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edit rial

Creation of Antimatter
Vol. XXI No. 3 March 2014
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W hile the antiparticles were discovered in the last century, thanks to
the powerful mass spectrometers and nuclear reaction studies.
The rules of formation of antimatter is not much different from that of
Regd. Office matter. The major difficulty in formation is that, as the earth is full of
406, Taj Apartment, Near Safdarjung Hospital,
Ring Road, New Delhi - 110029. matter, the slightest lack of isolation, matter and antimatter annihilate
e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in each other.
Managing Editor : Mahabir Singh Physicists from CERN, where incidentally they have made one of the
Editor : Anil Ahlawat (BE, MBA)
most powerful accelerators in the world, had isolated antihydrogen
nuclei i.e. antiprotons. These are of sufficient low energies to enable
Contents experiments to be performed. When antielectrons are made to
combine with them, antihydrogen atoms are generated. Physicists from
Physics Musing (Problem Set-8) 4 CERN’s Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons
JEE Advanced 8 (ASACUSA) have produced at least 80 atoms of antihydrogen. This is a
very important step for the march of science.
Practice Paper 2014
Spectroscopy had advanced by leaps and bounds in the last century.
JEE Main 20 Atomic, molecular, X-ray, g-ray spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy etc.
Practice Paper 2014 had advanced not only experimentally but had also made immense
JEE Foundation Series 27 contribution to atomic and molecular physics. To explain these spectra,
theoretical advances were made in field theory and quantum mechanics.
Brain Map 46
If scientists will reopen these chapters to study the spectroscopy of
NCERT Xtract 54 antimatter in every field, it will be really great. Knowing human nature,
we only pray to God that they will not try to misuse the knowledge for
AIPMT Special 60
destruction.
Practice Paper 2014
However optimism and hope is the solution for human existence.
You Asked We Answered 70
Anil Ahlawat
Thought Provoking Problems 72 Editor

Physics Musing (Solutions-7) 75

Target PMTs 78 Subscribe online at www.mtg.in

Practice Questions 2014


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PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 3

Page 3
PHYSICS MUSING
P hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of
Physics Musing is to augment the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIPMT / AIIMS /
Other PMTs / PETs with additional study material.
In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIPMT.
The detailed solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their solutions along with address. The names of those who send
atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through "Physics Musing" and stand in better stead while facing
the competitive exams.

By : Akhil Tewari

1. A particle executes simple harmonic motion along µ 0 ωq µ 0 ωq


(c) (d)
a straight line with mean position at x = 0, period 2 π( R2 − R1 ) 2 π( R1 − R2 )
20 s and amplitude 5 cm. The (shortest) time in
seconds taken by the particle to go from x = 4 cm 5. White light is used to illuminate the two slits in
to x = –3 cm is a Young’s double slit experiment. The separation
(a) 5 (b) 6 between slits is b and the screen is at a distance
(c) 7 (d) 4 d (>> b) from the slits. At a point on the screen
directly in front of one of the slits, certain
2. A uniform circular wavelengths are missing. One of these missing
disc of radius r is wavelengths is
placed on a rough b2 2b 2
horizontal surface (a) λ = (b) λ =
and given a linear 2d d
velocity v0 and b2 2b 2
(c) λ = (d) λ =
angular velocity w0 as shown. The disc comes to 3d 3d
rest after moving some distance to the right. It
6 Which of the following statements is true
follows that
concerning the elastic collision of two objects?
(a) v0 = w0r (b) 2v0 = w0r
(a) No work is done on any of the two objects,
(c) 2v0 = 3w0r (d) 3v0 = 2w0r
since there is no external force.
3. A substance of mass M kg requires a power input (b) The work done by the first object on the
of P W (joules per second) to remain in the molten second is equal to the work done on the first
state at its melting point. When the power source by the second.
is turned off, the sample completely solidifies in (c) The work done by the first object on the
t s. The latent heat of fusion of the substance is second is exactly the negative of the work
P Mt Pt Pt done on the first by the second.
(a) (b) (c) (d) (d) The work done on the system depends on the
Mt P 2M M angle of collision.
4. A thin plastic disc of inner radius R1 and outer 7. A perfectly absorbing, black, solid sphere with
radius R2 has a charge q uniformly distributed constant density and radius R, hovers stationary
over its surface. If the disc rotates at an angular above the sun. This is because the gravitational
frequency w about the axis passing through its attraction of the sun is balanced by the pressure
centre and perpendicular to its plane, the magnetic due to sun’s light. Light pressure P is given by the
field at the centre of the disc is intensity I of the absorbed light divided by the
µ 0 ωq µ 0 ωq speed of light c = 3 × 108 m s–1. (P = I/c). Assume
(a) (b) that the sun is far enough away that it closely
2 πR1 2 π( R1 + R2 )
approximates a point source of light. The distance

4 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 4
from the centre of the sun at which the sphere and the second shows what happens when it
hovers is has a greater than E potential initially.
(a) proportional to R (b) proportional to 1/R (b) The first graph shows what happens when
(c) proportional to 1/R2 (d) independent of R the capacitor has a greater than E potential
8 A uniform magnetic initially and the second shows what happens
field B is directed out when it has a less than E potential initially.
of the page. A metallic (c) The first graph is the correct qualitative shape
wire has the shape of for any initial potential, but the second is not
a square frame and is possible.
placed in the field as (d) The second graph is the correct qualitative
shown. While the shape shape for any initial potential, but the first is
of the wire is steadily not possible.
transformed into a circle in the same plane, the 10. String I and II have identical lengths and linear
current in the frame mass densities, but string I is under greater
(a) is directed clockwise tension than string II. The accompanying figure
(b) does not appear shows four different situations, in which standing
(c) is directed counterclockwise wave patterns exist on the two strings. In which
(d) is alternating situation is it possible that strings I and II
9. A capacitor is charged upto a potential V0. It is oscillating at the same resonant frequency?
then connected to a resistance R and a battery of
emf E. Two possible graphs of potential across
(a)
capacitor vs time are shown.

(b)

(c)
What is the most reasonable explanation of these
graphs?
(a) The first graph shows what happens when the
capacitor has a less than E potential initially (d)

nn

m Mars orbiter Spacecraft, India’s first interplanetary probe, was launched by PSLV-C 25 at 1438 hours on
November 5, 2013 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. In its voyage towards Mars, the mission
successfully completes 100 days in space (February 12, 2014).
m Subsequent to six orbit raising manoeuvres around the Earth following the launch, the Trans Mars Injection
(TMI) Manoeuvre on December 01, 2013 gave necessary thrust to the spacecraft to escape from Earth and to
initiate the journey towards Mars, in a helio-centric Orbit. This journey, of course, is long wherein the spacecraft
has to travel 680 million km out of which a travel of 190 million km is completed so far.
m The First Trajectory Correction Manoeuvre (TCM) was conducted on December 11, 2013. The trajectory of the
spacecraft, till today, is as expected. Three more TCM operations are planned around April 2014, August 2014
and September 2014.
m The spacecraft health is normal. The spacecraft is continuously monitored by the ground station of ISRO
Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC), located at Byalalu, near Bangalore. Except for a 40
minute break in the Telemetry data received from the spacecraft to the ground station, data has been continuously
available for all the 100 days.
m The propulsion system of the spacecraft is configured for TCMs and the Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) Operation.
On February 6, 2014, all the five payloads on Mars Orbiter spacecraft were switched ‘ON’ to check their health.
m The health parameters of all the payloads the normal. Presently, the spacecraft is at a radio distance of 16 million
km causing a one way communication delay of approximately 55 seconds. After travelling the remaining
distance of about 490 million km over next 210 days, the spacecraft would be inserted into the Martian Orbit on
September 24, 2014.

6 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 6
PAPER-1

SECTION - 1 3 5
Only One Option Correct Type (a) mg (b) mg
2 2
This section contains 10 multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONLY (c) 3 mg (d) 5 mg
ONE is correct. 5. An open pipe is suddenly closed at one end with
the result that the frequency of third harmonic of
1. The input resistance of a silicon transistor is 100 W.
the closed pipe is found to be higher by 100 Hz
Base current is changed by 40 mA which results in a
than the fundamental frequency of the open pipe.
change in collector current by 2 mA. This transistor
is used as a common emitter amplifier with a load The fundamental frequency of the open pipe is
resistance of 4 kW. The voltage gain of the amplifier (a) 200 Hz (b) 300 Hz (c) 240 Hz (d) 480 Hz
is 6. A system consists of a uniform charged sphere of
(a) 2000 (b) 3000 (c) 4000 (d) 1000 radius R and a surrounding medium filled by a
a
2. A photon collides with a stationary hydrogen atom charge with the volume density r = , where a
in ground state inelastically. Energy of the colliding r
photon is 10.2 eV. After a time interval of the order is a positive constant and r is the distance from
of microsecond, another photon collides with same the centre of the charge. The charge of the sphere
hydrogen atom inelastically with an energy of for which the electric field intensity E outside the
15 eV. What will be observed by the detector? sphere is independent of r is
(a) One photon of energy 10.2 eV and an electron (a) pR2a (b) 4pR2a
(c) 2pR a2 (d) 3pR2a/4
of energy 1.4 eV.
(b) Two photons of energy 1.4 eV. 7. In a potentiometer experiment, when three
(c) Two photons of energy 10.2 eV. cells A, B and C are connected in series the
(d) One photon of energy 10.2 eV and another balancing length is found to be 740 cm. If A and
photon of 1.4 eV. B are connected in series balancing length is
440 cm and for B and C connected in series that is
3. A block of mass 1 kg is attached to one end of
540 cm. Then the emf of eA, eB and eC are respectively
spring of force constant k = 20 N m–1. The other end
(in volts)
of the spring is attached to a fixed rigid support.
(a) 1, 1.2 and 1.5 (b) 1, 2 and 3
This spring block system is made to oscillate on
(c) 1.5, 2 and 3 (d) 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5
a rough horizontal surface (m = 0.04). The initial
displacement of the block from the equilibirum 8. A flat glass slab of thickness 6 cm and refractive
position is a = 30 cm. How many times the block index 1.5 is placed in front of a plane mirror. An
passes from the mean position before coming to observer is standing behind the glass slab and
rest? (Take g = 10 m s–2) looking at the mirror. The actual distance of the
(a) 11 (b) 7 (c) 6 (d) 15 observer from the mirror is 50 cm. The distance of
4. One end of a uniform rod of length his image from himself, as seen by the observer is
l and mass m is hinged at A. It is (a) 94 cm (b) 96 cm (c) 98 cm (d) 100 cm
released from rest from horizontal 9. In the figure shown, AB is a rod of length
position AB as shown in figure. 30 cm and area of cross-section 1 cm2 and thermal
The force exerted by the rod on the conductivity 336 SI units. The ends A and B
hinge when it becomes vertical is are maintained at temperatures 20°C and 40°C

8 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 8
respectively. A point C of this rod is connected to current I, and the other has charge l per unit length.
a box D, containing ice at 0°C, through a highly An electron moving parallel to the conductors
conducting wire of negligible heat capacity. The is undeflected. Let c is the velocity of light and
rate at which ice melts in the box is v is the velocity of electron, then
[Assume latent heat of fusion for ice, Lf = 80 cal g–1] lc 2 I
(a) v = (b) v =
A C B I l
20°C 40°C
I
10 cm 20 cm (c) c =
l
Highly conducting wire (d) The electron may be at any distance from the
Ice D conductor.
0°C 14. The figure shows

(a) 84 mg s–1 (b) 84 g s–1 an energy level

Principal Quantum
(c) 20 mg s–1 (d) 40 mg s–1 diagram for the 4
III
hydrogen atom. 3

Number
10. Six resistances each of value r = 6 W are connected Several transitions
II IV V VI
between points A, B and C as shown in the are marked as Ι, 2
figure. ΙΙ, ΙΙΙ, ……… . The
If R1, R2 and R3 are the diagram is only I
net resistances between indicative and not
A and B, between B and 1
to scale. Then,
C and between A and (a) the transition in which a Balmer series photon
C respectively, then absorbed is VI.
R1 : R2 : R3 will be (b) the wavelength of the radiation involved in
equal to transition ΙΙ is 486 nm.
(a) 6 : 3 : 2 (b) 1 : 2 : 3 (c) transition IV will occur when a hydrogen atom
(c) 5 : 4 : 3 (d) 4 : 3 : 2 is irradiated with radiation of wavelength
103 nm.
SECTION - 2
(d) transition IV will emit the longest wavelength
One or More Options Correct Type line in the visible portion of the hydrogen
This section contains 5 multiple choice questions. Each question spectrum.
has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONE or MORE 15. Consider the motion of a positive point charge in
are correct. a region where there are simultaneous uniform
 ^  ^
11. Two springs A and B have force constants k1 and electric and magnetic= fields E E=0 j and B B0 j .
k2 respectively. The ratio of the work done on A to At time t = 0, this charge has velocity v in the
that done on B in increasing their lengths by the x-y plane, making an angle q with the x-axis.
same amount is a and the ratio of the work done Which of the following option(s) is (are) correct
on A to that done on B when they are stretched for time t > 0?
with the same force is b. Then (a) If q = 0°, the charge moves in a circular path in
k1 k2 the x-z plane.
(a) a = (b) a = (b) If q = 0°, the charge undergoes helical motion
k2 k1
k k2 with constant pitch along the y-axis.
(c) b = 1 (d) b = (c) If q = 10°, the charge undergoes helical motion
k2 k1
with its pitch increasing with time, along the
12. In a region of space, the electric field is
 in the y-axis.
X-direction and proportional to x, i.e.; E = E0 xi .
Consider an imaginary cubical volume of edge a, (d) If q = 90°, the charge undergoes linear but
with its edges parallel to the axes of coordinates. accelerated motion along the y-axis.
The charge inside this volume is SECTION - 3
(a) zero (b) e0E0a3 Integer Value Correct Type
1 1 This section contains 5 questions. The answer to each question
(c) E a3 (d) e E a2
e0 0 6 0 0 is a single digit integer, ranging from 0 to 9 (both inclusive).
13. Two long, thin, parallel conductors are kept very 16. The diameter of a convex lens is d. An eye is placed
close to each other, without touching. One carries a at a distance 3f (f being the focal length of the lens)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 9

Page 9
to the right of the lens at a distance d/4 normally 19. A rectangular loop a sliding connector of length l
below the optic axis so that the image of an object = 1.0 m is situated in a uniform magneticfield B =
placed on the optic axis to the left of the lens is not 2 T perpendicular to the plane of loop.
visible for a distance greater than d/4. The distance Resistance of connector is r = 2 W. Two resistances
of the object is nf. Find the value of n. of 6 W and 3 W are connected as shown in figure.
17. If the speed of electron is 35 m s–1 with an The external force required to keep the connector
uncertainty of 5%, the minimum uncertainty in its moving with a constant velocity v = 2 m s–1 is
position is roughly 10x times the size of the atom,
20. A circular platform is mounted on a vertical
where x is (Take mass of electron = 9.11 × 10–31 kg
frictionless axle. Its radius is r = 2 m and its
and Plank constant = 6.62 × 10–34 J s)
moment of inertia
18. A steady current I goes through a wire loop is I = 200 kg m2. It is
PQR having shape of a right angle triangle with initially at rest. A 70
PQ = 3x, PR = 4x and QR = 5x. If the magnitude kg man stands on the
of the magnetic field at P due to this loop is edge of the platform
 m I  and begins to walk along the edge at speed v0 = 1.0
k  0  , find the value of k. m s–1 relative to the ground. The angular velocity
 48 px 
of the platform is x × 10–1 rad s–1. The value of x is
PAPER-2

SECTION - 1 (a) the stress in the rods A, B, C and D are in the


One or More Options Correct Type ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4
(b) the forces on them exerted by the wall are in
This section contains 8 multiple choice questions. Each question the ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4
has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONE or MORE (c) the energy stored in the rods due to elasticity
are correct. are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4
1. Two particles are projected from a horizontal plane (d) the strains produced in the rods are in the
with the same initial velocity v0 at two different ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4
angles of projection q1 and q2, such that their 5. An a-particle of mass 6.4 × 10–27 kg and charge
ranges are the same. The ratio of their maximum 3.2 × 10–19 C is situated in a uniform electric field
heights reached is/are of 1.6 × 105 V m–1. The velocity of the particle at
(a) tan2q1 (b) cot2q2 the end of 2 × 10–2 m path when it starts from rest
(c) sin2q1cosec2q2 (d) sin2q1 cos2q2 is
2. In the two cases shown, the coefficient of kinetic (a) 2 3 × 105 m s −1 (b) 8 × 105 m s–1
friction between the block and the surface is the 5 –1
(c) 16 × 10 m s (d) 4 2 × 105 m s −1
same and both the identical blocks are moving with 
the same uniform speed. If sinq = mg/4F2, then 6. A charged particle with
 velocity = v xi + y j moves
in a magnetic field B = yi + x j . The magnitude of
magnetic force acting on the particle is F. Which
one of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
(a) F1 = F2 (b) F1 < F2 (a) No force will act on particle, if x = y.
(c) F1 > F2 (d) F1 = 2F2 (b) F ∝ (x2 – y2) if x > y.
(c) The force will act along z-axis, if x > y.
3. For two satellites at distance R and 7R above the (d) The force will act along y-axis, if y > x.
earth’s surface, the ratio of their
7. A point object is placed at 30 cm from a convex
(a) total energies is 4 and potential and kinetic
energies is 2  3
glass lens  m g =  of focal length 20 cm. The
(b) potential energies is 4  2
(c) kinetic energies is 4 final image of object will be formed at infinity if
(d) total energies is 4 (a) another concave lens of focal length 60 cm is
4. Four rods, A, B, C and D of the same length and placed in contact with the convex lens
(b) another convex lens of focal length 60 cm is
material but of different radii r, r 2 , r 3 and 2r placed at a distance of 30 cm from the first
respectively are held between two rigid walls. The lens
temperature of all rods is increased through the (c) the whole system is immersed in a liquid of
same range. If the rods do not bend, then refractive index 4/3

10 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 10
(d) the whole system is immersed in a liquid of (b) directly proportional to a
refractive index 9/8 (c) directly proportional to a2
(d) inversely proportional to a
8. The tension in a stretched
string fixed at both ends 12. For a = 0, the value of d (maximum value of r as
is changed by 2%, the shown in the figure) is
fundamental frequency is 3Ze
(a) 3Ze (b)
found to get changed by 3 pR3
4 pR
15 Hz. Select the correct
statement(s) 4 Ze Ze
(a) Wavelength of the string of fundamental (c) (d)
3pR 3
3pR 3
frequency does not change.
(b) Velocity of propagation of wave changes by Paragraph for Questions 13 and 14
2%. A ring of mass 200 g and
(c) Velocity of propagation of wave changes by
radius 10 m is placed on a
1%
smooth horizontal surface
(d) Original frequency is 1500 Hz.
with centre at the origin. A
SECTION - 2 small particle of the same
Paragraph Type mass as ring, is given veloc-
This section contains 4 paragraphs each describing theory, 5
ity m s–1 from point A
experiment, data etc. Eight questions related to four paragraphs 2
with two questions on each paragraph. Each question of a (very close to inner surface
paragraph has only one correct answer among the four choices of the ring) towards point B
(a), (b), (c) and (d). (at t = 0).
Paragraph for Questions 9 and 10 Initially particle was no in contact with ring. Assume
Two discs A and B are mounted coaxially on a vertical all collisions between the ring and the particle as
perfectly elastic.
axle. The discs have moments of inertia I and 2I,
respectively about the common axis. Disc A is imparted 13. Particle will collide with point A for the first time
an initial angular velocity 2w using the entire potential after a time interval of
energy of a spring compressed by a distance x1. Disc B (a) 8 s (b) 16 s
is imparted an angular velocity w by a spring having (c) 12 s (d) 24 s
the same spring constant and compressed by a distance 14. Co-ordinate of centre of mass of ring when particle
x2. Both discs rotate in clockwise direction. reach back to point A for the first time
9. The loss of kinetic energy during the process is (a) (10, 10) (b) (0, 0)
(a) Iw2/2 (b) Iw2/3 (c) Iw2/4 (d) Iw2/6 (c) (20, 20) (d) (–20, – 20)

10. When disc B is brought in contact with disc A, they Paragraph for Questions 15 and 16
acquire a common angular velocity in time t. The
average frictional torque during this period is The key feature of Bohr ’s theory of spectrum of
(a) 2Iw/3t (b) 9Iw/2t (c) 9Iw/4t (d) 3Iw/2t hydrogen atom is the quantization of angular momen-
tum when an electron is revolving around a proton. We
Paragraph for Questions 11 and 12 will extend this to a general rotational motion to find
The nuclear charge (Ze) is quantized rotational energy of a diatomic molecule
non-uniformly distributed assuming it to be rigid. The rule to be applied is Bohr’s
within a nucleus of radius quantization condition.
R. The charge density r(r) 15. A diatomic molecule has moment of inertia I.
(charge per unit volume) By Bohr’s quantization condition, its rotational
is dependent only on the energy in the nth level (n = 0 is not allowed) is
radial distance r from the
centre of the nucleus as 1  h2  1  h2 
(a) (b)
shown in figure.  
n2  8p 2 I  n  8 p 2 I 
The electric field is only along the radial direction.
11. The electric field at r = R is  h2  2
 h2 
(c) n  2  (d) n  2 
(a) independent of a  8p I   8p I 

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 11

Page 11
16. It is found that the excitation frequency from P Q R S
ground to the first excited state of rotation for (a) 1 2 3 4
the CO molecule is close to (4/p) × 1011 Hz. The (b) 3 1 2 4
moment of inertia of CO molecule about its centre
of mass is close to (c) 1 4 2 3
(d) 3 4 1 2
(Take h = 2p × 10–34 J s)
(a) 2.76 × 10–46 kg m2 (b) 1.87 × 10–46 kg m2 19. List-I gives some devices and List-II gives some
(c) 4.67 × 10–47 kg m2 (d) 1.17 × 10–47 kg m2 processes on which the functioning of these
SECTION - 3 devices depend. Match the device in List-I with
Matching List Type the processes in List-II.
This section contains 4 multiple choice questions. Each question List - I List - II
has matching lists. The codes for the lists have choices (a), (b), (P) Bimetallic strip (1) Radiation from a
(c) and (d) out of which ONLY ONE is correct. hot body
17. In the shown circuit initially capacitor has some (Q) Steam engine (2) Energy conversion
charge, the switch is closed at t = 0. (R) Incandescent lamp (3) Melting
(S) Electric fuse (4) Thermal expansion
of solids
P Q R S
(a) 1 2 3 4
(b) 4 3 2 4
List - I List - II (c) 3 4 2 1
Variables Possible graphs (d) 4 2 1 3
20. Figure gives the x-t plots of a particle executing
(P) Charge v/s time (1) one-dimensional simple harmonic motion.

(Q) Current v/s time (2)

(R) Charge v/s current (3) Match the List-I with List-II.
List - I List - II
Time Signs of position
(S) Energy stored in (4) None of these
capacitor v/s time (x), velocity (v) and
P Q R S acceleration (a)
(a) 1 2 3 4
(b) 3 1 2 4 (P) At t = –1.2 s (1) x < 0, v < 0, a > 0
(c) 1 4 2 3 (Q) At t = –0.3 s (2) x > 0, v > 0, a < 0
(d) 3 4 1 2 (R) At t = 0.3 s (3) x > 0, v < 0, a < 0
18. In the following, List-I lists some physical (S) At t = 1.2 s (4) x < 0, v > 0, a > 0
quantities and the List-II gives approximate
P Q R S
energy values associated with some of them.
(a) 4 3 1 2
Choose the appropriate value of energy from
(b) 3 1 2 4
List-II for each of the physical quantities in List-I.
(c) 4 3 2 1
List-I List-II (d) 3 4 1 2
(P) Energy of thermal (1) 0.025 eV
neutrons SOLUTIONS
(Q) Energy of X-rays (2) 8 MeV Paper 1
(R) Binding energy per (3) 3 eV 1. (a) : Here, collector current, Iout = 2 mA = 2 × 10–3A
nucleon Base current, Iin = 40 mA = 40 × 10–6 A
(S) Photoelectric (4) 10 keV Input resistance Rin = 100 W
threshold of a metal Output resistance Rout = 4 kW = 4 × 103 W

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Vout I out Rout Centripetal force of COM of rod in this position is
Voltage gain = = × l 3mg
Vin I in Rin m w2 = (towards A)
2 × 10 −3 A 4 × 10 −3 W 2 2
= Let F be the force exerted by the hinge on the rod
40 × 10 −6 A 100 W upwards. Then
= 2000 3mg 5
F − mg = \ F= mg
2. (a) : The photon of energy 10.2 eV excites the 2 2
electron from n = 1 to n = 2 as 5
E2 – E1 = – 3.4 eV – (– 13.6 eV) = 10.2 eV or force exerted by the rod on the hinge is mg
downwards. 2
The electron returns to the ground state in less
than a mirosecond and releases a photon of energy 5. (a) : Length of organ pipe is same in both the
10.2 eV. As the ionisation energy is 13.6 eV, the cases. Fundamental frequency of open pipe is
second photon of 15 eV energy ionises the atom
v
by ejecting an electron and the balance of energy u1 = and frequency of third harmonic of closed
(15 eV – 13.6 eV = 1.4 eV) is retained by the ejected 2l
electron. pipe will be
3. (b) : Let the initial amplitude decreases to a1 to the  v
u2 = 3  
other side i.e., after the first sweep,  4l 
decrease in elastic potential energy Given that, u2 = u1 + 100
= work done against friction or u2 – u1 = 100
1 2 1 2 3  v  1  v
or ka − ka1 = mmg (a + a1) or   −     = 100
2 2 4  l   2  l 
1 v
or k(a + a1) (a – a1) = mmg (a + a1) ⇒ = 100 Hz
2 4l
2mmg v
or a − a1 = …(i) \ or u1 = 200 Hz
k 2l
2mmg Therefore, fundamental frequency of the open
Similarly, a1 − a2 = …(ii)
k pipe is 200 Hz.
............................. Q + Q′ ...(i)
an −1 − an =
2mmg
…(iii)
6. ∫
(c) : EP dS =
e0
k
Adding all the above equations where Q′ is the charge outside the sphere.
2nmmg
a − an = …(iv)
k
The block stops when,
mmg
mmg = kan or an =
k
Substituting in equation (iv) we get,
(2n + 1)  mmg  = a r r
a
∫ ∫ r × 4pr dr
2
 k  =
Q′ =
dV
ka 20 × 0.3 R R
or + 1) =
(2n= = 15 r
mmg 0.04 × 1 × 10  r2   r 2 R2 
 2 pa (r − R )
2 2
or 2n = 15 – 1 = 4 pa=
  4 pa  = −
2 R  2 2
\ n=7
4. (b) : The rod will rotate about A. Therefore, From equation (i)
from conservation of mechanical energy, Q + 2 pa (r 2 − R 2 )
Decrease in gravitational potential energy EP × 4 pr 2 =
e0
= increase in rotational kinetic energy
about A Q a aR 2
= EP 2
+ − 2
or l 1 4 pr e 0 2 e 0 2r e 0
mg= I w2
2 2 A
l 1  ml 2  2 Q aR 2
or mg =  w E is independent of r if 2
− 0
=
2 2 3  4 pr e 0 2r 2 e 0
3g Q = 2pR2a
\ w2 = …(i)
l
14 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 14
7. (a) : Let eA, eB and eC be the emf of three cells A, B A C(0°C) B
and C respectively. 20°C H1 H2 40°C
As per question
eA + eB + eC = kl1 = k × 740 ...(i)
eA + eB = kl2 = k × 440 ...(ii) H
eB + eC = kl3 = k × 540 ...(iii)
Inserting the value of eA + eB from (ii) into (i), we Ice D
get 0°C
eC = 300k 40 40 × 336
Inserting the value of eB + eC from (iii) into (i), we \ H= H1 + H 2 ==
get
R 10 3
13440
= = 13.44 W
eA = 200k 10 3
Inserting this value of eA into (ii), we get Rate of melting of ice
eB = 240k H 13.44
= = g s −1 = 40 mg s −1
\ eA : eB : eC = 200k : 240k : 300k L f 4.2 × 80
= 10 : 12 : 15 = 1 : 1.2 : 1.5
10. (c)
⇒ eA = 1 V, eB = 1.2 V, eC = 1.5 V
11. (a,d) : As, F1 = k1x, F2 = k2x.
8. (b) : As the thickness of glass slab is 6 cm and its
3 1
refractive index m = , so shift produced by it Work done W1 = k x 2 and W = 1 k x 2
will be 2 2 1 2
2 2
 1  2 W k
=x t1 − = 6 1 −  = 2 cm or a= 1 = 1
 m 
  3 W2 k2
So the glass slab will shift the mirror from MM′ to When the springs are stretched by the same force
mm′ as shown in the figure. F, the extensions in springs A and B are x1 and x2
respectively which are given by
x k
F = k1x1 = k2x2 or 1 = 2 …(i)
x2 k1
1 1
Work done W1′ = k1x12 and W2′ = k2 x22
2 2
W1′ k1 x12
\ = ⋅ …(ii)
W2′ k2 x22
The distance of object from this virtual mirror will Using (i) and (ii) we get
be
= 50 – x = 50 – 2 = 48 cm W1′ k1 k22 k2
b= = ⋅ =
This virtual mirror will form the image of object O W2′ k2 k12 k1
at a distance 48 cm behind it and so the distance of
image from actual mirror MM′ will be
= 48 – 2 = 46 cm 12. (b) :
[As mm′ is 2 cm in front of MM′]
So the distance of image as seen by the observer is
= 50 cm + 46 cm = 96 cm
L
9. (d) : Thermal resistance of AC =
KA
0.1 10 3
= = = R(suppose )
336 × 1 × 10 −4 336
0.2
Thermal resistance of BC = = 2R The field at the face ABCD = E0 x0 i
336 × 10 −4
\ flux over the face ABCD = –(E0x0)a2.
Temperature of C = 0°C
The negative sign arises as the field is directed
20 40 20 into the cube.
\ H1 = ;H
= 2 =
R 2R R The field at the face EFGH = E (x + a) i .
0 0

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 15

Page 15
\ flux over the face EFGH = E0(x0 + a)a2. 15. (c, d) :
The flux over the other four faces is zero as the
field is parallel to the surfaces.
1
\ total flux over the cube = E0a3 = q,
e0
where q is the total charge inside the cube.  ^  ^
\ q = e0E0a3. Here,
= 0 j , B B0 j
E E=
If q = 0°, then due to magnetic force path is
13. (a,d) : circular but due to electric force qE0 (↑) q will have
accelerated motion along y-axis. So combined
path of q will be a helical path with variable pitch.
So (a) and (b) are wrong.
If q = 10° then due to vcosq, path is circular and
due to qE0 and vsinq, q has accelerated motion
along y-axis so combined path is a helical path
with variable pitch. So (c) is correct.
If q = 90° then FB = 0 and due to qE0 motion is
l accelerated along y-axis. So (d) is correct.
At P, electric field, E = (to the right),
2 pe 0 x
m0I
and magnetic field, B = (into the paper) 16. (2) :
2 px
E
For no deflection, E = vB or v =
B
l 2 px l 1 lc 2 From similar triangles AOB and BDC
or
= v =
× = .
2 pe 0 x m 0 I I e 0 m 0 I OB AO x ( d / 2)
 = or 1 =
1  BD CD x2 ( d / 4 )
 c = 
 m 0 e 0  or x1 = 2x2
As x1 + x2 = 3f, 2x2 + x2 = 3f or x2 = f
14. (a,b,d) : For Balmer series, n1 = 2, n2 = 3,4,........ i.e. x1 = 2f
(lower) (higher) \ n = 2.
\ In transition (VΙ), photon of Balmer series is 17 (5) : Uncertainty in electron’s momentum,
absorbed. ∆px = (0.05)mv
= 0.05(9.11 × 10–31 kg)(35 m s–1)
In transition ΙΙ = 1.59 × 10–31 kg m s–1
E2 = – 3.4 eV, E4 = – 0.85 eV Minimum uncertainty in electron’s position,
∆E = 2.55 eV h
∆x =
hc hc 2p∆px
∆E = ⇒ l=
l ∆E 6.62 × 10 −34 J s
l = 486 nm =
Wavelength of radiation = 103 nm = 1030 Å
(
2 p 1.59 × 10 −30 kg m s −1 )
= 6.64 × 10–5 m ≈ 105 times the size of atom
\ 12400 eV Å
∆E = 18. (7) : Q
1030 Å
D
 12.0 eV 5x
So difference of energy should be 12.0 eV (approx) 3x 1

Hence n1 = 1 and n2 = 3 2
P 4x R
(–13.6 eV) (–1.51 eV)
\ Transition is V. Using the concept of area of triangle
For longest wavelength, energy difference should 1 1
× PD × 5 x= × 3x × 4 x
be minimum. 2 2
So in visible portion of hydrogen atom, minimum 12 x
energy emitted is in transition ΙV. \ PD =
5
144 x 2 9 x
=
QD ( PQ)2 − ( PD
= )2 9x2 − =
16 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 25 5

Page 16
12 x
\ PD =
5
2. (c, d) : If q is the angle made by the direction of
144 x 2 9 x
=
QD ( PQ)2 − ( PD
= )2 9x2 − = force with the horizontal, we have
25 5 F1 cosq = m(mg + F1 sinq) and
9 x 16 x F2cosq = m(mg – F2sinq).
and DR
= 5x − =
5 5 Clearly F1 > F2 so that option (c) is correct.
Magnetic field at P due to current elements PQ mg
and PR is zero as the point P is on the conductor. If sin q = , two relations written above becomes
4 F2
Therefore, magnetic field at P due to current
element QR is  mgF1 
cosq m  mg +
F1= and
m0 I  4 F2 
B= (sin φ1 + sin φ 2 )
4 pPD
m I × 5  (9 x / 5) (16 x / 5)   mgF2 
B= 0 + cosq m  mg −
F2= .
4 p × 12 x  3 x 4 x   4 F2 
m0 I 5  3 4  7 m0 I
=  + = \ k=7 F1 1 + ( F1 / 4 F2 )
48 px  5 5  48 px Thus, = .
F2 (3 / 4)
19. (2) : Motional emf e = Bvl
e=2×2×1=4V ⇒ F1 = 2F2
This acts as a cell of emf e = 4 V and internal
resistance r = 2 W. 3. (b, c, d)
The simple circuit can be drawn as follows 4. (b, c) : Thermal force = YAa dq = Ypr2a dq
r1 = r, r2 = r 2 , r3 = r 3 , r4 = 2r,
The ratio of forces on them exerted by the wall,
F1 : F2 : F3 : F4 = 1 : 2 : 3 : 4
Thermal stress = Ya dq
As Y and a are same for all the rods, hence stress
\ Current through the connector developed in each rod will be same.
4 As strain = a dq, so strain will also be same.
I= =1A 1
2+2 Energy stored = Y (strain)2 × A × L
Magnetic force on connector Fm = IlB 2
\ E1 : E2 : E3 : E4 = 1 : 2 : 3 : 4
= (1) × (1) × (2) = 2 N (towards left)
Therefore, to keep the connector moving with a 5. (d)
constant velocity a force of 2 N will have to be  ^ ^
6. (a, b, c) : Here v= x i^+ y j^
applied towards right.
= y i+ x j
B
  
20 (7) : Net external torque is zero. Therefore, angular If x = y then v B i.e.; F = 0
momentum of system will remain conserved,
Hence, option (a) is correct
i.e.; Li = Lf   
Initial angular momentum Li = 0
\ final angular momentum should also be zero.
As = F q ( v= ( ) ( )
× B) q  xi + y j × yi + x j 

or angular momentum of man = (x2 – y2) k


= angular momentum of platform in opposite
Now, if x > y, F ∝ x2 – y2 and force is along z-axis.
direction
But if y > x, force will be along negative z-axis.
or mv0r = Iw
\ Option (b) and (c) are also correct.
mv r 70 × 1 × 2
or w = 0 = 7. (a, d) : Final image is formed at infinity if the
I 200 combined focal length of the two lenses (in
\ w = 0.7 rad s–1 = 7 × 10–1 rad s–1 contact) becomes 30 cm
\ x=7 1 1 1
= +
Paper 2 30 20 f
i.e. when another concave lens of focal length
1. (a, b, c) : Here, q2 = 90° – q1
60 cm is kept in contact with the first lens.
The ratio of maximum height reached =
Similarly, let m be the refractive index of a liquid
h1 sin 2 q1 in which focal length of the given lens becomes
= = tan2q1 = cot2q2
2
h2 sin (90° − q1 ) 30 cm. Then

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 17

Page 17
For 8 second ring move along x direction and for
1 3  1 1
=  − 1 − …(i) 8 second it move along y direction. So, its centre of
20  2   R1 R2  mass = (2R, 2R) = (20, 20)
1 3/2  1 1 nh
…(ii) 15. (d) : Angular momentum, L =
=  − 1  −  2p
30  m   R1 R2  Kinetic energy of rotation,
From equations (i) and (ii), we get L2 p2
= Kr = ( K translation )
9 2I 2m
m=
8 (nh / 2 p )2  h2 
8. (a, c, d) : Wavelength depends on length which is Thus,
= Kr = n2  2 
fixed. Thus, wavelength does not change. 2I  8p I 
Further v = T / m or v ∝ T1/2 4h2 h2 3h 2
16. (b) : As, hv = (Kr)2 – (K = r)1 2
− 2 = 2
1 8p I 8p I 8p I
\ percentage change in v =
2 3h 3( 2 p × 10 −34 J s)
= I =
× percentage change in T 8p v2
4 
8 p 2  × 1011 s −1 
1 p 
= (2) = 1%
2 = 0.1875 × 10 –45 kg m2 = 1.87 × 10 –46 kg m2
i.e. Speed and hence frequency will change by 1%.
17. (a)
Change in frequency is 15 Hz which is 1% of
1500 Hz. 18. (c) :
List-I List-II
Therefore, original frequency should be 1500 Hz.
(P) Energy of thermal neutrons (1) 0.025 eV
9. (b) : Loss in KE = Ki – Kf
2
(Q) Energy of X-rays (4) 10 keV
1 2 1 2 1  4w  Iw 2 (R) Binding energy per nucleon (2) 8 MeV
=  I ( 2w ) + ( 2 I )(w )  − ( I + 2 I )  =
2 2  2  3  3 (S) Photoelectric threshold (3) 3 eV
[as from conservation of angular momentum, of a metal
4w 19. (d)
I(2w) + (2I)w = (I + 2I)wf, where wf = ]
3 20. (a) : In SHM, acceleration, a = – w2x
10. (a) : Considering the disc B (with moment of where w is (i.e angular frequency) constant.
inertia 2I and angular velocity w),
w f − w i ( 4w / 3) − w w
wf = wi + at, a = = =
t t 3t
2Iw
Thus, t = (2)Ia =
3t
11. (a) : Electric field at the surface of the nucleus,
Q At t = – 1.2 s, x < 0
E = ke 2 i.e. r = R The slope of x-t is positive, hence v is positive.
R Since a = – w2x, hence a is positive.
Which is independent of a. \ At t = – 1.2 s, x < 0, v > 0, a > 0
12. (b) P–4
At t = – 0.3 s, x > 0
13. (b) : Time taken by particle to move from A to B The slope of x-t is negative, hence v is negative.
is Since a = – w2x, hence a < 0
2 R 2 R 20 \ At t = – 0.3 s, x > 0, v < 0, a < 0
= t1 = = = 4 second.
5 5 5 Q–3
2 At t = 0.3 s, x < 0
Since collision is perfectly elastic, relative velocity The slope of x-t is negative, hence v is negative.
between ring and particles will not change. Hence Since a = – w2x, hence a > 0
th
after 4 time it reaches to A. i.e. 4 × 4 = 16 s \ At t = 0.3 s, x < 0, v < 0, a > 0
R–1
14. (c) : For the particle, x component of velocity
At t = 1.2 s, x > 0
(2 initial)
The slope of x-t is positive, hence v is positive.
5
= m s–1 Since a = – w2x, hence a < 0
2 5 \ At t = 1.2, x > 0, v > 0, a < 0
y component of velocity (2 initial) = m s–1
2 S–2 nn

18 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 18
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Page 19
1. The distance between 4. In the Young’s double slit
plates of a parallel plate experiment apparatus
capacitor is 5d. The shown in figure, the ratio
positively charged plate of maximum to minimum
is at x = 0 and negatively intensity on the screen is 9.
charged plate is at The wavelength of light used
x = 5d. Two slabs one is l, then the value of y is
of conductor and lD lD
the other of a dielectric of same thickness d are (a) (b)
d 2d
inserted between the plates as shown in figure.
lD lD
Potential (V) versus distance (x) graph will be (c) (d)
3d 4d
5. The frequency of a sonometer wire is u, but when
the weights producing the tensions are completely
(a) (b) immersed in water the frequency becomes u/2 and
on immersing the weights in a certain liquid the
frequency becomes u/3. The specific gravity of the
liquid is
16 15
(a) 4 (b) (c) (d) 32
3 9 12 27
(c) (d) 6. Find the phase velocity of electromangetic wave
having electron density and frequency for D layer,
N = 400 electron per c.c., u = 200 kHz.
(a) 3 × 108 m s–1 (b) 3.4 × 108 m s–1
2. Let K1 be the maximum kinetic energy of 8 –1
(c) 6.9 × 10 m s (d) 1.1 × 109 m s–1
photoelectrons emitted by light of wavelength
l1 and K2 corresponding to wavelength l2. If 7. A current of 3 A flows through the 2 W resistor
l1 = 2l2 then shown in the circuit below. The power dissipated
(a) 2K1 = K2 (b) K1 = 2K2 in the 5 W resistor is
(c) K1 < K2/2 (d) K1 > 2K2 (a) 1 W
3. A rigid circular loop of radius r and mass m lies (b) 5 W
in the x-y plane on a flat table and has a current (c) 4 W
I flowing in it. At this particular place, the earth’s (d) 2 W

magnetic field is = B Bx i + Bz k . What is the value 8. Two large parallel copper plates are L m apart
I so that one edge of the loop lifts from the table? and have a uniform electric field between them.
An electron is released from the negative plate
mg mg
(a) (b) at the same time, a proton is released from the
pr Bx2 + Bz2 prBz positive plate. The gravity and force on the
particles on each other are to be neglected. The
mg mg
(c) (d) two particles cross each other at a distance r from
prBx pr Bx Bz the positive plate. Then r is

20 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 20

mp L (2, 2, 0) be B2 , then
(a) L/2 (b)    
me (a) B1 = B2 (b) B1 = 2B2
   
me L mp L (c) B1 = − B2 (d) B1 = −2B2
(c) (d)
(m
e + mp ) (me + mp ) 15. Two beams of light having intensities I and 4I
9. When a dc voltage of 200 V is applied to a coil of interfere to produce a fringe pattern on a screen.
self inductance 2 3 / p H, a current of 1 A flows The phase difference between the beams is p/2
through it. But by replacing dc source with ac at point A and p at point B. Then the difference
source of 200 V, the current in the coil is reduced between the resultant intensities at A and B is
to 0.5 A. Then the frequency of ac supply is (a) 2I (b) 4I (c) 5I (d) 7I
(a) 100 Hz (b) 75 Hz 16. A radioactive nucleus X decays to a stable nucleus
(c) 50 Hz (d) 30 Hz Y. Then the graph of rate of formation of Y against
10. A block of ice at –10°C is slowly heated and time t will be
converted to steam at 100°C. Which of the
following curves represents the phenomena
qualitatively? (a) (b)

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(c) (d) Directions : Question numbers 17-18 contain


Statement-1 and Statement-2. Of the four choices given
choose the one that best describes the two statements.
(a) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true.
11. Two wires of same dimension but resistivities (b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true, Statement-2
r1 and r2 are connected in series. The equivalent is the correct explanation of Statement-1.
resistivity of the combination is (c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true, Statement-2
1 is not the correct explanation of Statement-1.
(a) r1 + r2 (b) (r1 + r2) (d) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false.
2
(c) r1r2 (d) 2(r1 + r2) 17. Statement 1 : The threshold frequency of
photoelectric effect supports the particle nature of
12. The moment of inertia of a uniform circular disc light.
is maximum about an axis perpendicular to the
disc and passing through Statement 2 : If frequency of incident light is less
(a) B than the threshold frequency, electrons are not
(b) C emitted from metal surface.
(c) D 18. Statement 1 : If earth suddenly stops rotating
(d) A about its axis, then the value of acceleration due
to gravity will become same at all the places.
13. When an ideal monoatomic gas is heated at
Statement 2 : The value of acceleration due to
constant pressure, the fraction of the heat energy
gravity is independent of rotation of earth.
supplied which increases the internal energy of
the gas is 19. A particle moves in the x-y plane under the
influence of a force such that its linear momentum
(a) 2/5 (b) 3/5 (c) 3/7 (d) 5/7 
= is P(t) A[i cos( kt) − j sin( kt)] , where A and k are
14. A small current element of length dl is placed at constants. The angle between the force and the
(1, 1, 0) and is carrying current in +z direction. momentum is
If magnetic field at origin be B1 and at point (a) 0° (b) 30° (c) 45° (d) 90°

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 21

Page 21
20. A particle moves in space along the path from the mean position are y1 and y2 respectively,
dx dy then its time period is
z =ax3 + by2 in such a way that = c= where
dt dt
a, b and c are constants. The acceleration of the y12 + y22 v22 − v12
(a) 2 p (b) 2 p
particle is v12 + v22 y12 − y22
(a) (6ac2x + 2bc2) k (b) (2ax2 + 6by2) k y12 − y22
v12 + v22
(c) (4bc2x + 3ac2) k (d) (bc2x + 2by) k (c) 2 p (d) 2 p
y12 + y22 v22 − v12
21. The mean distance between the atoms of iron is 28. Two chambers containing m1 g and m2 g of a
3 × 10–10 m and interatomic force constant for iron gas at pressures P1 and P2 respectively are put
is 7 N m–1. The Young’s modulus of elasticity for in communication with each other, temperature
iron is remaining constant. The common pressure
(a) 2.33 × 105 N m–2 (b) 23.3 × 106 N m–2 reached will be
P1P2 (m1 + m2 )
9
(c) 2.33 × 10 N m –2 (d) 2.33 × 1010 N m–2 P1P2 m1
(a) (b)
22. A particle has two equal accelerations in two (P2m1 + P1m2 ) P2 m1 + P1m2
given directions. If one of the accelerations is m1m2 ( P1 + P2 ) m1m2 P2
halved, then the angle which the resultant makes (c) (d)
P2 m1 + P1m2 P2 m1 + P1m2
with the other is also halved. The angle between
the accelerations is 29. Variation of radiant energy
(a) 120° (b) 90° (c) 60° (d) 45° emitted by sun, filament
of tungsten lamp and
23. A projectile is given an initial velocity of welding arc as a function
i + 2 j . The cartesian equation of its path is
of its wavelength is shown
(Take g = 10 m s–2) in figure. Which of the
(a) y = x – 5x2 (b) y = 2x – 5x2 following option is the
(c) y = 2x – 15x2 (d) y = 2x – 25x2 correct match?
24. A particle is moving in a circle of radius R in such a (a) Sun-T1, tungsten filament-T2, welding arc-T3
way that at any instant the normal and tangential (b) Sun-T2, tungsten filament-T1, welding arc-T3
components of its acceleration are equal. If its (c) Sun-T3, tungsten filament-T1, welding arc-T2
speed at t = 0 is v0, the time taken to complete the (d) Sun-T1, tungsten filament-T3, welding arc-T2
first revolution is 30. A deflection mangnetometer is adjusted in
R R( the usual way. When a magnet is introduced,
(a) (b) 1 − e −2 p )
v0 v0 the deflection observed is q, and the period of
R −2 p 2 pR oscillation of the needle in the magnetometer is
(c) e (d) T. When the magnet is removed, the period of
v0 v0
oscillation is T0. The relation between T and T0 is
25. An electric charge of 8.85 × 10–13 C is placed at the 2
(a) T2 = T0 cosq (b) T = T0 cosq
centre of a sphere of radius 1 m. The electric flux T T02
through the sphere is (c) T = 0 (d) T 2 =
cosq cosq
(a) 0.2 N C–1 m2 (b) 0.1 N C–1 m2
(c) 0.3 N C–1 m2 (d) 0.01 N C–1 m2 SOLUTIONS
26. The mass M of planet-earth is uniformly 1. (b) : Since electric field E = – (slope of V-x graph)
distributed over a spherical volume of radius and E inside a conductor = 0
R. Find the energy needed to disassemble the \ slope of V-x graph between x = d to x = 2d
planet against the gravitational pull amongst its should be zero.
constituent particles. also E in air > E in dielectric
(Given MR = 2.5 × 1031 kg m and g = 10 m s–2) \ |Slope in air|>|slope in dielectric|
(a) 3.0 × 1032 J (b) 2.5 × 1032 J hc
28 2. (c) : K= −W …(i)
(c) 1.4 × 10 J (d) 1.5 × 1032 J 1
l1
27. A particle is describing simple harmonic motion. If hc
and K= −W …(ii)
its velocities are v1 and v2 when the displacements 2
l2

22 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 22
Here, W is work function of given metal surface. r
Substituting l1 = 2l2 in equation (i), we get or 2=
r − rW
hc
=K1 −W 4
2l 2 or 4r – 4rW = r ⇒ r = r …(i)
3 W
1  hc  1
= − W =( K 2 + W ) − W Similarly in second case
2  l 2  2
u r
=
\
K2 W  hc  u/3 r − rL
=
K 1
2

2  l= K 2 + W 
2
K 4
⇒ K1 < 2 r
2 or 3 W
3=
3. (c) : The torque on the loop must be equal to the 4
r − rL
gravitational torque exerted about an axis tangent 3 W
to the loop.
The gravitational torque 4 [From equation (i)]
=
t1 = mgr …(i) rL
4−3
Only Bx causes a torque. Therefore torque to the rW
magnetic field
  rL
t2 = M × B = MB sin90° = pr2IBx …(ii) Here specific gravity of the liquid s =
rW
Hence from equation. (i) and (ii), we get
mg \ 4
t1 = t2, ⇒ mgr = pr2IBx \ I= 9= ⇒ 36 – 27s = 4
prBx 4 − 3s
2
32
I max  I1 / I 2 + 1 9 \ s=
4. (c) : =  = 27
I min  I1 / I 2 − 1 1
6. (c) : Since refractive index of D layer,
or
x+1
x −1
=3 ( x = I1 / I 2 ) =
µ 1−
81.45 N
\ x=2 u2
I1 Here, N = 4000 electrons per c.c. = 400 × 106
and 2
= x= 22 = 4
I2 electrons per m3
u = 200 kHz = 200 × 103 Hz
Let I1 = 4I2
I2 = I0 ⇒ I1 = 4I0 81.45 × 400 × 106
δ δ \ µ = 1− = 0.43
Since I2 = I1 cos2 ⇒ I0 = 4I0 cos2 ( 200 × 10 3 )2
2 2
δ 1 c
As µ =
⇒ cos2 2 = 4 v
c 3 × 108
δ 1 p \ Phase velocity, v= = = 6.9 × 108 m s–1
or cos = = cos \ δ = 2p µ 0.43
2 2 3 3
2p yd 7. (b) :
and δ= Dx and Dx =
l D

\  2 p   yd  2 p ⇒ y = lD
    = 3d
l D 3
5. (d) : Since frequency u ∝ T
Where T is tension in sonometer wire 2 W, 4 W and (1 W + 5 W) are in parallel. The
potential difference across each is same.
uair Wair Vrg
\ = = Therefore,
u water Wwater Vrg − VrW g
VAB = VFC = VED = I1 × 2 = 3 × 2 = 6 V (... I1 = 3 A)
u r VED 6
or = I3 = = = 1A
u/2 r − rW 1+ 5 6

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 23

Page 23
Power dissipated in 5 W resistance
2
= I 3 × 5 = 12 × 5 = 5 W
8. (c) : Total displacement of both charged particle
due to electric field E,
1  qE qE  2
= L + t
2  me mp 

2L 2 Lme mp
or t2 = =
 1
qE  +
1  qE me + mp

( )
m
 e mp

If r is the distance travelled by proton in time t, then l l


11. (b) : R = R1=
+ R2 r1 + r2
1 2 1 qE 2 Lme mp
qE  pr 2 pr 2
=r =at × a = l
2 p
(
2 mp qE me + mp  P mp 
 ) R = (r1 + r2)
pr 2
…(i)
me L For equivalent resistance
=
(me + mp ) R= r 2
2l
…(ii)
pr
V 200
9. (c) : For dc voltage source, R
= = = 200 W From Equations (i) and (ii), we have
I 1 2r = r1 + r2
2 3
and L = H r + r2
p or r = 1
When dc source is replaced by ac source, 2
12. (a) : According to the theorem of parallel axes,
Ev 200 I = ICM + Ma2
Impedance, =
Z = = 400 W
Iv 0.5 As a is maximum for point B.
Hence the reactance of inductor Therefore I is maximum about B.
=
XL Z2 − R 2 [... Z2 = R2 + XL 2] 13. (b) : By first law of thermodynamics
DQ = DU + DW
= 400 2 −=
200 2 200 4 − 1 = 200 3
f
Now, XL = wL = 2puL = 200 3
=
2
nRT + P dV ∫
f
200 3 200 3 = nRT + PV
=u = = 50 Hz 2
2 pL 2 3
2p ×
p or =
DQ
f
nRT + nRT (... PV = nRT)
2
10. (a) : The temperature of ice will first increase from
3 5
–10°C to 0°C. Heat supplied in this process will be = nRT + nRT = nRT
2 2
Q1 = mSi(10), DU
where m = mass of ice, and Si = specific heat of ice \ Fraction of heat energy supplied =
DQ
At 0°C ice starts melting. Temperature during
( 3 / 2)nRT 3
melting will remain constant (0°C) = =
( 5 / 2)nRT 5
Heat supplied in the process will be

Q2 = mL, where L is latent heat of melting  µ Idl × r
Now the temperature of water will increase from 14. (c) : From Biot-Savart Law, B = 0
4p r 3
0°C to 100°C. Heat supplied will be
Q3 = mSw(100)
1

( )
For B , r = −i − j

where Sw is specific heat of water \ B1
=
µ 0 Idl 
4p 2 2
( )
k × − i − j …(i)
Finally water at 100°C will be converted into
steam and during this process temperature 
For B2, r = i + j
again remains constant. Temperature versus heat
supplied graph will be as follows \=B2
4p 2 2
(
µ0 Idl   
k× i+ j ) …(ii)

24 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 24
From (i) and (ii) d2x d2y
    \ = = 0
B1 = − B2 or B1 = B2 dt 2 dt 2
15. (b) : Since resultant intensity Further z = ax3 + by2
I I1 + I 2 + 2 I1 I 2 cos φ
= …(i) dz dx dy
\= 3 ax 2 + 2by
Applying equation (i) when phase difference is dt dt dt
p/2
= 3acx2 + 2bcy (using (i))
Ip/2 = I + 4I ⇒ Ip/2 = 5I
d2z  dx   dy 
Again applying equation (i) when the phase Again, 2 = 6 acx   + 2bc   = 6ac2x + 2bc2
dt  dt   dt 
difference is p
Now acceleration of particle is
Ip = I + 4I + 2 I 4 I cosp  d2x 2 2
\ Ip = I …(ii) = a i + d y j + d z k = (6ac2x + 2bc2) k
2 2
From equations (i) and (ii) we get, dt dt dt 2
Ip/2 – Ip = 5I – I = 4I 21. (d) : Given, r0 = 3 × 10–10 m and k = 7 N m–1;
... k = Yr
16. (c) : Since N = N0e–lt ⇒ NY = N0(1 – e–lt) 0
or Y= k= 7
dN = 2.33 × 1010 N m −2
Rate of formation of Y , R = = + lN0e–lt r0 3 × 10 −10
dt
Hence the graph (c) is the correct representation. B sin q
22. (a) : As tan β =
17. (c) : Both assertion and reason are true but reason A + B cos q
is not the correct explanation of assertion. There is A sin q
= (... A = B)
no emission of photoelectrons till the frequency of A + A cos q
incident light is less than a minimum frequency, sin q
however intense light it may be. In photoelectric = …(i)
1 + cos q
effect, it is a single particle collision. Intensity is
hu × N, where hu is the individual energy of the β ( A / 2)sin q  A
tan =  B = 
photon and N is the total number of photon. In 2 A + ( A / 2)cos q 2
the wave theory, the intensity is proportional, not sin q
= …(ii)
only to u2 but also to the amplitude squared. For 2 + cos q
the same frequency, increase in intensity only The equations are satisfied if q = 120°
increase the number of photons (in the quantum 
theory of Einstein). 23. (b) : Given, u= i + =
2 j ux i + uy j
18. (d) : The value of g at any place is given by the Then ux = 1 = ucosq
relation, and uy = 2 = usinq
u sin q 2
g′ = g – Rew2cos2l \ =tan q = =2
Where l is angle of latitude and w is the angular u cos q 1
velocity of earth. If earth suddenly stops rotating, The equation of trajectory of a projectile motion is
then w = 0 \ g′ = g gx 2 gx 2
=y x tan q − = x tan q −
i.e., the value of g will be same at all places. 2u2 cos 2 q 2 (u cos q)
2

19. (d) : Here,
= P(t) A[i cos( kt) − j sin( kt)] …(i) 10 × x 2
 \ y= x × 2 − = 2x – 5x2
 dP 2 (1)
2
=F = Ak[ −i sin( kt) − j cos( kt)] …(ii)
dt dv v 2
From equation (i) and (ii) 24. (b) : =
at =
  dt R
F⋅P = 0
  t
dt dv
v v
1
F⋅P =
 
FP cosq
∫ =
R 0v ∫
2 ⇒ t = −R  
 v  v0
But F ⋅ P = 0 ⇒ cosq = 0 0
v0 R
\ q = 90°. v=
20. (a) : Given that
(R − v0t)
dx dy dr v0 R
= = c ... (i) Now, =
dt dt dt ( R − v0 t )

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 25

Page 25
2 pR T
dt 2p y 2 − y22
∫ dr = v0 R ∫ (R − v t )
0
⇒ =
T = 2 p 12
w v2 − v12
0 0
R 28. (a) : According to Boyle’s law, PV = k (a constant)
⇒=T (1 − e −2 p )
v0 Pm  m
m
25. (b) : According to Gauss’s law, or P = k or r =  V = r 
r k  
the electric flux through the sphere is
P k
qin 8.85 × 10 −13 C or r= (... = K a constant)
=φ = = 0.1 N C −1 m 2 K m
ε 0 8.85 × 10 −12 C 2 N −1 m −2
P m1 m1 Km1
So, r1 = 1 and V
= = =
26. (d) : If M is the mass and R is the radius of earth, K 1
r1 P1 / K P1
M
then the density r = . ...(i) Km2
4 3 Similarly, V2 =
pR P2
3
The spherical volume may be supposed to be m m 
\ Total volume = V1 + V2 = K 1 + 2
formed by a large number of their concentric  P P2 
1
spherical shells. Let the sphere be disassembled Let P be the common pressure and r be the
by removing such shells. When there is a spherical common density of mixture. Then
core of radius x the energy needed to disassemble m + m2 m1 + m2
a spherical shell of thickness dx is r= 1 =
V1 + V2  m1 m2 
Gm1m2 4 3 K +
= dW = , where m1 px r  P1 P2 
x 3
mass of spherical shell of radius x and thickness m1 + m2 P1P2 (m1 + m2 )
\ =
P K=
r =
dx is, m2 = 4px2dxr. m1 m2 (m1P2 + m2 P1 )
+
4 
G  pr 3r 4 px 2 dxr
3 
(16 2 2 4
) P1 P2
\ dW = = p r Gx dx 29. (c) : According to Wien’s displacement law,
x 3 lmT = b = a constant. As (lm)3 < (lm)2 < (lm)1
\ Total energy required therefore, T3 > T2 > T1. Hence, curve T3 is for sun,
R
R
16 2 2 3 16 2 2  x 5  curve T2 is for welding arc and curve T1 is for
= W =
3 ∫
p r Gx dx
3
p r G 
 5 0
tungsten filament.
0
30. (a) : In the usual setting of deflection magnetometer,
16 2 2 GR 5 16 2  M 
= = p r p GR 5 (using (i)) field due to magnet (F) and horizontal component
3 5 15  4 3  (H) of earth’s field are perpendicular to each other.
 pR 
2 3 Therefore, the net field on the magnetic needle is
3 GM
= F2 + H 2
5 R
I
But GM = gR2 \ T = 2p …(i)
3 gR 2 M 2 3 3 M F + H2 2

\ W =
= gMR = × 10 × 2.5 × 1031 When the magnet is removed,
5 M R 5 5
= 1.5 × 1032 J I
T0 = 2 p …(ii)
MH
27. (d) : In simple harmonic motion, F
Also, = tanq
velocity
= v w A2 − y 2 H
Dividing (i) by (ii), we get
\=v1 w A2 − y12 ⇒ v12 = w2A2 – w2y12 …(i)
T H
=
and
= v2 w A2 − y22 ⇒ v22 = w2A2 – w2y22 …(ii) T0 F2 + H 2
Solving equations (i) and (ii), we get H H
= = = cosq
v2 2 – v1 2 = w2(y1 2 – y2 2) H tan 2 q + H 2
2
H sec 2 q
v22 − v12 T2
w= ⇒ cosq
= \ T2 = T20 cosq
2
y1 − y22 T02
nn

26 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 26
OPTICS  If keeping the incident ray fixed, the plane mirror
Optics is the branch of physics which deals with the is rotated through an angle q, the reflected ray
study of production, propagation and nature of light. turns through double the angle i.e., 2q in that very
It is divided into two branches : direction.
(i) Ray optics (ii) Wave optics
 If the object is fixed and the mirror moves relative
REFLECTION OF LIGHT to the object with a speed v, the image moves with
It is defined as, a part of incident light is turned back a speed 2v relative to the object.
into the same medium.  If the mirror is fixed and the object moves relative
In figure i and r represent to the mirror with a speed v, the image also moves
incident ray and reflected with the same speed v relative to the mirror.
ray respectively.  Deviation suffered by a light ray incident at an angle
Laws of Reflection i is given by
 The angle of incidence i equals the angle of d = (180° – 2i)
reflection r.
Number of Images Formed by Two Inclined
 Incident ray, the normal and the reflected ray lie Mirrors
in the same plane.
The above laws of reflection are valid both in case of  If 360° = even number; number of images
θ
plane and curved reflecting surfaces.
360°
For normal incidence i.e., ∠i = 0, ∠r = 0. Hence a ray = −1
θ
of light falling normally on a mirror retraces its path
on reflection. 360°
 If = odd number; number of images
Reflection from Plane Surface θ
 The image formed by a plane mirror is at the 360°
= − 1 if the object is placed on the angle
same distance behind the mirror as the object is θ
bisector.
in front of it.
360° 360°
 The image formed by a plane mirror is laterally  If = odd number; number of images = ,
θ θ
inverted. The lateral inversion means that the right
if the object is not placed on the angle bisector.
side of the object appears as the left side of the
image and vice-versa. 360°
 If ≠ integer, then count the number of images
 The image formed by a plane mirror is virtual, erect θ
w.r.t. object and of the same size as the object. as explained above.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 27

Page 27
Illustration 1 : Two mirrors are inclined by an angle
30°. An object is placed making 10° with the mirror
F Primary focus
M1. Find the positions of first two images formed by
each mirror. Find the total number of images.
Soln.: Figure is self explanatory.
50°
F Secondary focus
10°
M1 Sign convention
10° object We follow Cartesian co-ordinate system conventions
30° according to which
M2
 The pole of mirror is the origin.
20°  The distance measured in the direction of the
incident rays is considered as positive x-axis.
40°  The heights measured in the vertically up direction
360° are positive y-axis.
Number of images = 12(even number)
30° Mirror Formula
\ number of images = 12 – 1 = 11 1 1 1
= +
SPHERICAL MIRRORS f v u
Spherical Mirror is u = distance of object, v = image distance, f = focal
formed by polishing Concave length and f = R/2; R = radius of curvature.
mirror
one surface of a part Convex Illustration 2 : A convex mirror has its radius of
of sphere. mirror curvature 20 cm. Find the position of the image of
C an object placed at a distance of 12 cm from the
Depending
upon which part P R mirror.
P Soln.: The situation is shown in figure.
is shining the
spherical mirror Here u = – 12 cm and R = + 20 cm. We have,
is classified as 1 1 2
+ =
 Concave mirror, if the side towards center of u v R
curvature is shining. 1 2 1
or = −
 Convex mirror, if the side away from the center of v R u
2 1 11
curvature is shining. = − =
20 cm −12 cm 60 cm
Important Terms for Spherical Mirrors 60
 Pole (P), is the mid point of reflecting surface. or, v = cm.
11
 Centre of curvature (C), is the centre of the sphere The positive sign of v shows that the image is
of which the mirror is a part. formed on the right side of the mirror. It is a virtual
 Radius of curvature, is the radius of the sphere image.
of which the mirror is a part. Distance between Ray Tracing
P and C. Following facts are useful in ray tracing.
 Principal axis, is the straight line connecting pole  If the incident ray is parallel to the principal axis,
P and centre of curvatrue C. the reflected ray passes through the focus.
 Principal focus (F), is the point of intersection of all  If the incident ray passes through the focus, then
the reflected ray is parallel to the principal axis.
the reflected rays which strikes the mirror parallel
 Incident ray passing through centre of curvature
to the principal axis. In concave mirror it is real and will be reflected back through the centre of
in the convex mirror it is virtual. curvature (because it is a normally incident ray).
 Focal length (f), is distance from pole to focus.
 Aperture, the diameter of the mirror is called
aperture of the mirror.
Focal Plane : Plane perpendicular to principal axis
and passing through focus is known as focal plane.

28 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH‘14

Page 28
 It is easy to make the ray tracing of a ray incident Refractive index
at the pole as shown below. The refractive index of a medium for a light of given
wavelength may be defined as the ratio of the speed
of light in vacuum to its speed in that medium.

 Speed of light in vacuum c


µ= =
C F P  Speed of light in medium v

Also, mmedium (refractive index of medium w.r.


vacuum

Magnification to vacuum) = c
v
h2 v Refractive index of a medium with respect to vacuum
 Linear magnification : m = =−
h1 u is also called absolute refractive index.
h1 = height of the object, h2 = height of the image.  When a light ray travels from one medium to
(h1 and h2 both are perpendicular to the principal another, its frequency remains constant but its
axis of mirror) wavelength as well as velocity changes.
 Note: If the image is upright or erect with respect  The deviation of the incident ray when it is
to the object then m is positive. And m is negative if refracted is given by an angle d = |i – r|.
the image is inverted with respect to the object.
Refraction Through Various Medium
v − v1
 Longitudinal magnification = 2 If a light ray passes through a number of parallel
u2 − u1 media and if the first and the last medium are same,
[for small sized object] the emergent ray is parallel to the incident ray as
shown in figure below.
REFRACTION OF LIGHT
When light passes obliquely from one transparent
medium to another, the direction of its path changes
at the interface of the two medium. This phenomenon
is known as refraction of light.
If a ray of light passes from an optically rarer medium
to a denser medium, it bends towards the normal
(i.e., ∠r < ∠i).
If a ray of light passes from an optically denser
medium to a rarer medium, it bends away from the
normal (i.e. ∠r > ∠i).
A ray of light travelling along the normal passes 1 sin i1
undeflected, the incident ray and refracted ray make µ2 =
sin r1
zero angle with normal (i.e., ∠i = ∠r = 0°) sin r1 sin r2
2
Laws of Refraction µ3 = and 3µ1 =
sin r2 sin i1
 The incident ray, the normal to the interface at the
1 2 3 sin i1 sin r1 sin r2
point of incidence and the refracted ray all lie in Hence, µ 2 × µ 3 × µ1 = sin r × sin r × sin i = 1
1 2 1
the same plane.
 The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the Principle of reversibility
sine of the angle of refraction is always a constant 1 1
µ2 =
(a different constant for a different set of media). 2
µ1
sin i
i.e. = constant =1µ 2 Illustration 3 : The refractive index of glass is 1.5
sin r
This constant ( m2) is called refractive index of
1 and that of water is 1.3. If the speed of light in
medium 2 (in which refracted ray travels) w.r. water is 2.25 × 108 m s–1, what is the speed of light
to medium 1 (in which incident ray travels). It is in glass?
known as Snell’s law and holds good for all angles c c
Soln.: Here, aµ g = = 1.5 , aµ w = = 1.3
of incidence. vg vw

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 29

Page 29
c v g 1.3 Illustration 4 : A mark is made on the bottom of
∴ × = beaker and a microscope is focussed on it. The
vw c 1.5
microscope is raised through 1.5 cm. To what height
1.3 1.3
or vg = × vw = × 2.25 × 108 water must be poured into the beaker to bring the
1.5 1.5  4
mark again into focus?  µ water = 
= 1.95 × 108 m s–1.  3
Soln.: Here, apparent shift, d = 1.5 cm
LATERAL SHIFT DUE TO GLASS SLAB
Let t be the height through which water must be
When the medium is same on both sides of a glass
poured into the beaker.
slab, then the deviation of the emergent ray is zero.
That is the emergent ray is parallel to the incident  1
d = t 1 − 
ray but it does suffer lateral displacement/shift with  µ
respect to the incident ray and is given by  1 
sin (i − r ) 1.5 = t  1 − 
Lateral shift, h = t  4 / 3
cos r t = 1.5 × 4 = 6.0 cm
where t is the thickness of the slab.
TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
The total internal reflection is the phenomenon in which
a ray of light travelling from an optically denser into
an optically rarer medium at an angle of incidence
greater than the critical angle for the two media is
totally reflected back into the same medium.
Necessary conditions for total internal reflection
 Light is travelling from optically denser to optically
rarer medium.
 The angle of incidence at the surface is greater than
the critical angle for the pair of media.
Critical angle
Real depth and apparent depth The critical angle between the two media is the angle
An object placed in a denser medium (e.g. water). of incidence in the optically denser medium for which
when viewed from a rarer medium (e.g. air) appears the angle of refraction is 90°. It is given by
to be at a lesser depth than its real depth. This is on 1
sin iC =
account of refraction of light. µ
Real depth Let i = angle of incidence. Consider the following
Refractive index = cases :
Apparent depth
 If i < iC, then refraction takes place.
Real depth  If i = iC, then grazing emergence takes place.
or apparent depth =
Refractive index  If i > iC, then total internal reflection takes place.
As the refractive index of any medium (other than  Critical angle depends on nature of media in
vacuum) is greater than unity, so the apparent depth contact and also on the wavelength of light.
is less than the real depth.  Critical angle for red light is more than that for
The height through which an object appears to be blue light.
raised in a denser medium is called normal shift or  A fish in water at a depth d sees the world outside
apparent shift. through a horizontal circle of radius
Normal shift = real depth – apparent depth d
r = d tan iC =
t  1 2
µ −1
d = t − = t 1 − 
µ  µ 
Here, t is the real depth of water and m is its refractive
index.
Therefore, the normal shift in the position of an object,
when seen through a denser medium depends on the
refractive index of the medium. The higher the value
of m, greater is the apparent shift d.

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Applications of total internal reflection Angular dispersion, q = dV – dR = (mV – mR)A
 Brilliance of diamonds where mV and mR are the refractive indices for violet
 Mirage and red light respectively.
 Totally reflecting glass prisms
angular dispersion
 Optical fibres Dispersive power, ω =
mean deviation
REFRACTION THROUGH A PRISM µ − µR
A prism is a homogeneous, transparent medium ω= V
(µ − 1)
bounded by two plane surfaces inclined at an angle µV + µ R
A with each other. These surfaces are called the where µ = = mean refractive index
2
refracting surfaces and angle between them is called The dispersive power depends on the material of
the refracting angle or the angle of prism A. the prism.
The angle between the incident ray and the emergent Dispersive power is a unit less and dimensionless
ray is called the angle of deviation. quantity.
For refraction through a prism it is found that Dispersive power of a flint glass prism is more than
that of a crown glass prism.
Combination of Prisms
When two prisms are combined together, we can get
deviation without dispersion or vice versa.
Deviation without Dispersion
Condition for deviation without dispersion is
q + q′ = 0
d = i + e – A where A = r1 + r2
When A and i are small
(µV − µ R )A + (µV′ − µ′R )A′ = 0
\ d = (m – 1) A ( µV − µ R ) A
or A′ = −
In a position of minimum deviation d = dm, i = e, (µV′ − µ′R )
and r1 = r2 = r
–ve sign shows that the refracting angles of the two
∴ i= ( A + δm
2 ) and r =
A
2
prisms are in opposite direction.
where A and A′ are refracting angles of two prisms
The refractive index of the material of the prism is respectively and mV, mR and m′V, m′R be the refractive
 ( A + δm )  indices of the violet and red light of the corresponding
sin 
µ=  2  prisms.
sin( )A
2
Under this condition, net deviation produced by the
combination is
This is called prism formula. = d + d′ = (m – 1)A + (m′ – 1)A′
Dispersion of light The prism which produces deviation without dispersion
It is the phenomenon of splitting of white light into its is called achromatic prism.
constituent colours on passing through a prism. This Dispersion without Deviation
is because different colours have different wavelengths Condition for dispersion without deviation is
(lR > lV). According to Cauchy’s formula d + d′ = 0
B C (m – 1)A + (m′ – 1)A′ = 0
µ=A+ 2 + 4
λ λ (µ − 1) A
where A, B, C are arbitrary constants. Therefore, m or A′ = −
(µ ′ − 1)
of material of prism for different colours is different
–ve sign shows that the refracting angles of two prisms
(mV > mR). As d = (m – 1) A, therefore different colours
are in opposite direction.
turn through different angles on passing through the
where m and m′ be the refractive indices of the material
prism. This is the cause of dispersion.
of two prisms respectively.
Note : Vacuum is a non-dispersive medium whereas
Under this condition, net angular dispersion produced
glass is a dispersive medium.
by the combination is
= ( δV − δ R ) + ( δ′V − δ′R )
= (µV − µ R ) A + (µV′ − µ ′R ) A′
Red
The prism which produces dispersion with deviation
Violet is called direct vision prism.

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SCATTERING OF LIGHT Soln.: With usual notation, we are given that,
As sunlight travels through the earth’s atmosphere, it A = 5°, mv = 1.66 and mr = 1.54
gets scattered (changes its direction) by the atmospheric Angular dispersion = (dv – dr) = (mv – mr)A
particles. Light of shorter wavelengths is scattered = (1.66 – 1.54) × 5° = 0.12 × 5° = 0.6°
much more than the light of longer wavelengths. REFRACTION AT SPHERICAL SURFACES
The amount of scattering is inversely proportional A refractive surface which forms a part of a sphere
to the fourth power of the wavelength. This is called of transparent medium is called a spherical refracting
Rayleigh scattering. surface spherical refracting surface are of two types
Illustrations of Scattering of Light  Convex spherical refracting surface
 Blue colour of sky  Concave spherical refracting surface.
 White colour clouds For both surfaces refracting formula is given by
 The sun looks reddish at the time of sun rise and µ −1
1 µ2 1
sun set − =1 2
v u R
Illustration 5 : A prism is made of glass of unknown
where 1m2 is refractive index of second medium with
refractive index. A parallel beam of light is incident
respect to first and u, v, R are the object distance,
on a face of the prism. By rotating the prism,
image distance and radius of curvature of the spherical
the minimum angle of deviation is measured to
surface respectively.
be 40°. What is the refractive index of the prism?
If m1 and m2 are refractive indices of first and second
If the prism is placed in water (refractive index medium with respect to air, then
1.33), predict the new angle of minimum deviation µ 2 µ 1 µ 2 − µ1
of a parallel beam of light. The refracting angle of − =
v u R
the prism is 60°.
Soln.: Here; as dm = 40°, A = 60°, Illustration 7 : What curvature must be given
to the bounding surface of a refracting medium
a sin[( A + δ m ) / 2] sin 50° 0.7660
∴ µg = = = = 1.53 (m = 1.5) for the virtual image of an object in the
sin( A / 2) sin 30° 0.5000 adjacent medium (m = 1) at 10 cm to be formed at
When the prism is placed in water, refractive index a distance of 40 cm?
of prism (i.e., glass) w.r.t. water i.e., Soln.: Let R be the radius of curvature of the
a
µ g 1.53 refracting surface. As the object lies in the rarer
(... amw = 1.33)
w
µg = = = 1.1519 medium and the image formed is virtual,
a
µ w 1.33 µ µ µ − µ1
∴ − 1+ 2 = 2
Let d′m be the new minimum angle of deviation. u v R
Clearly, Here m1 = 1, m2 = 1.5, u = –10 cm,

w sin[( A + δ m ) / 2] v = – 40 cm
µg =
sin( A / 2) −1 1.5 1.5 − 1
∴ + =
−10 −40 R
sin[( A + δ ′m ) / 2]
or 1.152 =
sin 30° 0.5 1 1.5 2.5
or = − =
R 10 40 40
 ′ 
or sin  ( A + δ m )  = 1.152 × sin 30°
 2  40 × 0.5
∴ R= = + 8 cm
= 1.152 × 0.5000 = 0.5759 2.5
( A + δ ′m )
or = 35°10′ LENSES
2
A lens is a transparent medium bounded by two
or d′m = 2 × 35°10′ – 60° = 10°20′ refracting surfaces such that at least one of the
Illustration 6 : Calculate the angular dispersion refracting surfaces is curved.
between violet and red colours produced by a small If the thickness of the lens is negligibly small in
angled prism with vertex angle 5°. Refractive index comparison to the object distance or the image
of the material of the prism for violet = 1.66 and distance, the lens is called thin. Here we shall limit
that for red = 1.54. ourself to thin lenses.

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Types of Lenses m = 1.5
Broadly, lenses are of the following types : 1 1 
= (1.5 − 1)  −
 15 −30 
1 1 
= 0.5 ×  +  = 20 cm
 15 30 
Power of a Lens
The power of a lens is defined as the reciprocal of
the focal length in metre.
1
P=
f (in m )
The SI unit of power of lens is diopter (D).
For a convex lens, P is positive.
For a concave lens, P is negative.
When focal length (f) of lens is in cm, then
100
P= , dioptre.
f (in cm )
Lens Maker’s Formula
Combination of Thin Lenses in Contact
The focal length (f) of a lens depends upon the refractive
When a number of thin lenses of focal length f1, f2,
indices of the material of the lens and the medium in
...etc. are placed in contact coaxially, the equivalent
which the lens is present and the radii of curvature of
focal length F of the combination is given by
both sides. The following relation giving focal length
(f) is called as ‘lens maker’s formula. 1 1 1 1
= + + + ....
F f1 f 2 f 3
1  µ  1 1 
= − 1  −  The total power of the combination is given by
f  µ0   R1 R2  P = P1 + P2 + P3 + ...
where m = refractive index of the material of the lens, The total magnification of the combination is given
m0 = refractive index of the medium. by
m = m1 × m2 × m3 ....
When two thin lenses of focal lengths f1 and f2 are
placed coaxially and separated by a distance d, the
focal length of combination is given by
1 1 1 d
= + − .
F f1 f 2 f1 f 2
Lens Formula In terms of power, P = P1 + P2 – dP1P2.
1 1 1 Silvering of a Lens
− =
v u f Let a planoconvex lens is having a curved surface of
Linear Magnification (m) radius of curvature R and has refractive index m. If
its plane surface is silvered, it behaves as a concave
The ratio of the size of the image formed by a lens
mirror of focal length
to the size of the object is called linear magnification
R
produced by the lens. It is denoted by m. f =−
2(µ −1)
If O and I are the sizes of the object and image
If the curved surface of planoconvex lens is silvered
respectively, then
I v then it behaves as a concave mirror of focal length
m= = .
O u R
f =−
Illustration 8 : The radii of curvature of a double 2µ
convex lens are 15 cm and 30 cm and its refractive Displacement Method
index is 1.5. Find its focal length. For a convex lens, the minimum distance between
the object and its real image is 4f. If a convex lens is
 1 1 
Soln.: 1 = (µ − 1)  −  placed between an object O and a screen S such that
f R
 1 R 2 the distance OS ≥ 4f, there are two positions of the
Here, R1 = 15 cm, R2 = – 30 cm lens which give a sharp image on the screen.

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The focal length of the lens is given by Magnifying power of an astronomical telescope
2
D −d2 When the final image is formed at infinity (normal
f = adjustment),
4D
f
where D = distance between the screen and the object, M=− o
fe
d = distance between the two positions of the lens.
If I1, I2 are the two sizes of image of the object of size Length of tube, L = fo + fe
O, then O = I1I 2 When the final image is formed at least distance of
distinct vision,
OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS f  f 
Simple Microscope M = − o  1 + e 
fe D
It is also called magnifying glass or simple magnifier. It
fe D
consists of a converging lens of small focal length. Length of tube, L = f o +
fe + D
Magnifying power of a simple microscope
When the image is formed at infinity (far point), Terrestrial Telescope
D It is used for observing far off objects on the ground.
M= The essential requirement of such a telescope is that
f
final image must be erect w.r.t. the object. To achieve
where f is the focal length of convex lens.
When the image is formed at the least distance of it, an inverting convex lens (of focal length f ) is used
distinct vision D (near point), in between the objective and eye piece of astronomical
D telescope. This lens is known as erecting lens.
M =1+ In normal adjustment,
f
f
Compound Microscope Magnifying power, M = o
fe
It consists of two convergent lenses of short focal
lengths and apertures arranged coaxially. Lens facing Length of the tube, L = fo + 4f + fe
the object is called objective or field lens while the Galileo’s Terrestrial Telescope
lens facing the eye, is called eye-piece or ocular. The It consists of an objective which is a convex lens of
objective has a smaller aperture and smaller focal large focal length and an eye-piece which is a concave
length than eye-piece. lens of short focal length (fo > fe).
Magnifying power of a compound microscope In the normal adjustment,
When the final image is formed at infinity (normal f
Magnifying power, M = o
adjustment), fe
v  D Length of the tube, L = fo – fe
M=− o  
uo  f e 
Length of tube, L = vo + fe WAVEFRONT
When the final image is formed at least distance of A wavefront is defined as the continuous locus of all
distinct vision, such particles of the medium which are vibrating in
the same phase of any instant.
v  D
M = − o 1 +  Types of Wavefront
uo  fe 
The geometrical shape of a wavefront depends on
where uo and vo represent the distance of object and the source of disturbance. Some of the common
intermediate image from the objective lens, fe is the shapes are
focal length of an eye lens.
 Spherical wavefront : In the case of waves
 f D  travelling in all directions from a point source, the
Length of the tube, L = vo +  e 
 fe + D  wavefronts are spherical in shape.
Astronomical Telescope (Refracting Type)  Cylindrical wavefront : If the source of light is
It consists of two converging lenses. The one facing linear in shape, such as a fine rectangular slit, the
the object is called objective or field lens and has wavefront is cylindrical in shape.
large focal length and aperture while the other facing  Plane wavefront : As a spherical or cylindrical
the eye is called eye-piece or ocular has small focal wavefront advances, its curvature decreases
length and aperture. progressively.

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HUYGEN’S PRINCIPLE
( )
2
According to Huygen’s principle, each point on a I = I max = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 = I1 + I 2
wavefront is a source of secondary waves, which add When f = (2n – 1)p, where n = 1, 2, 3, ....
up to give a wavefront at any later time. Then, A = Amin = (A1 – A2)
Assumptions
( )
2
 The secondary wavelets spread out in all directions I = I min = I1 + I 2 − 2 I1I 2 = I1 − I 2

( I1 + )
with the speed of light in the given medium. 2
I max I2
 The new wavefront at any later time is given by =
( I1 − I2 )
I min 2
the forward envelope (tangential surface) in the
forward direction of the secondary wavelets at
that time. If the amplitude of the two waves are equal
 Each point on a wavefront acts as fresh source A1 = A2 = A0, then resultant amplitude
of new disturbance called secondary waves or φ
A = 2 A02 + 2 A02 cos φ = 2 A0 cos  
wavelets. 2

COHERENT SOURCES φ


Resultant intensity, I = 4I0 cos 2  
Two sources of light which continuously emit light 2
waves of same frequency (or wavelength) with a zero In this case, Amax = 2A0, Imax = 4I0
or constant phase difference between them, are called Amin = 0, Imin = 0
coherent sources. Note : If the sources are incoherent, I = I1 + I2.
Conditions for obtaining two coherent sources of
light YOUNG’S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT
 The two sources of light must be obtained from a The phenomenon of interference of light was first
single source by some method. observed by a British Physicist Thomas Young. Using
 The two sources must give monochromatic light. two slits illuminated by monochromatic light source,
 The path difference between the waves arriving on he obtained alternately bright and dark band on the
the screen from the two sources must not be large screen. These bands are called interference fringes or
 Two independent sources cannot be coherent. interference bands.
For constructive interference (i.e. formation of
SUPERPOSITION OF WAVES bright fringes)
When a number of waves travelling through a medium, For nth bright fringe,
superpose on each other, the resultant displacement Path difference = nl
at any point at a given instant is equal to the vector where n = 0 for central bright fringe
sum of displacements due to the individual waves n = 1 for first bright fringe,
at that point. n = 2 for second bright fringe and so on
Interference of Light d = distance between the two slits
If two light waves of the same frequency and having D = distance of slits from the screen
zero or constant phase difference travelling in the same The position of nth bright fringe from the centre of
direction super position gets redistributed becoming the screen is given by
maximum at some points and minimum at others. D
xn = nλ
This phenomenon is called interference of light. d
Intensity Distribution For destructive interference (i.e. formation of dark
If A1, A2 are the amplitudes of interfering waves due to fringes)
two coherent sources and f is constant phase difference For nth dark fringe,
between the two waves at any point P, then λ
path difference = ( 2n − 1)
The resultant amplitude at P will be 2
where
A = A12 + A22 + 2 A1 A2 cos φ n = 1 for first dark fringe,
n = 2 for second dark fringe and so on.
Resultant intensity at P is The position of nth dark fringe from the centre of the
I = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos φ screen is given by
λ D
When f = 2np, where n = 0, 1, 2,.... ∴ xn = ( 2n −1)
2 d
Then, A = Amax = (A1 + A2)

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Fringe width : The distance between any two Soln.: The distance of nth bright fringe from the
consecutive bright or dark fringes is called fringe central bright fringe is
width. nDλ
xn = = nβ ∴ x9 = 9β
λD d
Fringe width, β =
d The distance of nth dark fringe from the central
Angular fringe width, θ = β = λ bright fringe is
D d
Dλ β
If W1, W2 are widths of two slits, I1, I2 are intensities of xn′ = ( 2n − 1) = ( 2n − 1)
2d 2
light coming from two slits; A1, A2 are the amplitudes
3
of light from these slits, then ∴ x2′ = β
2
W1 I1 A12 But x9 – x′2 = 8.835 mm [Given]
= =
W2 I 2 A2 3 15
2 or 9β − β = 8.835 mm or β = 8.835 mm
I max ( A1 + A2 )2 2 2
= 8.835 × 2
I min ( A − A )2
1 2 or β = = 1.178 mm = 1.178 × 10 −3 m
15
I max − I min
Fringe visibility V = βd 1.178 × 10 −3 × 0.5 × 10 −3
I max + I min Hence, λ = = m
D 1.0
When entire apparatus of Young’s double slit experiment
is immersed in a medium of refractive index m, then = 0.5890 × 10–6 m = 5898 Å
fringe width becomes Interference in thin films
λ′D λD β A thin film of liquid (e.g. soap film or a layer of oil
β′ = = =
d µd µ over water) appears bright or dark when viewed in
When a thin transparent plate of thickness t and monochromatic light. This effect is caused due to
refractive index m is placed in the path of one of the the interference of light reflected from the top and
interfering waves, fringe width remains unaffected bottom faces of the film.
but the entire pattern shifts by Interference in reflected light (reflected system of
D β light)
∆x = (µ − 1) t = (µ − 1) t For a bright fringe,
d λ
This shifting is towards the side in which transparent λ
2µt cos r = ( 2n + 1)
plate is introduced. 2
Illustration 9 : Two sources of intensity I and where, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ........
4 I are used in an interference experiment. Find For a dark fringe
the intensity at points where the waves from 2mtcosr = nl
two sources superimpose with a phase difference where, n = 0, 1, 2, 3 .......
(i) zero (ii) p/2 and (iii) p. Interference in transmitted light (transmitted system
Soln.: The resultant intensity at a point where phase of light)
difference is f is For a bright-fringe,
2mtcosr = nl
I R = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos φ For a dark fringe,
As I1 = I and I2 = 4I, therefore λ
2µt cos r = ( 2n + 1)
I R = I1 + 4 I + 2 I 4 I cos φ = 5I + 4 I cos φ 2
Hence, the condition for maxima and minima in the
(i) When f = 0, IR = 5I + 4 I cos0 = 9I. reflected system are just opposite to those for the
π π transmitted system. Thus the reflected and transmitted
(ii) When φ = , I R = 5I + 4 I cos = 5I .
2 2 systems are complimentary i.e, a film which appears
(iii)When f = p, IR = 5I + 4 I cosp = 5I – 4I = I. bright by reflected light will appear dark by transmitted
light and vice-versa.
Illustration 10 : In a Young’s double slit experiment,
the slits are separated by 0.5 mm and screen is placed DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT
1.0 m away. It is found that the ninth bright fringe The phenomenon of bending of light around the
is at a distance of 8.835 mm from the second dark corners of an obstacle or aperture is called diffraction
fringe. Find the wavelength of light used. of light.

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 Diffraction of light is not easily noticed because Fresnel distance
the obstacles and apertures of size of wavelength It is the minimum distance a beam of light has to
of light 10–6 m are hardly available. travel before its deviation from straight line path
 In ray optics, we ignore diffraction and assume becomes significant. It is given by
that light travels in straight lines. This assumption a2
Fresnel distance, ZF =
is reasonable because under ordinary conditions, λ
diffraction (bending) of light is negligible. Resolving Power of a Microscope
 The smaller the size of the obstacle or aperture, It is defined as the reciprocal of the minimum distance
the greater is the bending (or diffraction) of light d between two point objects, which can just be seen
through the microscope as separate.
around the corners of the obstacle or aperture and
1 2µ sin θ
vice-versa. Resolving power = =
d λ
Types of Diffraction where m is refractive index of the medium between
The diffraction phenomenon is generally divided into object and objective lens, q is half the angle of cone
the following two classes : of light from the point object, d represents limit of
 Fraunhofer’s diffraction resolution of microscope and msinq is called the
 Fresnel diffraction numerical aperture.
Fresnel diffraction : In this case, either the source Resolving Power of a Telescope
or the screen or both are at finite distances from the It is defined as reciprocal of the smallest angular
aperture or obstacle causing diffraction. separation (dq) between two distant objects, whose
Fraunhofer diffraction : In this case, the source and images are just seen in the telescope as separate.
the screen on which the pattern is observed are at 1 D
infinite distances from the aperture or the obstacle Resolving power = =
dθ 1.22 λ
causing diffraction. where D is diameter or aperture of the objective lens
Diffraction due to a Single Slit of the telescope, dq represents limit of resolution of
The diffraction pattern produced by a single slit of telescope.
width a consists of a central maximum bright band
with alternating bright and dark bands of decreasing POLARISATION OF LIGHT
intensity on both sides of the central maximum. The phenomenon of restricting the vibrations of light
Condition for nth secondary maximum is, (electric vector) in a particular direction, perpendicular
λ to direction of wave motion is called polarisation of
Path difference = a sin θn = ( 2n + 1) light.
2
where n = 1, 2, 3,....... Polarisation of light confirms the transverse nature
Condition for n secondary minimum is,
th
of light.
Path difference = asinqn = nl The plane in which vibrations of polarised light are
where n = 1, 2, 3,....... confined is called plane of vibration.
Width of secondary maxima or minima A plane which is perpendicular to the plane of vibration
λD λf is called plane of polarisation.
β= =
a a Plane polarised light can be produced by the following
where methods :
a = width of slit  By reflection
D = distance of screen from the slit  By scattering
f = focal length of lens for diffracted light  By refraction
2 λD 2 f λ  By dichroism
Width of central maximum = =  By double refraction
a a
The width of central medium is also called primary Angle of Polarisation
fringe width. The angle of incidence for which an ordinary light is
completely polarised in the plane of incidence when

Angular fringe width of central maximum = . it gets reflected from a transparent medium.
a
Angular fringe width of secondary maxima or Brewster’s Law
λ According to this law, when unpolarised light is
minima =
a incident at polarizing angle i p , on an interface

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separating air from a medium of refractive index m, Here D = 100 inch = 254 cm,
then the reflected light is fully polarized (perpendicular l = 6000 Å = 6 × 10–5 cm
to the plane of incidence) provided 1.22 × 6 × 10−5
m = tanip. ∴ dθ = = 2.9 × 10−7 rad
254
This relation is called Brewster’s law.
Note : When the light is incident at polarising angle, WAVE PARTICLE DUALITY
the reflected and refracted rays are perpendicular to De s p ite the ir wave nature , e le c tro magne tic
each other. radiations, have properties alike to those of particles.
Laws of Malus Electromagnetic radiation is an emission with a dual
According to this law when a beam of completely plane nature i.e. it has both wave and particle aspects. In
polarised light is incident on an analyser, the resultant particular, the energy conveyed by an electromagnetic
intensity of light (I) transmitted from the analyser varies wave is always carried in packets whose magnitude is
directly as the square of the cosine of the angle (q) proportional to frequency of the wave. These packets
between plane of transmission of analyser and polariser of energy are called photons.
i.e. I ∝ cos2q Energy of photon is E = hu where h is Planck’s constant,
If intensity of plane polarised light incident on and u is frequency of wave.
analyser is I0, then intensity of light emerging from According to de Broglie,
analyser is  As wave behaves like material particles, similarly
I = I0cos2q matter also behaves like waves. According to him,
Note : We can prove that when unpolarised light
a wavelength of the matter wave associated with
of intensity I0 gets polarised on passing through a
h h
polaroid, its intensity becomes half, a particle is given by λ = = , where m is the
p mv
1
i.e. I = I0 mass and v is velocity of the particle.
2  If an electron is accelerated through a potential
Polaroids difference of V volt,
Polaroids can be used to control the intensity, in
1 2 eV
sunglasses, windowpanes, etc. Polaroids are also used then me v 2 = eV or v =
in photographic cameras and 3D movie cameras. 2 me
h h
Illustration 11 : A parallel beam of light of \ λ= =
me v 2 eVme
wavelength 600 nm is incident normally on a
slit of width d. If the distance between the slits (It is assumed that the voltage V is not more than
and the screen is 0.8 m and the distance of 2 nd several tens of kilovolt)
order maximum from the centre of the screen is Illustration 13 : Sun gives light at the rate of
15 mm, find the width of the slit. 1400 W m–2 of area perpendicular to the direction of
Soln.: Distance of 2nd order maximum from the light. Assume l (sunlight) = 6000 Å. Calculate the
centre of the screen, (a) number of photons/s arriving at 1 m2 area at
that part of the earth, and
5 Dλ 5 Dλ
x′2 = or d = (b) number of photons emitted from the sun/s
2 d 2 x′2
assuming the average radius of earth’s orbit is
Given l = 600 nm = 6 × 10–7 m, D = 0.85 m, 1.49 × 1011 m.
x′2 = 15 mm = 15 × 10–3 m Soln.: I = 1400 W m–2 ; l = 6000 Å, (c = 3 × 108 m s–1)
5 × 0.8 × 6 × 10−7 hc
∴ d= = 8 × 10−5 m = 80 µm (a) Energy of the photon, E = hυ =
λ
2 × 15 × 10−3
Let n be the number of photons received/s per
Illustration 12 : Assume that light of wavelength unit area.
6000 Å is coming from a star. What is the limit IA (1400 × 1) × (6000 × 10 −10 )
of resolution of telescope whose objective has a n= =
E/Photon 6.63 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108
diameter of 100 inch?
Soln.: The limit of resolution of a telescope, = 4.22 × 1021.
(b) Total energy emitted per second = power (watt)
1.22λ Power of sun(W)
dθ = n / sec =
D E/photon

38 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH‘14

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i.e., hu0 = W0.
I × ( 4 πR 2 ) × (6000 × 10 −10 )
= where u0 is the threshold frequency and W0 is the
6.63 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108 work function. If the frequency of incident light is less
(R average radius of earth’s orbit)
than u0, no photoelectric emission takes place.
= 1.178 × 1045
Kinetic energy of photoelectrons is
PHOTO ELECTRIC EFFECT ∆KE = hυ − hυ0 = h( υ − υ0 )
The phenomenon of emission of electrons from a 1 1  1 1 
metallic surface when radiation of suitable frequency = hc  − = 12400  − eV .
 λ λ 0   λ λ 0 
falls on it is called photo electric effect.
The photo (light) generated electrons are called photo Illustration 14 : A beam of light has three wavelengths
electrons. 4144 Å, 4972 Å and 6216 Å with a total intensity of
Photoelectric effect is a general phenomenon exhibited 3.6 × 10–3 W m–2 equally distributed amongst the three
by all substances but is most easily observed with wavelengths. The beam falls normally on an area
metals. When radiation of suitable frequency (called 1.0 cm2 of a clean metallic surface of work function
threshold frequency) is incident on a metallic 2.3 eV. Assuming that there is no loss of light
surface, electrons are emitted from the metal surface. by reflection and that each energetically capable
The threshold frequency is different for different photon ejects one electron. Calculate the number
metals. of photo-electrons liberated in 2 seconds.
Some Points : Soln.: Three different wavelengths are incident
 If the frequency of incident radiation is equal to or on metal surface, so first determine which is (are)
greater than threshold frequency for the metals, capable of ejecting photo-electrons.
electrons will be emitted from the metal, no matter For photo-emission, l ≤ l0. Given: W0 = 2.3 eV
how low is the intensity of radiation. W0 = hc/l0
 If the frequency of incident radiation is less than the hc 6.63 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108
⇒ λ0 = = = 5404 Å
threshold frequency for the metal, no photoelectrons W0 2.3 × 1.6 × 10 −19
will be emitted from the metal surface, no matter
⇒ only wavelengths 4144 Å and 4972 Å will cause
how great is the intensity of radiation.
photo-emission (6216 Å > l0)
Work function Intensity of each incident wavelength
The minimum amount of work or energy necessary to = 3.6 × 10–3/3 = 1.2 × 10–3 Wm–2
take a free electron out of a metal against the attractive [Q I is distributed equally among three
forces of surrounding positive ions inside metals is wavelengths]
called the work function of the metal. IA
W0 = hu0, where u0 is the threshold frequency. n / second =
hc / λ
An electron can undergo collisions with other electrons,
n / second (l = 4144 Å)
protons or macroscopically with the atom. In this process
−3 −4 −10
it will fritter away its energy. Therefore, electrons with( λ = 4144 Å) = (1.2 × 10 ) × (10 ) × 4144 × 10
n / second = 2.5 × 1011
K.E. ranging from 0 to K. E.max will be produced. 6.63 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108
Einstein’s photoelectric equation n / second (l = 4972 Å)
According to Einstein, photon energy is utilized for
(1.2 × 10 −3 ) × (10 −4 ) × 4972 × 10 −10
two purposes. n / sec( λ = 4972 Å) = −34 8
= 3 × 1011
Partly for getting the electron free from the atom and 6 .63 × 10 × 3 × 10
away from the metal surface. This energy is known ⇒ total electrons emitted/second = 5.5 × 1011
as the photoelectric work function of the metal and ⇒ total electrons emitted in 2 seconds = 11 × 1011
is represented by W0.
Stopping potential
The balance of the photon energy is used up in giving
This is the value of negative potential difference
1 2
the electron a kinetic energy of mv . which just stops the electrons with maximum kinetic
2
1 2 energy from reaching the anode. If Vs is the stopping
hυ = W0 + mv
2 potential, then
In the case the photon energy is just sufficient to
1 2 .
liberate the electron only, the kinetic energy of the eVs = mvmax
electron is zero. 2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 39

Page 39
Experimental Features and Observations of  The photoelectric emission is an instantaneous
Photoelectric Effect process without any apparent time lag (~ 10–9 s or
For a given photosensitive material and frequency of less), even when the incident radiation is made
incident radiation (above the threshold frequency) exceedingly dim.
the photoelectric current is directly proportional to DAVISSON AND GERMER EXPERIMENT
the intensity of incident light. The wave nature of electrons was first experimentally
verified by C.J. Davisson and L.H. Germer in 1927
Photoelectric

and independently by G.P. Thomson, in 1928, who


current

observed diffraction effects with beams of electrons


scattered by crystals.
THOMSON'S MODEL OF ATOM
Intensity of light The first model of atom was proposed by J.J. Thomson
in 1898. According to this model, the positive charge
 For a given photosensitive material and frequency of the atom is uniformly distributed throughout
of incident radiation, saturation current (the the volume of the atom and the negatively charged
maximum value of photoelectric current) is found electrons are embedded in it like seeds in a watermelon.
to be proportional to the intensity of incident This model was picturesquely called plum pudding
radiation whereas the stopping potential is model of the atom.
independent of its intensity.
RUTHERFORD’S MODEL OF ATOM
According to this model, the entire positive charge and
Photoelectric

I3 > I2 > I1
most of the mass be concentrated in a small region
current

called the nucleus. The electrons revolving around


I3 the nucleus in orbits just as the planets revolving
I2 around the sun.
I1
Stopping Rutherford’s Scattering Formula
potential The formula that Rutherford obtained for alpha
–V0 O particle scattering by a thin foil on the basis of the
Retarding Collector plate Rutherford’s model of the atom is given by
potential potential Ni ntZ 2 e 4
N (θ) =
(8 πε 0 ) r K sin 4 (θ / 2)
2 2 2
 For a given photosensitive material, there exists a
certain minimum cut-off frequency of the incident where N(q) = number of alpha particles per unit area
radiation, called the threshold frequency, below that reach the screen at a scattering angle of q
which no emission of photoelectrons takes place, Ni = total number of alpha particles that reach the
no matter how intense the incident light is. Above screen
the threshold frequency, the stopping potential or n = number of atoms per unit volume in the foil
equivalently the maximum kinetic energy of the Z = atomic number of the foil atoms
emitted photoelectrons increases linearly with the r = distance of the screen from the foil
frequency of incident radiation, but is independent K = kinetic energy of the alpha particles
of its intensity. t = foil thickness
The fraction of incident alpha particles scattered by
an angle q or greater is
2
Stopping Metal A  Ze 2  2θ
potential  > 0 f = πnt   cot 2
Metal B  4 πε0 K 
(V0)  > 0
Impact Parameter
It is defined as the perpendicular distance of the
initial velocity vector of the alpha particle from the
O 0 0 ( )
Frequency of incident radiation
central line of the nucleus, when the particle is far
away from the nucleus of the atom.

40 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH‘14

Page 40
The scattering angle q of the a particle and impact Bohr’s Formulae
parameter b are related as Radius of nth orbit
Ze 2 cot(θ / 2) 4 πε 0n2 h 2 ε 0n2 h 2
b= rn = =
4 πε0 K
4 π 2mZe 2 πmZe 2
where K is the kinetic energy of the a particle and For hydrogen atom, Z = 1
Z is the atomic number of the nucleus.
Smaller the impact parameter, larger the angle of ε 0n2 h 2
rn = = a0n2
scattering q. πme 2
Distance of Closest Approach h 2ε0
where a0 = = 0.53 × 10 −10 m = 0.53 Å is called
At the distance of closest approach whole of the πme 2
kinetic energy of the alpha particles is converted into Bohr’s radius
potential energy. Velocity of electron in nth orbit
Distance of closest approach is given by Ze 2
1 2 πZe 2 αcZ c Z
2 Ze 2 vn = = = =
r0 = 4 πε 0 nh 2ε0nh n 137 n
4 πε0 K
where c = speed of light
BOHR’S MODEL OF ATOM
e2 1
Bohr developed a theory of hydrogen and hydrogen- α= =
like atoms which have only one orbital electron. His 2ε0 hc 137
postulates are as follows : a is called fine structure constant and is a pure number.
 An electron can revolve around the nucleus only Frequency of electron in nth orbit
2
in certain allowed circular orbits of definite energy vn  1  4π 2 Z2 e 4m me 4 Z2
υn = = =
and in these orbits it does not radiate. These orbits 2 πrn  4 πε 0  n3h 3 4ε 02n3 h 3
are called stationary orbits.
Time period of revolution of electron in nth orbit
 Angular momentum of the electron in a stationary
orbit is an integral multiple of h/2p. 2 πrn n3 h 3 ( 4 πε 0 )2 4 ε 02n3 h 3
Tn = = =
nh nh vn 4π 2 Z2 e 4m me 4 Z2
i.e., L = or, mvr =
2π 2π Kinetic energy of electron in n orbit
th

This is called as Bohr’s quantisation condition. 2


where m is the mass of the electron, v is the velocity 1 Ze 2  1  2 π2me 4 Z2
Kn = = 
of the electron, r is the radius of the orbit and n is a 4 πε0 2rn  4 πε0  n2 h 2
positive integer called principal quantum number.
13.6 Z2
This postulate is equivalent to saying that in a = eV.
stationary state, the circumference of a circular n2
Potential energy of electron in nth orbit
orbit contains integral numbers of de Broglie
2
wavelength. 1 Ze 2  1  4 π2me 4 Z2
nh nh Un = − = − 
2 πr = nλ = i.e. L = mvr = . 4 πε0 rn  4 πε0  n2 h 2
mv 2π
 The emission of radiation takes place when an −27.2 Z2
= eV
electron makes a transition from a higher to a lower n2
orbit. The frequency of the radiation is given by Total energy of electron in nth orbit
2
E2 − E1  1  2 π2me 4 Z2
υ= En = Un + Kn = −  
h  4 πε0  n2 h 2
where E2 and E1 are the energies of the electron in 2
13.6 Z
the higher and lower orbits respectively. =− eV.
n2
Since the centripetal force for circular orbit is Frequency of emitted radiation
provided by the Coulomb’s force, we have When an electron makes a transition from initial
1 Ze 2 mv 2 state ni , to final state nf , (ni > nf) then the frequency
=
4 πε0 r 2 r of emitted radiation is given by
where Z is the atomic number of the element and  1 1
υ = RcZ2  − 
e is the electronic charge. 2 2
 n f ni 

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 41

Page 41
Wavelength of emitted radiation is given by Ionization energy and ionization potential
2
1  1 1 Ionization energy = 13.6 Z eV.
= RZ2 −  2
λ 2 2 n
n
 f ni 
where R is called Rydberg’s constant. 13.6 Z2
Ionization potential = volt.
2
 1  2 π2me 4 n2
R=  = 1.097 × 107 m −1. Hydrogen spectrum
 4 πε0  ch 3
1  In emission line spectrum of hydrogen atom,
is called wave number and is denoted by υ. various lines are obtained at different regions of
λ
This relation holds for radiation by hydrogen like the spectrum. Each group of line is called series of
atoms i.e. spectral lines and these series are named after the
H (Z = 1), He+ (Z = 2), Li++ (Z = 3) and Be+++ (Z = 4) names of their discoverer.

 The spectral series as shown in the table.


Name Initial state Final Wavelength Wavelength Series limit Region
of state formula of first line of (Minimum
series series (Maximum wavelength)
wavelength)
Lyman ni = 2, 3, 4, 5,.... nf = 1 UV
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
=R −  =R −  =R −
2 2 2
λ
 1 ni 
λ max  12 2 2  λ min 12
∞ 
4 1
λ max = λ min =
3R R
Balmer ni = 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, nf = 2 Visible
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
8, ..... =R −  =R −  =R − 
2
λ
 2 ni2  λ max 2 2
32  λ min  22 ∞2 
36 4
λ max = λ min =
5R R

Paschen ni = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, nf = 3 Infrared
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
9, .... =R −  =R −  =R −
λ 2 2 λ max 2 2 λ min 2 2
 3 ni   3 4  3 ∞ 
144 9
λ max = λ min =
7R R

Brackett ni = 5, 6, 7, 8,.... nf = 4 Infrared


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
=R −  =R −  =R −
2 2 2
λ
 4 ni 
λ max  4 2 52  λ min 4 2
∞ 
400 16
λ max = λ min =
9R R
Pfund n i = 6, 7, 8, 9, nf = 5 Far
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
10,..... =R −  =R −  = R −  Infrared
2
λ
 5 ni2  λ max 5 2
62  λ min  52 ∞ 2 
900 25
λ max = λ min =
11R R

Number of spectral lines due to transition of electron ENERGY QUANTISATION AND ATOMIC MASSES
from nth orbit to lower orbit is In quantum mechanics, the energies of a system are
n(n − 1) discrete or quantised. The energy of a particle of
N=
2 mass m is confined to a box of length L can have only
discrete values of energy given by the relation

42 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH‘14

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n2 h 2 Then, ∆m = Zmp + ( A − Z) mn − M ( Z, A)
En = 2
where n = 1, 2 , 3 , .........
8mL This mass defect is in form of energy and is responsible
Atomic masses refer to the masses of neutral for binding the nucleons together. From Einstein’s
atoms, not of bare nuclei. Thus an atomic mass mass-energy relation,
always includes the masses of its Z electrons. E = mc 2 (c is speed of light , m is mass)
Atomic masses are expressed in atomic mass
⇒ Binding energy = ∆mc 2
unit (u) or amu. The value of an atomic mass unit is Generally, Dm is measured in amu units. So let us
1 u = 1.66054 × 10–27 kg calculate the energy equivalent to 1 amu. It is calculated
The energy equivalent of an atomic mass unit is
931.49 MeV.
(
in eV electron volt, 1 eV = 1.6 × 10 −19 J )
( )
2
1 × 1.67 × 10 −27 × 3 × 108
NUCLEUS E ( ≡ 1 amu ) = eV
It exists at the centre of an atom, containing entire 1.6 × 10 −19
positive charge and almost the whole of the mass. = 931 × 106 eV = 931 MeV
The electrons revolve around the nucleus to form an
⇒ B. E. = ∆m (931) MeV
atom. The nucleus consists of protons (+ve charge)
and neutrons (no charge). There is another quantity which is very useful in
A proton has positive charge, equal in magnitude to predicting the stability of a nucleus called as binding
that of an electron, (1.6 × 10–19 C) and a mass equal energy per nucleon.
to 1836 times that of an electron. ∆m (931)
Β. Ε. per nucleon = MeV.
A neutron has no charge and its mass is approximately A
equal to that of the proton (1.6726 × 10 −27 kg ) From the Plot of B.E./Nucleon Vs Mass Number (A),
(1837 times that of an electron). we observe that :
A particular set of nucleons forming an atom is called
a nuclide. It is represented as ZXA. 8.7
Binding energy per
nucleon (in MeV)

Isotopes 8
The nuclides having same number of protons (Z),
6
but different number of nucleons (A) are called
isotopes. 4

Isobars 2
The nuclides having the same number of nucleons
20 60 180
(A), but different number of protons(Z) are called Mass number (A)
isobars.
 B.E./nucleon increases on an average and reaches a
Isotones
maximum of about 8.7 MeV for A ≡ 50-80.
The nuclides having the same number of neutrons
 For heavier nuclei, B.E./nucleon decreases slowly
(A – Z) are called isotones.
as A increases. For the heaviest natural element
MASS DEFECT AND BINDING ENERGY 238
U it drops to about 7.5 MeV.
The nucleons are bound together in a nucleus and  From above observation, it follows that nuclei
the energy has to be supplied in order to break apart in the region of atomic masses 50-80 are most
the constituents into free nucleons. The energy with stable.
which nucleons are bound together in a nucleus is
called binding energy (B.E.). In order to free nucleons NUCLEAR FORCES
from a bound nucleus, this much of energy ( = B.E.) The protons and neutrons are held together by the
has to be supplied. strong attractive forces inside the nucleus. These
It is observed that the mass of a nucleus is always forces are called as nuclear forces.
less than the mass of its constituent (free) nucleons. Properties of the Nuclear Force
This difference in mass is called as mass defect and  Nuclear force is short ranged. It exists in small
is denoted as Dm. (
region of diameter 10 −15 m = 1 fm . The nuclear )
If mn = mass of neutron and mp = mass of a proton force between two nucleons decreases rapidly as
M ( Z, A ) = mass of bound nucleus the separation between them increases and becomes
negligible at separation more than 10 fm.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 43

Page 43
 Nuclear force is much stronger than electromagnetic Illustration 15 : It is proposed to use the nuclear
force and gravitational force. fusion reaction, 12H + 12H → 24He in a nuclear reactor,
 Nuclear force is independent of charge. The nuclear of 200 MW rating. If the energy from above reaction is
force between two protons is same as that between used with a 25% efficiency in the reactor, how many
two neutrons or between a neutron and proton. grams of deuterium will be needed per day?
This is known as charge independent character of (The masses of 12H and 24He are 2.0141 amu and
nuclear force. 4.0026 amu respectively.)
Soln.: Let us first calculate the Q value of nuclear
NUCLEAR REACTION reaction.
In nuclear reaction, sum of masses before reaction is Q = Dmc2 = Dm(931) MeV
greater than the sum of masses after the reaction. The
⇒ Q = ( 2 × 2.0141 − 4.0026 ) × 931 MeV
difference in masses appears in the form of energy
following the law of inter-conversion of mass and energy. = 23.834 MeV = 23.834 × 106 eV.
The energy released in a nuclear reaction is called as Now efficiency of reactor is 25%.
Q value of a reaction and is given as follows : So effective energy used
If difference in mass before and after the reaction 25
= × 23.834 × 106 × 1.6 × 10 −19 J = 9.534 × 10 −13 J
is Dm amu 100
Dm = mass of reactants minus mass of products, then Now 9.534 × 10–13 J energy is released by fusion
Q value = Dm(931) MeV of 2 deuterium.
Law of conservation of momentum is also followed. (9.534 × 10 −13 )
⇒ J/deuterium is released.
Total number of protons and neutrons should also 2
remain same on both sides of a nuclear reaction. Requirement is 200 MW = 200 × 106 J s–1 × 86400 for
Nuclear Fission 1 day.
The breaking of a heavy nucleus into two or more No. of deuterium nuclei required
fragments of comparable masses, with the release of 200 × 106 × 86400
= = 3.624 × 10 25
tremendous amount of energy is called as nuclear 9.534 −13
× 10
fission. The most typical fission reaction occurs when 2 m
slow moving neutrons strike 235 U. The following Number of deuterium nuclei = × 6 × 10 23
92 M
nuclear reaction takes place. m
3.624 × 10 25 = × 6 × 10 23
235
+ 10 n → 141
U 92
+ 310 n + 200 MeV 2
92 56 Ba + 36 Kr
2 × 3.624 × 10 25
Nuclear Fusion ⇒m= = 120.83 g day −1.
6 × 10 23
The process in which two or more light nuclei are
combined into a single nucleus with the release of RADIOACTIVITY
tremendous amount of energy is called as nuclear The phenomenon of spontaneous emission of radiation
fusion. Like a fission reaction, the sum of masses before or particles from the nucleus is called radioactivity.
the fusion (i.e. of light nuclei) is more than the sum The substances which emit these radiations are
of masses after the fusion (i.e. of bigger nucleus) and called as radioactive substances. It was discovered by
this difference appears as the fusion energy. The most Henry Becquerel for atoms of radium. Later it was
typical fusion reaction is the fusion of two deuterium discovered that many naturally occurring compounds
nuclei into helium. of heavy elements like radium, thorium etc also emit
radiations.
2
H + 12 H → 42He + 24 MeV
1 At present, it is known that all the naturally occurring
For the fusion reaction to occur, the light nuclei elements having atomic number greater than 82 are
are brought closer to each other (with a distance of radioactive. For example some of them are; radium,
10–14 m). This is possible only at very high temperature polonium, thorium, actinium, uranium, radon etc.
to counter the repulsive force between nuclei. Due Later on Rutherford found that emission of radiation
to this reason, the fusion reaction is very difficult always accompanied by transformation of one element
to perform. The inner core of sun is at very high (transmutation) into another. Actually radioactivity
temperature, and is suitable for fusion, in fact the is the result of disintegration of an unstable nucleus.
source of energy in sun and other stars is the nuclear Rutherford studied the nature of these radiations and
fusion reaction. found that these mainly consist of a, β, γ rays.

44 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH‘14

Page 44
4
a-Particles ( 2 He) N0 − λT
⇒ = N0 e 1 / 2 …(ii)
These carry a charge of +2e and mass equal to 4mp. 2
These are nuclei of helium atoms. The energies of From (i) and (ii), we get
a-particles vary from 5 MeV to 9 MeV and their t/T n
Nt  1  1 / 2  1 
velocities vary from 0.01-0.1 times of c (velocity of =  = 
light). They can be deflected by electric and magnetic N0  2   2
fields and have low penetrating power but high n = number of half lives
ionizing power. The mean life (Tm) of a radioactive substance is
0 equal to the sum of life times of all atoms divided
β-Particles (–1e)
by the number of all atoms. It is given by
These are fast moving electrons having charge equal
1
to –e and mass me = 9.1 × 10 −31 kg . Their velocities Tm =
vary from 1% to 99% of the velocity of light (c). They λ
can also be deflected by electric and magnetic fields. Illustration 16 : The mean lives of a radio active
They have low ionizing power but high penetrating substance are 1620 and 405 years for a-emission
power. β+ particles are positrons. and β-emission respectively. Find out the time
0
γ-Radiation ( 0 γ) during which three fourth of a sample will decay
These are electromagnetic waves of nuclear origin if it is decaying both the a-emission and β-emission
and of very short wavelength. They have no charge simultaneously.
and no mass. They have maximum penetrating power Soln.: When a substance decays by a and β emission
and minimum ionising power. The energy released simultaneously, the average rate of disintegration
in a nuclear reaction is mainly emitted in the form lav is given by
of γ radiation. λ av = λ α + λ β
Laws of Radioactive Decay where λ α = disintegration constant for a-emission
Rutherford-Soddy laws (Statistical Laws) only
 The disintegration of a radioactive substance is λβ = disintegration constant for β-emission only.
random and spontaneous. Mean life is given by
 Radioactive decay is purely a nuclear phenomenon 1
Tm =
and is independent of any physical and chemical λ
conditions. 1 1 1
⇒ lav = la + lβ ⇒ = +
 The radioactive decay follows first order kinetics, Tm Tα Tβ
i.e., the rate of decay is proportional to the number
1 1
of undecayed atoms in a radioactive substance at = + = 3.08 × 10 −3
1620 405
any time t .
 If dN be the number of atoms (nuclei) disintegrating 100
λ av t = 2.303 log
in time dt, the rate of decay is given as dN / dt . From 25
first order of kinetic rate law (3.08 × 10−3 ) t = 2.303 log 100
25
dN 1
= − λN , where l is called as decay or ⇒ t = 2.303 × log 4 = 450.17 years.
dt
3.08 × 10 −3
disintegration constant.
Let N0 be the number of nuclei at time t = 0 and Soddy Fajan Laws (Group-Displacement Laws)
Nt be the number of nuclei after time t, then  When a nuclide emits one a-particle (42He), its
according to integrated first order rate law, we mass number (A) decreases by 4 units and atomic
have number (Z) decreases by 2 units.
N N
Nt = N0 e − λt ⇒ λt = ln 0 = 2.303 log 0 A
ZX → A−4
Z − 2Y + 42He + Energy
Nt Nt
 When a nuclide emits a β-particle, its mass number
The half life (T1/2) period of a radioactive remains unchanged but atomic number increases
substance is defined as the time in which one-half
by one unit.
of the radioactive substance is disintegrated. If N0
be the number of nuclei at t = 0, then in a half life
A
ZX → Z +A1Y + −1 e 0 + υ + Energy
T1/2, the number of nuclei decayed will be N0/2. where υ is antineutrino.
In the nucleus, due to conversion of neutron into
N t = N 0 e − λt …(i) proton, antineutrino is produced. It has no charge

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 45

Page 45
Wave Motion

Relation between Frequency, Progressive Waves Modes of Vibration of strings


Wavelength and Wave velocity

1
v=

λ=λ
T nv n T
υ
= =
t x
 2π 2L 2L m
y=
A sin 2 π
+ =
A sin ( vt +
x)

T λ λ
Velocity of Transverse φ
=
t


x
++φ


T λ
0
Wave in Solids and Strings
v 1 T
υ
0 = = ,
η 2L 2L m
v=
ρ 2π

φ
= t.

T


T ∆
φ
= x.

v= , λ 1 
m n+
1  v 
2 T
υ
=
n +
 =
dy 2 πA t x
 2 2L 2L m
u= =cos 2 π
+ 
dt T 
T λ
v 1 T
υ
0 = =
2πA 4L 4L m
u0 == A
ω
T
Velocity of Longitudinal Waves
2
du 4π t x

a= −A sin 2π
= + 
dt 2 T λ
 
T

4 2
κ+ η 4π 2
a0 =A = ω A
v =3 T 2
ρ Organ Pipes
2 2
1ω A T 2
Pav = 2π
= mvA 2υ
2
2 v
Y v
v= υ
1= =
υ
ρ 2L
Stationary Waves

κ
v= nv
ρ
2L

x 2π
t
y=
±2 a sin cos
λT
κ P
iso =
v= .
ρρ
λ3λ v
x=
0, , λ
, .... υ
1= =
υ
2 2 4L

κ γP λ 3λ 5λ
v=adia = , x= , , ...
ρρ 4 4 4

CP
γ
=
CV λ 3λ 5λ
x= , , ...
4 4 4
λ3λ
1ω2 2
Aκ 2π2
κ P0 v
2
P02 x=
0, , λ
, ...
I= = A2 v2 = = 2 2
2 v v 2κ 2ρ v
λ
2
λ
.
Factors affecting velocity of 4
Sound through gases L2 − 3 L1
=
Doppler's Effect in Sound 2
1
v∝
ρ Beats Formation
v2 ρ1
=
v1 ρ2
v+v −v
v∝
T =m 0 ×
υ
′ υ
v+
vm −
vs
vt T 273 +t
== v–v
v0 T0 273 =0 ×
υ
′ υ
v−vs
or mass, but has momentum. When a proton is A0 = 2 Ci ⇒ A0 = A10 + A20 = 2 ...(i)
converted to a neutron, a neutron and a +ve β-particle
Initial ratio of atoms of isotopes = 2 : 1
is produced, which is called as positron. β rays are
From definition of activity,
electrons and β+ are the antielectrons or positrons. A = λN
1
0n →11 p + −10 e + υ (antineutrino ) A10 λ 1N10 N10 T2
⇒ = = ×
A20 λ 2 N 20 N 20 T1
1
1p → 10n + +01e ( positron ) + υ ( neutrino )
where T represents half life
Antineutrino and neutrino share the energy of A 2 25 50 25
⇒ 10 = × = = …(ii)
electrons and positrons. That is the reason why A20 1 14 14 7
the energy of β is continuous and β rays has a On solving equation (i) and (ii), we get
energy maximum. 7 25
 When a γ particle is produced, both atomic and A20 = and A10 =
16 16
mass number remain constant.
At = A10 e −λ1 t + A20 e −λ 2 t
Activity of a Radioactive Isotope
0.693 0.693
The activity of a radioactive substance (or radioisotope) 25 − 14 × 30 7 − 25 × 30
⇒ At =
e + e
means the rate of decay per second or the number 16 16
of nuclei disintegrating per second. It is generally Consider the first exponential term:
denoted by A. −
0.693 × 30

dN e = e −1.485
14
A=
dt Let y = e–1.485 ⇒ ln y = − 1.485
At time t = 0, the activity of a radioactive substance −1.485  −1.485 
⇒ log y = ⇒ y = antilog 
be A0 and after time t = t s, activity be At then 2.303  2.303 
 dN  So, from above calculations you can derive a general
A0 =  = − λN 0 result i.e.,
 dt  t = 0
−x 
 dN  e −x = antilog  
At =  = − λN t  2.303 
 dt  t = t 25 7
At = × 0.2265 + × 0.4354 = 0.5444 Ci.
At = A0 e −λt 16 16
Unit of Activity
Form IV
The activity is measured in terms of curie (Ci). 1 curie
1. Place of Publication : New Delhi
is the activity of 1 g of a freshly prepared sample of
2. Periodicity of its publication : Monthly
radium 226Ra(T1/2 = 1602 years.)
3. Printer’s and Publisher’s Name : Mahabir Singh
1 curie = 1 Ci = 3.7 × 1010 dps (disintegration per second)
Nationality : Indian
1 dps is also known as 1 Bq (becquerel) Address : Physics For You,
⇒ 1 Ci = 3.7 × 1010 Bq 406, Taj Apartment,
New Delhi - 110029.
Illustration 17 : Radioisotopes of phosphorus 32P 4. Editor’s Name : Anil Ahlawat
and 35P are mixed in the ratio of 2 : 1 of atoms. The Nationality : Indian
activity of the sample is 2 Ci. Find the activity of Address : Physics For You,
the sample after 30 days. T1/2 of 32P = 14 days and 19, National Media
T1/2 of 35P is 25 days. Center, Gurgaon
Soln.: Let A0 = initial activity of sample. Haryana - 122002
A10 = initial activity of isotope 1 and 5. Name and address of : Mahabir Singh
A20= initial activity of isotope 2. individuals who own the 406, Taj Apartment,
A0 = A1t + A20 newspapers and partners or New Delhi
shareholders holding more than
Similarly for final activity (Activity after time t) one percent of the total capital
At = A10 + A2t I, Mahabir Singh, here by declare that particulars given above
are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.
⇒ At = A10 e −λ1t + A20 e −λ 2t
Mahabir Singh
Now in the given equation, Publisher

48 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH‘14

Page 48
QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE
1. A convex lens forms an image of an object placed emitted per second per unit area from the surface
20 cm away from it at a distance of 20 cm on the will be
other side of the lens. If the object is moved 5 cm (Given, h = 6.64 × 10–34 J s, c = 3 × 108 m s–1)
towards the lens, the image will move (a) 12 × 1018 (b) 10 × 1018
(a) 5 cm towards the lens (c) 1.2 × 1018 (d) 12 × 1016
(b) 5 cm away from the lens
8. If the atom 257 Fm follows the Bohr model and the
(c) 10 cm towards the lens 100
(d) 10 cm away from the lens radius of fifth orbit of 257
100
Fm is N times the Bohr
radius, then find the value of N is
2. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of a single slit is
(a) 100 (b) 200
formed in the focal plane of a lens of focal length
(c) 4 (d) 1/4
1 m. The width of slit is 0.3 mm. If third minimum
is formed at a distance of 5 mm from central 9. What is the refractive index of material of a
maximum, then wavelength of light will be planoconvex lens, if the radius of curvature of the
(a) 5000 Å (b) 2500 Å convex surface is 10 cm and focal length of the
(c) 7500 Å (d) 8500 Å lens is 30 cm?
6 7
3. Energy required to remove an electron from an (a) (b)
5 4
aluminium surface is 4.2 eV. If light of wavelength 2 4
2000 Å falls on the surface, the velocity of faster (c) (d)
3 3
electrons ejected from the surface is
10. In a Young’s double slit experiment, the fringes
(a) 2.5 × 1018 m s–1 (b) 2.5 × 1013 m s–1
18 –1 are displaced by a distance x when a glass plate
(c) 6.7 × 10 m s (d) 8.4 × 105 m s–1
of refractive index 1.5 is introduced in the path
4. The half-life for the a-decay of Uranium 238 is of one of the beams. When this plate is replaced
92 U
4.47 × 109 yr. If a rock contains sixty percent of its by another plate of same thickness, the shift of
original 238 U atoms, its age is fringes is (3/2)x. The refractive index of second
92 plate is
[Given, log 6 = 0.778; log 2 = 0.3] (a) 1.75 (b) 1.50
(a) 3.3 × 109 yr (b) 6.6 × 109 yr (c) 1.25 (d) 1.00
(c) 1.2 × 108 yr (d) 5.4 × 107 yr
11. The binding energy of deuteron (12 H) is 1.15 MeV
5. A ray of light incident at an angle q on a refracting
face of a prism emerges from the other face per nucleon and an alpha particle ( 42 He) has
normally. If the angle of the prism is 5° and the binding energy of 7.1 MeV per nucleon. Then
prism is made of a material of refractive index 1.5, in the reaction 12 H + 12H → 42 He + Q , the energy
the angle of incidence is released Q is
(a) 7.5° (b) 5° (c) 15° (d) 2.5° (a) 5.95 MeV (b) 26.1 MeV
6. Consider sunlight incident on a slit of width (c) 23.8 MeV (d) 289.4 MeV
104 Å. The image seen through the slit shall 12. In Young’s experiment the wavelength of red light
(a) be a fine sharp slit white in colour at the is 7.5 × 10–5 cm and that of blue light 5.0 × 10–5 cm.
centre The value of n for which (n + 1)th blue bright band
(b) a bright slit white at the centre diffusing to coincides with nth red band is
zero intensities at the edges (a) 8 (b) 4
(c) a bright slit white at the centre diffusing to (c) 2 (d) 1
regions of different colours
13. The magnifying power of a telescope is 9. When it
(d) only be a diffused slit white in colour
is adjusted for parallel rays, the distance between
7. Light rays of wavelength 6000 Å and of photon the objective and the eye-piece is found to be
intensity 39.6 W m–2 is incident on a metal 20 cm. The focal lengths of the lenses are
surface. If only 1% of photons incident on surface (a) 18 cm, 2 cm (b) 11 cm, 9 cm
emit photoelectrons, then the number of electrons (c) 10 cm, 10 cm (d) 15 cm, 5 cm

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 49

Page 49
14. An object is placed 30 cm to the left of a diverging proton is 1.007277 amu and mass of neutron is
lens whose focal length is of magnitude 20 cm. 1.008665 amu. Mass defect of lithium nucleus in
Which one of the following correctly states the amu is
nature and position of the virtual image formed? (a) 0.04048 (b) 0.04050
Nature of image Distance from lens (c) 0.04052 (d) 0.04055
(a) inverted, enlarged 60 cm to the right Directions : Question number 22 and 23 have
(b) erect, diminished 12 cm to the left Statement-I and Statement-II. Of the four choices
(c) inverted, enlarged 60 cm to the left given after the Statements, choose the one that best
(d) erect, diminished 12 cm to the right describes the two Statements.
15. The angular momentum of electron in 3d orbital (a) Statement-I is false, Statement-II is true.
of an atom is (b) Statement-I is true, Statement-II is true, Statement-II
 h is the correct explanation of Statement-I.
 h
(a) 2  (b) 3  (c) Statement-I is true, Statement-II is true, Statement-II
 2π   2π 
is not the correct explanation of Statement-I.
 h  h (d) Statement-I is true, Statement-II is false.
(c) 6  (d) 12  
 2π   2π 
22. Statement-I : The pattern and position of fringes
16. The binding energy of an electron in the ground shift after the introduction of a transparent
state of He is equal to 24.6 eV. The energy required medium in the path of one of the slits.
to remove both the electrons is
Statement-II : The central fringe is bright or dark
(a) 49.2 eV (b) 24.6 eV
does not depend upon the initial phase difference
(c) 38.2 eV (d) 79.0 eV between the two coherent sources.
17. A convex lens of focal length 0.15 m is made of a 23. Statement-I : A biconvex lens of focal length
material of refractive index 3/2. When it is placed 10 cm is split into two equal parts by a plane
in a liquid, its focal length is increased by 0.225 m. parallel to its principal axis. The focal length of
The refractive index of the liquid is each part will be 20 cm.
7
(a) (b) 5 Statement-II : Focal length depends on the radii
4 4 of curvature of two surfaces.
9 3
(c) (d) 24. Taking the Bohr radius as a0 = 53 pm, the radius of
4 2
Li++ ion in its ground state, on the basis of Bohr’s
18. A transparent thin plate of a polaroid is placed on
model, will be about
another similar plate such that the angle between (a) 53 pm (b) 27 pm (c) 18 pm (d) 13 pm
their axes is 30°. The intensities of the emergent
and the unpolarized incident light will be in the 25. In a nuclear reactor, moderators slow down the
ratio of neutrons which come out in a fission process. The
(a) 1 : 4 (b) 1 : 3 (c) 3 : 4 (d) 3 : 8 moderator used have light nuclei. Heavy nuclei
will not serve the purpose because
19. When an object is kept at a distance of 30 cm from (a) they will break up
a concave mirror, the image is formed at a distance (b) elastic collision of neutrons with heavy nuclei
of 10 cm. If the object is moved with a speed of will not slow them down
9 m s–1, the speed with which image moves is (c) the net weight of the reactor would be
(a) 10 m s–1 (b) 1 m s–1 unbearably high
(c) 9 m s –1 (d) 0.9 m s–1 (d) substances with heavy nuclei do not occur in
20. When the electromagnetic radiations of liquid or gaseous state at room temperature.
frequencies 4 × 1015 Hz and 6 × 1015 Hz fall on the 26. A plastic sheet (refractive index = 1.6) covers
same metal, in different experiments, the ratio of one slit of a double slit arrangement meant for
maximum kinetic energy of electrons liberated is the Young’s experiment. When the double slit is
1 : 3. The threshold frequency for the metal is illuminated by monochromatic light (wavelength
(a) 2 × 1015 Hz (b) 1 × 1015 Hz in air = 6600 Å), the centre of the screen appears
15
(c) 3 × 10 Hz (d) 4 × 1015 Hz dark rather than bright. The minimum thickness of
7Li the plastic sheet to be used for this to happen is
21. 3
nucleus has three protons and four neutrons.
Mass of 37Li nucleus is 7.016005 amu. Mass of (a) 3300 Å (b) 6600 Å
(c) 2062 Å (d) 5500 Å

50 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 50
27. Light of wavelength 1500 Å fall on aluminium
surface. Work function of aluminium is 4.2 eV. 2 × 2 × 1.6 × 10 −19
⇒ v=
What is the kinetic energy of the fastest emitted 9.1 × 10 −31
photoelectrons? 6.4
(a) 2 eV (b) 1 eV (c) 4 eV (d) 0.2 eV = × 106 m s −1 = 0.84 × 106 m s −1.
9.1
28. If the series limit wavelength of Lyman series for = 8.4 × 105 m s–1
the hydrogen atom is 912 Å, then the series limit
wavelength for Balmer series of hydrogen atom 60
4. (a) : Here, T1/2 = 4.47 103 yr, N = N
is 100 0
n n
(a) 912 Å (b) 912 × 2 Å N  1 60  1  10
 = ⇒ = or 2n =
912 N0  2  100  2  6
(c) 912 × 4 Å (d) Å
2 ⇒ n log 2 = log 10 – log 6 = 1 – 0.778 = 0.222
29. One of the refracting surfaces of a prism of angle
30° is silvered. A ray of light incident at an angle 0.222 0.222
∴ n= = = 0.74
of 60° retraces its path. The refractive index of the log 2 0.3
material of prism is Now, t = nT1/2 = 0.74 × 4.47 × 109 yr = 3.3 × 109 yr.
3 5. (a) : Here, A = 5°, m = 1.5, i = q, e = 0°
(a) 3 (b) (c) 2 (d) 2
2 As the emergent ray is normal to the refracting
30. The focal length of objective and eye-piece of surface of the prism
a microscope are 1 cm and 5 cm respectively. If Hence, for a small angled prism,
the magnifying power for relaxed eye is 45, then d = (m – 1)A,
length of the tube is d = (1.5 – 1)5° = 2.5°
(a) 9 cm (b) 15 cm (c) 12 cm (d) 6 cm Since, A + d = i + e,
⇒ 5° + 2.5° = q + 0°
SOLUTIONS
or q = 7.5°
1. (d) : Clearly, 2f = 20 cm or f = 10 cm 6. (a) : Diffraction effects will be observable only
Now, u = –15 cm, f = 10 cm when width of the slit (a) is of the order of
1 1 1 wavelength of light (l).
Using lens formula, − =
v −15 10 Here, a = 104 Å and l ~ 103Å
1 1 1 1 1 1 7. (c) : Useful intensity for the emission of electron
or + = or = −
v 15 10 v 10 15 is
1 3−2 1 1
or = = or v = 30 cm I ′ = 1% of I = × 39.6 = 0.396 W m −2
v 30 30 100
The change in image distance is (30 – 20) cm i.e., Energy of each photon = hc
10 cm away from the lens. λ
ax ax (6.64 × 10 −34 ) × ( 3 × 108 )
2. (a) : As for minima, nl = asinq = or λ = = = 3.32 × 10 −19 J
f nf 6000 × 10 −10
 x No. of photoelectrons emitted per second per unit
 sin θ =  area
 f
Here, a = 0.3 mm = 0.3 × 10–3 m, x = 5 mm = 5 × 10–3 m, 0.396
= ≈ 1.2 × 1018
−19
n = 3, f = 1 m. 3.32 × 10
0.3 × 10 −3 × 5 × 10 −3 n2
∴ λ= = 5 × 10 −7 m = 5000 Å. 8. (d) : As rn = a ,where n is the orbit number. For
3×1 Z 0
1 hc 257
Fm, Z = 100
3. (d) : From mv 2 = − φ0 (in eV) 100
2 eλ
25 1
1 6.6 × 10 −34 × 3 × 108 \ r5 = a0 = a0
∴ mv 2 = − 4.2 = 6.2 − 4.2 100 4
2 2000 × 10 −10 × 1.6 × 10 −19 r5 1 1
or = ⇒ N=
= 2 eV = 2 × 1.6 × 10–19 J r0 4 4

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 51

Page 51
9. (d) 15. (c) : The angular momentum is given by
D  h
10. (a) : As, y0 = (µ − 1)t L = l(l + 1)  
d  2π 
For same D, d and t, we have, For 3d electron, l = 2.
x (1.5 − 1) 2 1  h  h
= ⇒ = ∴ L = 2( 3)   = 6  
3 (µ − 1) 3 2(µ − 1)  2π   2π 
x
2 16. (d) : Helium atom has 2 electrons. When one
1 4 3 electron is removed, the remaining atom is
⇒ = ⇒ µ −1= hydrogen like atom, whose energy in first orbit is
µ −1 3 4
E1 = –(2)2(13.6 eV) = – 54.4 eV
7
\ µ= = 1.75 Therefore, to remove the second electron from the
4 atom, the additional energy of 54.4 eV is required.
11. (c) : Given, 12 H +12 H → 42 He + Q Hence, total energy required to remove both the
The total binding energy of the deutrons electrons = 24.6 + 54.4 = 79.0 eV.
= 4 × 1.15 = 4.60 MeV 17. (b) : According to lens maker’s formula
The total binding energy of alpha particle
1  µ2  1 1
= 4 × 7.1 = 28.4 MeV = − 1  −
\ The energy released in the process f  µ1   R1 R2 
= 28.4 – 4.60 = 23.8 MeV where m1 is the refractive index of the medium in
which lens is placed and m2 is the refractive index
12. (c) : For bright fringe, n1 l1 = n2 l2
of the material of the lens.
\ n(7.5 × 10–5) = (n + 1)(5 × 10–5)
\ For a convex lens in air
⇒ 2.5 × 10–5n = 5 × 10–5
1  µg  1 1
5.0 × 10 −5 = − 1  −  ...(i)
or n= = 2. fa  µ a  1R R 2
2.5 × 10 −5 For the same convex lens in liquid
f0
13. (a) : As for a telescope magnitying power, M =
fe 1  µg  1 1
= − 1  − ...(ii)
f0 
\ 9= or f0 = 9 fe
fl  µ l   R1 R2 
fe Dividing (i) by (ii), we get
Also, L = f0 + fe or 20 = f0 + fe fl µ g − µ a µl
or 20 = 9fe + fe or 20 = 10 fe ⇒ fe = 2 cm = ×
fa µa µ g − µl
\ f0 = 9 × 2 cm = 18 cm
Here, fl = 0.150 + 0.225 = 0.375 m
14. (b) : When an object is placed between 2f and f Substituting the given values, we get
(focal length) of the diverging lens, the image is
3 
virtual, erect and diminished as shown in the ray −1
0.375  2  µl
diagram. = ×
0.15 1 3 
 − µ l 
µl 2
5
⇒ =
2 3 − 2µ l
or 5(3 – 2ml) = 2ml
12ml = 15
15 5
µl = =
12 4
To calculate the distance of the image from the 18. (d) : Let I0 be the intensity of unpolarized light,
lens, we apply then intensity of light from first transparent thin
1 1 1 1 1 1 plate of a polaroid is
= − ⇒ = −
f v u −20 v 30 I
I= 0
( 20)( 30) 2
⇒ v=− Now this light will pass through the second
20 + 30 similar plate whose axis is inclined at an angle of
= – 12 cm (to the left of the diverging lens.)
30° to that of first plate.

52 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 52
According to Malus law, the intensity of emerging 25. (b) : During an elastic collision between two
light is particles, the maximum kinetic energy is
2
I′ 3 transferred from one particle to the other when
I0  3  3
I ′ = I cos 2 30° =   = I0 \ = they have the same mass. Consequently, a
2 2  8 I0 8
neutron loses all of its kinetic energy when it
19. (b) : According to mirror formula, collides head-on with a proton, in analogy with
1 1 1 the collision between a moving billiard ball and
+ = a stationary one. For this reason, materials which
u v f
Differentiating with respect to t, we get are abundant in hydrogen such as paraffin and
1 du 1 dv water, are good moderators for neutrons.
∴ − 2 − =0 (  f is constant) 26. (d) : The path difference produced by a sheet
u dt v 2 dt
Dx = (m – 1)t
2
dv  v  du According to the given condition (for minimum
or =− 
dt  u  dt thickness)
2 λ
v  dv du  (µ − 1)t =
vi = −   vo   = vi and = vo  2
u  dt dt 
Substituting the given values, we get λ 6600 × 10 −10
∴ t= = = 5500 Å.
2 2(µ − 1) 2(1.6 − 1)
 10 
vi = −   × 9 = − 1 m s −1
 30 
27. (c) 28. (c)
|vi| = 1 m s–1
29. (a) : Given, A = 30°, i1 = 60°
20. (c) : According to Einstein’s photoelectric As the ray retraces its path on reflection at the
equation
silvered face therefore,
hu = hu0 + KEmax
i2 = 0, r2 = 0
For first experiment, h × 4 × 1015 = hu0 + x ...(i)
As r1 + r2 = A
For second experiment, h × 6 × 1015 = hu0 + 3x...(ii)
\ r1 + 0 = 30°
Subtracting equation (i) from (ii), we get,
or r1 = 30°
2x = h × 2 × 1015 or x = h × 1015
Putting in equation (i) sin i1 sin 60°
µ= =
hu0 = h × 4 × 1015 – h × 1015 = 3 × h × 1015 sin r1 sin 30°
or u0 = 3 × 1015 Hz.
3/2
21 (a) = = 3.
1/ 2
22. (d) : The effective path in air is increased by
30. (b) : For the relaxed eye, magnifying power is
(m – 1)t due to introduction of a transparent
v D
medium of refractive index m and thickness t. M= o
Accordingly, the central fringe shifts to a new uo fe
position. vo 25 v
The central fringe is bright or dark depends on the ∴ − 45 = − × or o = 9.
uo 5 uo
initial phase difference between the two coherent
sources. For objective lens, image is real.
v
23. (a) : Both the parts will be biconvex lenses, each of ∴ vo = + vo , uo = − o .
focal length 10 cm. 9
Focal length depends on the radii of curvatures of Given, fo = 1 cm.
the two surfaces. 1 1 1
From − =
24. (c) : Radius of Li++ ion in its ground state, i.e., vo uo fo
ε0h2 1 9 1
r0 = + = ; v = 10 cm.
πmZe 2 vo vo 1 o
ε0h2 a0 53 pm
As Bohr radius, a0 = ⇒ r0 = = ≈ 18 pm Length of the tube = vo + fe = 10 + 5 = 15 cm
2 Z 3
πme
( for Li, Z = 3) nn

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 53

Page 53
1. Which one of the following is not correct about (a) 2.01 × 10–3 T (b) 5.64 × 10–3 T
Lorentz Force? (c) 2.64 × 10–4 T (d) 5.01 × 10–4 T

(a) In presence
 of electric field E(r ) and magnetic 5. An electron having momentum 2.4 × 10–23 kg m s–1
field B(r ) the force
 on a moving electric enters a region of uniform magnetic field of
charge is F = q[E(r ) + v × B(r )] .
0.15 T. The field vector makes an angle of 30° with
(b) The force, due to magnetic field on a negative
the initial velocity vector of the electron. The radius of
charge is opposite to that on a positive
the helical path of the electron in the field shall be
charge.
(a) 2 mm (b) 1 mm
(c) The force due to magnetic field become zero
if velocity and magnetic field are parallel or 3
(c) mm (d) 0.5 mm
anti-parallel. 2
(d) For a static charge the magnetic force is 6. An electron is moving in a cyclotron at a speed
maximum. of 3.2 × 107 m s–1 in a magnetic field of 5 × 10–4 T
2. A 4 A current carrying loop consists of three perpendicular to it. What is the frequency of this
identical quarter circles of radius 5 cm lying in the electron?
positive quadrants of the x-y, y-z and z-x planes (e = 1.6 × 10–19 C, me = 9.1 × 10–31 kg)
with their centres at the origin joined together, (a) 1.4 × 105 Hz (b) 1.4 × 107 Hz
value of B at the origin is (c) 1.4 × 106 Hz (d) 1.4 × 109 Hz
µo ^ ^ ^ µo ^ ^ ^
(a) (i + j− k) T (b) (− i + j+ k) T 7. A proton is accelerating on a cyclotron having
10 10 oscillating frequency of 11 MHz in external
µo ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ magnetic field of 1 T. If the radius of its dees is
(c) (i + j+ k) T (d) 10µ o ( i + j + k ) T
5 55 cm, then its kinetic energy (in MeV) is
3. A long straight wire carrying current of 30 A rests (mp = 1.67 × 10–27 kg, e = 1.6 × 10–19 C)
on a table. Another wire AB of length 1 m, mass (a) 13.36 (b) 12.52
3 g carries the same current but in the opposite (c) 15.89 (d) 14.49
direction, the wire AB is free to slide up and
down. The height upto which AB will rise is 8. A straight wire having mass of 1.2 kg and length
(a) 0.6 cm (b) 0.7 cm of 1 m carries a current of 5A. If the wire is
(c) 0.4 cm (d) 0.5 cm suspended in mid-air by a uniform horizontal
magnetic field, then the magnitude of field is
4. A circular coil of radius 10 cm having 100 turns
(a) 0.65 T (b) 1.53 T
carries a current of 3.2 A. The magnetic field at
(c) 2.4 T (d) 3.2 T
the center of the coil is

54 Physics for you | march ‘14

Page 54
9. A m a g n e t i c f i e l d 13. A solenoid of length 0.6 m has a radius of 2 cm
 ^
B = B0 j exists in the and is made up of 600 turns. If it carries a current
region a < x < 2a and of 4 A, then the magnitude of the magnetic field
 ^
B = − B0 j in the region inside the solenoid is
2a < x < 3a, where B0 is (a) 6.024 × 10–3 T (b) 8.024 × 10–3 T
a positive constant. A (c) 5.024 × 10 T
–3 (d) 7.024 × 10–3 T
positive point charge 14. The inner and outer radius of a toroid core are
moving with a velocity 28 cm and 29 cm respectively and around the core
 ^ 3700 turns of a wire are wounded. If the current
v = v0 i where v0 is a positive constant, enters
in the wire is 10 A, then the magnetic field inside
the magnetic field at x = a. The trajectory of the
the core of the toroid is
charge in this region can be like,
(a) 2.60 × 10–2 T (b) 2.60 × 10–3 T
(c) 4.52 × 10–2 T (d) 4.52 × 10–3 T
15. The horizontal component of earth’s magnetic
(a) (b) field at a certain place is 3.0 × 10–5 T and having a
direction from the geographic south to geographic
north. The force per unit length on a very long
straight conductor carrying a steady current of
1.2 A in east to west direction is
(a) 3.0 × 10–5 N m–1 (b) 4.5 × 10–5 N m–1
(c) 3.6 × 10–5 N m–1 (d) 5.5 × 10–5 N m–1
(c) (d)
16. A circular coil of wire consisting of 100 turns
each of radius 9 cm carries a current of 0.4 A.
The magnitude of magnetic field at the centre
10. A straight wire carrying a current of 13 A is bent of the coil is
into a semi-circular arc of radius 2 cm as shown (a) 2.4 × 10–4 T (b) 3.2 × 10–4 T
in figure. The magnetic field is 1.5 × 10–4 T at (c) 2.79 × 10–4 T (d) 3.92 × 10–4 T
the centre of arc, then the magnetic field due to 17. A circular coil of 70 turns and radius 5 cm carrying
straight segment is a current of 8 A is suspended vertically in a
uniform horizontal magnetic field of magnitude
1.5 T. The field lines make an angle of 30° with
the normal of the coil then the magnitude of the
counter torque that must be applied to prevent
(a) 1.5 × 10–4 T (b) 2.5 × 10–4 T the coil from turning is
(c) zero (d) 3.0 × 10–4 T (a) 33 N m (b) 3.3 N m
^
(c) 3.3 × 10–2 N m (d) 3.3 × 10–4 N m
11. An element of 0.05 i m is
placed at the origin as shown 18. The electric current in a circular coil of two turns
in figure which carries a large produced a magnetic induction of 0.2 T at its
current of
of 10 A. The magnetic centre. The coil is unwound and then rewound
field at a distance of 1 m in into a circular coil of four turns. If same current
perpendicular direction is flows in the coil, the magnetic induction at the
(a) 4.5 × 10–8 T (b) 5.5 × 10–8 T centre of the coil now is
–8
(c) 5.0 × 10 T (d) 7.5 × 10–8 T (a) 0.2 T (b) 0.4 T
(c) 0.6 T (d) 0.8 T
12. Two particles of equal charges after being
accelerated through the same potential difference 19. A circular coil of 25 turns and radius 12 cm is
enter in a uniform transverse magnetic field and placed in a uniform magnetic field of 0.5 T normal
describe circular paths of radii R1 and R2. Then to the plane of the coil. If the current in the coil
the ratio of their respective masses (M1/M
/ 2) is is 6 A then total torque acting on the coil is
(a) R1/R2 (b) (R1/R2)2 (a) zero (b) 3.4 N m
(c) R2/R1 (d) (R2/R1)2 (c) 3.8 N m (d) 4.4 N m

Physics for you | march ‘14 55

Page 55

20. A current I is flowing 25. If electron moving
 with velocity v produces a
through a loop. The magnetic field B, then

direction of the current (a) the direction of field B will be same in the
and the shape of the loop 
direction of velocity v.
are as shown in the figure. 
(b) the direction of field B will be opposite to
The magnetic field at the 
µ I the direction of velocity v .
centre of the loop is 0 
(c) the direction of field B will be perpendicular
times R 
to the direction of velocity v.
(Here, MA = R, MB = 2R, ∠DMA = 90°) 
(d) the direction of field B does not depend upon
5 
(a) , out of the plane of the paper. the direction of velocity v.
16
5 26. A long straight wire in the horizontal plane carries
(b) , into the plane of the paper. a current of 75 A in north to south direction,
16
7 magnitude and direction of field B at a point 3 m
(c) , out of the plane of the paper. east of the wire is
16
7 (a) 4 × 10–6 T, vertical up
(d) , into the plane of the paper. (b) 5 × 10–6 T, vertical down
16
(c) 5 × 10–6 T, vertical up
21. What is the correct value of Bohr magneton?
(d) 4 × 10–6 T, vertical down
(a) 8.99 × 10–24 A m2 (b) 9.27 × 10–24 A m2
(c) 5.66 × 10–24 A m2 (d) 9.27 × 10–28 A m2 27. A proton and an a-particle enter in a uniform
22. If an electron is projected with uniform velocity magnetic field perpendicularly with same speed.
along the axis of a current carrying long solenoid,  Tp 
then The ratio of time periods of both particle  
will be  Tα 
(a) the electron will be accelerated along the axis.
(b) the electron will continue to move with uniform (a) 1 : 2 (b) 1 : 3
velocity along the axis of the solenoid. (c) 2 : 1 (d) 3 : 1
(c) the electron path will be circular about the
28. A conductor of length 2 m carrying current 2 A
axis.
(d) the electron will experience a force at 45° to is held parallel to an infinitely long conductor
the axis and hence executes a helical path. carrying current of 12 A at a distance of 100 mm,
 the force on small conductor is
23. A circular current loop of magnetic moment M is
(a) 8.6 × 10–5 N (b) 6.6 × 10–5 N
in an arbitrary orientation in an external magnetic

field B . The work done to rotate the loop through (c) 7.6 × 10 N
–5 (d) 9.6 × 10–5 N
45° about an axis perpendicular to its plane is 29. A short bar magnet has a magnetic moment of
3 MB 0.65 J T–1, then the magnitude and direction of
(a) zero (b)
2 the magnetic field produced by the magnet at a
(c) MB (d) 2MB distance 8 cm from the centre of magnet on the
2 axis is
24. A uniform conducting wire (a) 2.5 × 10–4 T, along NS direction
of length 18 a and resistance (b) 2.5 × 10–4 T, along SN direction
R is wound up as current (c) 4.5 × 10–4 T, along NS direction
carrying coil in the shape of (d) 4.5 × 10–4 T, along SN direction
a regular hexagon of sides a.
30. A galvanometer of resistance 50 W is connected to
If the coil is connected to a
a battery of 3 V along with a resistance of 2950 W
voltage source Vo , then the
magnetic moment of coil is in series. A full scale deflection of 30 divisions is
2 obtained in the galvanometer. In order to reduce
Vo 2 3 Vo a
(a) 6 3 a A m2 (b) 9 A m2 this deflection to 20 divisions, the resistance in
R 2 R
series should be
2
7 3 Vo a
2 11 3 Vo a (a) 6050 W (b) 4450 W
(c) A m2 (d) A m2
2 R 2 R (c) 5050 W (d) 5550 W

56 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 56
SOLUTION q 2B2 R 2 (1.6 × 10 −19 )2 × (1)2 × ( 55 × 10 −2 )2
\ K.E. = =
1. (d) : If charge is not moving then the magnetic 2m 2 × 1.67 × 10 −27
force is zero. = 23.19 × 10–13 J
  
Since Fm = q( v × B) 23.19 × 10 −13
 = eV= 14.49 × 106 eV = 14.49 MeV
As v = 0, for stationary charge 1.6 × 10 −19
 8. (c) : For mid-air suspension the upward force F
\ F =0
m
    on wire due to magnetic field B must be balanced
2. (d) : As B = Bxy + Byz + Bzx …(i) by the force due to gravity,
 µ I  µ I  µ I ⇒ IlB = mg
where Bxy = o θ k , Byz = o θ i , Bzx = o θ j , mg
4π R 4π R 4π R B=
Il
Substituting these values in equation (i) we get,
 µ I Here, m = 1.2 kg, g = 10 m s–2, I = 5 A, l = 1 m
B = o θ[i + j + k ] 1.2 × 10
4π R \ B= = 2.4 T
5×1
π
Here, q= , I = 4 A and R = 5 cm = 5 × 10–2 m 9. (a) : Force on the charged particle in a magnetic
2   
field, F = q( v × B).
 µ 4 π
\ B= o × × (i + j + k ) In the region a < x < 2a, the force on the charged
4 π 5 × 10 −2 2 ^ ^
particle, must be in the direction of i × j , that
^ ^ ^ is, in +z direction, which is vertically upwards.
= 10µ 0 ( i + j + k ) T
And in the region 2a < x < 3a, the force on the
3. (a) : Here I1 = I2 = 30 A, l = 1 m, charged particle will be in –z direction, which is
m = 3 g = 3 × 10–3 kg vertically downwards.
In equilibrium position, For a < x < 2a, path will be concave upward.
µ o 2 I 1I 2 l For 2a < x < 3a, path will be concave downward.
mg = Moreover, there should not be any kink in the path at
4π h
x = 2a.
µ 2I I l 2 × 30 × 30 × 1
h = o × 1 2 = 10 −7 × Hence graph (a) is correct.
4π mg 3 × 10 −3 × 10
–3 10. (c) : Since dl and r for each element of the straight
= 6 × 10 m = 0.6 cm
segments are either parallel or antiparallel.
µ o NI Therefore
4. (a) : As B = , Here N = 100, I = 3.2 A, 
 
2R dl × r = 0
and R = 10 cm = 10 ×10–2 m = 0.1 m Hence, B due to straight segment is also zero.
4 π × 10 −7 × 100 × 3.2 µ o Idl sin θ
\ B= = 2.01 × 10 −3 T 11. (c) : dB =
2 × 0.1 4π r 2
5. (d) : The radius of the helical path of the electron Here, dl = Dx = 0.05 m, I = 10 A, r = 1 m
in the uniform magnetic field is and sinq = sin 90° = 1,
mv⊥ mv sin θ ( 2.4 × 10 −23 kg m s −1 ) × sin 30° 10 × 0.05 × 1
r= = = \ dB = 10–7 ×
(1)2
eB eB (1.6 × 10 −19 C) × (0.15 T)
= 5 × 10–4 m = 0.5 × 10–3 m = 0.5 mm = 0.50 × 10–7 = 5.0 × 10–8 T

6. (b) : Here, v = 3.2 × 107 m s–1, B = 5 × 10–4 T 12. (b) : qV = 1 Mv 2 or v = 2qV …(i)
The frequency of electron is 2 M
eB 1.6 × 10 −19 × 5 × 10 −4 Mv 2
υ= = And Bqv =
2 πme 2 × 3.14 × 9.1 × 10 −31 R
= 1.4 × 107 Hz = 14 MHz Mv M 2qV 2qVM
or Bq = = = (Using (i))
7. (d) : Here, uc = 11 MHz = 11 × 106 Hz R R M R
B = 1 T, R = 55 cm = 55 × 10–2 m, B2 q 2 R 2 B2 qR 2
e = 1.6 × 10–19C and mp = 1.67 × 10–27 kg, or M= =
2qV 2V

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 57

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 B , q and V are same for the 18. (d) : When there are two turns in the coil, then
∴ M ∝ R2  given two particles  l
l = 2 × 2 πr1 or r1 =

2
M1  R1  µ N I µ × 2 × I µ 0 4 πI
Hence = then B1 = 0 1 = 0 =
M2  R2  2r1 2 × (l / 4π) l
When there are four turns in the coil, then
13. (c) : Here, l = 0.6 m and r = 0.02 m l
l = 4 × 2 πr2 or r2 =
600 8π
n= = 1000 turns / m, I = 4 A
0.6
Then B = µ 0 N 2 I = µ 0 × 4 × I = µ 0 16 πI
... l 2
2r2 2 × (l / 8π) l
= 30 i.e. l >> r
r B1 4 1
Hence, we can use long solenoid formula, ⇒ = = or B2 = 4B1 = 4 × 0.2 T = 0.8 T
\ B = monI = 4p × 10–7 × 103 × 4 = 50.24 × 10–4 B2 16 4
= 5.024 × 10–3 T 19. (a) : The torque acting on the coil
  
14. (a) : The number of turns per unit length for the | τ |=| m × B| = mB sin θ
N Here the circular coil is placed normal to the
given toroid, n =
2πrav direction of magnetic field then the angle between

The average radius of toroid, the direction of magnetic moment
 (m) and magnetic
28 + 29 field (B) is zero, then
rav = = 28.5 cm = 28.5 × 10 −2 m
2 t = mBsinq = mBsin 0 = 0 ⇒ \ t = 0
3700 20. (d) : Magnetic field at the centre M due to current
\ n= through the curved portion DA is
2 × 3.14 × 28.5 × 10 −2
= 2067.27 ≈ 2067 turns/m. µ 0 I  3π 
B1 = × into the plane of the paper
Now, B = monI = 4p × 10–7 × 2067 × 10 4 πR  2 
= 259615.2 × 10–7 T = 2.60 × 10–2 T
   3µ 0 I
15. (c) : Since F = Il × B = into the plane of the paper
8R
\ F = IlBsinq Magnetic field at the centre
F M due to current through
Now force per unit length, f = = IB sin θ
l the straight portion AB is
When the current is flowing from east to west B2 = 0
then q = 90°, hence (... point M lies on the axis of
f = IBsin90° = 1.2 × 3 × 10–5 × 1= 3.6 × 10–5 N m–1 the straight portion AB)
Magnetic field at the centre M due to current
16. (c) : Here, N = 100
through the curved portion BC is
R = 9 cm = 9 × 10–2 m and I = 0.4 A
µ0I π
µ NI 2 π × 10 −7 × 100 × 0.4 B3 = × int o the plane of the paper
Now, B = o = 4 π( 2 R) 2
2R 9 × 10 −2
2 × 3.14 × 0.4 µ0I
= × 10–3 = into the plane of the paper
9 16 R
= 0.279 × 10–3 T = 2.79 × 10–4 T Magnetic field at the centre M due to current
17. (b) : Here, N = 70 through the straight portion CD is B4 = 0
r = 5 cm = 5 × 10–2 m, I = 8 A (... point M lies on the axis of the straight portion
B = 1.5 T and q = 30° CD)
The counter torque to prevent the coil from The resultant magnetic field at M is
turning will be equal and opposite to the torque B = B1 + B2 + B3 + B4
acting on the coil, 3µ I µ I 3µ I µ I
= 0 +0+ 0 +0 = 0 + 0
\ t = NIAB sin q = NIpr2B sin 30° 8R 16 R 8R 16 R
1 7µ0I
= 70 × 8 × 3.14 × (5 × 10–2)2 × 1.5 × = into the plane of the paper
= 3.3 N m 2 16 R

58 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 58
e The direction of field at the given point will be
21. (b) : Bohr Magnetron, µ B = (µ l )min = h
4 πme vertical up determined by the screw rule or right
Here, e = 1.6 × 10–19 C hand rule.
h = 6.64 × 10–34 J s 27. (a) : The time period of revolution of a charged
me = 9.1 × 10–31 kg particle in a magnetic field is
2πm
1.6 × 10 −19 × 6.64 × 10 −34 T=
\ µB = Bq
4 × 3.14 × 9.1 × 10 −31
For proton, mp = m, qp = q
= 9.27 × 10–24 A m2
2πm
22. (b) : Let the electron (e) is projected with a uniform \ Tp =
Bq
velocity (v) in a uniform magnetic field B. The
Now, for a-particle,
magnitude of force on it is
   ma = 4 m, qa = 2q
| F |= − e | v × B|= − evB sin θ
 2 π( 4 m )  2 πm  T 1
As q = 0, | F |= − evB sin θ = 0 \ Tα = = 2 = 2Tp or p =
B( 2q)  Bq  Tα 2
Hence the electron will continue to move with a
uniform velocity along the axis of the solenoid. 28. (d) : Here, I1 = 2 A, I2 = 12 A
r = 100 mm = 0.1m, l = 2 m
23. (a) : Due to rotation of the loop through 45° about The force per unit length on small conductor due
the axis perpendicular to the plane of loop there to long conductor
will be no change in the angle between magnetic µ 2I I
 f = 0 12
moment M and magnetic field, therefore 4π r
q1 = 45° and q2 = 45° and Now total force on length l of small conductor
work done W = MB(cosq1 – cosq2) µ o 2 I 1I 2
= MB(cos45° – cos45°) = 0 F = f ×l= ×l
4π r
24. (b) : In the regular hexagon, if each arm length is 10 −7 × 2 × 2 × 12 × 2
a, then the number of turns in the given shape, = = 9.6 × 10 −5 N
0.1
18 a
N= =3 29. (b) : Here, M = 0.65 J T–1 and d = 8 cm = 0.08 m
6a
The field produced by magnet at axial point is
The area of given shape,
given by
3 3a2 µo 2M 2 × 0.65
A= B= = 10 −7 × = 2.5 × 10 −4 T along SN.
2 4π d 3
(0.08)3
Now magnetic moment M = NIA
3 3 2 9 3 Vo a
2
Vo 30. (b) : Total initial resistance = G + R
= 3×I × a = A m2 (∴ I = ) = 50 W + 2950 W = 3000 W
2 2 R R
3V
25. (c) : According to Biot Savart’s law, the magnetic Current , I = = 1 × 10 −3 A = 1 mA
field 3000 Ω
 µ q( v × r ) If the deflection has to be reduced to 20 divisions,
B= o. then current
4π r3
   1 mA 2
The direction of B will be along v × r , i.e. I′ = × 20 = mA
  30 3
perpendicular to the plane containing v and r . Let x be the effective resistance of the circuit,
26. (c) : From ampere circuital law, 2
 
 3 V = 3000 Ω × 1 mA = x Ω × mA
3
∫ B ⋅ dl = µ 0 Ienc 3
or x = 3000 × 1 × = 4500 Ω
B × 2pR = m0Ienc 2
µ 0 I enc 75 \ Resistance to be added = (4500 W – 50 W)
B= = 2 × 10 −7 × = 5 × 10 −6 T = 4450 W
2 πR 3
nn

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 59

Page 59
1. Two cars are moving in the same direction with a 6. A steel wire of length 20 cm and uniform cross-
speed of 30 km h–1. They are separated from each section 1 mm2 is tied rigidly at both the ends. The
other by 5 km. Third car moving in the opposite temperature of the wire is altered from 40°C to
direction meats the two cars after an interval of 20°C. Coefficient of linear expansion of steel is
4 min. What is the speed of the third car? a = 1.1 × 10–5 °C–1 and Y for steel is 2.0 × 1011 N m–2,
(a) 30 km h–1 (b) 35 km h–1 the tension in the wire is
(c) 40 km h–1 (d) 45 km h–1 (a) 2.2 × 106 N (b) 16 N
2. A 24 kg block resting on a floor has a rope tied (c) 8 × 106 N (d) 44 N
to its top. The maximum tension, the rope 7. A cylindrical vessel is filled with equal amounts
can withstand without breaking is 310 N. The by weights of mercury and water. The total height
minimum time in which the block can be lifted a of the two layers is 29.2 cm. The pressure of the
vertical distance of 4.6 m by pulling on the rope is liquid at the bottom of the vessel is (Given, specific
(a) 1.2 s (b) 2.9 s gravity of mercury is 13.6)
(c) 1.7 s (d) 2.3 s (a) 8 cm of Hg (b) 6 cm of Hg
3. An object of mass m is tied to a string of length (c) 4 cm of Hg (d) 2 cm of Hg.
L and a variable horizontal force is applied on it 8. At what temperature, the average kinetic energy
which starts at zero and gradually increases until of translatory motion of a gas molecule will be
the string makes an angle q with the vertical. equal to that of an electron accelerated through
Work done by the force F is a potentialdifference of 10 V? (Take Boltzmann
O
constant k = 1.38 × 10–23 J K–1)
 (a) 2.42 × 103 K (b) 7.73 × 103 K
(c) 2.42 × 10 K
4
(d) 7.73 × 104 K
L
9. An electric charge 10–3 mC is placed at the origin (0, 0)
C F of X - Y co-ordinate system. Two points A and B
B are situated at ( 2 , 2 ) and (2, 0) respectively.
A
The potential difference between the points A and
(a) mgL (1 – sinq) (b) mgL B will be
(c) mgL (1 – cosq) (d) mgL (1 + cos q)
(a) 4.5 V (b) 9 V (c) zero (d) 2 V
4. A ball falls freely from a height of 45 m. When
the ball is at a height of 25 m, it explodes into two 10. A potential difference of 220 V is B
equal pieces. One of them moves horizontally maintained across a 12000 W
with a speed of 10 m s–1. The distance between the rheostat AB as shown in figure.
two pieces when both strike the ground is The voltmeter V has a resistance 220 V
(a) 10 m (b) 20 m (c) 15 m (d) 30 m of 6000 W and point C is at one
C
fourth of the distance from A V
5. The ratio of energy required to raise a satellite to a to B. What is the reading in the A
height h above the earth’s surface to that required voltmeter ?
to put it into the orbit is (a) 32 V (b) 36 V
(a) h : R (b) h : 2R (c) 2h : R (d) R : h (c) 40 V (d) 42 V

60 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14

Page 60
11. A straight horizontal conducting rod of length (a) convex mirror of focal length 10 cm
50 cm and mass 50 g is suspended by two vertical (b) concave mirror of focal length 40 cm
wires at its ends. A current of 5.0 A is set up in (c) concav mirror of focal length 60 cm
the rod through the wires. What magnetic field (d) concave mirror of focal length 10 cm
should be set up normal to the conductor in order
18. The weight based ratio of U238 and Pb226 in a
that the tension in the wires is zero?
sample of rock is 4 : 3. If the half life of U238 is
(Take g = 10 m s–2)
4.5 × 109 years, then the age of rock is
(a) 0.05 T (b) 0.1 T
(a) 9.0 × 109 years (b) 6.3 × 109 years
(c) 0.2 T (d) 0.5 T
(c) 4.5 × 109 years (d) 3.78 × 109 years
12. A man of mass m squatting on the ground gets
19. A bottle weighing 220 g and of area of cross-
straight up and stands. The force of reaction of
section 50 cm2 and height 4 cm oscillates on the
ground on the man during the process is
surface of water in vertical position. Its frequency
(a) constant and equal to mg in magnitude
of oscillation is
(b) constant and greater than mg in magnitude
(a) 1.5 Hz (b) 2.5 Hz (c) 3.5 Hz (d) 4.5 Hz
(c) variable but always greater than mg
(d) at first greater than mg, and later becomes 20. Astring of density 7.5 g cm–3 and area of cross-section
equal to mg. 0.2 mm2 is stretched under a tension of 20 N.
When it is plucked at the midpoint, the speed of
13. A uniform rod of length l and mass m is swinging
freely about a horizontal axis passing through its the transverse wave on the wire is
end. Its maximum angular speed is w. Its centre of (a) 116 m s–1 (b) 40 m s–1
mass rises to a maximum height of (c) 200 m s –1
(d) 80 m s–1

1 l 2ω2 1 lω 21. A parallel plate capacitor with air between the


(a) (b) plates has a capacitance of 9 pF. The separation
3 g 6 g
between the plates is d. The space between the
1 l 2ω2 1 l 2ω2
(c) (d) plates is now filled with two dielectrics. One of
2 g 6 g
the dielectrics has dielectric constant K1 = 3 and
14. A magnet is suspended lengthwise from a spring thickness d/3 while the other one has dielectric
and while it oscillates, the magnet moves in and constant K2 = 6 and thickness 2d/3. Capacitance of
out of the coil C connected to a galvanometer G. the capacitor is now
Then as the magnet oscillates, (a) 20.25 pF (b) 1.8 pF
(a) G shows no deflection (c) 45 pF (d) 40.5 pF
(b) G shows deflection on one side
(c) deflection of G to the left and right has 22. In the circuit shown, the value of
constant amplitude
(d) deflection of G to the left and right has
decreasing amplitude.
15. A 16 mF capacitor is charged to a 20 V potential.
The battery is then disconnected and a pure
40 mH coil is connected across the capacitor so (a) R = 15 W (b) R = 30 W
that LC oscillations are set up. The maximum (c) e = 36 V (d) e = 180 V
current in the coil is 23. Two resistances are connected in two gaps of
(a) 0.2 A (b) 40 mA a metrebridge. The balance point is 20 cm from
(c) 2 A (d) 0.4 A the zero end. A resistance of 15 W is connected in
16. In Young’s double slit expt., the distance between series with the smaller of the two. The null point
two sources is 0.1 mm. The distance of the screen shifts to 40 cm. The value of the smaller resistance
from the source is 20 cm. Wavelength of light in ohms is
used is 5460 Å. The angular position of the first (a) 3 (b) 6
dark fringe is (c) 9 (d) 12
(a) 0.08° (b) 0.16° (c) 0.20° (d) 0.32° 24. A circular loop of a wire and a long straight wire
17. A concave lens of focal length 20 cm placed in carry currents Ic and Il respectively as shown in
contact with a plane mirror acts as a figure. Assuming that these are palced in the

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14 61

Page 61
same plane, the magnetic field will be zero at the 30. Two spherical conductors A and B of radii
centre O of the loop, when separation H is 1 mm and 2 mm are separated by a distance of
IR 5 cm and are uniformly charged. If the spheres
(a) l R are connected by a conducting wire, then in
Ic π
Ic equilibrium condition, the ratio of the magnitude
Ic R O
of the electric fields at the surfaces of spheres
(b)
Il π A and B is
H
Ic π (a) 4 : 1 (b) 1 : 2 (c) 2 : 1 (d) 1 : 4
(c)
Il R 31. In the circuit shown in figure, the potential
difference across 3 W is
Il π Il 6
(d) 2
Ic R 2A

25. Two masses of 10 kg and 20 kg respectively are 3


tied together by a massless spring. A force of
200 N is applied on a 20 kg mass as shown in 4
figure. At the instant shown, the acceleration of
10 kg mass is 12 m s–2, the acceleration of 20 kg (a) 2 V (b) 4 V (c) 8 V (d) 16 V
mass is 32. A thin disc having radius r and charge q distributed
uniformly over the disc is rotated n rotations per
second about its axis. The magnetic field at the
10 kg 20 kg 200 N
centre of the disc is
µ0qn µ0qn
(a) (b)
(a) 0 (b) 10 m s–2 2r r
(c) 4 m s–2 (d) 12 m s–2. 3µ0qn 3µ0qn
(c) (d)
26. The mass of the earth is increasing at the rate of r 4r
1 part in 5 × 1019 per day by the attraction of 33. A square loop of side a
meteors falling normally on the earth’s surface. placed in the same plane as
a
Assuming that the density of earth is uniform, a long straight wire carrying I v
a current I. The centre of the 1
the rate of change of the period of rotation of the
earth is loop is at a distance r from r
(a) 2.0 × 10–20 (b) 2.66 × 10–19 the wire, where r >> a,
(c) 4.33 × 10 –18
(d) 5.66 × 10–17 figure. The loop is moved away from the wire
with a constant velocity v. The induced emf in the
27. The twisting couple per unit twist for a solid loop is
cylinder of radius 3 cm is 0.1 N m. The twisting
couple per unit twist, for a hollow cylinder of µ0 Iav µ0 Ia 3 v µ0 Iv µ0 Ia 2 v
(a) (b) (c) (d)
same material with outer and inner radius 5 cm 2 πr 2 πr 3 2π 2 πr 2
and 4 cm respectively will be 34. The focal length of a biconvex lens of refractive
(a) 0.1 N m (b) 0.455 N m index 1.5 is 0.06 m. Radius of curvatures are in
(c) 0.91 N m (d) 1.82 N m the ratio 1 : 2. Then radii of curvatures of two lens
surface are
28. A body takes 10 minutes to cool from 60°C to
(a) 0.045 m, 0.09 m (b) 0.09 m, 0.18 m
50°C. If the temperature of surroundings is 25°C,
(c) 0.04 m, 0.08 m (d) 0.06 m, 0.12 m
then temperature of body after next 10 minutes
will be 35. The diode used in the circuit shown in figure has a
(a) 48°C (b) 46°C constant voltage drop at 0.5 V at all currents and a
(c) 40°C (d) 42.85°C maximum power rating of 100 mW. What should
be the value of the resistor R, connected in series
29. When a gas filled in a closed vessel is heated with diode, for obtaining maximum current?
through 1°C, its pressure increases by 0.4%. The (a) 6.76 W R 0.5 V
initial temperature of the gas was (b) 20 W
(a) 250 K (b) 2500 K (c) 5 W 1.5 V
(c) 250°C (d) 25°C (d) 5.6 W

62 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14

Page 62
36. The wavelength of the first line of Lyman series 43. A cubical room is formed with six plane mirrors.
for hydrogen atom is equal to that of the second An insect moves along the diagonal of the floor
line of Balmer series for a hydrogen like ion. The with uniform speed. The velocities of its images
atomic number Z of hydrogen like ion is in two adjacent walls are 20 2 cm s −1 , then the
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 1 velocity of the image formed by the roof is
37. Light from a hydrogen discharge tube is incident (a) 10 2 cm s −1 (b) 20 cm s–1
on the cathode of a photoelectric cell. The work (c) 20 2 cm s −1 (d) 40 cm s–1
function of the cathode surface is 4.2 eV. In order
44. A bullet is fired from a gun. The force on the
to reduce the photocurrent to zero, the voltage of
bullet is given by F = 600 – 2 × 105 t, where F is in
the anode relative to the cathode must be made
newton and t is in seconds. The force on the bullet
(a) – 4.2 V (b) – 9.4 V
becomes zero as soon as it leaves the barrel. What
(c) – 17.8 V (d) + 9.4 V
is the average impulse imparted to the bullet?
38. The size of the image of an object, which is at (a) 9 N s (b) zero
infinity, as formed by a convex lens of focal length (c) 0.9 N s (d) 1.8 N s
30 cm is 2 cm. If a concave lens of focal length
45. An object of mass 5 kg falls from rest through a
20 cm is placed between the convex lens and the
vertical distance of 20 m and acquires a velocity of
image at a distance of 26 cm from the convex lens,
10 m s–1. The work done by the push of air on the
then the new size of the image is
object is (g = 10 m s–2)
(a) 1.25 cm (b) 2.5 cm
(a) 250 J (b) – 500 J
(c) 1.05 cm (d) 2 cm
(c) 750 J (d) – 750 J
39. Two point white dots are 1 mm apart on a black
SOLUTIONS
paper. They are viewed by an eye of pupil diameter
3 mm. Approximately, what is the maximum 1. (d) : Let speed of the third car be v km h–1.
distance at which these dots can be resolved by Then, relative speed of third car with respect to
the eye? (Take wavelength of light = 500 nm) two cars = (v + 30) km h–1
(a) 5 m (b) 1 m (c) 6 m (d) 3 m Two cars are separated by 5 km and third car
crosses them in 4 min.
40. The Earth is assumed to be a sphere of radius R.
A plateform is arranged at a height R from the 5 × 60
\ v + 30 = = 75
surface of the Earth. The escape velocity of a body 4
from the plateform is fv, where v is the escape ⇒ v = 75 – 30 = 45 km h–1
velocity from the surface of the Earth. The value 2. (c) : Effective upward force, F = T – mg
of f is = 310 – 24 × 9.8 = 74.8 N
(a) 1/2 (b) 2 \ upward acceleration, a = F/m
(c) 1 / 2 (d) 1/3 a = 74.8/24 = 3.12 m s–2
1 T
41. In a capillary tube experiment, a vertical 30 cm As s = ut + at 2
2
long capillary tube is dipped in water. The water 1
rises upto a height of 10 cm due to capillary action. 4.6 = 0 + × 3.12 × t 2 a
2
If the experiment is conducted in a freely falling 4 . 6
or t 2 = = 2.95
elevator, the length of the water column becomes 1.56
(a) 10 cm (b) 20 cm mg
or t = 2.95 ≈ 1.7 s
(c) 30 cm (d) zero
3. (c) : W = DK or WT + Wg + WF = 0
42. A stone is lying in a fluid stream. The force acting
on it depends on the density of the fluid, the
L cos   L
velocity of flow and the maximum area of cross-
section perpendicular to the direction of flow. The L
force F and the velocity v of flow are related as
h
1
(a) F ∝ (b) F ∝ v
v
1 Here, WT = work done by tension = 0
(c) F ∝ v2 (d) F ∝
v2 Wg = work done by force of gravity

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14 63

Page 63
= – mgh = – mgL (1 – cosq) Total pressure exerted by mercury and water on
\ WF = – Wg = mgL (1 – cosq) the bottom of vessel
4. (b) : Let at the time of explosion, velocity of one = h1 × 13.6 × g + h2 × 1 × g
= 2 × 13.6 × 980 + 27.2 × 1 × 980 dyne
piece of mass m/2 is (10i) . If velocity of other
 27.2
be v2 , then from conservation of momentum =2+ = 2 + 2 = 4 cm of Hg
(since there is no force in horizontal direction), 13.6
 8. (d) : Mean translational K.E. per molecule of a gas
horizontal component of v , must be −10i .
2 3
\ relative velocity of two parts in horizontal = kT
2
direction = 20 m s–1. Kinetic energy an of electron when accelerated
Time taken by ball to fall through 45 m, through a potential difference, V = eV
2h 2 × 45 3
t= = =3s \ eV = kT
g 10 2
and time taken by ball to fall through first 20 m, 2 eV 2 × (1.6 × 10 −19 ) × 10
T= = = 7.73 × 104 K
2 h′ 2 × 20 3k 3 × 1.38 × 10 −23
t′ = = = 2 s.
g 10
Hence time taken by ball pieces to fall from 25 m 9. (c) : r = 2 i^ + 2 j^
1
height to ground = t – t′ = 3 – 2 = 1 s.

( 2) + ( 2)
2 2
\ horizontal distance between the two pieces at | r1 |= r1 = =2
the time of striking on ground = 20 × 1 = 20 m.
 ^ ^
5. (c) : Energy required to raise a satellite to a height r2 = 2 i + 0 j
h (i.e. at distance r (= R + h) from the centre of 
| r2 | = r2 = 2
earth) is
Potential at point A,
GM m  GM m 
E1 = − −−  1 q
r  R  VA =
4 πε0 r1
GMm(r − R) GMmh
= =
rR Rr 1 10 −3 × 10 −6
=
Energy spent in putting the satellite in orbit is 4 πε 0 2
1 1 GM  GM  Potential at point B,
E2 = mvo2 = m  vo = 
2 2 r  r  1 q 1 10 −3 × 10 −6
VB = =
E1 2 h 4 πε 0 r2 4 πε 0 2
\ =
E2 R
\ VA – VB = 0.
6. (d) : Increase in length due to rise in temperature,
10. (c) : In case of linear rheostat, resistance R ∝ length L
DL = a L DT RAC AC B
FL YA ∆L \ =
As, Y = , so F = RAB AB
A ∆L L
YA × αL ∆T Here, RAB = 12000 W
= = YA α ∆T 220 V
1
L and AC = AB C
4
\ F = 2 × 1011 × 10–6 × 1.1 × 10–5 × 20 = 44 N 1 V
\ RAC = 12000 × = 3000 W
7. (c) : Let h1, h2 be the height of mercury and water 4 A
layers in the vessel. Let A be the area of cross- As the resistance RAC (= 3000 W) is in parallel with
section of the vessel. Since their weights are equal, voltmeter of resistance of 6000 W. Therefore, the
so effective resistance between points A and C will
(A × h1) × 13.6 × g = (A × h2) × 1 × g be
or h2 = 13.6 h1 3000 × 6000
′ =
RAC = 2000 Ω
Given, h1 + h2 = 29.2 cm ( 3000 + 6000)
or h1 + 13.6 h1 = 29.2 Resistance between points B and C
or h1 = 2 cm
RBC = RAB − RAC = 12000 Ω − 3000 Ω = 9000 Ω
\ h2 = 13.6 × 2 = 27.2 cm

64 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14

Page 64
′ are in series. Therefore, the voltmeter
RBC and R AC 16. (b) : For first dark fringe (n = 1)
reading will be λD λD
x = ( 2n − 1) =
′ VAB
RAC 2000 2 d 2 d
VAC = = × 220 = 40 V x λ
( RBC + RAC
′ ) (9000 + 2000) Angular position, θ = =
D 2d
11. (c) : Here, l = 50 cm = 50 × 10–2 m 5460 × 10 −10
= radian
m = 50 g = 50 × 10–3 kg, I = 5.0 A 2 × 10 −4
Tension in the wires is zero, if the force on the rod 180
due to magnetic field is equal and opposite to the = 2730 × 10 −6 × degree = 0.16°
π
weight of the rod.
i.e., mg = BIl 1 2 1
17. (a) : As, = +
mg F fe fm
B =
Il For a plane mirror fm = ∞
Substituting the given values, we get f 20
\ F= e = = 10 cm
50 × 10 −3 × 10 2 2
B = = 0.2 T Hence arrangement behaves as a convex mirror of
5 × 50 × 10 −2
focal length 10 cm.
12. (d) : In the process of getting straight up and stand
from squatting position, the man exerts a variable 18. (d) : Let initial no. of U atoms = N0
force (F) on the ground to set his body in motion. After time t (age of rock), let no. of atoms
This force is in addition to the force required remaining undecayed = N.
to support his weight (mg). Once the man is in No. of atoms converted into lead = N0 – N
standing position, F becomes zero. 238 N 4 N
\ = ⇒ 0 = 1.79
226( N0 − N ) 3 N
13. (d) : When the centre of mass of the rod rises
through h, increase in PE = mgh. T log N0 /N
Now, t =
1 2 1  ml 2  2 log 2
Kinetic energy of the rod = I ω =  ω
2 2  3  4.5 × 109 × log 1.79
= = 3.78 × 109 years
 ml 2  2 1 l 2ω2 0.301
Thus, mgh =   ω or h =
 6  6 g 19. (b) : Let h be the depth of bottle in water then
 
m 200
14. (d) : As a given pole (N or S) of suspended magnet A h r g = mg or h = = = 4 cm
goes into the coil and comes out of it, current is Aρ 50 × 1
induced in the coil in two opposite directions. h 1 1 g
Now, T = 2π or υ = =
Therefore, galvanometer deflection goes to left g T 2π h
and right both. As amplitude of oscillation of
magnet goes on decreasing, so does the amplitude 7 980
= = 2.5 Hz
of deflection. 2 × 22 4
1 20. (a) : Given T = 20 N,
15. (d) : Energy stored in capacitor = CV 2
2 A = 0.2 mm2 = 0.2 × 10–6 m2
1 r = 7.5 g cm–3 = 7.5 × 103 kg m–3
= × 16 × 10 −6 × 20 2 = 3.2 × 10 −3 J Mass per unit length of the wire,
2
Energy supplied to inductor = 3.2 × 10–3 J m = Ar = 0.2 × 10–6 × 7.5 × 103 = 1.5 × 10–3 kg m–1
1 2 When a string is plucked at the midpoint it
\ LI = 3.2 × 10–3
2 vibrates with fundamental frequency.
Fundamental frequency of the stretched string is
1
or × ( 40 × 10 −3 )I 2 = 3.2 × 10 −3 1 T 1 20
2 υ= =
2 L µ 2 L 1.5 × 10 −3
2 × 3.2
⇒ I2 = Speed of transverse wave, v = u(2L)
40
4 1 20
⇒ I= = 0.4 A ∴ v= × 2 L  116 m s −1
10 2 L 1.5 × 10−3

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14 65

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 
ε A Since B1 and B2 act in opposite direction, for
21. (d) : Here, C = 0 = 9 pF
d resultant magnetic field to be zero, B1 = B2 where,
ε0 K1 A 3K1ε0 A IR
Now, C1 = = H= l .
d/ 3 d Ic π
= 3 × 3 × 9 = 81 pF 25. (c) : Force on 10 kg block = m a = 10 × 12 = 120 N.
ε K A 3K 2 ε0 A Total force applied = 200 N
C2 = 0 2 = Force acting on 20 kg block = 200 – 120 = 80 N
2d / 3 2 d
\ acceleration of 20 kg block = 80/20 = 4 m s–2.
3×6
= × 9 = 81 pF
2 26. (a) : As angular momentum is conserved in the
As C1, C2 are connected in series, absence of a torque, therefore
1 1 1 1 1 2 I0w0 = Iw
\ = + = + =
Cs C1 C2 81 81 81 2 2   2π 
2 2 2 MR
2 

 MR    =  MR + 
81 5   T0   5 5 5 × 1019  T
⇒ Cs = = 40.5 pF
2
T 1
= 1+
22. (d) : T0 5 × 1019
T 1
−1= = 2 × 10 −20
T0 5 × 1019

Current through R2 is (2.25 – 1.5) A = 0.75 A T − T0 ∆T


= 2 × 10 −20 or = 2 × 10 −20
Voltage across 30 W = 1.5 × 30 = 45 V T0 T0
As R2 and 30 W are in parallel
27. (b) : Twisting couple per unit twist for solid
\ Voltage across, R2 = 45 V
cylinder,
45 V
∴ R2 = πηR4
0.75 A τ1 = ...(i)
2l
R2 = 60 W 4
πη(r2 − r1 )4
Also, R1 = 60 W (... R1 = R2 (Given)) for hollow cylinder, τ2 =
2l
Voltage across, R1 = 2.25 × 60 W = 135 V r24 − r14 0.1 × ( 54 − 4 4 ) 36.9
\ e = (135 + 45)V = 180 V \ τ2 = τ1 = using (i), =
R4 34 81
l R
23. (c) : (i) As = , r24 − r14 0.1 × ( 54 − 4 4 ) 36.9
100 − l S τ2 = τ1 = =
4
R 34 81
R 20 1
\ = = , = 0.455 N m
S 100 − 20 4
which means R < S 28. (d) : According to Newton’s law of cooling,
l′ R + 15 T1 − T2 T + T 
(ii) As = , = K  1 2 − T0 
100 − l′ S t  2 
40 R + 15 2 60 − 50  60 + 50 
\ = = ...(i)
100 − 40 S 3 \ = K − 25 
10  2 
R 15 2 1 15 2 Let T be the temperature after another 10 minutes
or + = or + = ⇒ S = 36 W
S S 3 4 S 3 50 − T  T + 50 
\ = K − 25  ...(ii)
S 10 2
\ R= =9 Ω  
4 Dividing (i) by (ii), we get
24. (a) : For the point O, 10 30 × 2 \ T = 42.85°C
µ I  =
B1 =  0 c  (due to circular loop) 50 − T T
 2 R ⊗ 29. (a) : P1 = P and T1 = T,
µ I  0.4
B2 =  0 l  (due to long straight wire) P2 = P + P = 1.004 P , T2 = (T + 1)
 2 πH ⊗ 100

66 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14

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P2 T2 µ0 I
As = B=
P1 T1 2 πr
As area of loop, A = a2
\ 1.004 P T + 1 1
= = 1+ and magnetic flux f = BA
P T T
µ Ia 2
1 \ φ= 0
or T= = 250 K 2 πr
0.004
The induced emf in the loop is
r1 1 mm 1
30. (c) : Here, = = . When the spheres dφ d µ0 Ia
2
r2 2 mm 2 e= =
are connected by a conducting wire, then the dt dt 2 πr
potentials on both conductors are same µ0 Ia 2 dr µ0 Ia 2 v
i.e., V1 = V2 , e= =
2 πr 2 dt 2 πr 2
q1 q2 q r 1
\ = ⇒ 1 = 1 = dr
4 πε0r1 4 πε0r2 q2 r2 2 where, v = is velocity.
dt
2 2
Now, E1 = q1 ⋅  r2  = 1 ×  2  = 2 : 1 1  1 1 
  34. (a) : As, = (µ − 1)  − 
E2 q2  r1  2 1 f  R1 R2 
31. (a) : Net resistance of 6 W, 3 W and 2 W is 1  1 1 
\ = (1.5 − 1)  + 
6×3
R= +2=4Ω 0.06  R1 R2 
6+3
As resistance of arms in parallel are same, hence (Taking R1 positive and R2 negative)
current in upper arm, I = 1 A 1 1 1 100
or + = =
At junction, I = I1 + I2 ...(i) R1 R2 0.06 × 0.5 3
Potential difference across 6 W and 3 W = 6I1 = 3I2
R1 1 or R = 2R
or I2 = 2I1 ...(ii) According to question, = 2 1
Solving eqns. (i) and (ii), we get, R2 2
3 100
2 1 \ =
I 2 = A , I1 = A 2 R1 3
3 3
2 9
Potential difference across 3 Ω = A × 3 Ω = 2 V R1 = = 0.045 m
3 200
32. (b) : Consider a hypothetical ring of radius x and
R2 = 2R1 = 2 × 0.045 m = 0.09 m
thickness dx of a disc as shown in figure.
Charge on the ring, VD2 (0.5 V)2
q 35. (c) : RD = = = 2.5 Ω ,
dq = × ( 2 πxdx) PD 0.1 W
πr 2 x dx
O
Current due to rotation of charge r VD
ID = = 0.2 A
on ring is RD
dq dq nq 2 xdx Total resistance required in the circuit,
dI = = = ndq =
T 1/n r2 V 1.5 V
Req = = = 7.5 Ω
Magnetic field at the centre O due to current on I D 0.2 A
ring element is Resistance of the series resistor,
µ dI µ nq 2 xdx µ0nqdx R = Req – RD
dB = 0 = 0 =
2x r 2 ( 2 x) r2 = 7.5 W – 2.5 W = 5 W
Total magnetic field induction due to current on 36. (a) : For first line of Lyman series of hydrogen
whole disc is atom,
µ nq r µ nq µ nq
B = 0 ∫ dx = 0 ( x)r0 = 0 1  1 1  3R
r2 0 r2 r = R −  =
2
λ1 1 22  4
33. (d) : Magnetic field intensity at a distance r from
For second line of Balmer series for a hydrogen-
the straight wire carrying current I is
like ion,

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14 67

Page 67
41. (c) : In a freely falling elevator, g = 0.
1  1 1  3R
= Z2 R  −  = Z2 2T cos θ
λ2  22 42  16 As h = , so, h = ∞
rρg
Since l1 = l2
In such a case, the radius of the meniscus will
 3  3 adjust itself in such a way that there would be no
Z 2 R   = R   or Z2 = 4, ⇒ Z = 2
 16  4 overflowing of water. At this stage, the length of
the water column becomes equal to the length of
37. (b) : Work function of the cathode surface,
the tube, i.e., 30 cm.
f0 = 4.2 eV
Energy of the photon emitted by hydrogen 42. (c) : Let F ∝ da vb ac
discharge tube, or F = K da vb ac where K is dimensionless constant.
hu = 13.6 eV [MLT–2] = [ML–3)a (LT–1)b(L2)c
As eV0 = hu – f0 = 13.6 eV – 4.2 eV = 9.4 eV, = MaL– 3a + b + 2c T–b
\ V0 = 9.4 V Equating the power of M, L and T, we get
In order to reduce photocurrent to zero, anode \ a = 1, –3a + b + 2c = 1, – b = –2
must be held negative relative to the cathode. Solving, we get
Hence, V0 = – 9.4 V a = 1, b = 2, c = 1
\ F ∝ v2
38. (b) : Image formed by convex lens acts as a virtual
object for concave lens, where u = (30 cm – 26 cm) 43. (b) : Velocity of the insect along the diagonal
= 4 cm. = v cos 45° = 20 2 cos 45°
For concave lens, f = – 20 cm
= 20 2 × 1/ 2 = 20 cm/s
1 1 1 Therefore, the velocity of the image on the roof
From = − ,
f v u = 20 cm/s
v = 5 cm
Magnification, m = v/u = 1.25 As F = 600 – 2 × 105t
44. (c) :
I \ At t = 0, F = 600 N
Also m = , I = m × O = 1.25 × 2 cm As F = 0, on leaving the barrel,
O
= 2.5 cm \ 0 = 600 – 2 × 105t
600
1.22λ t= = 3 × 10 −3 s
39. (a) : Limit of resolution, dθ = 2 × 10 5
D
d This is the time spent by the bullet in the barrel.
Also, dθ = where d is the distance between the
y 600 + 0
two dots and y is their distance from the eye. Average force = = 300 N.
2
Dd \ Average impulse imparted = F × t
Thus, y =
1.22λ = 300 × 3 × 10–3 = 0.9 N s
Here, D = 3 mm = 3 × 10–3 m 45. (d) : If P is upward push of air, then resultant force
d = 1 mm = 10–3 m on the body = (mg – P)
l = 500 mm = 500 × 10–9 m From work energy theorem,
Dd 3 × 10 −3 × 10 −3 1
F × s = mv 2
\ y= = =5m
1.22λ 500 × 10 −9 × 1.22 2
1
40. (c) : Applying the law of conservation of energy, ( mg − P ) × s = mv 2
PE + KE = 0. 2
1
GM m 1 ( 50 − P ) × 20 = × 5 × 10 2 = 250
\ − + m( fv)2 = 0 2
( R + R) 2
P = 50 – 12.5 = 37.5 N
GM v \ Work done by this push of air
or fv = = gR = ( v = 2 gR )
R 2 = Ps cos 180° = 37.5 × 20(–1) = – 750 J.
⇒ f = 1/ 2 nn

68 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14

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PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14 69

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Y U ASKED
suggests that the ball is to be considered the system.
A ball projected through the air is subject to the
gravitational force as an external force, so it is not

WE ANSWERED
an isolated system, and we would not expect its
momentum to be conserved. If we consider this in
a little more detail, the gravitational force is in the
Do you have a question that you just can’t get answered? vertical direction, so it is actually only the vertical
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the bottom component of the momentum that changes due to this
of the question. From the serious to the silly, the controversial force. In the horizontal direction, no force is exerted
to the trivial, the team will tackle the questions, easy and (ignoring air friction), so the horizontal component of
tough. the momentum is conserved.
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in this If we consider the baseball and the Earth as a system
column each month. of two particles, the gravitational force is an internal
force to this system. The momentum of the ball-Earth
Q1. Explain why, under static conditions, all points system is conserved. The downward force from the
on a conductor must be at the same electric potential. thrower’s feet as the ball is thrown gives the Earth
– Punit, Rajasthan an initial motion. As the ball rises and falls, the Earth
Ans. If two points on a conducting object were at initially sinks and then rises (although imperceptibly!),
different potentials, then free charges in the object due to the upward gravitational force from the ball,
would move, and we would not have static conditions, so that the total momentum of the system remains
in contradiction to the initial assumption. (Free unchanged.
positive charges would migrate from higher to lower Q5. How can the total energy of an atom be negative?
potential locations; free electrons would move rapidly For that matter, how can any energy be negative?
from lower to higher potential locations.) The charges – Soumya Das, W.B.
would continue to move until the potential became Ans. The way the total energy of an atom, and in fact
equal everywhere in the conductor. other energies, can be negative is through an arbitrary
Q2. Does a wire connected to a battery emit an choice of the zero point for potential energies. The
electromagnetic wave? electrostatic potential energy between charged
– Gaurav Sharma, Delhi particles is arbitrarily chosen to be zero when the
Ans. No. The wire will emit electromagnetic waves particles are separated by an infinite distance. When
only if the current varies in time. The radiation is the two particles having opposite signs, such as the
result of accelerating charges, which can only occur electron and proton in a hydrogen atom, are a finite
when the current is not constant. distance apart, the potential energy is less than zero, or
Q3. When looking outdoors through a glass window negative. If they are sufficiently close, the magnitude of
at night, you sometimes see a double image of yourself. the negative potential energy may exceed the positive
Why? kinetic energy, making the total energy negative.
– Manish, Punjab
Q6. You set up two oscillating systems, a simple
Ans. Reflection occurs whenever there is an interface pendulum and a block hanging from a vertical spring.
between two different media. For the glass in the You carefully adjust the length of the pendulum so
window, there are two such surfaces. The first is the that both oscillators have the same period. You now
inner surface of the glass, and the second is the outer take the two oscillators to the Moon. Will they still
surface of the glass. Each of these interfaces results in have the same period as each other? What happens
an image. if you observe the two oscillators in an orbiting space
Q4. A baseball is projected into the air at an shuttle?
upward angle to the ground. As it moves through its – Santosh, Bihar
trajectory, its velocity and therefore its momentum Ans. The block hanging from the spring will have
constantly change. Is this a violation of conservation the same period on the Moon that it had on the Earth
of momentum? because the period depends on the mass of the block
– Rashmi, Bangalore and the force constant of the spring, neither of which
Ans. The principle of conservation of momentum have changed. The period of the pendulum on the
states that the momentum of an isolated system of Moon will be different from its period on the Earth
particles is conserved. The statement of the question because the period of the pendulum depends on the

70 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14

Page 70
value of g. Because g is smaller on the Moon than on that the wire has the shape of a very long cone. How
the Earth, the pendulum will oscillate with a longer does the drift speed of electrons vary along the wire?
period. – Sachin, Chennai
In the orbiting space shuttle, the block-spring system Ans. Every portion of the wire is carrying the same
will oscillate with the same period as on the Earth amount of current—otherwise, charge would build
when it is set into motion, because the period does not up or disappear somewhere along the wire. Thus
depend on gravity. The pendulum will not oscillate at
for equation I = ∆Q = nqvdA to be satisfied, as the
all. If you pull it to the side from a direction you define ∆t
as “vertical” and release it, it stays there. Because the cross-sectional area decreases, the drift speed must
shuttle is in free-fall while in orbit around the Earth,
the effective gravity is zero, and there is no restoring increase to maintain the constant current. This
force on the pendulum. increased drift speed is a result of the electric field
lines in the wire being distributed over a smaller area,
Q7. If stereo speakers are connected to the amplifier
thus increasing the magnitude of the field, and, in
“out of phase,” one speaker is moving outward when
turn, increasing the electric force on the electrons.
the other is moving inward. This results in a weakness
in the bass notes, which can be corrected by reversing nn
the wires on one of the speaker connections. Why are
only the bass notes affected in this case, and not the
treble notes?
– Pulkit, Haryana
Ans. Imagine that you are sitting in front of the
speakers, midway between them. Then, the sound
from each speaker travels the same distance to you,  Diamonds can be made from graphite by applying a temperature
so the phase difference in the sound is not due to a of 3000°C and pressure as high as 100,000 atm.
path difference. Because the speakers are connected  50 times as much as all the water that is present in the rivers and
out of phase, the sound waves are half a wavelength lakes combined is present in the ground soil.
out of phase on leaving the speaker and consequently,  The amount of heat in the Earth’s entire atmosphere is equivalent
to the heat present in the first ten feet of the ocean.
on arriving at your ear. As a result, the sound for
all frequencies cancels, in the simplification model  One of the most amazing and interesting fact about Physics on
earth is “The Dead Sea”, which is known for its density due to
of a zero-size head located exactly on the midpoint
the presence of salt, as a result of which you can easily float on
between the speakers. If the ideal head were moved it without drowning, so one can always claim to be a swimmer
off the centerline, an additional phase difference is there.
introduced by the path length difference for the sound  The flashing lightning bolt is 3 times hotter compared to the sun,
from the two speakers. In the case of low-frequency, seems like the sun also has to face competition.
long-wavelength bass notes, the path length differences  A rubber band shrinks when heated and expands when cooled
are a small fraction of a wavelength, so significant because of the change in its Entropy state.
cancellation still occurs. For the high-frequency,  Due to the effect of Thermal Expansion, the Eiffel Tower is upto
short-wavelength treble notes, a small movement of 15 cm taller in summer.
the ideal head results in a much larger fraction of a  If an atom were the size of a stadium, its electrons would be as
wavelength in path length difference, or even multiple small as bees.
wavelengths. Thus, the treble notes could be in phase  Light does not age.
with this head movement. If we now add the fact that  At 25, Physicist Lawrence Bragg is the youngest person to receive
the head is not of zero size, and the fact that it has a Nobel Prize.
two ears, we can see that complete cancellation is  Atom is over 99.9% empty space.
not possible, and, with even small movements of the  The effect of relativity made Astronaut Sergel Avdeyev a fraction
head, one or both ears will be at or near maxima for of a second younger upon his return to Earth after 747 days in
the treble notes. The size of the head is much smaller space.
than bass wavelengths, however, so the bass notes are  The world’s densest wood, the Black Ironwood (Olea laurifolia),
significantly weakened over much of the region in does not float on water and therefore sinks.
front of the speakers.  The mass of our entire atmosphere is estimated to be some
5.5 quadrillion tons (55 followed by 14 zeros).
Q8. Suppose a current-carrying wire has a cross-sectional
 The diameter of a proton is approximately 0.000000000001 mm.
area that gradually becomes smaller along the wire, so

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14 71

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1. A train approaching a hill at a speed of 40 km h–1 Assuming sound to be
sounds a whistle of frequency 580 Hz when it is completely absorbed by
at a distance of 1 km from hill. A wind with speed the walls of the cylinder,
40 km h–1 is blowing in the direction of motion of find the mean energy of
the train. Find flow rate reaching the
(a) the frequency of the whistle as heard by an lateral curved surface of
observer on the hill, the cylinder.
(b) the distance from the hill at which the echo
4. A rope of mass m and length L is suspended
from the hill is heard by the driver and its
vertically. If a mass M is suspended from the
frequency.
bottom of the rope, find the time for a transverse
(Velocity of sound in air = 1200 km h–1)
wave to travel the length of rope.
2. A short wave radio receiver receives
5. A cylinder of mass M and
simultaneously two signals from a transmitter
radius R is kept on a rough
500 km away, one by a path along the surface of
horizontal platform at one
the earth and one by reflection from a portion
of the ionospheric layer situated at a height of extreme of the platform at
200 km. The layer acts as a perfect horizontal t = 0. Axis of the cylinder
reflector. When the frequency of the transmitted is parallel to y-axis. The
wave is 10 MHz, it is observed that the combined platform is oscillating in the
signal strength varies from maximum to minimum x-y plane and displacement from the origin
and back to maximum 8 times per minute. With is represented as x = 2cos(4pt) m. There is no
what slow slipping between the cylinder and the platform.
vertical speed is Find the acceleration of the centre of mass and the
the ionospheric cylinder as a function of time.
layer moving? 6. A bead is constrained to move on a
(Assume the smooth circular wire frame in the vertical
earth is flat plane. The frame rotates uniformly with
and ignore angular velocity about a vertical axis passing
atmospheric through its diameter. In the equilibrium
disturbances) position (relative to frame) the radius drawn
3. A point isotropic source with sonic power to the bead makes an angle f with the vertical.
P = 0.10 W is located at the centre of a round hollow Find the time period of small oscillations about
cylinder with radius R = 1 m and height h = 2 m. this position.
Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh

72 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

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SOLUTIONS Differentiating equation (i) with respect to time
( v ± vm ± v o ) gives
1. (a) u o = u s , −1/ 2
( v ± vm  v s ) d( ∆x )  2 dH
= 2H  H 2 + D  …(iii)
dt  4  dt
Using equation (iii) in equation (ii), we get
−1/ 2
2 uHv  2 D 2 
f = H + ,
c  
4 
The observer is at rest on the hill, i.e., vo = 0 dH
where = v is the vertical velocity of the layer.
The wind is blowing from source to observer and dt
source is moving towards the observer. 1/ 2
fc  2
 v + vm   1200 + 40  ⇒ v = H2 + D 
\ uo = us   = 580   2Hu  4 
 v + vm − v s  1200 + 40 − 40  8 –1
= 599.3 Hz Here, f = 8 minute–1 = s
60
(b) Let x be the distance from the hill at which C = 3 × 10 m s , H = 200 km = 2 × 105 m
8 –1
echo is heard by the train driver. u = 10 MHz = 107 Hz, D = 500 km = 5 × 105 m
The distance travelled by the train is (1 – x). 1/ 2
(8 / 60)( 3 × 10 8 )  5 2
5 2 ( 5 × 10 )
1− x \ v= ( 2 × 10 ) + 
Time taken by train to travel = …(i) 2 × 2 × 10 5 × 10 7  4 
40
Also time taken by sound to move up to the hill v = 3.2 m s–1
and return back to the driver 3. Total power, P = P1 + P2 + P3
1 x As the end caps are placed symmetrically relative
= + …(ii)
1240 1160 to the source, P1 = P2.
Solving (i) and (ii), we get, Thus, P3 = P – (P1 + P2) = P – 2P1
1− x 1 x
= +
40 1240 1160
⇒ 1 − x =1 + x
31 29
29
\ x= km
31
From figure, power flow through ring
When the reflected sound wave travels back to
P
the driver, the wavefronts are moving against the P1 = × [2p(1 – cosq)]
wind. The train driver is listener in motion, thus 4p
the frequency heard by listener, P P h/2 
= (1 − cos q) = 1 − 2 2

 v − vm + v0   1200 − 40 + 40  2 2  ( h / 2) + R 
uo = us   = 599.3  
 v − v m  1200 − 40  P h 
= 1 − 
= 620 Hz 2 2 2
h + 4R 
⇒ uo = 620 Hz
P 1 − h  Ph
2. The path difference between direct path on earth’s P−2×
\ P3 =  =
surface D and height of ionospheric layer H is 2 2 2
h + 4R  h + 4R 2
2

given by 0.1 × 2
1/ 2 =
 2
…(i) ( 2)2 + 4(1)2
∆x = 2  H 2 + D  − D
 4 
⇒ P3 = 0.07 W
The frequency of observed fluctuation is
1 d( ∆x ) u d( ∆x ) 4. Due to the mass of the string, the tension in the
= f = …(ii) string is variable.
λ dt c dt
\ wave velocity is variable.
where u is frequency of radiation and c is the
Consider a point at a distance x from O.
speed of light.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 73

Page 73
Tension at A, and acceleration of centre of mass of the cylinder
 m  64 2
TA =  M + x  g relative to platform aCM = p cos( 4 pt) m s −2
 L  3
Acceleration of centre of mass of the cylinder
relative to ground
 64 
= aCM – a =  − 32  p 2 cos ( 4 pt ) m s −2
 3 
−32 2
= p cos ( 4 pt ) m s −2
3
m
where is the mass per unit length of string. 6. Taking moment about centre O of the wire frame.
L
(mw2 r sinf) × r cosf = mg(r sinf)
Velocity of wave at point A,
⇒ w2r cosf = g …(i)
dx [ M + ( m / L ) x ]g If bead is further
v=
A =
dt (m / L) displaced through
L t an angle q, so that
dx L the angle of radius
\ ∫ =∫ dt
0 [ M + (m / L)x ] g 0
m with the vertical
L becomes (q + f).
 L  m  L Therefore restoring
⇒ 2   M + x=
 ×t
 m g  L 0 m tangential force is
L d2
or t = 2  M + m − M  mr (f + q) = −[mg sin(f + q) − mw 2r sin( f + q)cos(f + q)]
mg 
2
dt
d2
mr (f + q) = −[mg sin(f + q) − mw 2r sin( f + q)cos(f + q)]
L 2
When M = 0, t = 2 dt
g d 2q
or r + g sin f cos q + g cos f sin q
mL dt 2
For m << M, t = w 2r w 2r
Mg − sin 2f cos 2q − cos 2f sin 2q = 0
2 2
5. Given equation x = 2cos(4pt) can be equated with …(ii)
x = Acoswt, so w = 4p rad s–1 For small q, sinq ≈ q and cosq ≈ 1
a = –w2x = –32p2cos(4pt) m s–2 Hence,
Pseudo force acting on the cylinder = Ma
d 2q
r + ( g cos f − w 2r cos 2f)q + sin f( g − w 2r cos f) = 0
dt 2
…(iii)
From equation (i), g – w2r cosf = 0
⇒ g = w2rcosf
\ F = Ma = 32p2M cos(4pt). or, gcosf – w2rcos2f = w2rcos2f – w2rcos2f
If aCM = acceleration of center of mass of the = w2r cos2f – w2r[2cos2f – 1]
cylinder relative to plank, = w2r sin2f …(iv)
From Newton’s second law, From equation (ii) and (iv)
32p2 Mcos(4pt) – f = MaCM …(i)
d 2q
Taking moment about the centre of mass of the r + (w 2r sin 2 f) ⋅ q + 0 = 0
cylinder dt 2
1 2 d 2q  g sin 2 f  g sin 2 f
f ⋅R =  MR  a
2 …(ii) ⇒ 2
+  q = 0 gives w = r cos f
dt  r cos f 
For pure rolling, aCM = Ra …(iii)
Hence, solving above three equations, we get 2p r cos f
Hence, =
T = 2p
32 2 w g sin 2 f
Friction
= , f p ⋅ M cos( 4 pt) N
3 nn

74 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

Page 74
\ Total aceleration at extreme position ae = g sinq
At mean position
The velocity of the ball
SOLUTION SET-7
vm
= 2 gh
= 2 g (l − l cosq)
1. (d) : Let frame of reference be the one attached
to the sphere. With zero velocity of the particle and displacements of ball, h = (l – l cosq)
relative to sphere at point A and center of the 2
vm
sphere as the reference point for potential energy, The normal acceleration at this position, an =
l
the total mechanical energy of the system at A is
2 g (l − l cos q)
Ei = mgR = = 2 g (1 − cos q)
The total mechanical energy l
at the final position (point and tangential acceleration at = g sin q = gsin0 = 0
P) where the particle makes Thus total acceleration at mean position
an angle q with the vertical is am = 2g (1 – cos q)
1 According to given condition, we have
= Ef mv 2 + mgR cosq
2 T ae = am ⇒ g sin q = 2g (1 – cos q)
Since the reference frame attached to the sphere q q  q
⇒ 2 sin cos =2  2 sin 2 
accelerates, there is a pseudo force ma opposite to 2 2  2
the direction of a. The work done by this force is q 1  1
W = maRsinq = mgR sinq (  g = a) or tan = ⇒ q = 2 tan −1  
2 2  2
By the principle of conservation of mechanical
energy 4. (b) : Let q is the required angle. The velocity of the
W = DK + DU body at angular position q is
1 v2 = 0 + 2g (l cos q) ….. (i)
⇒ mgR sin q = mv 2 − mgR(1 − cos q) The normal acceleration of bob,
2 T 1
v2 2 gl cos q
⇒ vt =
[2 R( g sin q + g − g cos q) 2 an =
= = 2 g cos q
l l
2. (d) : As kinetic energy, K ∝ P2 And tangential acceleration of bob, at = g sinq
As the resultant acceleration is directed
Here the momentum (P) of the body is increased a
by 20% horizontally so tan q = n
at
20 6P
P=
′ P+ P= sin q 2g cos q
100 5 or =
2 cos q g sin q
6  36 2 36
\ K ′ = P′ 2 =  =P = P K or 2 cos2 q = sin2 q = (1 – cos2 q)
 5  25 25
1  1 
K′ − K 11 ⇒= cos 2 q = and q cos −1 
× 100 = × 100 =44.0 % 3  3 
K 25
5. (a) : The velocity of bob at its lowest position,
3. (b) : l
v 2= 0 + 2 g (l − l cos 60=
°) 2 g ×
2
or =v gl
= g×1 [ l =
1 m] ….. (i)

Let d is the distance of nail from the point of


suspension. The bob will have to complete the
Suppose q is the required angle. circle of radius r = 1 – d.
At extreme position the velocity of the ball is zero, For the bob to just perform the revolutions about
nail, the minimum speed at the lowest position
ve2
thus normal acceleration a=
n = 0, must be
l
and tangential acceleration at = g sinq. 5 gr
= 5 g (1 − d ) ...(ii)

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Page 75
Equating equations (i) and (ii), we get
0 v 2 − 2 g × 2l
or =
=g 5 g (1 − d )
⇒=v 4 gl 2 gl
=
4
⇒ d= = 0.80 m 8. (b,c,d)
5
d
9. (a,c,d) : t =
v cosq

d
tmin =
6. (b) : v

d
t=
v − u2
2

Let the particle loose the contact at point P. At 10. (a,b,c,d) : There is no acceleration in x-direction so
point P normal reaction by surface become zero. x component of velocity is constent.
If v is the velocity of the particle at P, then we Now the given equation of motion
have y = ax – bx2 ...(i)
v2 = 0 + 2gh The standard equation of projectile motion
gx 2
v = 2 gh =y (tan q)x − ...(ii)
or ….. (i) 2u cos 2 q
2

By Newton’s second law, we have


Comparing equations (i) and (ii), we get
mv 2 tanq = a ...(iii)
mg cosq − N =
R \ q = tan–1(a)
At P, N = 0, g g
and= or (u cos q)2
b=
mv 2
m( 2 gh) 2(u cos q)2 2b
\ mg cos q = = (using (i))
R R
g
2h u cos
= q ⇒ u = sec q g / 2b .
⇒ cosq = 2b
R
vy(at origin) = usinq
2h R − h R
Therefore, = or h = g
R R 3 or = sec q sin q
2b
R−h
Also in figure, cosq = sin q g g g
h = = tan q =a (using (iii))
2  2 cos q 2b 2b 2b
Here cosq= ⇒ q = cos −1   .
3  3 The given equation of motion shows the motion
of particle is a projectile motion.
7. (a, d) : As rod is a rigid part of the system, it can nn
take compression (T < 0), so the velocity of block
at its highest position can be zero to just cross this Solution Senders of Physics Musing
position. SET-7
Let block is given a velocity v at 1. Ayaz Ahmed (Jharkhand)
its lowest position, then by
2. Jenish Jain
third equation of motion, we have
3. Shivdatt Rawani
2
v=
H vL2 − 2 gh 4. Alok Verma
5. Jatin Gupta

76 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14

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PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ‘14 77

Page 77
Useful for All National and State Level PMTs
1. An open organ pipe is closed suddenly with the
result that the second overtone of the closed pipe
is found to be higher in frequency by 100 than
the first overtone of the original pipe. Then the
fundamental frequency of the open pipe is
(a) 200 s–1 (b) 100 s–1
–1
(c) 300 s (d) 250 s–1
2. Three unequal resistors in parallel are equivalent
to a resistance 1 ohm. If two of them are in the
ratio 1 : 2 and if no resistance value is fractional,
the largest of the three resistances in ohm is (a) R1 = 3 W; R2 = 3 W
(a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 5 (d) 12
(b) R1 = 6 W; R2 = 15 W
3. From the top of tower, a stone is thrown up. It (c) R1 = 1.5 W; R2 = any finite value
reaches the ground in t1 s. A second stone thrown (d) R1 = 3 W; R2 = any finite value
down with the same speed reaches the ground in
7. A block of mass m is at rest
t2 s. A third stone released from rest reaches the
under the action of force
ground in t3 s. Then
F against a wall as shown
(t + t )
(a) t3 = 1 2 (b) t3 = t1t2 in the figure. Which of the
2
1 1 1 following statements is
2
(c) = + (d) t=3 t22 − t12 incorrect?
t3 t1 t2
4. A planet is at an average distance d from the sun, (a) f = mg [where f is the friction force]
and its average surface temperature is T. Assume (b) F = N [where N is the normal force]
that the planet receives energy only from the sun, (c) F will not produce torque
and loses energy only through radiation from its (d) N will not produce torque
surface. Neglect atmospheric effects. If T ∝ d–n, 8. In an astronomical telescope in normal adjustment,
the value of n is a straight black line of length L is drawn on the
1 1 objective lens. The eyepiece forms a real image
(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) (d)
2 4 of this line. The length of this image is l. The
5. A glass tube of length 1.0 m is completely filled magnification of the telescope is
with water. A vibrating tuning fork of frequency L L
500 Hz is kept over the mouth of the tube and the (a) (b) +1
l l
water is drained out slowly at the bottom of the
tube. If velocity of sound in air is 330 m s–1, then L L+1
(c) −1 (d)
the total number of resonances that occur will be l L −1
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 1 (d) 5 9. A copper wire of resistance 10 W is in the form
6. In the Wheatstone bridge shown below, in order of a perfect circle. Two points A and B on it are
to balance the bridge, we must have connected to a battery of emf 5 V and internal

78 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14

Page 78
resistance 0.5 W. The two segments of the circle 15. The refractive index of the material of a prism
have lengths in the ratio 2 : 3. The net magnetic is 2 , and its refracting angle is 30°. One of the
induction at the center of the circle is refracting sufaces of the prism is made a mirror
(a) p (b) zero (c) 2p (d) m0/4p inwards. A beam of monochromatic light entering
10. A galvanometer of resistance 50 W is connected the prism from the other face retraces its path,
to a battery of 3 V along with a resistance of after reflection from mirrored surface, if its angle
of incidence on prism is
2950 W in series. A full scale deflection of
(a) 0° (b) 30° (c) 45° (d) 60°
30 divisions is obtained in the galvanometer. In
order to reduce this deflection to 20 divisions, the 16. A photocell employs photoelectric effect to
resistance in series should be convert
(a) 6050 W (b) 4450 W (a) change in the frequency of light into a change
(c) 5050 W (d) 5550 W in the electric current
(b) change in the frequency of light into a change
11. What is the value of inductance L for which the in electric voltage
current is maximum in a series LCR circuit with (c) change in the intensity of illumination into a
C = 10 mF and w = 1000 s–1? change in photoelectric current
(a) 1 mH (b) 10 mH (d) change in the intensity of illumination
(c) 100 mH into a change in the work function of the
(d) cannot be calculated unless R is known photocathode.
12. A rope of negligible mass is wound around a 17. Ionization potential of hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV.
hollow cylinder of mass 3 kg and radius 40 cm. Hydrogen atoms in the ground state are excited
What is the angular acceleration of the cylinder, by monochromatic radiation of photon energy
if the rope is pulled with a force of 30 N? Assume 12.1 eV. According to Bohr’s theory, the spectral
that there is no slipping. lines emitted by hydrogen will be
(a) 10 rad s–2 (b) 15 rad s–2 (a) one (b) two (c) three (d) four
–2
(c) 20 rad s (d) 25 rad s–2 18. Dimensions of ohm are same as (where h is
13. Same spring is attached with 2 kg, 3 kg and 1 kg Planck’s constant and e is charge)
blocks in three different cases as shown in figure. h h2 h h2
(a) (b) (c) 2 (d) 2
If x1, x2, x3 be the extensions in the spring in the e e e e
three cases, then 19. There is some change in length when a 33000 N
tensile force is applied on a steel rod of area of
cross-section 10–3 m2. The change in temperature
required to produce the same elongation if the
steel rod is heated is
(The modulus of elasticity is 3 × 1011 N m–2
and coefficient of linear expansion of steel is
1.1 × 10–5 °C–1)
(a) 20°C (b) 15°C (c) 10°C (d) 0°C

(a) x1 = 0, x3 > x2 (b) x1 > x2 > x3 20. A uniform sphere of mass


(c) x3 > x2 > x1 (d) x2 > x1 > x3 M and radius R exerts a
force F on a small mass
14. Two containers of equal volume contain the m situated at a distance
same gas at pressures P1 and P2 and absolute of 2R from the centre O
temperatures T1 and T2 respectively. On joining of the sphere. A spherical
the vessels, the gas reaches a common pressure portion of diameter R is
P cut from the sphere as
P and a common temperature T. The ratio T is
shown in figure.
P1 P2 1  P1 P2 
(a) + (b) + The force of attraction between the remaining part
T T 2  T1 T2  of the sphere and the mass m will be
1 2

P1T2 + P2T1 P1T2 − P2T1 F 2F 4F 7F


(c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d)
T1 + T2 T1 − T2 3 3 3 9

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14 79

Page 79
21. The activity of a radioactive sample is measured lens. The apparent area of the card through the
as N0 counts per minute at t = 0 and N0/e counts lens is
per minute at t = 5 minutes. The time (in minutes) (a) 1 cm2 (b) 0.81 cm2
2
at which the activity reduces to half its value is (c) 0.27 cm (d) 0.60 cm2
2 5
(a) log e (b) 28. Two cylinders of equal size are filled with
5 log e2 equal amount of ideal diatomic gas at room
(c) 5log10 2 (d) 5loge 2 temperature. Both the cylinders are fitted with
22. Two circular concentric loops of radii r1 = 20 cm and pistons. In cylinder A the piston is free to move,
r2 = 30 cm are placed in the XY plane as shown in while in cylinder B the piston is fixed. When same
the figure. A current I = 7 A is flowing through amount of heat is supplied to both the cylinders,
them. The magnetic moment of this loop system the temperature of the gas in cylinder A raises by
is 30 K. What will be the rise in temperature of the
^
(a) +0.4 k A m 2 gas in cylinder B?
^
(a) 42 K (b) 30 K
(b) −1.5 k A m 2 (c) 20 K (d) 56 K
^
(c) +1.1 k A m 2 29. Water is in streamline flow along a horizontal
^ pipe with nonuniform cross-section. At a point
(d) +1.3 j A m 2
in the pipe where the area of cross-section is
23. A mass of 4 kg suspended from a spring of force 10 cm2, the velocity of water is 1 m s–1 and the
constant 800 N m–1 executes simple harmonic pressure is 2000 Pa. The pressure at another point
oscillations. If the total energy of the oscillator is where the cross-sectional area is 5 cm2 is
4 J, the maximum acceleration (in m s–2) of the (a) 4000 Pa (b) 2000 Pa
mass is (c) 1000 Pa (d) 500 Pa
(a) 5 (b) 15 (c) 45 (d) 20
30. A body of mass 3 kg is under a constant force
24. A body travels a distance of 20 m in the 7th second which causes a displacement S in metres in it,
and 24 m in 9th second. How much distance shall 1
it travel in the 15th second? given by the relation S = t 2 where t is in seconds.
3
(a) 10 m (b) 16 m (c) 24 m (d) 36 m Work done by the force in 2 seconds is
25. The output Y of the logic circuit as shown in figure 19 5 3 8
(a) J (b) J (c) J (d) J
is 5 19 8 3
31. A solenoid has core of a material with relative
permeability 500 and its windings carry a current
of 1 A. The number of turns of the solenoid is 500
per metre. The magnetization of the material is
nearly
(a) 2.5 × 103 A m –1 (b) 2.5 × 105 A m –1
3 –1
(c) 2.0 × 10 A m (d) 2.0 × 105 A m –1
(a) ( A + B) C (b) ( A + C) B
32. The electric potential between a proton and an
(c) (B + C) A (d) A + B + C
r
26. A train moves towards a stationary observer with electron is given by V = V0 ln   , where r0 is a
speed 34 m s–1. The train sounds a whistle and its  r0 
frequency registered by the observer is u1. If the constant. Assuming Bohr’s model to be applicable,
train’s speed is reduced to 17 m s–1, the frequency write variation of rn with n, n being the principal
registered is u2. If the speed of sound is 340 m s–1, quantum number
1
u (a) rn ∝ n (b) rn ∝
then the ratio 1 is n
u2
18 1 19 1
(a) (b) (c) 2 (d) (c) rn ∝ n2 (d) rn ∝ 2
19 2 18 n
27. A square card of side length 1 mm is being seen 33. The circuit shown in the figure contains two
through a magnifying lens of focal length 10 cm. diodes each with a forward resistance of 30 W and
The card is placed at a distance of 9 cm from the with infinite backward resistance. If the battery is

80 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14

Page 80
3 V, the current through the 50 W resistance (in (a) The potential drop across the 12 mF capacitor
ampere) is is 10 V.
(b) The charge in the 3 mF capacitor is 42 mC.
(c) The potential drop across the 3 mF capacitor is 10 V.
(d) The emf of the battery is 30 V.
38. The magnetic field lines due to a bar magnet are
correctly shown in which of the following figure.
N N

(a) zero (b) 0.01 (c) 0.02 (d) 0.03 (a) (b)
34. In the figure, the velocity v3 will be S S

N N

(c) (d)
S S

39. A semicircular arc of radius a is charged uniformly


and the charge per unit length is l. The electric
(a) zero (b) 4 m s–1
field at its centre is
(c) 1 m s–1 (d) 3 m s–1 l l
(a) (b)
35. The dependence of acceleration due to gravity 2 pε a 2 4 pε 0 a
0
g on the distance r from the centre of the earth,
assumed to be a sphere of radius R of uniform l2 l
(c) (d)
density is as shown in figures below 2 pε 0 a 2 pε 0 a
40. A, B and C are the parallel sided transparent
media of refractive index n1, n2 and n3 respectively.
(1) (2) They are arranged as shown in the figure. A ray is
incident at an angle q on the surface of separation
of A and B which is as shown in the figure. After
the refraction into the medium B, the ray grazes
the surface of separation of the media B and C.
(3) (4) Then, sinq =

n1 n2 n3

The correct figure is 


(a) (4) (b) (1) (c) (2) (d) (3) A B C
36. A 2 mC charge moving around a circle with a n3 n1 n2 n1
frequency of 6.25 × 1012 Hz produces a magnetic (a) (b) (c) (d)
n1 n3 n3 n2
field 6.28 T at the centre of the circle. The radius of
the circle is 41. A particle is thrown with velocity u making an
(a) 2.25 m (b) 0.25 m (c) 13.0 m (d) 1.25 m angle q with the vertical. It just crosses the top
of two poles each of height h after 1 s and 3 s
37. Four capacitors and a
12 F respectively. The maximum height of projectile is
battery are connected
as shown in the
figure. If the potential 7 F
3.9 F
difference across 3 F
the 7 mF capacitor is
6 V, then which of the
following statements
is incorrect? (a) 9.8 m (b) 19.6 m (c) 39.2 m (d) 4.9 m

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14 81

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42. Two stars each of mass m and radius R approach (c) modulating and demodulating device
each other to collide head-on. Initially the stars (d) transmitting device
are at a distance r(>>R). Assuming their speeds 49. Choose the correct statement.
to be negligible at this distance of separation, the (a) A paramagnetic material tends to move from
speed with which the stars collide is a strong magnetic field to weak magnetic
1 1 1 1 field.
(a) Gm  −  (b) Gm  −  (b) A magnetic material is in the paramagnetic
R r  2R r
phase below its Curie temperature.
1 1  1 + 1 (c) The resultant magnetic moment in an atom of
(c) Gm  +  (d) Gm   a diamagnetic substance is zero.
R r  2R r
(d) Typical domain size of a ferromagnetic
43. The magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic material is 1 nm.
material at – 73°C is 0.0075, its value at – 173°C 50. In a particular system, the unit of length, mass
will be and time are chosen to be 10 cm, 10 g and 0.1 s
(a) 0.0045 (b) 0.0030 respectively. The unit of force in this system will
(c) 0.015 (d) 0.0075 be equivalent to
44. A string is stretched between fixed points (a) 0.1 N (b) 1 N (c) 10 N (d) 100 N
separated by 75 cm. It is observed to have SOLUTIONS
resonant frequencies of 420 Hz and 315 Hz. There 1. (a) : Second overtone of closed pipe has frequency
are no other resonant frequencies between these
two. Then, the lowest resonant frequency for this 5v
=
string is 4l
(a) 10.5 Hz (b) 105 Hz First overtone of open pipe has frequency
(c) 1.05 Hz (d) 1050 Hz =2 ( )
v
2l
45. A block of mass 200 kg is being pulled up by men 5v 2 v v v
on an inclined plane at angle of 45° as shown. The \
= − 100
= or 100 or l =
4l 2l 4l 400
coefficient of static friction is 0.5. Each man can
Fundamental frequency of open pipe
only apply a maximum force of 500 N. Calculate
the number of men required for the block to just v v
= = = 200 s −1 .
start moving up the plane
2l
2 ( )
v
400

R 1
2. (b) : Here
= , 1 = or R2 2 R1
R2 2
The equivalent resistance of parallel combination
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1
= + + = + + = +
(a) 10 (b) 15 (c) 5 (d) 3 R R1 R2 R3 R1 2 R1 R3 2 R1 R3
1 1 3 3
46. Water of volume 2 litre in a container is heated or = − = 1−
R3 1 2 R1 2 R1
with a coil of 1 kW at 27°C. The lid of the container
3 R3 3 R3
is open and energy dissipates at the rate of or =1 R3 − or R3 = 1 +
2 R1 2 R1
160 J s–1. In how much time, temperature will rise
from 27°C to 77°C? Since no resistance is in fraction, therefore
minimum value of
[Given specific heat of water is 4.2 kJ kg–1
(a) 8 min 20 s (b) 6 min 20 s R3 2
=
R1 3
(c) 7 min (d) 14 min
3 2
47. The waves which cannot travel in vacuum are \ R3= = 1+ × 2=
W and R1 3 W
2 3
(a) X-rays (b) radio-waves The maximum resistance value is
(c) infrasonic waves (d) ultraviolet rays R2 = 2R1 = 2 × 3 = 6 W
48. A modem is a 3. (b) : When stone is thrown vertically upwards
(a) modulating device only from the top of tower of height h, then
(b) demodulating device only

82 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14

Page 82
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PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14 83

Page 83
1 2 7. (d)
h = − ut1 + gt ...(i)
2 1 8. (a) : Let fo and fe be the focal lengths of the
When stone is thrown vertically downwards from objective and eyepiece respectively. For normal
the top of tower, then adjustment, distance between the objective and
1 ...(ii) the eyepiece (tube length) = fo + fe. Treating the line
=h ut2 + gt22
2 on the objective as the object, and the eyepiece as
When stone is released from the top of tower, the lens, u = – (f0 + fe) and f = fe.
then 1 1 1
1 − =
h = gt32 ...(iii) v −( f o + f e ) f e
2
From equation (i), we get 1 1 1 fo
or = − =
h 1 v fe fo + fe ( fo + fe ) fe
= − u + gt1 ...(iv)
t1 2 ( fo + fe ) fe
or v = .
From equation (ii), we get fo
h 1 v f image size l .
= u + gt2 ...(v) Magnification
=
= = e =
t2 2
u fo object size L
Adding equations (iv) and (v), we get fo L
1 1 1 1 \ = = magnification of telescope in normal
h  = +  g(t1 + t2 ) or h = g t1t2 fe l
t
 1 t2 2 2
adjustment.
Putting the value in equation (iii), we get
l1 2
t3 = t1t2 9. (b) : Given =
l2 3
4. (c) : Let P = power radiated by the sun, rl
Resistance R1 = 1
R = radius of planet A
P rl2 R1 l1 2
Energy received by planet
= × pR 2 R2 = \ = =
4 pd 2 A R2 l2 3
Energy radiated by planet = (4pR2) sT4 As I1R1 = I2R2
For thermal equilibrium, I R2 l2
P \ 1 ==
4 pR 2sT 4 ⇒ T ∝ d −1/ 2
× pR 2 = I 2 R1 l1 ...(i)
4 pd 2
m Ia
1 B1 = 0 1 
\ n= 4 pr ...(ii)
2
m0 I 2 ( 2 p − a)
330 B2 = ⊗
5. (b) : l =
= 0=
.66 m 66 cm 4 pr ...(iii)
500
This tube is closed at one end. The length of the l l2
l 3l 5l 7l a = 1 ; 2p − a =
tube resonating are , , , and so on r r
4 4 4 4 m0l1I1
\ B1 = 2 ...(iv)
4 pr
l 3l m l I
= 16 = .5 cm, 49.5 cm , B2 = 0 2 22 ...(v)
4 4
5l 7l 4 pr
= 82 = .5 cm , 115.5 cm. From (i), (iv) and (v), we get
4 4
B1 = B2
But the 7th harmonic needs a length greater than
Hence, net magnetic field at centre B = B1 – B2 = 0
the tube length.
10. (b) : Total initial resistance
\ There will be three resonances, as the length
of the tube is only one meter. = G + R = 50 W + 2950 W = 3000 W
3V
6.(d) : The bridge ABCD is balanced if Current
= , I = 1 × 10 −3 A = 1 mA
3000 W
10 30 If the deflection has to be reduced to 20 divisions,
= = or R1 3 W
R1 9 then current
When this bridge is balanced, no current flows in 1 mA 2
arm BD. Therefore, R2 can have any finite value. = I′ × 20 = mA
30 3

84 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14

Page 84
Let x be the effective resistance of the circuit, P1V
P1V = n1RT1 or n1 = RT ...(i)
then 1
2 PV
=3 V 3000 W × 1 mA
= x W × mA P2V = n2RT2 or n2 = 2 ...(ii)
3 RT2
3
or= x 3000 × 1 × = 4500 W P(2V) = (n1 + n2)RT ...(iii)
2
\ Resistance to be added = (4500 W – 50 W) Substituting the values of n1 and n2 in equation
(iii), we get
= 4450 W
PV P V P 1  P1 + P2 
P(=2V )  1 + 2  RT or =
11. (c) : In series LCR circuit, current is maximum at  RT1 RT2  T 2  T1 T2 
resonance.
1 15. (c) : Here m = 2 , A = 30°. On reflection from
At resonance, XL = XC or wL =
wC mirrored surface, the ray will retrace its path, if it
= or w2 = 1 or L 1 falls normally on the surface.
LC w2C In DAED
Given w = 1000 s–1 and C = 10 mF 30° + 90° + ∠D = 180°
\ L= 1 = 0.1 H = 100 mH or ∠D = 60°
1000 × 1000 × 10 × 10 −6
Also ∠ D + ∠r = 90°
12. (d) : Here, M = 3 kg, R = 40 cm = 0.4 m or ∠r = 90° – 60° = 30°
Moment of inertia of the hollow cylinder about sin i
its axis is As m =
sin r
I = MR2 = 3 kg (0.4 m)2 = 0.48 kg m2 1 1
Force applied, F = 30 N \ sin i == m sin r 2 sin 30
=° 2× =
2 2
\ Torque, t = F × R = 30 N × 0.4 m = 12 N m or i = 45°
Also t = Ia 16. (c) : The photoelectric current is directly
t 12 proportional to the intensity of illumination.
\ a= = = 25 rad s −2
I 0.48 Therefore, a change in the intensity of the incident
radiation will change the photocurrent also.
13. (d) :
17. (c) : Ionisation potential of hydrogen atom is
13.6 eV. Energy required for exciting the hydrogen
atom in the ground state to orbit n is given by
E = En – E1
13.6  −13.6  13.6
12.1 = − −  = − 2 + 13.6
n2  12  n

or −13.6 13.6
−1.5 = 2 or =n2 = 9 or n = 3
n 1.5
If T1, T2, T3 are the tensions in the strings in the Number of spectral lines emitted
three cases, we have n(n − 1) 3 × 2
2m1m2 g 2 × 2 × 2 g = = =3
T1 = = = 2g 2 2
m1 + m2 (2 + 2)
2 × 3 × 2g
T2 = = 2.4 g
(3 + 2)
2 × 1 × 2g
T3 = = 1.33 g
(1 + 2) h [ML2T −1]
18. =
(c) : = [ML2T −3 A −2 ]
As x ∝ T and T2 > T1 > T3 e2 [AT]2
\ x2 > x1 > x3 Potential difference [ML2T −3 A −1]
= Resistance =
14. (b) : For a closed system, the total mass of gas or Current [A]
the number of moles remains constant. 2 –3 –2
= [ML T A ]
Let n1 and n2 be number of moles of gas in The SI unit of resistance is ohm.
container 1 and container 2 respectively. Therefore, the dimensions of ohm are same as

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14 85

Page 85
h 22
= 7 × × 0.05 k A m 2 = 1.1 k^ A m 2
^
that of 2
e  7 
(F / A)
19. (c) : Young's modulus Y = 23. (d) : Here, m = 4 kg, k = 800 N m–1, E = 4 J
Dl/l
1
(F / A) l In SHM, total energy is E = kA2
or D l = ...(i) 2
Y where A is the amplitude of oscillation
Also, Dl = al DT ...(ii)
1
As per question \ 4= × 800 × A2
F 2
(F / A)l 8 1
= alDT or DT = A2 =
=
Y YAa
800 100
33000 N
= 1
(3 × 1011 Nm −2 ) × (10 −3 m 2 ) × (1.1 × 10 −5 °C −1) = A = m 0.1 m
10
= 10°C Maximum acceleration, amax = w2 A
20. (d) : Gravitational force of attraction on mass m at k  k 
= A  w = 
P due to solid sphere is m m
GMm GMm GMm
= F = or = 4F ...(i) 800 N m −1
(2R)2 4R 2 R2 = × 0.1 m = 20 m s −2
4 kg
Mass of the spherical portion removed from
24. (d) : Here, D7 = 20 m, D9 = 24 m, D15 = ?
sphere
Let u and a be the initial velocity and uniform
M 4 R 3 M
M′
= × p   = acceleration of the body.
4 3 3 2 8
pR a
3 a
Dn= u + (2n − 1) \ D7 = u + (2 × 7 − 1)
Gravitational force of attraction on mass m at P if 2 2
mass of the spherical portion removed is present 13a
or 20= u + ...(i)
there is 2
G( M / 8)m GMm 1 4 a
F′ = = × × and D9= u + (2 × 9 − 1)
( )
3R 2
2
R2 8 9
or 24= u +
17
2
a
2 ...(ii)
1 4 2F
= 4F × × = (Using (i)) Subtracting equation (i) from equation (ii), we get
8 9 9
4 = 2a or a = 2 m s–2
\ Gravitational force of attraction on mass m at Putting this value in equation (i), we get
P due to remaining part of the sphere is 13
2F 7 F 20= u + × 2 =+
u 13
F′′= F − F=′ F − = 2
9 9 or u = 20 – 13 = 7 m s–1
21. (d) a 2
\ D15 = u + (2 × 15 − 1) =+7 × 29 = 36 m
2 2
22. (c) : Magnetic moment of the current loop is
  25 (a) :
m = IA 
where the direction of the area vector A, is
given by right hand thumb rule. The direction of

magnetic moment m is same as the direction of

the A.
 ^ 2 ^ 2
\ m1 = I pr12 (− k) = − (7 × p × 0.2 ) k A m
 ^ ^
and m2 = I pr22 k= (7 × p × 0.32 ) k A m 2
\ Net magnetic moment

= m1 + m2
 Y ( A ⋅ B) ⋅ C
= = ( A + B) C= ( A + B) C
2 2 ^ 2 26. (d) : When a source approaches a stationary
= [− (7 × p × 0.2 ) + (7 × p × 0.3 )] k A m
2 2 ^ 2
observer, the frequency heard by the observer is
= [7 × p × (0.3 − 0.2 )] k Am given by

86 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14

Page 86
v  ( Density of water, r = 103 kg m–3)
u = u0  where,
 v − vs  = 2000 −
1
× 10 3 × 3 = 2000 – 1500 = 500 Pa
2
u0 = source frequency
v = speed of sound t 2 dS 2t d 2S 2
30. =
(d) : S = ; ; =
vs = speed of source 3 dt 3 dt 2 3
As per question d 2S
u0 340 u0 340 Work done,=
W ∫=
FdS ∫ m dS
u1 = and u2 = dt 2
(340 − 34) (340 − 17)
d 2S dS 2 2 2t 42
u (340 − 17) 323 19 =W ∫=
m dt ∫ 3 × × dt = ∫ tdt
\ 1 = = = dt 2 dt 0 3 3 30
u2 (340 − 34) 306 18 2
42 4 t2 4 8
27. (a) : Area of a square card = 1 mm × 1 mm = 1 mm2 = =∫ tdt = × 2 = J.
Focal length of magnifying lens (converging lens), 30 3 2 3 3
0
f = + 10 cm
31. (b) : Here, n = 500 turns/m
Object distance, u = – 9 cm
I = 1 A, mr = 500
According to thin lens formula,
Magnetic intensity, H = nI = 500 m–1 × 1 A
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= + = + = − = 500 A m–1
v f u +10 cm −9 cm 10 cm 9 cm As mr = 1 + c
or v = –90 cm where c is the magnetic susceptibility of the
v − 90 cm material
Magnification, m= = = 10
u − 9 cm or c = (mr – 1)
\ Apparent area of the card through the lens Magnetisation, M = cH
= 10 × 10 × 1 mm2 = (mr – 1) H = (500 – 1) × 500 A m–1
= 100 mm2 = 1 cm2 = 499 × 500 A m–1 = 2.495 × 105 A m –1
28. (a) : System A is in isobaric process ≈ 2.5 × 105 A m –1
\ DQ1 = nCPDT1
System B is in isochoric process 32. (a)
DQ2 = nCVDT2 33. (c) : In the circuit the upper diode D1 is reverse
biased and the lower diode D2 is forward biased.
 DQ1 = DQ2
CP Thus there will be no current across upper diode
\ nCPDT1 = nCVDT2 \ DT2 = DT1 junction. The effective circuit will be as shown in
CV
C 7 figure.
For diatomic gas P = and DT1 = 30 K
CV 5
7
\ DT2 = × 30 = 42 K
5
29. (d) : A = 10 cm2
1
A2 = 5 cm2

v1 = 1 m s–1 v2
Total resistance of circuit
R = 50 + 70 + 30 = 150 W
According to equation of continuity, V 3V
A1v1 = A2v2 Current in circuit , =
I = = 0.02 A
R 150 W
A1v1 10 cm 2 × 1 m s −1
\ v2 = = = 2 m s −1 34. (c) :
A2 5 cm 2
For a horizontal pipe, according to Bernoulli’s
theorem
1 1
P1 + rv12 =
2
P2 + rv22 ⇒ P=
2 2
1
(
P1 + r v12 − v22
2
)
1
= 2000 + × 10 3 × (12 − 2 2 ) According to steady flow,
2 A1v1 = A2v2 + A3v3

PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14 87

Page 87
1 As is clear from figure, horizontal components of
or v3
or A3v3 = A1v1 – A2v2= [A1v1 − A2 v2 ] dE will cancel out in pairs and vertical components
A3
1 will add.
= [0.2 × 4 − 0.2 × 2] = 1 m s −1 p p
0.4 l
∫ dE sin q = ∫
\ E=
4 pε
sin q dq
35. (a) 0 0 0a

36. (d) : The charge moving on a circular orbit acts l 2l l


like the current loop. Magnetic field at the centre = [ − cos
= q]0p =
4 pε 0 a 4 pε 0 a 2 pε 0 a
of the current loop is
m 2pI m0 2pqu m 2pqu 40. (a) : N
B= 0 = or R = 0 M
4pR 4pR 4pB
n1 n2 n3
Substituting the given values, we get

4p × 10 −7 × 2p × 2 × 10 −6 × 6.25 × 1012 
R= 
4p × 6.28
= 1.25 m A B C
37. (c) :
Applying Snell’s law at M,
12 F 12 F
Q –Q
n1sinq = n2sinq′ ...(i)
Again, applying Snell’s law at N
7 F Q1 Q2 n2sinq′ = n3sin90°
V 3.9 F V 3.9 F 2.1 F n2sinq′ = n3
3 F –Q1 –Q2
n1sinq = n3 (Using (i))
n3
sin q =
Equivalent capacitance of network, Ceq = 4 mF n1
Charge Q = CeqV = 4V mC 1
...(i) (b) : h u cos qt1 − gt12
41. = ...(i)
The charge on the 7 mF or 3 mF capacitor 2
1 2
Q2 = (7 mF) (6 V) = 42 mC = h u cos qt2 − gt2 ...(ii)
Now, 2
Q2 Q1 ( 3.9 mF) Equating (i) and (ii), we get
= = ⇒ Q1 (= 42 mC) 78 mC 1 1
2.1 mF 3.9 mF ( 2.1 mF) u cos qt1 − gt12 = u cos qt2 − gt22
Q = Q1 + Q2 = (78 mC + 42 mC) = 120 mC ...(ii) 2 2
1 1
From equations (i) and (ii), we get or ucos q × 1 − × 9.8= × 12 ucos q × 3 − × 9.8 × 32
2 2
V = 30 V
or ucosq(3 – 1) = 4.9 × (9 – 1) = 4.9 × 8
\ Emf of the battery, V = 30 V
4.9 × 8
The potential drop across 12 mF capacitor ucos q = = 4.9 × 4 = 19.6 m s −1
2
Q 120 mC
= = = 10 V u2 cos 2 q (19.6)2
12 mF 12 mF Maximum= height = = 19.6 m
2g 2 × 9.8
The potential drop across 3 mF capacitor
42. (b) : Since the speeds of the stars are negligible
Q2 42 mC
= = = 14 V when they are at a distance of r, the initial kinetic
3 mF 3 mF energy of the system is zero. Therefore, initial
38. (d) : The magnetic field lines due to a bar magnet total energy of the system is
are closed continous curves directed from N to  Gmm 
= Ei K.E.
= + P.E. 0 +  −  ...(i)
S outside the magnet and directed from S to N  r 
inside the magnet. Hence option (d) is correct. where m represents, the mass of each star and
39. (d) : Electric intensity at dl r the initial separation between them.
centre O, due to small element When two stars collide, their centres will be at
d a distance twice the radius of a star i.e. 2R. Let
dl of charged ring
dEcos 
v is speed with which two stars collide, then
ldl l( adq)  O total energy of the system at the instant of their
=dE =
4 pε 0 a 2
4 pε 0 a 2 dE collision is given by
dEsin

88 PHYSICS FOR YOU | MARCH ’14

Page 88
1 1  200 × 10 × 3
1   Gmm 
E f =  mv 2  × 2 +  − = 200 × 10  + =
2   2R   2 2 2  2 2
According to law of conservation of energy 200 × 10 × 3
N= ≈5
Ef = Ei 2 2 × 500
Gmm Gmm  1 − 1 46. (a) : Using law of conservation of energy,
mv 2 − =
− or v 2 =
Gm   energy produced by heater = heat gained by water
2R r  2R r
+ energy lost
 1 1 \ Pt = msDT + energy lost
or v
= Gm  −  1000t = 2 × (4.2 × 103) × (77 – 27) + 160t
 2R r
On solving, we get t = 500 s = 8 min 20 s
43. (c)
47. (c) : X-rays, radiowaves and ultraviolet rays
44. (b) : Let the successive loops formed be p and are electromagnetic waves and do not require
(p + 1) for frequencies 315 Hz and 420 Hz. a medium to travel whereas infrasonic are
p T pv mechanical waves and they require a medium to
\ u= = travel. Hence infrasonic waves do not travel in
2L m 2L
vacuum.
pv ( p + 1)v
\ = 315 Hz and = 420 Hz 48. (c) : Modem performs the functions of both the
2L 2L
modulator and the demodulator. Modem acts as
( p + 1)v pv a modulator in the transmitting mode and it acts
or − 420 Hz − 315 Hz
=
2L 2L as a demodulator in the receiving mode.
v 1× v 49. (c) : Diamagnetic substances are those substances
or = 105 Hz ⇒ 105 Hz
= in which resultant magnetic moment in an atom
2L 2L
is zero.
p = 1 for fundamental mode of vibration of A paramagnetic material tends to move from a
string. weak magnetic field to strong magnetic field.
A magnetic material is in the paramagnetic phase
45. (c) : above its Curie temperature.
Typical domain size of a ferromagnetic material is
1 mm.
50. (a) :
M1 = 10 g M2 = 1 kg
L1 = 10 cm L2 = 1 m
T1 = 0.1 s T2 = 1 s
n1 = 1 n2 = ?
M a L b T c
Here, mass of the block, m = 200 kg n2 = n1 1   1   1 
 M2   L2   T2 
1
coefficient of static friction, m=
s 0=
.5 The dimensional formula of force is [MLT–2]
2
angle of incline plane, q = 45° \ a = 1, b = 1, c = –2
Maximum force that each man can apply, F = 500 N 10 g 1 10 cm 1 0.1 s  −2
= 1 
Let N number of men are required for the block to  1 kg   1 m   1 s 
just start moving up the plane 1 1
NF = mgsinq + f  10 −2 kg   10 −1 m   0.1 s  −2
=1
= mgsinq + msR  1 kg   1 m   1 s 
= mgsinq + msmgcosq 1 × 10 −2 × 10 −1 −1
= mg[sinq + mscosq] = = 10 = 0.1
10 −2
1 Hence, the unit of force in a given system will
= 200 × 10 sin 45° + cos 45°
 2  equivalent to 0.1 N.
nn

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