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14: FM Radio Receiver

• FM Radio Block Diagram


• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary
14: FM Radio Receiver

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 1 / 12


FM Radio Block Diagram

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

[This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing]


DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12
FM Radio Block Diagram

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Each channel: ±100 kHz
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

[This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing]


DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12
FM Radio Block Diagram

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Each channel: ±100 kHz
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
Baseband signal:
• Channel Selection (3) Mono (L + R): ±15 kHz
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

[This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing]


DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12
FM Radio Block Diagram

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Each channel: ±100 kHz
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
Baseband signal:
• Channel Selection (3) Mono (L + R): ±15 kHz
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
Stereo (L – R): 38 ± 15 kHz
• Summary

[This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing]


DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12
FM Radio Block Diagram

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Each channel: ±100 kHz
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
Baseband signal:
• Channel Selection (3) Mono (L + R): ±15 kHz
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Pilot tone: 19 kHz
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
Stereo (L – R): 38 ± 15 kHz
• Summary

[This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing]


DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12
FM Radio Block Diagram

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Each channel: ±100 kHz
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
Baseband signal:
• Channel Selection (3) Mono (L + R): ±15 kHz
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Pilot tone: 19 kHz
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
Stereo (L – R): 38 ± 15 kHz
• Summary RDS: 57 ± 2 kHz

[This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing]


DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12
FM Radio Block Diagram

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Each channel: ±100 kHz
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
Baseband signal:
• Channel Selection (3) Mono (L + R): ±15 kHz
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Pilot tone: 19 kHz
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
Stereo (L – R): 38 ± 15 kHz
• Summary RDS: 57 ± 2 kHz

FM Modulation:

[This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing]


DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12
FM Radio Block Diagram

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Each channel: ±100 kHz
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
Baseband signal:
• Channel Selection (3) Mono (L + R): ±15 kHz
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Pilot tone: 19 kHz
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
Stereo (L – R): 38 ± 15 kHz
• Summary RDS: 57 ± 2 kHz

FM Modulation:
Freq deviation: ±75 kHz

[This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing]


DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12
FM Radio Block Diagram

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM spectrum: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Each channel: ±100 kHz
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
Baseband signal:
• Channel Selection (3) Mono (L + R): ±15 kHz
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Pilot tone: 19 kHz
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
Stereo (L – R): 38 ± 15 kHz
• Summary RDS: 57 ± 2 kHz

FM Modulation:
Freq deviation: ±75 kHz

L–R signal is multiplied by 38 kHz to shift it to baseband

[This example is taken from Ch 13 of Harris: Multirate Signal Processing]


DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 2 / 12
Aliased ADC

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Normally sample at fs > 2f
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 3 / 12


Aliased ADC

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Normally sample at fs > 2f
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
However:
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 3 / 12


Aliased ADC

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Normally sample at fs > 2f
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
However:
• Channel Selection (3) fs = 80 MHz aliases band
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter down to [7.5, 28] MHz.
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 3 / 12


Aliased ADC

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Normally sample at fs > 2f
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
However:
• Channel Selection (3) fs = 80 MHz aliases band
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter down to [7.5, 28] MHz.
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone –ve frequencies alias
• Summary
to [−28, −7.5] MHz.

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 3 / 12


Aliased ADC

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Normally sample at fs > 2f
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
However:
• Channel Selection (3) fs = 80 MHz aliases band
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter down to [7.5, 28] MHz.
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone –ve frequencies alias
• Summary
to [−28, −7.5] MHz.

We must suppress other


frequencies that alias to the
range ±[7.5, 28] MHz.

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 3 / 12


Aliased ADC

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Normally sample at fs > 2f
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
However:
• Channel Selection (3) fs = 80 MHz aliases band
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter down to [7.5, 28] MHz.
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone –ve frequencies alias
• Summary
to [−28, −7.5] MHz.

We must suppress other


frequencies that alias to the
range ±[7.5, 28] MHz.

Need an analogue bandpass filter to extract the FM band.

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 3 / 12


Aliased ADC

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Normally sample at fs > 2f
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
However:
• Channel Selection (3) fs = 80 MHz aliases band
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter down to [7.5, 28] MHz.
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone –ve frequencies alias
• Summary
to [−28, −7.5] MHz.

We must suppress other


frequencies that alias to the
range ±[7.5, 28] MHz.

Need an analogue bandpass filter to extract the FM band. Transition band


mid-points are at fs = 80 MHz and 1.5fs = 120 MHz.

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 3 / 12


Aliased ADC

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Normally sample at fs > 2f
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
However:
• Channel Selection (3) fs = 80 MHz aliases band
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter down to [7.5, 28] MHz.
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone –ve frequencies alias
• Summary
to [−28, −7.5] MHz.

We must suppress other


frequencies that alias to the
range ±[7.5, 28] MHz.

Need an analogue bandpass filter to extract the FM band. Transition band


mid-points are at fs = 80 MHz and 1.5fs = 120 MHz.

You can use an aliased analog-digital converter (ADC) provided that the
target band fits entirely between two consecutive multiples of 21 fs .

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 3 / 12


Aliased ADC

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band: 87.5 to 108 MHz
• Aliased ADC Normally sample at fs > 2f
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
However:
• Channel Selection (3) fs = 80 MHz aliases band
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter down to [7.5, 28] MHz.
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone –ve frequencies alias
• Summary
to [−28, −7.5] MHz.

We must suppress other


frequencies that alias to the
range ±[7.5, 28] MHz.

Need an analogue bandpass filter to extract the FM band. Transition band


mid-points are at fs = 80 MHz and 1.5fs = 120 MHz.

You can use an aliased analog-digital converter (ADC) provided that the
target band fits entirely between two consecutive multiples of 21 fs .
Lower ADC sample rate ,. Image = undistorted frequency-shifted copy.
DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 3 / 12
Channel Selection

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band shifted to 7.5 to 28 MHz (from 87.5 to 108 MHz)
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 4 / 12


Channel Selection

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band shifted to 7.5 to 28 MHz (from 87.5 to 108 MHz)
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection We need to select a single channel 200 kHz wide
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 4 / 12


Channel Selection

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band shifted to 7.5 to 28 MHz (from 87.5 to 108 MHz)
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection We need to select a single channel 200 kHz wide
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
We shift selected channel to DC and then downsample to fs = 400 kHz.
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Assume channel centre frequency is fc = c × 100 kHz
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 4 / 12


Channel Selection

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band shifted to 7.5 to 28 MHz (from 87.5 to 108 MHz)
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection We need to select a single channel 200 kHz wide
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
We shift selected channel to DC and then downsample to fs = 400 kHz.
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Assume channel centre frequency is fc = c × 100 kHz
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
We must apply a filter before downsampling to remove unwanted images
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 4 / 12


Channel Selection

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band shifted to 7.5 to 28 MHz (from 87.5 to 108 MHz)
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection We need to select a single channel 200 kHz wide
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
We shift selected channel to DC and then downsample to fs = 400 kHz.
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Assume channel centre frequency is fc = c × 100 kHz
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
We must apply a filter before downsampling to remove unwanted images
• Summary
The downsampled signal is complex since positive and negative
frequencies contain different information.

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 4 / 12


Channel Selection

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band shifted to 7.5 to 28 MHz (from 87.5 to 108 MHz)
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection We need to select a single channel 200 kHz wide
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
We shift selected channel to DC and then downsample to fs = 400 kHz.
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Assume channel centre frequency is fc = c × 100 kHz
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
We must apply a filter before downsampling to remove unwanted images
• Summary
The downsampled signal is complex since positive and negative
frequencies contain different information.

We will look at three methods:


1 Freq shift, then polyphase lowpass filter

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 4 / 12


Channel Selection

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band shifted to 7.5 to 28 MHz (from 87.5 to 108 MHz)
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection We need to select a single channel 200 kHz wide
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
We shift selected channel to DC and then downsample to fs = 400 kHz.
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Assume channel centre frequency is fc = c × 100 kHz
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
We must apply a filter before downsampling to remove unwanted images
• Summary
The downsampled signal is complex since positive and negative
frequencies contain different information.

We will look at three methods:


1 Freq shift, then polyphase lowpass filter
2 Polyphase bandpass complex filter

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 4 / 12


Channel Selection

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
FM band shifted to 7.5 to 28 MHz (from 87.5 to 108 MHz)
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection We need to select a single channel 200 kHz wide
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
We shift selected channel to DC and then downsample to fs = 400 kHz.
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Assume channel centre frequency is fc = c × 100 kHz
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
We must apply a filter before downsampling to remove unwanted images
• Summary
The downsampled signal is complex since positive and negative
frequencies contain different information.

We will look at three methods:


1 Freq shift, then polyphase lowpass filter
2 Polyphase bandpass complex filter
3 Polyphase bandpass real filter

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 4 / 12


Channel Selection (1)

14: FM Radio Receiver fc


• FM Radio Block Diagram Multiply by e−j2πr 80 MHz to shift
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
channel at fc to DC.
fc c
• Channel Selection (1) fc = c × 100 k ⇒ 80 M = 800
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 5 / 12


Channel Selection (1)

14: FM Radio Receiver fc


• FM Radio Block Diagram Multiply by e−j2πr 80 MHz to shift
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
channel at fc to DC.
fc c
• Channel Selection (1) fc = c × 100 k ⇒ 80 M = 800
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Result of multiplication is complex
• Differentiation Filter
(thick lines on diagram)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 5 / 12


Channel Selection (1)

14: FM Radio Receiver fc


• FM Radio Block Diagram Multiply by e−j2πr 80 MHz to shift
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
channel at fc to DC.
fc c
• Channel Selection (1) fc = c × 100 k ⇒ 80 M = 800
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Result of multiplication is complex
• Differentiation Filter
(thick lines on diagram)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary Next, lowpass filter to ±100 kHz
∆ω = 2π 200 k
80 M = 0.157

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 5 / 12


Channel Selection (1)

14: FM Radio Receiver fc


• FM Radio Block Diagram Multiply by e−j2πr 80 MHz to shift
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
channel at fc to DC.
fc c
• Channel Selection (1) fc = c × 100 k ⇒ 80 M = 800
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Result of multiplication is complex
• Differentiation Filter
(thick lines on diagram)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary Next, lowpass filter to ±100 kHz
∆ω = 2π 200 k
80 M = 0.157
60 dB
⇒M = 3.5∆ω = 1091

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 5 / 12


Channel Selection (1)

14: FM Radio Receiver fc


• FM Radio Block Diagram Multiply by e−j2πr 80 MHz to shift
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
channel at fc to DC.
fc c
• Channel Selection (1) fc = c × 100 k ⇒ 80 M = 800
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Result of multiplication is complex
• Differentiation Filter
(thick lines on diagram)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary Next, lowpass filter to ±100 kHz
∆ω = 2π 200 k
80 M = 0.157
60 dB
⇒M = 3.5∆ω = 1091
Finally, downsample 200 : 1

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 5 / 12


Channel Selection (1)

14: FM Radio Receiver fc


• FM Radio Block Diagram Multiply by e−j2πr 80 MHz to shift
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
channel at fc to DC.
fc c
• Channel Selection (1) fc = c × 100 k ⇒ 80 M = 800
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Result of multiplication is complex
• Differentiation Filter
(thick lines on diagram)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary Next, lowpass filter to ±100 kHz
∆ω = 2π 200 k
80 M = 0.157
60 dB
⇒M = 3.5∆ω = 1091
Finally, downsample 200 : 1

Polyphase: 
1092

Hp (z) has 200 = 6 taps

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 5 / 12


Channel Selection (1)

14: FM Radio Receiver fc


• FM Radio Block Diagram Multiply by e−j2πr 80 MHz to shift
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
channel at fc to DC.
fc c
• Channel Selection (1) fc = c × 100 k ⇒ 80 M = 800
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Result of multiplication is complex
• Differentiation Filter
(thick lines on diagram)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary Next, lowpass filter to ±100 kHz
∆ω = 2π 200 k
80 M = 0.157
60 dB
⇒M = 3.5∆ω = 1091
Finally, downsample 200 : 1

Polyphase: 
1092

Hp (z) has 200 = 6 taps
Complex data × Real Coefficients (needs 2 multiplies per tap)

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 5 / 12


Channel Selection (1)

14: FM Radio Receiver fc


• FM Radio Block Diagram Multiply by e−j2πr 80 MHz to shift
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
channel at fc to DC.
fc c
• Channel Selection (1) fc = c × 100 k ⇒ 80 M = 800
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Result of multiplication is complex
• Differentiation Filter
(thick lines on diagram)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary Next, lowpass filter to ±100 kHz
∆ω = 2π 200 k
80 M = 0.157
60 dB
⇒M = 3.5∆ω = 1091
Finally, downsample 200 : 1

Polyphase: 
1092

Hp (z) has 200 = 6 taps
Complex data × Real Coefficients (needs 2 multiplies per tap)

Multiplication Load:
2 × 80 MHz (freq shift) + 12 × 80 MHz (Hp (z)) = 14 × 80 MHz

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 5 / 12


Channel Selection (2)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel centre frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c is an integer.
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 6 / 12


Channel Selection (2)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel centre frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c is an integer.
• Aliased ADC Write c = 4k +
 cl
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
where k = 4 and l = cmod 4
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 6 / 12


Channel Selection (2)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel centre frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c is an integer.
• Aliased ADC Write c = 4k +
 cl
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
where k = 4 and l = cmod 4
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 6 / 12


Channel Selection (2)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel centre frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c is an integer.
• Aliased ADC Write c = 4k +
 cl
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
where k = 4 and l = cmod 4
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary c
We multiply u[r] by e−j2πr 800 , convolve with h[m] and then downsample:
PM −j2π(200n−m) 800 c
v[n] = m=0 h[m]u[200n − m]e [r = 200n]

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 6 / 12


Channel Selection (2)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel centre frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c is an integer.
• Aliased ADC Write c = 4k +
 cl
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
where k = 4 and l = cmod 4
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary c
We multiply u[r] by e−j2πr 800 , convolve with h[m] and then downsample:
PM c
v[n] = m=0 h[m]u[200n − m]e−j2π(200n−m) 800 [r = 200n]
PM mc 4k+l
= m=0 h[m]ej2π 800 u[200n − m]e−j2π200n 800 [c = 4k + 1]

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 6 / 12


Channel Selection (2)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel centre frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c is an integer.
• Aliased ADC Write c = 4k +
 cl
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
where k = 4 and l = cmod 4
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary c
We multiply u[r] by e−j2πr 800 , convolve with h[m] and then downsample:
PM c
v[n] = m=0 h[m]u[200n − m]e−j2π(200n−m) 800 [r = 200n]
PM mc 4k+l
= m=0 h[m]ej2π 800 u[200n − m]e−j2π200n 800 [c = 4k + 1]
PM ln ∆ mc
= m=0 g[c] [m]u[200n − m]e−j2π 4 [g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800 ]

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 6 / 12


Channel Selection (2)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel centre frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c is an integer.
• Aliased ADC Write c = 4k +
 cl
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
where k = 4 and l = cmod 4
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary c
We multiply u[r] by e−j2πr 800 , convolve with h[m] and then downsample:
PM c
v[n] = m=0 h[m]u[200n − m]e−j2π(200n−m) 800 [r = 200n]
PM mc 4k+l
= m=0 h[m]ej2π 800 u[200n − m]e−j2π200n 800 [c = 4k + 1]
PM ln ∆ mc
= m=0 g[c] [m]u[200n − m]e−j2π 4 [g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800 ]
ln PM −j2π ln
= (−j) g
m=0 [c] [m]u[200n − m] [ e 4 indep of m]

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 6 / 12


Channel Selection (2)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel centre frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c is an integer.
• Aliased ADC Write c = 4k +
 cl
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
where k = 4 and l = cmod 4
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary c
We multiply u[r] by e−j2πr 800 , convolve with h[m] and then downsample:
PM c
v[n] = m=0 h[m]u[200n − m]e−j2π(200n−m) 800 [r = 200n]
PM mc 4k+l
= m=0 h[m]ej2π 800 u[200n − m]e−j2π200n 800 [c = 4k + 1]
PM ln ∆ mc
= m=0 g[c] [m]u[200n − m]e−j2π 4 [g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800 ]
ln PM −j2π ln
= (−j) g
m=0 [c] [m]u[200n − m] [ e 4 indep of m]

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 6 / 12


Channel Selection (2)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel centre frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c is an integer.
• Aliased ADC Write c = 4k +
 cl
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
where k = 4 and l = cmod 4
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary c
We multiply u[r] by e−j2πr 800 , convolve with h[m] and then downsample:
PM c
v[n] = m=0 h[m]u[200n − m]e−j2π(200n−m) 800 [r = 200n]
PM mc 4k+l
= m=0 h[m]ej2π 800 u[200n − m]e−j2π200n 800 [c = 4k + 1]
PM ln ∆ mc
= m=0 g[c] [m]u[200n − m]e−j2π 4 [g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800 ]
ln PM −j2π ln
= (−j) g
m=0 [c] [m]u[200n − m] [ e 4 indep of m]

Multiplication Load for polyphase implementation:


G[c],p (z) has complex coefficients × real input ⇒ 2 mults per tap

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 6 / 12


Channel Selection (2)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel centre frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c is an integer.
• Aliased ADC Write c = 4k +
 cl
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
where k = 4 and l = cmod 4
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary c
We multiply u[r] by e−j2πr 800 , convolve with h[m] and then downsample:
PM c
v[n] = m=0 h[m]u[200n − m]e−j2π(200n−m) 800 [r = 200n]
PM mc 4k+l
= m=0 h[m]ej2π 800 u[200n − m]e−j2π200n 800 [c = 4k + 1]
PM ln ∆ mc
= m=0 g[c] [m]u[200n − m]e−j2π 4 [g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800 ]
ln PM −j2π ln
= (−j) g
m=0 [c] [m]u[200n − m] [ e 4 indep of m]

Multiplication Load for polyphase implementation:


G[c],p (z) has complex coefficients × real input ⇒ 2 mults per tap
ln
(−j) ∈ {+1, −j, −1, +j} so no actual multiplies needed

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 6 / 12


Channel Selection (2)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel centre frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c is an integer.
• Aliased ADC Write c = 4k +
 cl
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
where k = 4 and l = cmod 4
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary c
We multiply u[r] by e−j2πr 800 , convolve with h[m] and then downsample:
PM c
v[n] = m=0 h[m]u[200n − m]e−j2π(200n−m) 800 [r = 200n]
PM mc 4k+l
= m=0 h[m]ej2π 800 u[200n − m]e−j2π200n 800 [c = 4k + 1]
PM ln ∆ mc
= m=0 g[c] [m]u[200n − m]e−j2π 4 [g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800 ]
ln PM −j2π ln
= (−j) g
m=0 [c] [m]u[200n − m] [ e 4 indep of m]

Multiplication Load for polyphase implementation:


G[c],p (z) has complex coefficients × real input ⇒ 2 mults per tap
ln
(−j) ∈ {+1, −j, −1, +j} so no actual multiplies needed
Total: 12 × 80 MHz (for G[c],p (z)) + 0 (for −j ln ) = 12 × 80 MHz

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 6 / 12


Channel Selection (3)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c = 4k + l is an integer
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 7 / 12


Channel Selection (3)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c = 4k + l is an integer
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

cm
g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 7 / 12


Channel Selection (3)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c = 4k + l is an integer
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

cm
g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800
j2π c(200s+p)
g[c],p [s] = gc [200s + p]= h[200s + p]e 800 [polyphase]

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 7 / 12


Channel Selection (3)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c = 4k + l is an integer
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

cm
g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800
j2π c(200s+p)
g[c],p [s] = gc [200s + p]= h[200s + p]e 800 [polyphase]
cp
j2π cs j2π 800
= h[200s + p]e 4 e

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 7 / 12


Channel Selection (3)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c = 4k + l is an integer
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

cm
g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800
j2π c(200s+p)
g[c],p [s] = gc [200s + p]= h[200s + p]e 800 [polyphase]
cp
j2π cs j2π cs
= h[200s + p]e 4 ej2π 800
, h[200s + p]e 4 αp

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 7 / 12


Channel Selection (3)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c = 4k + l is an integer
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

cm
g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800
j2π c(200s+p)
g[c],p [s] = gc [200s + p]= h[200s + p]e 800 [polyphase]
cp
j2π cs j2π cs
= h[200s + p]e 4 ej2π 800
, h[200s + p]e 4 αp
j2π (4k+l)s
Define f[c],p [s] = h[200s + p]e 4 = j ls h[200s + p]

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 7 / 12


Channel Selection (3)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c = 4k + l is an integer
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

cm
g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800
j2π c(200s+p)
g[c],p [s] = gc [200s + p]= h[200s + p]e 800 [polyphase]
cp
j2π cs j2π cs
= h[200s + p]e 4 ej2π 800
, h[200s + p]e 4 αp
j2π (4k+l)s
Define f[c],p [s] = h[200s + p]e 4 = j ls h[200s + p]
Although f[c],p [s] is complex it requires only one multiplication per
tap because each tap is either purely real or purely imaginary.

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 7 / 12


Channel Selection (3)

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Channel frequency fc = c × 100 kHz where c = 4k + l is an integer
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

cm
g[c] [m] = h[m]ej2π 800
j2π c(200s+p)
g[c],p [s] = gc [200s + p]= h[200s + p]e 800 [polyphase]
cp
j2π cs j2π cs
= h[200s + p]e 4 ej2π 800
, h[200s + p]e 4 αp
j2π (4k+l)s
Define f[c],p [s] = h[200s + p]e 4 = j ls h[200s + p]
Although f[c],p [s] is complex it requires only one multiplication per
tap because each tap is either purely real or purely imaginary.

Multiplication Load:
cp
6 × 80 MHz (Fp (z)) + 4 × 80 MHz (×ej2π 800 ) = 10 × 80 MHz
DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 7 / 12
FM Demodulator

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Complex FM signal centred at DC: v(t) = |v(t)|ejφ(t)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 8 / 12


FM Demodulator

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Complex FM signal centred at DC: v(t) = |v(t)|ejφ(t)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone We know that log v = log |v| + jφ
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 8 / 12


FM Demodulator

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Complex FM signal centred at DC: v(t) = |v(t)|ejφ(t)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone We know that log v = log |v| + jφ
• Summary

The instantaneous frequency of v(t) is dt .

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 8 / 12


FM Demodulator

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Complex FM signal centred at DC: v(t) = |v(t)|ejφ(t)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone We know that log v = log |v| + jφ
• Summary

The instantaneous frequency of v(t) is dt .
dφ dℑ(log v)
We need to calculate x(t) = dt = dt

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 8 / 12


FM Demodulator

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Complex FM signal centred at DC: v(t) = |v(t)|ejφ(t)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone We know that log v = log |v| + jφ
• Summary

The instantaneous frequency of v(t) is dt .
dφ dℑ(log v) 1 dv

We need to calculate x(t) = dt = dt =ℑ v dt

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 8 / 12


FM Demodulator

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Complex FM signal centred at DC: v(t) = |v(t)|ejφ(t)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone We know that log v = log |v| + jφ
• Summary

The instantaneous frequency of v(t) is dt .
dφ dℑ(log v) 1 dv 1
v ∗ dv
 
We need to calculate x(t) = dt = dt =ℑ v dt = |v|2 ℑ dt

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 8 / 12


FM Demodulator

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Complex FM signal centred at DC: v(t) = |v(t)|ejφ(t)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone We know that log v = log |v| + jφ
• Summary

The instantaneous frequency of v(t) is dt .
dφ dℑ(log v) 1 dv 1
v ∗ dv
 
We need to calculate x(t) = dt = dt =ℑ v dt = |v|2 ℑ dt

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 8 / 12


FM Demodulator

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Complex FM signal centred at DC: v(t) = |v(t)|ejφ(t)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone We know that log v = log |v| + jφ
• Summary

The instantaneous frequency of v(t) is dt .
dφ dℑ(log v) 1 dv 1
v ∗ dv
 
We need to calculate x(t) = dt = dt =ℑ v dt = |v|2 ℑ dt

We need:
(1) Differentiation filter, D(z)

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 8 / 12


FM Demodulator

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Complex FM signal centred at DC: v(t) = |v(t)|ejφ(t)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone We know that log v = log |v| + jφ
• Summary

The instantaneous frequency of v(t) is dt .
dφ dℑ(log v) 1 dv 1
v ∗ dv
 
We need to calculate x(t) = dt = dt =ℑ v dt = |v|2 ℑ dt

We need:
(1) Differentiation filter, D(z)
(2) Complex multiply, w[n] × v ∗ [n] (only need ℑ part)

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 8 / 12


FM Demodulator

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Complex FM signal centred at DC: v(t) = |v(t)|ejφ(t)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone We know that log v = log |v| + jφ
• Summary

The instantaneous frequency of v(t) is dt .
dφ dℑ(log v) 1 dv 1
v ∗ dv
 
We need to calculate x(t) = dt = dt =ℑ v dt = |v|2 ℑ dt

We need:
(1) Differentiation filter, D(z)
(2) Complex multiply, w[n] × v ∗ [n] (only need ℑ part)
(3) Real Divide by |v|2

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 8 / 12


FM Demodulator

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter Complex FM signal centred at DC: v(t) = |v(t)|ejφ(t)
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone We know that log v = log |v| + jφ
• Summary

The instantaneous frequency of v(t) is dt .
dφ dℑ(log v) 1 dv 1
v ∗ dv
 
We need to calculate x(t) = dt = dt =ℑ v dt = |v|2 ℑ dt

We need:
(1) Differentiation filter, D(z)
(2) Complex multiply, w[n] × v ∗ [n] (only need ℑ part)
(3) Real Divide by |v|2

x[n] is baseband signal (real):


DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 8 / 12
Differentiation Filter

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 9 / 12


Differentiation Filter

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Window design method:
• Aliased ADC (1) calculate d[n] for the ideal filter
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1) (2) multiply by a window to give finite support
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 9 / 12


Differentiation Filter

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Window design method:
• Aliased ADC (1) calculate d[n] for the ideal filter
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1) (2) multiply by a window to give finite support
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
d jωt
• FM Demodulator Differentiation: dt e = jωejωt
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 9 / 12


Differentiation Filter

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Window design method:
• Aliased ADC (1) calculate d[n] for the ideal filter
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1) (2) multiply by a window to give finite support
• Channel Selection (2) (
• Channel Selection (3)
d jωt jω |ω| ≤ ω0
• FM Demodulator Differentiation: dt e = jωejωt ⇒ D(ejω ) =
• Differentiation Filter 0 |ω| > ω0
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 9 / 12


Differentiation Filter

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Window design method:
• Aliased ADC (1) calculate d[n] for the ideal filter
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1) (2) multiply by a window to give finite support
• Channel Selection (2) (
• Channel Selection (3)
d jωt jω |ω| ≤ ω0
• FM Demodulator Differentiation: dt e = jωejωt ⇒ D(ejω ) =
• Differentiation Filter 0 |ω| > ω0
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
jnω ω0
R ω0 h i
1 jωn j ωejnω e
• Summary
Hence d[n] = 2π −ω0
jωe dω = 2π jn − j 2 n2 [IDTFT]
−ω0
nω0 cos nω0 −sin nω0
= πn2

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 9 / 12


Differentiation Filter

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Window design method:
• Aliased ADC (1) calculate d[n] for the ideal filter
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1) (2) multiply by a window to give finite support
• Channel Selection (2) (
• Channel Selection (3)
d jωt jω |ω| ≤ ω0
• FM Demodulator Differentiation: dt e = jωejωt ⇒ D(ejω ) =
• Differentiation Filter 0 |ω| > ω0
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
jnω ω0
R ω0 h i
1 jωn j ωejnω e
• Summary
Hence d[n] = 2π −ω0
jωe dω = 2π jn − j 2 n2 [IDTFT]
−ω0
nω0 cos nω0 −sin nω0
= πn2

1.5 ω0 0

-20
1 |H| (dB)
|H|

-40

0.5 -60 ω0

-80
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
ω (rad/sample) ω (rad/sample)

Using M = 18, Kaiser window, β = 7 and ω0 = 2.2 = 2π×140 kHz


400 kHz :

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 9 / 12


Differentiation Filter

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Window design method:
• Aliased ADC (1) calculate d[n] for the ideal filter
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1) (2) multiply by a window to give finite support
• Channel Selection (2) (
• Channel Selection (3)
d jωt jω |ω| ≤ ω0
• FM Demodulator Differentiation: dt e = jωejωt ⇒ D(ejω ) =
• Differentiation Filter 0 |ω| > ω0
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
jnω ω0
R ω0 h i
1 jωn j ωejnω e
• Summary
Hence d[n] = 2π −ω0
jωe dω = 2π jn − j 2 n2 [IDTFT]
−ω0
nω0 cos nω0 −sin nω0
= πn2

1.5 ω0 0

-20
1 |H| (dB)
|H|

-40

0.5 -60 ω0

-80
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
ω (rad/sample) ω (rad/sample)

Using M = 18, Kaiser window, β = 7 and ω0 = 2.2 = 2π×140 kHz


400 kHz :
Near perfect differentiation for ω ≤ 1.6 (≈ 100 kHz for fs = 400 kHz)

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 9 / 12


Differentiation Filter

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
Window design method:
• Aliased ADC (1) calculate d[n] for the ideal filter
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1) (2) multiply by a window to give finite support
• Channel Selection (2) (
• Channel Selection (3)
d jωt jω |ω| ≤ ω0
• FM Demodulator Differentiation: dt e = jωejωt ⇒ D(ejω ) =
• Differentiation Filter 0 |ω| > ω0
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
jnω ω0
R ω0 h i
1 jωn j ωejnω e
• Summary
Hence d[n] = 2π −ω0
jωe dω = 2π jn − j 2 n2 [IDTFT]
−ω0
nω0 cos nω0 −sin nω0
= πn2

1.5 ω0 0

-20
1 |H| (dB)
|H|

-40

0.5 -60 ω0

-80
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
ω (rad/sample) ω (rad/sample)

Using M = 18, Kaiser window, β = 7 and ω0 = 2.2 = 2π×140 kHz


400 kHz :
Near perfect differentiation for ω ≤ 1.6 (≈ 100 kHz for fs = 400 kHz)
Broad transition region allows shorter filter
DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 9 / 12
Pilot tone extraction +

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Aim: extract 19 kHz pilot tone, double freq → real 38 kHz tone.
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 10 / 12


Pilot tone extraction +

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Aim: extract 19 kHz pilot tone, double freq → real 38 kHz tone.
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 10 / 12


Pilot tone extraction +

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Aim: extract 19 kHz pilot tone, double freq → real 38 kHz tone.
• Differentiation Filter
20 kHz
−j2πn 400
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
(1) shift spectrum down by 20 kHz: multiply by e kHz

• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 10 / 12


Pilot tone extraction +

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Aim: extract 19 kHz pilot tone, double freq → real 38 kHz tone.
• Differentiation Filter
20 kHz
−j2πn 400
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
(1) shift spectrum down by 20 kHz: multiply by e kHz

• Summary (2) low pass filter to ±1 kHz to extract complex pilot at −1 kHz: H(z)

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 10 / 12


Pilot tone extraction +

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Aim: extract 19 kHz pilot tone, double freq → real 38 kHz tone.
• Differentiation Filter
20 kHz
−j2πn 400
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
(1) shift spectrum down by 20 kHz: multiply by e kHz

• Summary (2) low pass filter to ±1 kHz to extract complex pilot at −1 kHz: H(z)
jωt 2
= ej2ωt ]

(3) square to double frequency to −2 kHz [ e

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 10 / 12


Pilot tone extraction +

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Aim: extract 19 kHz pilot tone, double freq → real 38 kHz tone.
• Differentiation Filter
20 kHz
−j2πn 400
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
(1) shift spectrum down by 20 kHz: multiply by e kHz

• Summary (2) low pass filter to ±1 kHz to extract complex pilot at −1 kHz: H(z)
jωt 2
= ej2ωt ]

(3) square to double frequency to −2 kHz [ e
40 kHz
+j2πn 400
(4) shift spectrum up by 40 kHz: multiply by e kHz

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 10 / 12


Pilot tone extraction +

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Aim: extract 19 kHz pilot tone, double freq → real 38 kHz tone.
• Differentiation Filter
20 kHz
−j2πn 400
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
(1) shift spectrum down by 20 kHz: multiply by e kHz

• Summary (2) low pass filter to ±1 kHz to extract complex pilot at −1 kHz: H(z)
jωt 2
= ej2ωt ]

(3) square to double frequency to −2 kHz [ e
40 kHz
+j2πn 400
(4) shift spectrum up by 40 kHz: multiply by e kHz

(5) take real part

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 10 / 12


Pilot tone extraction +

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Aim: extract 19 kHz pilot tone, double freq → real 38 kHz tone.
• Differentiation Filter
20 kHz
−j2πn 400
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
(1) shift spectrum down by 20 kHz: multiply by e kHz

• Summary (2) low pass filter to ±1 kHz to extract complex pilot at −1 kHz: H(z)
jωt 2
= ej2ωt ]

(3) square to double frequency to −2 kHz [ e
40 kHz
+j2πn 400
(4) shift spectrum up by 40 kHz: multiply by e kHz

(5) take real part

More efficient to do low pass filtering at a low sample rate:

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 10 / 12


Pilot tone extraction +

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Aim: extract 19 kHz pilot tone, double freq → real 38 kHz tone.
• Differentiation Filter
20 kHz
−j2πn 400
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
(1) shift spectrum down by 20 kHz: multiply by e kHz

• Summary (2) low pass filter to ±1 kHz to extract complex pilot at −1 kHz: H(z)
jωt 2
= ej2ωt ]

(3) square to double frequency to −2 kHz [ e
40 kHz
+j2πn 400
(4) shift spectrum up by 40 kHz: multiply by e kHz

(5) take real part

More efficient to do low pass filtering at a low sample rate:

Transition bands:
F (z): 1 → 17 kHz, H(z): 1 → 3 kHz

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 10 / 12


Pilot tone extraction +

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Aim: extract 19 kHz pilot tone, double freq → real 38 kHz tone.
• Differentiation Filter
20 kHz
−j2πn 400
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
(1) shift spectrum down by 20 kHz: multiply by e kHz

• Summary (2) low pass filter to ±1 kHz to extract complex pilot at −1 kHz: H(z)
jωt 2
= ej2ωt ]

(3) square to double frequency to −2 kHz [ e
40 kHz
+j2πn 400
(4) shift spectrum up by 40 kHz: multiply by e kHz

(5) take real part

More efficient to do low pass filtering at a low sample rate:

Transition bands:
F (z): 1 → 17 kHz, H(z): 1 → 3 kHz, G(z): 2 → 18 kHz

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 10 / 12


Pilot tone extraction +

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator Aim: extract 19 kHz pilot tone, double freq → real 38 kHz tone.
• Differentiation Filter
20 kHz
−j2πn 400
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
(1) shift spectrum down by 20 kHz: multiply by e kHz

• Summary (2) low pass filter to ±1 kHz to extract complex pilot at −1 kHz: H(z)
jωt 2
= ej2ωt ]

(3) square to double frequency to −2 kHz [ e
40 kHz
+j2πn 400
(4) shift spectrum up by 40 kHz: multiply by e kHz

(5) take real part

More efficient to do low pass filtering at a low sample rate:

Transition bands:
F (z): 1 → 17 kHz,H(z): 1 → 3 kHz, G(z): 2 → 18 kHz
∆ω = 0.25 ⇒ M = 68, ∆ω = 0.63 ⇒ 27, ∆ω = 0.25 ⇒ 68

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 10 / 12


Polyphase Pilot tone

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 11 / 12


Polyphase Pilot tone

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 11 / 12


Polyphase Pilot tone

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3) Anti-alias filter: F (z)
n
th j2π 20
• FM Demodulator Each branch, Fp (z), gets every 20 sample and an identical e
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 11 / 12


Polyphase Pilot tone

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3) Anti-alias filter: F (z)
n
th j2π 20
• FM Demodulator Each branch, Fp (z), gets every 20 sample and an identical e
• Differentiation Filter p
• Pilot tone extraction + So Fp (z) can filter a real signal and then multiply by fixed ej2π 20
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 11 / 12


Polyphase Pilot tone

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3) Anti-alias filter: F (z)
n
th j2π 20
• FM Demodulator Each branch, Fp (z), gets every 20 sample and an identical e
• Differentiation Filter p
• Pilot tone extraction + So Fp (z) can filter a real signal and then multiply by fixed ej2π 20
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary
Anti-image filter: G(z)
n
Each branch, Gp (z), multiplied by identical ej2π 10

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 11 / 12


Polyphase Pilot tone

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3) Anti-alias filter: F (z)
n
th j2π 20
• FM Demodulator Each branch, Fp (z), gets every 20 sample and an identical e
• Differentiation Filter p
• Pilot tone extraction + So Fp (z) can filter a real signal and then multiply by fixed ej2π 20
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary
Anti-image filter: G(z)
n
Each branch, Gp (z), multiplied by identical ej2π 10
So Gp (z) can filter a real signal

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 11 / 12


Polyphase Pilot tone

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3) Anti-alias filter: F (z)
n
th j2π 20
• FM Demodulator Each branch, Fp (z), gets every 20 sample and an identical e
• Differentiation Filter p
• Pilot tone extraction + So Fp (z) can filter a real signal and then multiply by fixed ej2π 20
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary
Anti-image filter: G(z)
n
Each branch, Gp (z), multiplied by identical ej2π 10
So Gp (z) can filter a real signal

Multiplies:
F and G each: (4 + 2) × 400 kHz

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 11 / 12


Polyphase Pilot tone

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3) Anti-alias filter: F (z)
n
th j2π 20
• FM Demodulator Each branch, Fp (z), gets every 20 sample and an identical e
• Differentiation Filter p
• Pilot tone extraction + So Fp (z) can filter a real signal and then multiply by fixed ej2π 20
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary
Anti-image filter: G(z)
n
Each branch, Gp (z), multiplied by identical ej2π 10
So Gp (z) can filter a real signal

Multiplies:
F and G each: (4 + 2) × 400 kHz, H + x2 : (2 × 28 + 4) × 20 kHz

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 11 / 12


Polyphase Pilot tone

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3) Anti-alias filter: F (z)
n
th j2π 20
• FM Demodulator Each branch, Fp (z), gets every 20 sample and an identical e
• Differentiation Filter p
• Pilot tone extraction + So Fp (z) can filter a real signal and then multiply by fixed ej2π 20
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary
Anti-image filter: G(z)
n
Each branch, Gp (z), multiplied by identical ej2π 10
So Gp (z) can filter a real signal

Multiplies:
F and G each: (4 + 2) × 400 kHz, H + x2 : (2 × 28 + 4) × 20 kHz
Total: 15 × 400 kHz

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 11 / 12


Polyphase Pilot tone

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1)
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3) Anti-alias filter: F (z)
n
th j2π 20
• FM Demodulator Each branch, Fp (z), gets every 20 sample and an identical e
• Differentiation Filter p
• Pilot tone extraction + So Fp (z) can filter a real signal and then multiply by fixed ej2π 20
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary
Anti-image filter: G(z)
n
Each branch, Gp (z), multiplied by identical ej2π 10
So Gp (z) can filter a real signal

Multiplies:
F and G each: (4 + 2) × 400 kHz, H + x2 : (2 × 28 + 4) × 20 kHz
Total: 15 × 400 kHz [Full-rate H(z) needs 273 × 400 kHz]

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 11 / 12


Summary

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC allows sampling below the Nyquist frequency
• Aliased ADC ◦ Only works because the wanted signal fits entirely within a
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1) Nyquist band image
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3)
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter
• Pilot tone extraction +
• Polyphase Pilot tone
• Summary

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 12 / 12


Summary

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC allows sampling below the Nyquist frequency
• Aliased ADC ◦ Only works because the wanted signal fits entirely within a
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1) Nyquist band image
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3) • Polyphase filter can be combined with complex multiplications to
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter select the desired image
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
◦ subsequent multiplication by −j ln shifts by the desired multiple
• Summary of 41 sample rate
⊲ No actual multiplications required

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 12 / 12


Summary

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC allows sampling below the Nyquist frequency
• Aliased ADC ◦ Only works because the wanted signal fits entirely within a
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1) Nyquist band image
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3) • Polyphase filter can be combined with complex multiplications to
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter select the desired image
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
◦ subsequent multiplication by −j ln shifts by the desired multiple
• Summary of 41 sample rate
⊲ No actual multiplications required

• FM demodulation uses a differentiation filter to calculate dt

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 12 / 12


Summary

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC allows sampling below the Nyquist frequency
• Aliased ADC ◦ Only works because the wanted signal fits entirely within a
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1) Nyquist band image
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3) • Polyphase filter can be combined with complex multiplications to
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter select the desired image
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
◦ subsequent multiplication by −j ln shifts by the desired multiple
• Summary of 41 sample rate
⊲ No actual multiplications required

• FM demodulation uses a differentiation filter to calculate dt

• Pilot tone bandpass filter has narrow bandwidth so better done at a


low sample rate
◦ double the frequency of a complex tone by squaring it

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 12 / 12


Summary

14: FM Radio Receiver


• FM Radio Block Diagram
• Aliased ADC allows sampling below the Nyquist frequency
• Aliased ADC ◦ Only works because the wanted signal fits entirely within a
• Channel Selection
• Channel Selection (1) Nyquist band image
• Channel Selection (2)
• Channel Selection (3) • Polyphase filter can be combined with complex multiplications to
• FM Demodulator
• Differentiation Filter select the desired image
• Pilot tone extraction
• Polyphase Pilot tone
+
◦ subsequent multiplication by −j ln shifts by the desired multiple
• Summary of 41 sample rate
⊲ No actual multiplications required

• FM demodulation uses a differentiation filter to calculate dt

• Pilot tone bandpass filter has narrow bandwidth so better done at a


low sample rate
◦ double the frequency of a complex tone by squaring it
This example is taken from Harris: 13.

DSP and Digital Filters (2017-10178) FM Radio: 14 – 12 / 12