in electric voltage

current is maximum in a series LCR circuit with (c) change in the intensity of illumination into a

C = 10 mF and w = 1000 s–1? change in photoelectric current

(a) 1 mH (b) 10 mH (d) change in the intensity of illumination

(c) 100 mH into a change in the work function of the

(d) cannot be calculated unless R is known photocathode.

12. A rope of negligible mass is wound around a 17. Ionization potential of hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV.

hollow cylinder of mass 3 kg and radius 40 cm. Hydrogen atoms in the ground state are excited

What is the angular acceleration of the cylinder, by monochromatic radiation of photon energy

if the rope is pulled with a force of 30 N? Assume 12.1 eV. According to Bohr’s theory, the spectral

that there is no slipping. lines emitted by hydrogen will be

(a) 10 rad s–2 (b) 15 rad s–2 (a) one (b) two (c) three (d) four

–2

(c) 20 rad s (d) 25 rad s–2 18. Dimensions of ohm are same as (where h is

13. Same spring is attached with 2 kg, 3 kg and 1 kg Planck’s constant and e is charge)

blocks in three different cases as shown in figure. h h2 h h2

(a) (b) (c) 2 (d) 2

If x1, x2, x3 be the extensions in the spring in the e e e e

three cases, then 19. There is some change in length when a 33000 N

tensile force is applied on a steel rod of area of

cross-section 10–3 m2. The change in temperature

required to produce the same elongation if the

steel rod is heated is

(The modulus of elasticity is 3 × 1011 N m–2

and coefficient of linear expansion of steel is

1.1 × 10–5 °C–1)

(a) 20°C (b) 15°C (c) 10°C (d) 0°C

(c) x3 > x2 > x1 (d) x2 > x1 > x3 M and radius R exerts a

force F on a small mass

14. Two containers of equal volume contain the m situated at a distance

same gas at pressures P1 and P2 and absolute of 2R from the centre O

temperatures T1 and T2 respectively. On joining of the sphere. A spherical

the vessels, the gas reaches a common pressure portion of diameter R is

P cut from the sphere as

P and a common temperature T. The ratio T is

shown in figure.

P1 P2 1 P1 P2

(a) + (b) + The force of attraction between the remaining part

T T 2 T1 T2 of the sphere and the mass m will be

1 2

(c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d)

T1 + T2 T1 − T2 3 3 3 9

Page 79

21. The activity of a radioactive sample is measured lens. The apparent area of the card through the

as N0 counts per minute at t = 0 and N0/e counts lens is

per minute at t = 5 minutes. The time (in minutes) (a) 1 cm2 (b) 0.81 cm2

2

at which the activity reduces to half its value is (c) 0.27 cm (d) 0.60 cm2

2 5

(a) log e (b) 28. Two cylinders of equal size are filled with

5 log e2 equal amount of ideal diatomic gas at room

(c) 5log10 2 (d) 5loge 2 temperature. Both the cylinders are fitted with

22. Two circular concentric loops of radii r1 = 20 cm and pistons. In cylinder A the piston is free to move,

r2 = 30 cm are placed in the XY plane as shown in while in cylinder B the piston is fixed. When same

the figure. A current I = 7 A is flowing through amount of heat is supplied to both the cylinders,

them. The magnetic moment of this loop system the temperature of the gas in cylinder A raises by

is 30 K. What will be the rise in temperature of the

^

(a) +0.4 k A m 2 gas in cylinder B?

^

(a) 42 K (b) 30 K

(b) −1.5 k A m 2 (c) 20 K (d) 56 K

^

(c) +1.1 k A m 2 29. Water is in streamline flow along a horizontal

^ pipe with nonuniform cross-section. At a point

(d) +1.3 j A m 2

in the pipe where the area of cross-section is

23. A mass of 4 kg suspended from a spring of force 10 cm2, the velocity of water is 1 m s–1 and the

constant 800 N m–1 executes simple harmonic pressure is 2000 Pa. The pressure at another point

oscillations. If the total energy of the oscillator is where the cross-sectional area is 5 cm2 is

4 J, the maximum acceleration (in m s–2) of the (a) 4000 Pa (b) 2000 Pa

mass is (c) 1000 Pa (d) 500 Pa

(a) 5 (b) 15 (c) 45 (d) 20

30. A body of mass 3 kg is under a constant force

24. A body travels a distance of 20 m in the 7th second which causes a displacement S in metres in it,

and 24 m in 9th second. How much distance shall 1

it travel in the 15th second? given by the relation S = t 2 where t is in seconds.

3

(a) 10 m (b) 16 m (c) 24 m (d) 36 m Work done by the force in 2 seconds is

25. The output Y of the logic circuit as shown in figure 19 5 3 8

(a) J (b) J (c) J (d) J

is 5 19 8 3

31. A solenoid has core of a material with relative

permeability 500 and its windings carry a current

of 1 A. The number of turns of the solenoid is 500

per metre. The magnetization of the material is

nearly

(a) 2.5 × 103 A m –1 (b) 2.5 × 105 A m –1

3 –1

(c) 2.0 × 10 A m (d) 2.0 × 105 A m –1

(a) ( A + B) C (b) ( A + C) B

32. The electric potential between a proton and an

(c) (B + C) A (d) A + B + C

r

26. A train moves towards a stationary observer with electron is given by V = V0 ln , where r0 is a

speed 34 m s–1. The train sounds a whistle and its r0

frequency registered by the observer is u1. If the constant. Assuming Bohr’s model to be applicable,

train’s speed is reduced to 17 m s–1, the frequency write variation of rn with n, n being the principal

registered is u2. If the speed of sound is 340 m s–1, quantum number

1

u (a) rn ∝ n (b) rn ∝

then the ratio 1 is n

u2

18 1 19 1

(a) (b) (c) 2 (d) (c) rn ∝ n2 (d) rn ∝ 2

19 2 18 n

27. A square card of side length 1 mm is being seen 33. The circuit shown in the figure contains two

through a magnifying lens of focal length 10 cm. diodes each with a forward resistance of 30 W and

The card is placed at a distance of 9 cm from the with infinite backward resistance. If the battery is

Page 80

3 V, the current through the 50 W resistance (in (a) The potential drop across the 12 mF capacitor

ampere) is is 10 V.

(b) The charge in the 3 mF capacitor is 42 mC.

(c) The potential drop across the 3 mF capacitor is 10 V.

(d) The emf of the battery is 30 V.

38. The magnetic field lines due to a bar magnet are

correctly shown in which of the following figure.

N N

(a) zero (b) 0.01 (c) 0.02 (d) 0.03 (a) (b)

34. In the figure, the velocity v3 will be S S

N N

(c) (d)

S S

and the charge per unit length is l. The electric

(a) zero (b) 4 m s–1

field at its centre is

(c) 1 m s–1 (d) 3 m s–1 l l

(a) (b)

35. The dependence of acceleration due to gravity 2 pε a 2 4 pε 0 a

0

g on the distance r from the centre of the earth,

assumed to be a sphere of radius R of uniform l2 l

(c) (d)

density is as shown in figures below 2 pε 0 a 2 pε 0 a

40. A, B and C are the parallel sided transparent

media of refractive index n1, n2 and n3 respectively.

(1) (2) They are arranged as shown in the figure. A ray is

incident at an angle q on the surface of separation

of A and B which is as shown in the figure. After

the refraction into the medium B, the ray grazes

the surface of separation of the media B and C.

(3) (4) Then, sinq =

n1 n2 n3

(a) (4) (b) (1) (c) (2) (d) (3) A B C

36. A 2 mC charge moving around a circle with a n3 n1 n2 n1

frequency of 6.25 × 1012 Hz produces a magnetic (a) (b) (c) (d)

n1 n3 n3 n2

field 6.28 T at the centre of the circle. The radius of

the circle is 41. A particle is thrown with velocity u making an

(a) 2.25 m (b) 0.25 m (c) 13.0 m (d) 1.25 m angle q with the vertical. It just crosses the top

of two poles each of height h after 1 s and 3 s

37. Four capacitors and a

12 F respectively. The maximum height of projectile is

battery are connected

as shown in the

figure. If the potential 7 F

3.9 F

difference across 3 F

the 7 mF capacitor is

6 V, then which of the

following statements

is incorrect? (a) 9.8 m (b) 19.6 m (c) 39.2 m (d) 4.9 m

Page 81

42. Two stars each of mass m and radius R approach (c) modulating and demodulating device

each other to collide head-on. Initially the stars (d) transmitting device

are at a distance r(>>R). Assuming their speeds 49. Choose the correct statement.

to be negligible at this distance of separation, the (a) A paramagnetic material tends to move from

speed with which the stars collide is a strong magnetic field to weak magnetic

1 1 1 1 field.

(a) Gm − (b) Gm − (b) A magnetic material is in the paramagnetic

R r 2R r

phase below its Curie temperature.

1 1 1 + 1 (c) The resultant magnetic moment in an atom of

(c) Gm + (d) Gm a diamagnetic substance is zero.

R r 2R r

(d) Typical domain size of a ferromagnetic

43. The magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic material is 1 nm.

material at – 73°C is 0.0075, its value at – 173°C 50. In a particular system, the unit of length, mass

will be and time are chosen to be 10 cm, 10 g and 0.1 s

(a) 0.0045 (b) 0.0030 respectively. The unit of force in this system will

(c) 0.015 (d) 0.0075 be equivalent to

44. A string is stretched between fixed points (a) 0.1 N (b) 1 N (c) 10 N (d) 100 N

separated by 75 cm. It is observed to have SOLUTIONS

resonant frequencies of 420 Hz and 315 Hz. There 1. (a) : Second overtone of closed pipe has frequency

are no other resonant frequencies between these

two. Then, the lowest resonant frequency for this 5v

=

string is 4l

(a) 10.5 Hz (b) 105 Hz First overtone of open pipe has frequency

(c) 1.05 Hz (d) 1050 Hz =2 ( )

v

2l

45. A block of mass 200 kg is being pulled up by men 5v 2 v v v

on an inclined plane at angle of 45° as shown. The \

= − 100

= or 100 or l =

4l 2l 4l 400

coefficient of static friction is 0.5. Each man can

Fundamental frequency of open pipe

only apply a maximum force of 500 N. Calculate

the number of men required for the block to just v v

= = = 200 s −1 .

start moving up the plane

2l

2 ( )

v

400

R 1

2. (b) : Here

= , 1 = or R2 2 R1

R2 2

The equivalent resistance of parallel combination

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1

= + + = + + = +

(a) 10 (b) 15 (c) 5 (d) 3 R R1 R2 R3 R1 2 R1 R3 2 R1 R3

1 1 3 3

46. Water of volume 2 litre in a container is heated or = − = 1−

R3 1 2 R1 2 R1

with a coil of 1 kW at 27°C. The lid of the container

3 R3 3 R3

is open and energy dissipates at the rate of or =1 R3 − or R3 = 1 +

2 R1 2 R1

160 J s–1. In how much time, temperature will rise

from 27°C to 77°C? Since no resistance is in fraction, therefore

minimum value of

[Given specific heat of water is 4.2 kJ kg–1

(a) 8 min 20 s (b) 6 min 20 s R3 2

=

R1 3

(c) 7 min (d) 14 min

3 2

47. The waves which cannot travel in vacuum are \ R3= = 1+ × 2=

W and R1 3 W

2 3

(a) X-rays (b) radio-waves The maximum resistance value is

(c) infrasonic waves (d) ultraviolet rays R2 = 2R1 = 2 × 3 = 6 W

48. A modem is a 3. (b) : When stone is thrown vertically upwards

(a) modulating device only from the top of tower of height h, then

(b) demodulating device only

Page 82

Revised

2014

The most Reliable and Featured Edition

20 Years’ AIIMS EXPLORER and

AIIMS CHAPTERWISE SOLUTIONS

in the market

20 yrs.

Chapterwise

Index

` 350 ` 325

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Page 83

1 2 7. (d)

h = − ut1 + gt ...(i)

2 1 8. (a) : Let fo and fe be the focal lengths of the

When stone is thrown vertically downwards from objective and eyepiece respectively. For normal

the top of tower, then adjustment, distance between the objective and

1 ...(ii) the eyepiece (tube length) = fo + fe. Treating the line

=h ut2 + gt22

2 on the objective as the object, and the eyepiece as

When stone is released from the top of tower, the lens, u = – (f0 + fe) and f = fe.

then 1 1 1

1 − =

h = gt32 ...(iii) v −( f o + f e ) f e

2

From equation (i), we get 1 1 1 fo

or = − =

h 1 v fe fo + fe ( fo + fe ) fe

= − u + gt1 ...(iv)

t1 2 ( fo + fe ) fe

or v = .

From equation (ii), we get fo

h 1 v f image size l .

= u + gt2 ...(v) Magnification

=

= = e =

t2 2

u fo object size L

Adding equations (iv) and (v), we get fo L

1 1 1 1 \ = = magnification of telescope in normal

h = + g(t1 + t2 ) or h = g t1t2 fe l

t

1 t2 2 2

adjustment.

Putting the value in equation (iii), we get

l1 2

t3 = t1t2 9. (b) : Given =

l2 3

4. (c) : Let P = power radiated by the sun, rl

Resistance R1 = 1

R = radius of planet A

P rl2 R1 l1 2

Energy received by planet

= × pR 2 R2 = \ = =

4 pd 2 A R2 l2 3

Energy radiated by planet = (4pR2) sT4 As I1R1 = I2R2

For thermal equilibrium, I R2 l2

P \ 1 ==

4 pR 2sT 4 ⇒ T ∝ d −1/ 2

× pR 2 = I 2 R1 l1 ...(i)

4 pd 2

m Ia

1 B1 = 0 1

\ n= 4 pr ...(ii)

2

m0 I 2 ( 2 p − a)

330 B2 = ⊗

5. (b) : l =

= 0=

.66 m 66 cm 4 pr ...(iii)

500

This tube is closed at one end. The length of the l l2

l 3l 5l 7l a = 1 ; 2p − a =

tube resonating are , , , and so on r r

4 4 4 4 m0l1I1

\ B1 = 2 ...(iv)

4 pr

l 3l m l I

= 16 = .5 cm, 49.5 cm , B2 = 0 2 22 ...(v)

4 4

5l 7l 4 pr

= 82 = .5 cm , 115.5 cm. From (i), (iv) and (v), we get

4 4

B1 = B2

But the 7th harmonic needs a length greater than

Hence, net magnetic field at centre B = B1 – B2 = 0

the tube length.

10. (b) : Total initial resistance

\ There will be three resonances, as the length

of the tube is only one meter. = G + R = 50 W + 2950 W = 3000 W

3V

6.(d) : The bridge ABCD is balanced if Current

= , I = 1 × 10 −3 A = 1 mA

3000 W

10 30 If the deflection has to be reduced to 20 divisions,

= = or R1 3 W

R1 9 then current

When this bridge is balanced, no current flows in 1 mA 2

arm BD. Therefore, R2 can have any finite value. = I′ × 20 = mA

30 3

Page 84

Let x be the effective resistance of the circuit, P1V

P1V = n1RT1 or n1 = RT ...(i)

then 1

2 PV

=3 V 3000 W × 1 mA

= x W × mA P2V = n2RT2 or n2 = 2 ...(ii)

3 RT2

3

or= x 3000 × 1 × = 4500 W P(2V) = (n1 + n2)RT ...(iii)

2

\ Resistance to be added = (4500 W – 50 W) Substituting the values of n1 and n2 in equation

(iii), we get

= 4450 W

PV P V P 1 P1 + P2

P(=2V ) 1 + 2 RT or =

11. (c) : In series LCR circuit, current is maximum at RT1 RT2 T 2 T1 T2

resonance.

1 15. (c) : Here m = 2 , A = 30°. On reflection from

At resonance, XL = XC or wL =

wC mirrored surface, the ray will retrace its path, if it

= or w2 = 1 or L 1 falls normally on the surface.

LC w2C In DAED

Given w = 1000 s–1 and C = 10 mF 30° + 90° + ∠D = 180°

\ L= 1 = 0.1 H = 100 mH or ∠D = 60°

1000 × 1000 × 10 × 10 −6

Also ∠ D + ∠r = 90°

12. (d) : Here, M = 3 kg, R = 40 cm = 0.4 m or ∠r = 90° – 60° = 30°

Moment of inertia of the hollow cylinder about sin i

its axis is As m =

sin r

I = MR2 = 3 kg (0.4 m)2 = 0.48 kg m2 1 1

Force applied, F = 30 N \ sin i == m sin r 2 sin 30

=° 2× =

2 2

\ Torque, t = F × R = 30 N × 0.4 m = 12 N m or i = 45°

Also t = Ia 16. (c) : The photoelectric current is directly

t 12 proportional to the intensity of illumination.

\ a= = = 25 rad s −2

I 0.48 Therefore, a change in the intensity of the incident

radiation will change the photocurrent also.

13. (d) :

17. (c) : Ionisation potential of hydrogen atom is

13.6 eV. Energy required for exciting the hydrogen

atom in the ground state to orbit n is given by

E = En – E1

13.6 −13.6 13.6

12.1 = − − = − 2 + 13.6

n2 12 n

or −13.6 13.6

−1.5 = 2 or =n2 = 9 or n = 3

n 1.5

If T1, T2, T3 are the tensions in the strings in the Number of spectral lines emitted

three cases, we have n(n − 1) 3 × 2

2m1m2 g 2 × 2 × 2 g = = =3

T1 = = = 2g 2 2

m1 + m2 (2 + 2)

2 × 3 × 2g

T2 = = 2.4 g

(3 + 2)

2 × 1 × 2g

T3 = = 1.33 g

(1 + 2) h [ML2T −1]

18. =

(c) : = [ML2T −3 A −2 ]

As x ∝ T and T2 > T1 > T3 e2 [AT]2

\ x2 > x1 > x3 Potential difference [ML2T −3 A −1]

= Resistance =

14. (b) : For a closed system, the total mass of gas or Current [A]

the number of moles remains constant. 2 –3 –2

= [ML T A ]

Let n1 and n2 be number of moles of gas in The SI unit of resistance is ohm.

container 1 and container 2 respectively. Therefore, the dimensions of ohm are same as

Page 85

h 22

= 7 × × 0.05 k A m 2 = 1.1 k^ A m 2

^

that of 2

e 7

(F / A)

19. (c) : Young's modulus Y = 23. (d) : Here, m = 4 kg, k = 800 N m–1, E = 4 J

Dl/l

1

(F / A) l In SHM, total energy is E = kA2

or D l = ...(i) 2

Y where A is the amplitude of oscillation

Also, Dl = al DT ...(ii)

1

As per question \ 4= × 800 × A2

F 2

(F / A)l 8 1

= alDT or DT = A2 =

=

Y YAa

800 100

33000 N

= 1

(3 × 1011 Nm −2 ) × (10 −3 m 2 ) × (1.1 × 10 −5 °C −1) = A = m 0.1 m

10

= 10°C Maximum acceleration, amax = w2 A

20. (d) : Gravitational force of attraction on mass m at k k

= A w =

P due to solid sphere is m m

GMm GMm GMm

= F = or = 4F ...(i) 800 N m −1

(2R)2 4R 2 R2 = × 0.1 m = 20 m s −2

4 kg

Mass of the spherical portion removed from

24. (d) : Here, D7 = 20 m, D9 = 24 m, D15 = ?

sphere

Let u and a be the initial velocity and uniform

M 4 R 3 M

M′

= × p = acceleration of the body.

4 3 3 2 8

pR a

3 a

Dn= u + (2n − 1) \ D7 = u + (2 × 7 − 1)

Gravitational force of attraction on mass m at P if 2 2

mass of the spherical portion removed is present 13a

or 20= u + ...(i)

there is 2

G( M / 8)m GMm 1 4 a

F′ = = × × and D9= u + (2 × 9 − 1)

( )

3R 2

2

R2 8 9

or 24= u +

17

2

a

2 ...(ii)

1 4 2F

= 4F × × = (Using (i)) Subtracting equation (i) from equation (ii), we get

8 9 9

4 = 2a or a = 2 m s–2

\ Gravitational force of attraction on mass m at Putting this value in equation (i), we get

P due to remaining part of the sphere is 13

2F 7 F 20= u + × 2 =+

u 13

F′′= F − F=′ F − = 2

9 9 or u = 20 – 13 = 7 m s–1

21. (d) a 2

\ D15 = u + (2 × 15 − 1) =+7 × 29 = 36 m

2 2

22. (c) : Magnetic moment of the current loop is

25 (a) :

m = IA

where the direction of the area vector A, is

given by right hand thumb rule. The direction of

magnetic moment m is same as the direction of

the A.

^ 2 ^ 2

\ m1 = I pr12 (− k) = − (7 × p × 0.2 ) k A m

^ ^

and m2 = I pr22 k= (7 × p × 0.32 ) k A m 2

\ Net magnetic moment

= m1 + m2

Y ( A ⋅ B) ⋅ C

= = ( A + B) C= ( A + B) C

2 2 ^ 2 26. (d) : When a source approaches a stationary

= [− (7 × p × 0.2 ) + (7 × p × 0.3 )] k A m

2 2 ^ 2

observer, the frequency heard by the observer is

= [7 × p × (0.3 − 0.2 )] k Am given by

Page 86

v ( Density of water, r = 103 kg m–3)

u = u0 where,

v − vs = 2000 −

1

× 10 3 × 3 = 2000 – 1500 = 500 Pa

2

u0 = source frequency

v = speed of sound t 2 dS 2t d 2S 2

30. =

(d) : S = ; ; =

vs = speed of source 3 dt 3 dt 2 3

As per question d 2S

u0 340 u0 340 Work done,=

W ∫=

FdS ∫ m dS

u1 = and u2 = dt 2

(340 − 34) (340 − 17)

d 2S dS 2 2 2t 42

u (340 − 17) 323 19 =W ∫=

m dt ∫ 3 × × dt = ∫ tdt

\ 1 = = = dt 2 dt 0 3 3 30

u2 (340 − 34) 306 18 2

42 4 t2 4 8

27. (a) : Area of a square card = 1 mm × 1 mm = 1 mm2 = =∫ tdt = × 2 = J.

Focal length of magnifying lens (converging lens), 30 3 2 3 3

0

f = + 10 cm

31. (b) : Here, n = 500 turns/m

Object distance, u = – 9 cm

I = 1 A, mr = 500

According to thin lens formula,

Magnetic intensity, H = nI = 500 m–1 × 1 A

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

= + = + = − = 500 A m–1

v f u +10 cm −9 cm 10 cm 9 cm As mr = 1 + c

or v = –90 cm where c is the magnetic susceptibility of the

v − 90 cm material

Magnification, m= = = 10

u − 9 cm or c = (mr – 1)

\ Apparent area of the card through the lens Magnetisation, M = cH

= 10 × 10 × 1 mm2 = (mr – 1) H = (500 – 1) × 500 A m–1

= 100 mm2 = 1 cm2 = 499 × 500 A m–1 = 2.495 × 105 A m –1

28. (a) : System A is in isobaric process ≈ 2.5 × 105 A m –1

\ DQ1 = nCPDT1

System B is in isochoric process 32. (a)

DQ2 = nCVDT2 33. (c) : In the circuit the upper diode D1 is reverse

biased and the lower diode D2 is forward biased.

DQ1 = DQ2

CP Thus there will be no current across upper diode

\ nCPDT1 = nCVDT2 \ DT2 = DT1 junction. The effective circuit will be as shown in

CV

C 7 figure.

For diatomic gas P = and DT1 = 30 K

CV 5

7

\ DT2 = × 30 = 42 K

5

29. (d) : A = 10 cm2

1

A2 = 5 cm2

v1 = 1 m s–1 v2

Total resistance of circuit

R = 50 + 70 + 30 = 150 W

According to equation of continuity, V 3V

A1v1 = A2v2 Current in circuit , =

I = = 0.02 A

R 150 W

A1v1 10 cm 2 × 1 m s −1

\ v2 = = = 2 m s −1 34. (c) :

A2 5 cm 2

For a horizontal pipe, according to Bernoulli’s

theorem

1 1

P1 + rv12 =

2

P2 + rv22 ⇒ P=

2 2

1

(

P1 + r v12 − v22

2

)

1

= 2000 + × 10 3 × (12 − 2 2 ) According to steady flow,

2 A1v1 = A2v2 + A3v3

Page 87

1 As is clear from figure, horizontal components of

or v3

or A3v3 = A1v1 – A2v2= [A1v1 − A2 v2 ] dE will cancel out in pairs and vertical components

A3

1 will add.

= [0.2 × 4 − 0.2 × 2] = 1 m s −1 p p

0.4 l

∫ dE sin q = ∫

\ E=

4 pε

sin q dq

35. (a) 0 0 0a

like the current loop. Magnetic field at the centre = [ − cos

= q]0p =

4 pε 0 a 4 pε 0 a 2 pε 0 a

of the current loop is

m 2pI m0 2pqu m 2pqu 40. (a) : N

B= 0 = or R = 0 M

4pR 4pR 4pB

n1 n2 n3

Substituting the given values, we get

4p × 10 −7 × 2p × 2 × 10 −6 × 6.25 × 1012

R=

4p × 6.28

= 1.25 m A B C

37. (c) :

Applying Snell’s law at M,

12 F 12 F

Q –Q

n1sinq = n2sinq′ ...(i)

Again, applying Snell’s law at N

7 F Q1 Q2 n2sinq′ = n3sin90°

V 3.9 F V 3.9 F 2.1 F n2sinq′ = n3

3 F –Q1 –Q2

n1sinq = n3 (Using (i))

n3

sin q =

Equivalent capacitance of network, Ceq = 4 mF n1

Charge Q = CeqV = 4V mC 1

...(i) (b) : h u cos qt1 − gt12

41. = ...(i)

The charge on the 7 mF or 3 mF capacitor 2

1 2

Q2 = (7 mF) (6 V) = 42 mC = h u cos qt2 − gt2 ...(ii)

Now, 2

Q2 Q1 ( 3.9 mF) Equating (i) and (ii), we get

= = ⇒ Q1 (= 42 mC) 78 mC 1 1

2.1 mF 3.9 mF ( 2.1 mF) u cos qt1 − gt12 = u cos qt2 − gt22

Q = Q1 + Q2 = (78 mC + 42 mC) = 120 mC ...(ii) 2 2

1 1

From equations (i) and (ii), we get or ucos q × 1 − × 9.8= × 12 ucos q × 3 − × 9.8 × 32

2 2

V = 30 V

or ucosq(3 – 1) = 4.9 × (9 – 1) = 4.9 × 8

\ Emf of the battery, V = 30 V

4.9 × 8

The potential drop across 12 mF capacitor ucos q = = 4.9 × 4 = 19.6 m s −1

2

Q 120 mC

= = = 10 V u2 cos 2 q (19.6)2

12 mF 12 mF Maximum= height = = 19.6 m

2g 2 × 9.8

The potential drop across 3 mF capacitor

42. (b) : Since the speeds of the stars are negligible

Q2 42 mC

= = = 14 V when they are at a distance of r, the initial kinetic

3 mF 3 mF energy of the system is zero. Therefore, initial

38. (d) : The magnetic field lines due to a bar magnet total energy of the system is

are closed continous curves directed from N to Gmm

= Ei K.E.

= + P.E. 0 + − ...(i)

S outside the magnet and directed from S to N r

inside the magnet. Hence option (d) is correct. where m represents, the mass of each star and

39. (d) : Electric intensity at dl r the initial separation between them.

centre O, due to small element When two stars collide, their centres will be at

d a distance twice the radius of a star i.e. 2R. Let

dl of charged ring

dEcos

v is speed with which two stars collide, then

ldl l( adq) O total energy of the system at the instant of their

=dE =

4 pε 0 a 2

4 pε 0 a 2 dE collision is given by

dEsin

Page 88

1 1 200 × 10 × 3

1 Gmm

E f = mv 2 × 2 + − = 200 × 10 + =

2 2R 2 2 2 2 2

According to law of conservation of energy 200 × 10 × 3

N= ≈5

Ef = Ei 2 2 × 500

Gmm Gmm 1 − 1 46. (a) : Using law of conservation of energy,

mv 2 − =

− or v 2 =

Gm energy produced by heater = heat gained by water

2R r 2R r

+ energy lost

1 1 \ Pt = msDT + energy lost

or v

= Gm − 1000t = 2 × (4.2 × 103) × (77 – 27) + 160t

2R r

On solving, we get t = 500 s = 8 min 20 s

43. (c)

47. (c) : X-rays, radiowaves and ultraviolet rays

44. (b) : Let the successive loops formed be p and are electromagnetic waves and do not require

(p + 1) for frequencies 315 Hz and 420 Hz. a medium to travel whereas infrasonic are

p T pv mechanical waves and they require a medium to

\ u= = travel. Hence infrasonic waves do not travel in

2L m 2L

vacuum.

pv ( p + 1)v

\ = 315 Hz and = 420 Hz 48. (c) : Modem performs the functions of both the

2L 2L

modulator and the demodulator. Modem acts as

( p + 1)v pv a modulator in the transmitting mode and it acts

or − 420 Hz − 315 Hz

=

2L 2L as a demodulator in the receiving mode.

v 1× v 49. (c) : Diamagnetic substances are those substances

or = 105 Hz ⇒ 105 Hz

= in which resultant magnetic moment in an atom

2L 2L

is zero.

p = 1 for fundamental mode of vibration of A paramagnetic material tends to move from a

string. weak magnetic field to strong magnetic field.

A magnetic material is in the paramagnetic phase

45. (c) : above its Curie temperature.

Typical domain size of a ferromagnetic material is

1 mm.

50. (a) :

M1 = 10 g M2 = 1 kg

L1 = 10 cm L2 = 1 m

T1 = 0.1 s T2 = 1 s

n1 = 1 n2 = ?

M a L b T c

Here, mass of the block, m = 200 kg n2 = n1 1 1 1

M2 L2 T2

1

coefficient of static friction, m=

s 0=

.5 The dimensional formula of force is [MLT–2]

2

angle of incline plane, q = 45° \ a = 1, b = 1, c = –2

Maximum force that each man can apply, F = 500 N 10 g 1 10 cm 1 0.1 s −2

= 1

Let N number of men are required for the block to 1 kg 1 m 1 s

just start moving up the plane 1 1

NF = mgsinq + f 10 −2 kg 10 −1 m 0.1 s −2

=1

= mgsinq + msR 1 kg 1 m 1 s

= mgsinq + msmgcosq 1 × 10 −2 × 10 −1 −1

= mg[sinq + mscosq] = = 10 = 0.1

10 −2

1 Hence, the unit of force in a given system will

= 200 × 10 sin 45° + cos 45°

2 equivalent to 0.1 N.

nn

Page 89

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