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Contents Adrenal Glands 59

Ureter 59
Important Histological Structures 67
G.I.T. 67
Urinary Bladder 60 Skin Glands 68
Prostate 60 1.31 Embryology 68
Urethra 60 Neural Tube (NT) 70
1.27 Perineal Region 61 Notochord 70
Perineal Body 61 Development of CVS 71
Perineal Pouch/Spaces 61 Derivatives of Mesentery of Foregut 73
Vagina 62 Development of Kidney 74
From Authors’ Desk—Why ROAMS is Important? ................................................................................................................................................................... ix Uterus 62 Derivatives of Undifferentiated Gonads /Related
Fallopian Tube (Uterine Tubes/ Oviducts) 62 Structures 74
Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ xi Derivatives of Urogenital Primordia 75
Important Histological Structures 63
From Publisher’s Desk ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... xiii Testes 64 IMP. Derivatives of 3 Germ Layers 76
How to Prepare for PGMEE? .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... xv 1.28 Gluteal Region 64 Branchial/ Pharyngeal Apparatus 77
1.29 Lower Limb 64 Branchial/Pharyngeal Arches 77
1.30 Histology 65 1.32 Laryngeal Cartilages 79
C hapter 1 Anatomy 1 Epithelium 65 1.33 Procedures 79
3 Germ Layers & Developmental Tree 66 1.34 Vertebral Levels 81
1.1 Historical Aspects Parts of Brain 34
1.2 Blood Vessels 2 White Matter of Cerebrum 37
Source of Hemorrhage/Bleeding in 2 Thalamus 38 C hapter 2 Physiology 87
Preferred Vascular Sites 2 Arteries of Brain & Effects of Lesion 38
Veins: Important Points 4 1.14 Orbit 39 2.1 Cellular Physiology 88 Laws related to Sensory Physiology 112
1.3 Anatomical Values 5 1.15 Spine 39 Cell Cycle 88 Reflexes 113
Cell Division 88 2.8 CVS 115
1.4 Anatomy Basics 6 1.16 Face 40

PREVIEW
Cell Membrane 89 Cardiac Fibres 115
End Arteries 6 1.17 Oral Cavity 40
Intercellular Connections 89 Cardiac Cycle 116
Capillaries 6 Palatine/ Faucial Tonsil 40
Extracellular Matrix (ECM) 89 N/s of Heart 117
Anastomosis 6 Teeth 40
Cytoskeleton of a Cell 90 Jugular Venous Pulse (JVP) 117
Dangerous Areas in the Body 7 Tongue 41
Cellular Organelles 92 Cardiac Cycle 118
Structures forming Various Bed 7 Palate 42 2.2 General Physiology 93 Blood Pressure (BP) 118
1.5 Osteology (Bones & Joints) 7 1.18 Neck 42 ESR and BMR 93 Cardiac Variables 119
Bones 7 Triangles of Neck 42 Feedback Mechanisms 93 JVP 120
Structure of Bone 10 Thyroid Gland 42 Fluid Types 94 Heart Sounds 120
Cartilage 10 1.19 Thymus 43 2.3 Transport across Cell Membrane 95 Exercise Physiology 121
Joints 11 1.20 Esophagus 43 Distribution of Body Water 96 2.9 Blood Vessels & Haemodynamics 122
Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint 13 1.21 Lungs/Thorax 43 Buffers in the Body 96 Viscocity 122
Joints of the foot 14 Ribs & Intercostal Spaces 44 To Summarize 97 Blood Flow 122
Arches of the Foot 14 Trachea 44 2.4 Plasma 97 Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) 123
1.6 Lymphatic Drainage 15 1.22 Diaphragm 45 Plasma Proteins 97 2.10 Respiratory System 124
Lymphatics 15 1.23 Heart 45 Acute Phase Proteins 98 Characteristic of Pulmonary Circulation 124
Lymphatic Drainage of 15 Arterial Supply of heart 47 2.5 Neuro Physiology 98 Surfactant 125
1.7 Fascia 16 Venous Drainage of Heart 47 Voltage Gated Channels 98 Lung Volumes and Spirometry 125
1.8 Glands & Ganglia 17 Aorta 48 2.6 Muscle Physiology 100 Airflow/Airway Resistance 126
Salivary Glands 17 1.24 Upper Limb 48 M/S Proteins 100 Oxygen Therapy 127
Ganglia of Head & Neck 17 1.25 GIT & Abdomen 50 Reflexes on the Basis of No. of Synapse 103 Hypoxia 128
1.9 Nerves 18 Peritoneum 51 Muscle Spindle 103 Oxygen Hb Dissociation Curve (ODC) 129
Nerves in Relation to Humerus 18 Mesentery 51 2.7 Nervous System 104 Nitrogen Narcosis 130
Named Nerves 20 Stomach 52 Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) 104 CO 2 Narcosis 130
Imp Sensory Nerves 21 Duodenum 52 Important Barriers 104 Decompression Sickness/Caisson's d/s 130
Cranial Nerves (CN) 24 Liver 53 Sensory Spinal Tracts (Ascending Tracts) 105 Changes seen in Acclimatization to High Altitude 131
Motor Tracts (Descending Tracts) 105 Brainstem/Neural Respiratory Centres 131
Some Important Mononeuropathies 26 Portal Venous System 53
Sleep Waves 106 Non-respiratory Function of Lung 132
1.10 Ligaments, Tendons, Triangles, Angles 26 Gall Bladder 54
Motor Disorders 106 2.11 GIT and Liver 132
Ligaments 26 Spleen 54
Basal Ganglia (Basal Nuclei) 107 Appetite 132
Tendons 27 Pancreas 54
Hypothalamus 108 Absorption 132
Triangles (r) 27 Appendix 55
Autonomic Nervous System 109 Gastric Emptying 134
Angles 28 Rectum 55 Neurotransmitters (NT) 109 Factors Affecting 135
1.11 Muscles 28 Anal Canal 56 Types of Inhibition 110 Bile 135
Terminology in Muscles 29 Umbilicus 57 Receptors 110 Bile Salts 135
xviii
Attachment over Bones 32 Inguinal Region 57 Pain Pathway 112 Hormones Control of G.I.T. 136
1.12 Foramina/Canals 33 1.26 Kub Region 58
1.13 Head and Neck 34 Kidney 58
Personality Disorders 1041 Sexual Paraphilia 1045 Mycosis Fungoides 1117 Multiple Myeloma (Mm) 1120
Adjustment Disorder 1042 Alcoholism 1045 Hodgkin's Disease (Hd Or Hl) 1117 Blood Transfusion (Bt) 1121
Dissociative Disorders 1042 Opioid Abuse 1047 Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHL) 1118 Clotting Factors 1123
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Ptsd) 1042 Drug Dependence 1047 Burkitt’s Lymphoma 1118 Blood Groups 1123
Phobic Disorders Or Phobia 1043 Serotonin Syndrome 1048 Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis 1119
Impulse 1043 Anticholinergic Syndrome 1048
Obsession 1043 Defense Mechanisms 1048
Affective Types 1043 Acts & Laws 1049 C hapter 30 Syndromes 1127
Anxiety Disorders 1044 International Classification Of Diseases (Icd) 1050
Somatoform Disorders 1044 Dsm IV Classification 1050 Brain Stem Syndromes A/W Hemiplegia 1128 30.2 Clinical Vignettes 1136
Psycho-Somatic Disorders 1044 Some Common Terms In Psychiatry 1050 Spinal Cord Transection Syndromes 1128 30.3 Recent Points 1136
30.1 Some Impt. Negative Points 1136

C hapter 28 Oncology 1053 C hapter 31 Miscellaneous 1137


28.1 General Oncology 1054 28.9 Skin Cancers 1069 31.1 Useful Mnemonics 1138 Fathers 1150
Staging and Grading Of Tumours 1054 Melanoma 1069 31.2 Latest Updates 1148 Indications of MRI of Mother During Pregnancy 1150
Various Plasia in Oncology 1055 Nevi 1071 Newer Drugs 1148 Indications of Fetal Surgery 1150
Prognostic Factors In Cancers 1055 Kaposi Sarcoma 1072 Changes In National Immunisation Program 2015- Who Theme 1150
Screening 1056 Retinoblastoma 1074 2016 1149 In The News 1150
28.2 Biopsy For Neoplasms 1057 Tumours of Head & Neck Region 1074 Some Other Imp. Updates 1149 Some Surgical Instruments 1151
28.3 Onco-Pathology 1057 Salivary Gland Neoplasms 1075 31.3 Scientists 1149 Pediatric Rescucitation Equipments 1151
Tumour Markers 1058 Zollinger Elision Syndrome (Zes) 1084 31.4 Miscellaneous 1149 Pedigree Symbols 1152
28.4 Oncogenesis 1059 Insulinoma 1084 Nobel Prize In Medicine/Physiology 1149
Gist 1084

PREVIEW
Radiation Induced Cancers 1059
Chemical Carcinogenes & Cancers 1059 Vipoma 1084
Tumours A/W Supressor Gene Inactivation 1060 Carcinoids 1084
Cytogenetics & Translocations 1061 Gi/Colonic Polyps 1085
Proto-Oncogenes & Carcinoma Colon 1085
Their Expression In Neoplasms 1061 Ca Anal Canal 1086
28.5 Tumours: Common Points 1062 Ca Head of Pancreas 1086
Pnet (Primitive Neuro Ectodermal Tumours) 1063 Hepatocellular Cancer (Hcc) 1087
Net (Neuro Endocrinal Tumours) 1063 Carcinoma Gb 1087
Gist 1063 Cholangiocarcinoma
Carcinoid Tumours 1063 (Bile Duct Cancer) 1088
Pre-Malignant Conditions Of Cancers 1063 Klatskin Tumour 1088
Inherited Predisposition To Cancer 1064 28.24 Tumours Of Kidney & Urinary Tract 1088
28.6 Cancer Radiotherapy 1064 Wilm's Tumour 1088
Imp. Form Of Radiation 1065 Neuroblastoma 1089
28.7 Cancer Chemotheray 1065 Bladder Cancer 1090
Adjuvant Chemotherapy 1065 Prostate Cancer 1090
Anti-Cancer Drugs 1066 Testicualr Cancer 1091
28.8 Other Modes of Cancer T/T 1068 Malignant Bone Tumours 1092
Benign Bone Tumours 1094
28.28 Paraneoplastic Syndromes & Cancers 1097
28.29 Some Points of Special Mention 1098

C hapter 29 Hematology 1101


29.1 Hematology Basics 1102 Fanconi Anemia 1109
29.2 Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia 1103 Sideroblastic Anemia 1109
Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) 1103 29.6 Disorder of Bleeding And Coagulation 1109
Thalassemia 1105 29.7 Platelets Disorders 1111
29.3 Hemolytic Anemia 1105 29.8 Coagulation Disorders 1112
Micro-Angiopathic Hemolytic Anemias 1106 ALL 1115
Hereditary Spherocytosis (Hs) 1106 AML 1115
29.4 Megaloblastic Anemias 1107 CLL 1116
29.5 Other Anemias 1107 CML 1116
Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) 1107 Hairy Cell Leukemia (HCL) 1117 xxxi xxxii
ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF HEART
A
N
A
T
O
M

A Y

N
A

PREVIEW
T
O VENOUS DRAINAGE OF HEART

M
Y

47
Exam Oriented Prototype IBQs (Including PGMEE 2016-17 IBQs) 7. Find out the abnormality: 10. X-ray neck. (Lateral view). structure marked by the
A arrow is:- A
1. Identify the artery marked with the arrow: 4. Below given CT scan of Brain The structure marked
N N
is:-
A A
T T
O O
M M
Y Y

a. Vertebral artery b. MCA


c. Basilar artery d. ICA a. Cricoid b. Thyroid
a. Cerebellum b. Basal ganglia a. Brachymelia b. Arachnodactyly c. Hyoid d. Epiglottis
c. Corpus callosum d. 4th ventricle c. Rhizomelia d. Floating thumb
2. Arrow marked in the diagram indicates which 11. CT scan of abdomen at T8-T10 level. Identify the
artery: 5. Area 4 marked in the picture is pointing to which 8. Identify the abnormality shown in the image: marked structure:-
structure:

PREVIEW
a. Perforating femoral
Ans. Ans.
b. Popliteal artery
1. c a. IVC b. Abdominal aorta 7. d
c. Superior lateral genicular
2. b a. Cribriform plate a. Polydactyly b. Macrodactyly c. Thoracic duct d. Duodenum 8. a
d. Anterior tibial artery
3. b b. Frontal sinus c. Floating thumb d. Syndactyly 9. d
4. a 3. Arrow marked in image indicates 10. c
c. Lesser wing of sphenoid 12. Triangle shown below in the picture is also known as
5. c 9. X-ray showing left border of heart. Identify the 11. b
6. b
d. Crista galli :-
structure marked with the arrow:- 12. b
6. Marked structure in the image below indicates

a. Superior angle of scapula


82 b. Coracoid process
83
c. Acromion process
d. Glenoid cavity a. Root of aorta b. Pulmonary artery
a. Caudate b. Putamen a. Callots triangle b. Passaros triangle
c. Left atrial appendage d. Aortic knuckle c. Petit triangle d. Mac’evan triangle
c. Globus pallidus d. Hypothalamus
S
U
R
G
E
R
Y

S
U
R

PREVIEW
G
E
R Duodenal Ulcer versus Gastric Ulcers
DU GU

Y ŸMost DU are found in first part of duodenum usually just post- ŸGU are found predominantly along the lesser curvature in pyloric
pyloric & more commonly on anterior wall than posterior
ŸIn DU perforation usually occurs from ant. wall
ŸBleeding is the m/c complication & also m/c cause of death.
antral region more commonly on posterior than anterior wall
ŸPerforation is rare.
ŸGUs bleed more commonly than DUs
Occurs from post wall d/to involvement of gastroduodenal ŸBleeding is due to erosion of Lt gastric a..> splenic artery.
artery
ŸPain relieved by food ŸPain aggravated by food & relieved by antacids
ŸWeight gain ŸWeight loss
ŸNever turns malignant ŸUlcers along lesser curvature are benign & along greater
curvature are more malignant
ŸBlood gp O association ŸBlood gp A association [‘a’ in Gastric & also in gastric carcinoma]
[‘o’ in duo]
ŸIncreased BAO & MAO ŸNormal to i BAO & MAO 661
Exam Oriented
Exam Oriented Prototype
Prototype IBQsIBQs
(Including PGMEE 2016-17 IBQs) (Including PGMEE 2016-17 IBQs)
S S
1. Image shown below indicates:- 4. “Bird’s beak sign” as shown in the image is U U 7. Image shown below is of:- 9. A patient present with uneasiness and aching
characteristic of: R R sensation in his left testicle. On examination there is
G G feel of bag of worms on palpation. Likely diagnosis
is:-
E E
R R
Y Y

a. Gastric outlet obstruction


b. Small intestinal obstruction a. Achalasia cardia
c. Colonic obstruction b. Barret’s esophagus
d. CHPS c. Diffuse esophageal spasm
d. Ca esophagus a. Spermatocoele b. Hydrocoele
2. Image shown below indicates:-
c. Ureterocele d. Varicocoele

PREVIEW
5. Tense non tender cystic swelling as shown over wrist a. Urtereocele b. Ectopic ureter
is most likely: c. Double ureter d. Vesico ureteric reflux

8. Image shown below is:-

a. Lipoma Ans.
b. Implantation dermoids Ans. 7. a
a. Gastric outlet obstruction
b. Small intestinal obstruction c. Ganglion 1. c 8. a
d. Dermofibroma 2. b 9. d
c. Colonic obstruction
3. b
d. CHPS 6. A mother brings her 12 days old baby with umbilicus 4. a
as shown in the image. What will you advice? 5. c
3. By looking at X-ray and ultrasonogram image
6. c a. PUJ obstruction b. Bladder stones
identify the most probable gall bladder pathology:
c. Ureterocele d. Ectopic ureter

a. Urgent surgery
a. GB stone b. Apply local Framycetin
b. Pellets due to gunshot c. Apply silver nitrate stick
d. Cleaning with spirit 708
c. Pancreatic calcification
d. Cholesterolosis 707
PREVIEW
A4 size
27 cm

21.5 cm

ROAMS: Review of All Medical Subjects | 14th edition | YOP: 2017 | Pages: 1200
By VD Agrawal, Reetu Agrawal | Color: | ISBN: 9789386827449

Available on EduLanche.com